Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 12

ICE manual of

bridge engineering
SECOND EDITION

Downloaded by [ University of Leeds] on [13/11/19]. Copyright © ICE Publishing, all rights reserved.
Downloaded by [ University of Leeds] on [13/11/19]. Copyright © ICE Publishing, all rights reserved.
ICE manual of
bridge engineering
SECOND EDITION

Edited by
Gerard Parke
and
Nigel Hewson

ice | manuals
Downloaded by [ University of Leeds] on [13/11/19]. Copyright © ICE Publishing, all rights reserved.
Published by Thomas Telford Ltd, 1 Heron Quay, London E14 4JD, UK.
www.thomastelford.com

Distributors for Thomas Telford books are


USA: ASCE Press, 1801 Alexander Bell Drive, Reston, VA 20191-4400, USA
Australia: DA Books and Journals, 648 Whitehorse Road, Mitcham 3132, Victoria

First edition published 2000


This edition published 2008

Future titles in the ICE Manuals series from Thomas Telford Publishing

ICE manual of construction materials


ICE manual of geotechnical engineering
ICE manual of structural design
www.icemanuals.com

A catalogue record for this book is available from the British Library

ISBN: 978-0-7277-3452-5

# Thomas Telford Limited 2008

All rights, including translation, reserved. Except as permitted by the Copyright, Designs and
Patents Act 1988, no part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system or
transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying or otherwise,
without the prior written permission of the Director of Knowledge Services, Thomas Telford Ltd,
1 Heron Quay, London E14 4JD, UK.

This book is published on the understanding that the authors are solely responsible for the
statements made and opinions expressed in it and that its publication does not necessarily imply
that such statements and/or opinions are or reflect the views or opinions of the publishers. While
every effort has been made to ensure that the statements made and the opinions expressed in
this publication provide a safe and accurate guide, no liability or responsibility can be accepted in
this respect by the authors or publishers.

Typeset by Academic + Technical, Bristol


Index created by Indexing Specialists (UK) Ltd, Hove, East Sussex
Printed and bound in Great Britain by Latimer Trend & Company Ltd, Plymouth

Downloaded by [ University of Leeds] on [13/11/19]. Copyright © ICE Publishing, all rights reserved.
Contents
Preface ix Collision 141
References 143
List of contributors xi Further reading 144

The history and aesthetic development of bridges 1 Seismic response and design 145
D. Bennett A. S. Elnashai and A. M. Mwafy
The early history of bridges 1 Introduction 145
Eighteenth-century bridge building 6 Modes of failure in previous earthquakes 146
The past 200 years: bridge development in the nineteenth and 8 Conceptual design issues 150
twentieth centuries Brief review of seismic design codes 158
Aesthetic design in bridges 15 Closure 159
References 162
Loads and load distribution 23
M. J. Ryall Substructures 165
Introduction 23 P. Lindsell, C. R. I. Clayton, M. Xu and N. Hewson
Brief history of loading specifications 23 Introduction 165
Current live load specifications 26 Types of abutment 165
Secondary loads 30 Abutment design calculations 172
Other loads 31 Construction 177
Long bridges 33 Bridge columns and piers 178
Temperature 37 References 183
Earthquakes 38
Snow and ice 39 Design of reinforced concrete bridges 185
Water 39 P. Jackson
Construction loads 40 Introduction 185
Load combinations 40 Solid slab bridges 185
Use of influence lines 40 Voided slab bridges 186
Load distribution 42 Beam and slab bridges 187
References 45 Longer span structures 188
Further reading 45 Design calculation 189
Conclusions 194
Structural analysis 49 References 194
N. E. Shanmugam and R. Narayanan
Fundamental concepts 49 Design of prestressed concrete bridges 195
Flexural members 53 N. Hewson
Trusses 65 Introduction 195
Influence lines 69 Principle of prestressing 195
Plates and plated bridge structures 71 Materials 195
Grillage analysis 88 Prestressing systems 196
Finite-element method 94 Prestress design 199
Stiffness of supports: soil–structure interaction 100 Design of details 212
Structural dynamics 106 Bridge construction and design 216
Concluding remarks 110 References 231
References 110 Further reading 232
Further reading 112 Appendix I. Definitions 232
Appendix II. Symbols and notation used 232
Bridge dynamics 113
A. Hodgkinson and P. Cooper Design of steel bridges 235
Introduction 113 G. A. R. Parke and J. E. Harding
Principles of structural dynamics 113 Introduction 235
Earthquake induced vibration 129 Truss bridges 235
Human and vehicle induced vibration 136 Plate and box girder bridges 240

