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# Basic Electronics (GTU) 8-1 Transistor Biasing & Thermal Stability

## Chapter 8 : Transistor Biasing and Thermal Stability

Section 8.5 :

Ex. 8.5.2 : The fixed bias circuit of Fig. P. 8.5.2 uses a silicon transistor. The component values are
RC = 500  and RB = 100 k. dc of the transistor is 100 at 30C and increases to 120 at
a temperature of 80C. Determine the percent change in the Q point values over this
temperature range. Assume that VBE and ICBO remain constant. .Page No. 8-10.

Fig. P. 8.5.2

Soln. :
Steps to be followed :
Step 1 : Obtain the Q point at 30C.
Step 2 : Obtain the Q point at 80C.
Step 3 : Calculate the percent change in Q point values.

## Step 1 : To obtain the Q point at 30C :

 Obtaining Q point values means to calculate VCEQ and ICQ. Let us use dc = 100.
Applying KVL to the base circuit of Fig. P. 8.5.2 we get,
VCC – IB RB – VBE = 0
VCC – VBE 12 – 0.7
 IB = = 3 = 113 A ...(1)
RB 100  10
 Now neglecting ICEO we can write,
–6
ICQ = dc IB = 100  113  10 = 11.3 mA ...(2)
 Apply KVL to the collector circuit of Fig. P. 8.5.2 to get,
VCC – VCEQ – ICQ RC = 0
–3
 VCEQ = VCC – ICQ RC = 12 – (11.3  10  500) = 6.35 V ...(3)
 Thus the Q point co-ordinates at 30C are :
Q point at 30C = (VCEQ, ICQ) = (6.35 V, 11.3 mA)
Basic Electronics (GTU) 8-2 Transistor Biasing & Thermal Stability

## Step 2 : To obtain the Q point at 80C :

 Let us use dc = 120. Now from Equation (1), IB = 113 A.
Therefore the new value of ICQ is given by,
–6
ICQ (80C) = dc  IB = 120  113  10
 ICQ (80C) = 13.56 mA ...(4)

##  Applying KVL to collector circuit we get,

–3
VCEQ (80C) = VCC – ICQRC = 12 – (13.56  10  500)
 VCEQ (80C) = 5.22 V ....(5)

##  Thus the Q point values at 80C are :

Q point at 80C = (VCEQ, ICQ) = (5.22 V, 13.56 mA)
Step 3 : To calculate percent change in Q point values :
ICQ (80C) – ICQ (30C)
 Percent change in ICQ =  100%
ICQ (30C)
13.56 – 11.3
=  100%
11.3
 Percent change in IC = 20% (increase) ...Ans.
VCEQ (80C) – VCEQ (30C) 5.22 – 6.35
 Percent change in VCEQ =  100% =  100%
VCEQ (30C) 6.35

##  Percent change in VCEQ = – 17.79% (decrease) ...Ans.

Ex. 8.5.3 : Derive the expression for the stability factor “S” of a fixed bias circuit. Comment on the
result. .Page No. 8-10.
Soln. :
 We have defined the stability factor “S” as follows :
 IC 
 ICO
S =
constant VBE and dc
S gives us the change in IC due to change in the reverse saturation current ICBO. As ICBO changes
by  ICBO, the base current IB will change by  IB and the collector current IC changes by  IC.
 For a CE configuration we know that,
IC = dc IB + ICEO = dc IB + (1 + dc) ICBO
 Therefore change in IC is given by,
IC = dc IB + (1 + dc) ICBO
 Dividing both the sides by IC we get,
IB ICBO
1 = dc   + (1 + dc)  I 
 C
I  C
Basic Electronics (GTU) 8-3 Transistor Biasing & Thermal Stability

IB ICBO
 1 – dc   = (1 + dc)  I 
 C
I  C
ICBO 1 – dc [ IB / IC ]
 =
IC (1 + dc)

IC
 But, S =
ICBO

(1 + dc)
 S = ...(8.5.5)
1 – dc [ IB / IC ]

##  But for the fixed bias circuit,

VCC – VBE
IB =
RB

In this equation VCC, VBE and RB all are fixed. Therefore IB cannot change.  IB = 0.
Substituting this in Equation (8.5.5) we get,

S = (1 + dc) ...(8.5.6)
Comment on the expression for S :
Substitute dc = 49 in Equation (8.5.6). The value of S = 50. i.e. collector current change is 50
times as large as change in the reverse saturation current ICBO. Fixed bias circuit thus gives a very poor
stability of the Q point. It is the worst configuration as far as the stability of Q point is concerned.
Ex. 8.5.4 : Derive the expression for the stability factor S of a fixed bias circuit. Also derive the
relation between S and S for the same. .Page No. 8-10.
Soln. :
 We have defined the stability factor S as
IC
VBE
S =
constant ICO and dc
 For a common emitter configuration, we have
IC =  dc IB + (1 + dc) ICO ...(1)
 We will substitute IB in terms of VBE into Equation (1).
For this, refer Fig. P. 8.5.4 and apply KVL to get,
VCC = IB RB + VBE ...(2)
VCC – VBE
 IB = ...(3) Fig. P. 8.5.4 : Base loop
RB
 Substitute Equation (3) into Equation (1) to get,

IC = dc 
VCC – VBE + (1 +  ) I

 RB  dc CBO

 Note that ICO and ICBO are one and the same.
 IC RB = dc VCC – dc VBE + (1 + dc) ICBO RB ...(4)
Basic Electronics (GTU) 8-4 Transistor Biasing & Thermal Stability

##  Differentiate this expression with respect to VBE to get,

 IC
RB = 0 – dc + 0
VBE
 RB S = – dc
– dc
S = ...(8.5.7)
RB
 This is the required expression. The negative sign indicates that I C decreases as temperature
increases due to reduction in VBE at increased temperature.
Relation between S and S :
 We have already derived the expression for S as S = (1 + dc). In this expression substitute
dc = – S RB to get,
S = 1 – S RB
(1 – S)
or S =
RB
This is the required relation.

Ex. 8.5.5 : Derive the expression for the stability factor S for a fixed bias circuit. .Page No. 8-10.
Soln. :
 We have already defined the stability factor S as

 IC 
 dcI
S =
 CO and VBE constant
 For a common emitter configuration.

## = dc IB + dc ICBO + ICBO

Differentiate both sides partially with respect to dc we get,
 IC
= IB + ICBO + 0
 dc
 Neglecting ICBO we get,
 IC IC
S = = IB =
 dc dc
IC
 S = …(8.5.8)
dc
This is the required expression.
Note : Out of S, S and S the stability factor S is significantly higher than the remaining two.
Basic Electronics (GTU) 8-5 Transistor Biasing & Thermal Stability

Ex. 8.5.6 : Calculate the stability factor S for the fixed bias circuit shown in Fig. P. 8.5.6.
.Page No. 8-10.

Fig. P. 8.5.6
Soln. :
 The stability factor S for the fixed bias circuit is given by : S = 1 + dc
 Therefore we must find the value of dc.
IC
But dc =
IB
So we have to obtain the values of IC and IB.
 We know that,
VCC – VCE 12 – 6
IC = =
RC 1 k
= 6 mA
VCC – VBE 12 – 0.7
And IB = = = 113 A
RB 100 k
–3
IC 6  10
Therefore, dc = = – 6 = 53.09
IB 113  10
Hence the stability factor S = 1 + 53.09 = 54.1 ...Ans.
Ex. 8.5.8 : For the device characteristics shown in Fig. P. 8.5.8(a) calculate V CC, RB and RC for the
fixed bias circuit of Fig. P. 8.5.8(b). .Page No. 8-12.

(a) (b)
Fig. P. 8.5.8
Basic Electronics (GTU) 8-6 Transistor Biasing & Thermal Stability

## Step 1 : Find VCC and IC (max) :

From the dc load line of Fig. P. 8.5.8(a) we get,
VCC = 15 V and IC (max) = 10 mA
Step 2 : Calculate RB and RC :
VCC – VBE 15 – 0.7
RB = = = 286 k …Ans.
IBQ 50 A
VCC 15
RC = = = 1.5 k …Ans.
IC (max) 10 mA

Section 8.7 :

Ex. 8.7.3 : A Si transistor used in self bias has VCC = 20 V, RC = 2 k. The nominal operating point
is VCE = 10 V and IC = 4 mA. If  = 50, Calculate R1, R2 and RE if stability factor S = 10 is
desired. If S  3 is required, what will be the price paid for achieving this stability ? Refer
Fig. P. 8.7.3(a). .Page No. 8-23.