ICE Manual of Bridge Engineering # 2008 Institution of Civil Engineers www.icemanuals.com v

Downloaded by [ University of Leeds] on [13/11/19]. Copyright © ICE Publishing, all rights reserved.
ice | manuals Contents

Connections 269 Towers 409


Fatigue 274 Anchorages 411
Bibliography 280 Aerodynamics 412
Construction 413
Composite construction 283 References 418
D. Collings
Introduction 283 Movable bridges 421
Future trends 283 C. Birnstiel
Materials 284 Introduction 421
Basic concepts 284 Types of movable bridges 422
Structural forms 284 Structural forms and mechanical–structural interaction 434
Precast concrete composites 288 Span drive machinery 438
Steel–concrete composite beams 291 Stabilising machinery 440
Construction methods 295 Prime mover and controls 444
Steel–concrete composite box girders 298 Significant movable bridges 447
Steel–concrete composite columns 300 Movable bridge design 452
Prestressing of steel–concrete composite sections 302 Construction support 454
Fatigue 302 Construction inspection 454
References 302 Periodic inspection of movable bridge machinery 455
Future trends 455
Design of arch bridges 305 Conclusion 455
C. Melbourne Acknowledgements 455
Introduction 305 References 456
Types of arch bridge 305 Further reading 458
Typical structures 307
Analysis 313 Footbridges 459
Design 316 P. Clash and M. Wells
Masonry arch construction 317 Introduction 459
Assessment of masonry arch bridges 317 Brief/general 461
Alternative methods to the modified MEXE method 320 Context and setting out 463
The influence of masonry materials 321 Footbridge types 465
Analysis of masonry arch bridges 325 Bridge details 470
Specification 334 Decks and walkway surfaces 470
Defects and rehabilitation 335 Materials and finishes 473
References 343 Construction 474
Further reading 344 Aesthetics 475
Towards a critical method of design 477
Aluminium in bridges 345 Ten bridges 477
P. Tindall Future considerations 482
Introduction 345 References 483
Why aluminium? 345 Further reading 483
Alloys and product forms 346 British Standards and European norms 483
Design and details 347
Design standards 349 Advanced fibre polymer composite materials and their properties
Fabrication 350 for bridge engineering 485
Fatigue 350 L. C. Hollaway
Fire safety 350 Introduction 485
Historic and recent bridges 351 Reinforcement mechanism of fibre-reinforced polymer composites 486
Bridge decks and furniture 352 Advanced polymer composites 493
Corrosion behaviour 353 Adhesives 500
Coatings and finishes 353 References 500
Sustainability 354
Future trends 354 Advanced fibre polymer composite structural systems used in
References 355 bridge engineering 503
Further reading 355 L. C. Hollaway
Introduction 503
Cable stayed bridges 357 New bridge structures 503
D. J. Farquhar FRP bridge decks 506
Introduction 357 Steel-free bridge deck 507
Stay cable arrangement 358 Bridge enclosures and fairings 508
Stay oscillations 364 The rehabilitation of the civil infrastructure 509
Pylons 367 Internal reinforcement to concrete members 521
Deck 372 Elastomeric bridge bearings 523
Preliminary design 376 Intelligent structures 524
References 380 Appendix 525
Further reading 381 References 526