Fig. P. 8.7.3(a)
Soln. :
Steps to be followed :
Step 1 : Calculate IB.
Step 2 : Apply KVL to the collector loop and calculate RE.
Step 3 : Using the expression for “S” calculate RB i.e. R1 || R2.
Step 4 : Calculate the values of R1 and R2.
Step 1 : Calculate IB :
–3
4  10
IB = IC / dc = = 80 A ...(1)
50
Step 2 : Apply KVL to the collector loop and calculate RE :
VCC = IC RC + VCE + IE RE = IC RC + VCE + (IC + IB) RE ...Ans.
VCC – VCE – IC RC 20 – 10 – (4  2)
 RE = = –3 = 490.2 
(IC + IB) (4.08  10 )
Basic Electronics (GTU) 8-7 Transistor Biasing & Thermal Stability

Step 3 : Calculate RB :
The expression for stability factor of “S” for self bias circuit is given by,
1 + (RB / RE)
S = (1 + dc)  ...(2)
(1 + dc) + (RB / RE)
[1 + (RB / 490)]
 S = (1 + 50) = 10
(1 + 50) + (RB / 490)
51 RB 10 RB
51 + = 510 +
490 490
41 RB
= 459
490
 RB = 5.485 k …Ans.
R1 R2
But, RB = R1 || R2 =
(R1 + R2)
R1 R2
 = 5.485 k ...(3)
(R1 + R2)
5.485  10
R2 3
= ...(4) Fig. P. 8.7.3(b)
(R1 + R2) R1

## Step 4 : To calculate the values of R1 and R2 :

The Thevenin’s equivalent circuit is as shown in Fig. P. 8.7.3(b).
Apply KVL to the base loop to write,
VTH – IB RB – VBE – IE RE = 0
–6
But IB = 80 A and IE = (1 + ) IB = 51  80  10 = 4.08 mA
Substituting the values we get,
–3
 VTH – 80  10  5.485 – 0.7 – 4.08  0.4902 = 0
 VTH = 3.17 Volts
R2
But VTH = V
(R1 + R2) CC
R2 3.17
 = = 0.158
R1 + R2 20
R2 VCC
 = 3.17
R1 + R2
R1 R2
= 5.485  10
3
and RB =
R1 + R2
R2
Substituting the value of = 0.158 into expression for RB we get
R1 + R2

R1  0.158 = 5.485  10
3

 R1 = 34.7 k ...Ans.
Basic Electronics (GTU) 8-8 Transistor Biasing & Thermal Stability

R2
 = 0.158
R2 + 34.7

 R2 = 0.158 R2 + 5.4826
5.4826 k
 R2 = = 6.51 k ...Ans.
0.842
Effect of reducing S to 3 :
If S  3 then,
1 + (RB / RE)
 (1 + )  3
1 +  + (RB / RE)
51  [1 + (RB / 490 )]
 3
51 + (RB / 490)
51 RB 3 RB
For S = 3, 51 + = 153 +
490 490
 RB = 1.041 k for S = 3.
The effect is reduction in the input impedance. Thus the stabilization is improved at the cost of
reduced input impedance.

Ex. 8.7.4 : The silicon transistor shown in Fig. P. 8.7.4 has  = 99, IBQ = 30 A, VBEQ = 0.7V. Find R2
and VCEQ. .Page No. 8-23.

Fig. P. 8.7.4
Soln. :
Step 1 : Calculate IC :
–6
IC =  IB = 99  30  10 = 2.97 mA ...(1)
Step 2 : Calculate VCE :
Apply KVL to collector circuit to write :
VCC = IC RC + VCE + (IC + IB) RE
 VCE = VCC – IC (RC + RE) – IB RE
–6
= 15 – 2.97 (2 + 1) – 30  10  1  10 = 6.06 V
3
...Ans.
Step 3 : Calculate the value of R2 :
Apply KVL to the base-emitter loop to write,
VR2 = VBE + IE RE = VBE + (1 + ) IB RE
–6
 VR2 = 0.7 + (100  30  10  1  10 ) = 3.7 V
3
Basic Electronics (GTU) 8-9 Transistor Biasing & Thermal Stability

R2
But, VR2 =  VCC ... Using approximate analysis
(R1 + R2)
15 R2
 3.7 =  3.7 R1 + 3.7 R2 = 15 R2
R1 + R2
3.7 R1
 R2 = = 3.27 k ...Ans.
11.3

Ex. 8.7.5 : Derive the expression for the stability factor S of the voltage divider bias circuit. Comment
on the result. .Page No. 8-23.
Soln. :
To derive the expression for S we are going to use the same equation which we had used to
obtain “S” for the collector to base bias which is,
1 + dc
S = …(1)
1 – dc [IB/IC]
IB
and substitute the value of for the self bias circuit to obtain the required expression for S.
IC
To obtain the value of IB / IC :
Consider the Thevenin’s equivalent circuit which we have discussed in section 8.7.5. The same
circuit has been repeated in Fig. P. 8.7.5.
Apply KVL to the base circuit of Fig. P. 8.7.5 we can write,
VTH = IR RB + VBE + (IC + IB) RE …(2)
If we consider to be independent of, we can differentiate Equation (2) with respect to IC to obtain,
 IB  IB
0 = RB + 0 + RE + RE
 IC  IC
 IB
 0 = (RB + RE) + RE
 IC
 IB – RE
 = …(3)
 IC (RB + RE)
IB RE
 = –
IC (RB + RE)
Substitute this in Equation (1) to obtain,
Fig. P. 8.7.5 : Thevenin’s equivalent circuit
for voltage divider bias circuit

1 + dc
S =
– RE 
1 – dc 
 B + RE
R
1 + dc
S = …(4)
1 + dc 
RE 
 B + RE
R
Basic Electronics (GTU) 8-10 Transistor Biasing & Thermal Stability

## (1 + dc) (RB + RE) (1 + dc) (RB + RE)

S = =
RB + RE + dc RE RB + (1 + dc) RE
Divide numerator and denominator by RE to get,
1 + (RB/RE)
S = (1 + dc) …(5)
(1 + dc) + (RB/RE)
This is the desired result.
 The value of S depends on the ratio (RB/RE). If RB/RE is small then the value of S = 1 and if the
ratio (RB/RE)   then S  (1 + dc). Thus the self bias circuit is more stable for smaller values
of the ratio (RB/RE).
 If the ratio (RB/RE) is fixed then S increases with increase in the value of dc. Thus stability
decreases with increase in dc.
 S is independent of  dc for small values of dc.
 Smaller values of RB give better stabilization.

## Ex. 8.7.7 : The transistor shown in the circuit in the

Fig. P. 8.7.7 has hFE = 50 at 25 C and
hFE = 200 at 75 C. Reverse saturation
current ICO = 0.01 A at with 25 C a
temperature coefficient of 7%C and
VBE = 0.7 V at 25. Temperature
coefficient of VBE is – 2.5 mV/C.
Calculate : 1. Quiescent currents 2.
Quiescent collector current drift at 75C.
.Page No. 8-24.

## Fig. P. 8.7.7 : Given circuit

Soln. :
Steps to be followed :
Step 1 : Calculate the values of IB and IC at 25C.
Step 2 : Calculate the changes in ICO,  and VBE with temperature.
Step 3 : Calculate the values of S, S and S.
Step 4 : Obtain the value of  IC = S  ICBO + S  VBE + S  
Step 1 : Calculate IB and IC at 25 C :
By applying KVL around base loop, we get,
– 1 + IB RB + VBE + (IB + IC) RE = 0
1 – 0.7 1 – 0.7
IB = = = 49 A …(1)
RB + 1(1 + ) RE 1 k + 51  100
IC =  IB = 50  49 A = 2.45 mA …(2)
Step 2 : Changes in hFE , ICO and VBE :
From the data, the changes in different parameters are as follows :
Basic Electronics (GTU) 8-11 Transistor Biasing & Thermal Stability