Suspension bridges 383 Bearings 531


V. Jones and J. Howells I. Kennedy Reid
Introduction 383 Design 531
Cables as structural elements 385 Installation 536
Analysis of cables 388 Inspection and maintenance 540
Analysis of suspension bridges 394 Replacement 543
Structural arrangement and design 395 Illustrations of practice 545
Suspended deck structure 399 References 551
Cable supports and attachments 402 Further reading 551

vi www.icemanuals.com ICE Manual of Bridge Engineering # 2008 Institution of Civil Engineers

Downloaded by [ University of Leeds] on [13/11/19]. Copyright © ICE Publishing, all rights reserved.
Contents ice | manuals

Bridge accessories 553 Inspection and assessment 659


I. Kennedy Reid, P. A. Thayre, D. E. Jenkins, R. A. Broom and D. J. Grout I. Kennedy Reid
Introduction 553 Maintenance inspection 659
Parapets 553 Acceptance inspection 661
Expansion joints 556 Health and safety for inspection 661
Drainage 560 Environmental aspects for inspection 661
Waterproofing 561 Access for inspection 661
References 564 Good practice for inspection 661
Further reading 565 Inspection of different types of structure 662
Introduction to assessment 665
Levels of assessment 665
Protection 567 Preferred methods of analysis for assessment 666
M. Mulheron Common problems in carrying out assessments 667
Introduction 567 Seeking additional strength from assessments 669
Water management 569 Realistic models 669
Materials selection and design 573 Global models 669
Coatings systems 577 Mathematical models 670
Active protection of metals from corrosion 583 Orthotropic action in stiffened web and flange plates 672
Protection from physical processes 585 Non-linear finite-element analysis and initial imperfections 673
Summary 587 First principles 679
References 587 Yield line 682
Compressive membrane action 684
Bridge management 591 Surfacing 687
P. R. Vassie and C. Arya Shear in prestressed concrete flanged beams 688
Introduction 591 Inclined neutral axis 690
Project and network level bridge management 591 Bearing clamping 691
Project-level bridge management 592 References 692
Network-level bridge management 598
Other techniques used in the management of bridges 607 Repair, strengthening and replacement 695
References 612 J. Darby, G. Cole, S. Collins, L. Canning, S. Luke and P. Brown
Introduction 695
Repair and strengthening of concrete structures 695
Deterioration, investigation, monitoring and assessment 615 Repair and strengthening of metal structures 701
C. Abdunur Repair and strengthening of masonry structures 707
Main causes of degradation 615 Replacement of structures 719
Evaluation and testing methods 623 References 727
Residual strength evaluation procedures 649 Further reading 728
Conclusion 656
References 656 Index 729

ICE Manual of Bridge Engineering # 2008 Institution of Civil Engineers www.icemanuals.com vii

Downloaded by [ University of Leeds] on [13/11/19]. Copyright © ICE Publishing, all rights reserved.
Downloaded by [ University of Leeds] on [13/11/19]. Copyright © ICE Publishing, all rights reserved.
Preface
The ICE manual of bridge engineering gives an overview of the core principles of bridge engineering. This second
edition contains all the key information which made the first edition (published in 2000) such a successful reference
guide: concept, analysis, design, construction and maintenance; and adds to it a wealth of new information.

It was a pleasure to work with many of the same contributing authors as for the previous edition. They have
enhanced and updated their original chapters with great insight and skill. The second edition has also given us the
chance to work with many new contributors who have lent the manual their expertise in many pioneering and
innovative sectors of the field. We are pleased to include seven entirely new chapters: bearings, footbridges, bridge
inspection and assessment, dynamics, advanced fibre polymer materials and their properties, advanced fibre
polymer composite structural systems and aluminium bridges.

The manual aims to give a clear presentation in plain, straightforward language of all the information necessary for a
firm grasp of the principles of bridge engineering. Each chapter is written in sufficient depth to enable young
engineers to gain an understanding of the subject matter and more experienced engineers to refresh their
memories or learn something new. Numerous references are available which can be explored for more in-depth or
extended information.

This second edition of the ICE manual of bridge engineering is not only a definitive stand alone reference book; it is
also the first in a new series of ICE manuals. This series of books will ultimately cover every branch of civil
engineering and will provide a core of foundation knowledge for the profession. The ICE manuals will be available
both in print and online and will deliver a comprehensive, authoritative and accessible package for those working in
civil engineering. We are proud to be part of what will prove an invaluable collection of engineering knowledge.

Creating this second edition has been a rewarding experience and a gratifying reminder of the great breadth of
talent and expertise that exists within the field. We would like to thank all the contributing authors for lending us
their time so generously and for the excellent work they produced. We are also grateful to the team at Thomas
Telford for all their hard work and judicious editing.

Gerard Parke, University of Surrey


Nigel Hewson, Hewson Consulting Engineers Limited

ICE Manual of Bridge Engineering # 2008 Institution of Civil Engineers www.icemanuals.com ix

Downloaded by [ University of Leeds] on [13/11/19]. Copyright © ICE Publishing, all rights reserved.
Downloaded by [ University of Leeds] on [13/11/19]. Copyright © ICE Publishing, all rights reserved.
List of contributors
C. Abdunur, Consultant Engineer, Paris J. Howells, High Point Rendell, London
C. Arya, University College London, London L. C. Hollaway, University of Surrey, Guildford
D. Bennett, David Bennett Associates, Old Harlow P. Jackson, Gifford and Partners, Southampton
C. Birnstiel, Consulting Engineering, Forest Hills D. E. Jenkins, Atkins Global, Epsom
R. A. Broom, Atkins Global, Epsom V. Jones, High Point Rendell, London
P. Brown, Oxfordshire County Council I. Kennedy Reid, Atkins Global, Epsom
L. Canning, Mouchel Consulting Ltd P. Lindsell, Consultant
P. Clash, Clash Associates Ltd S. Luke, Mouchel Consulting Ltd
C. R. I. Clayton, University of Southampton, Southampton C. Melbourne, University of Salford, Manchester
G. Cole, Surrey County Council M. Mulheron, University of Surrey, Guildford
D. Collings, Benaim Group, London A. M. Mwafy, UAE University, Al Ain, UAE
S. Collins, Mouchel Consulting Ltd R. Narayanan, Duke University, North Carolina and Manhattan
P. Cooper, Consultant to Hewson Consulting Engineers Ltd, College, New York
Guildford G. A. R. Parke, University of Surrey, Guildford
J. Darby, Consultant to Mouchel Consulting Ltd, Ilfracombe M. J. Ryall, University of Surrey (retired), Guildford
A. S. Elnashai, University of Illinois at Urbana Champaign, USA N. E. Shanmugam, National University of Malaysia
D. Farquhar, Mott Macdonald P. Tindall, Hyder Consulting (UK) Ltd, London
D. J. Grout, Atkins Global, Epsom P. A. Thayre, Atkins Global, Epsom
J. E. Harding, University of Surrey, Guildford P. R. Vassie, University College London, London
N. Hewson, Hewson Consulting Engineers Ltd, Guildford M. Wells, Techniker Ltd, Consulting Structural Engineers, London
A. Hodgkinson, Hewson Consulting Engineers Ltd, Guildford M. Xu, Tsinghua University, Beijing

ICE Manual of Bridge Engineering # 2008 Institution of Civil Engineers www.icemanuals.com xi

Downloaded by [ University of Leeds] on [13/11/19]. Copyright © ICE Publishing, all rights reserved.
Downloaded by [ University of Leeds] on [13/11/19]. Copyright © ICE Publishing, all rights reserved.

Оценить