## hFE () ICO VBE

25 C 50 0.01 A 0.7
75 C 200 0.32 A 0.575
Hence,   = hFE2 – hFE1 = 200 – 50 = 150
 ICO = ICO2 – ICO1 = 0.32 – 0.01 = 0.31 A
 VBE = 0.575 – 0.7 = – 0.125 V
Step 3 : Calculate the values of S, S and S :
1 + [RB / RE]
S = (1 + )
1 +  + [RB / RE]
1 + [1 / 0.1]
S = (1 + 50) = 9.2
1 + 50 + [1 / 0.1]
–  / RE
– 50 / 100 –3
S = = = – 8.196  10
1 +  + [RB / RE] 1 + 50 + [1 / 0.1]
SIC –3
9.2  2.45  10 –6
S = = = 8.84  10
 (1 + ) 50 (1 + 50)
Step 4 : To calculate change in IC :
IC = S ICO + S VBE + S 
–6 –3
= (9.2  0.31  10 ) – (8.196  10  – 0.125)
–6
+ (8.84  10  150)
 IC = 2.852 A + 1.0245 mA + 1.326 mA = 2.3533 mA ...Ans.
So new value of IC = 2.45 + 2.3533 = 4.8033 mA ...Ans.
Section 8.11 :
Ex. 8.11.3 : The reverse saturation current of germanium transistor in Fig. P. 8.11.3(a) is 2 A at room
temperature and increases by a factor of 2 for each temperature increase of 10C. The
bias VBB = 5V. Find the maximum allowable value of R B if the transistor is to remain cutoff
at a temperature of 75C. .Page No. 8-39.

## (a) Given circuit (b) Input loop

Fig. P. 8.11.3
Basic Electronics (GTU) 8-12 Transistor Biasing & Thermal Stability

Soln. :
Step 1 : Value of ICBO at 75 C :
Let the room temperature be 25C.
 at 25C : ICBO = 2 A
ICBO doubles for every 10C increase in temperature.

## Step 2 : Calculate value of RB :

In order to keep the transistor off, it is necessary to keep V BE  – 0.1 V.
Refer Fig. P. 8.11.3(b) and apply KVL to the input loop to get,
VBB + VBE = ICBO RB
 VBE = – VBB + RB ICBO  – 0.1
–3
 – 5 + (RB  128  10 )  – 0.1
4.9
 RB  –6
128  10
 RB  38.28 k or RBmax = 38.28 k ...Ans.
Ex. 8.11.4 : Fig. P. 8.11.4, a circuit using p-n-p germanium
transistor with dc = 150 and ICO = 2.5 mA.
The quiescent collector current is 500 mA Find :
(a) The value of resistor RB.
(b) The largest value of  that can result in
a thermally stable circuit. Page No. 8-40.
Soln. :
Given : dc = 150, ICO = 2.5 mA, ICQ = 500 mA.
Step 1 : Calculate RB :
1. Calculate IB
IC =  IB + (1+ ) ICO
500 = 150 IB + (151  2.5)
 IB = 0.816 mA ...(1) Fig. P. 8.11.4
2. Apply KVL to the base emitter circuit to write,
VCC = IB RB + VEB + IE RE
–3
 20 = 0.816  10 RB + 0.3 + (IC + IB) RE
–3
20 – 0.3 – (500.816  10  5)
 RB =
0.816  10– 3
= 21.073 k ...Ans.
3. Calculate VEC
VCC = (IC  10) + VEC + IE  5
 VEC = VCC – 10 IC – 5 IE = 20 – (10  0.5) – (5  0.500816)
VEC = 12.49 V
Basic Electronics (GTU) 8-13 Transistor Biasing & Thermal Stability

 VCE = – 12.49 V
As | VCE | > | VCC/2 | the circuit of Fig. P. 8.11.4 is not inherently stable.
Step 2 : Calculate the stability factor (S) :
1 + (RB/RE)
S = (1 + )
1 +  + (RB/RE)

##  1+ (21.073  10 /5)  = 145.8

3

 S = (151)  
151 + (21.073  10 /5)
3

Step 3 : Calculate  :
Substitute “S” in the following equation :
1
[VCC – 2 IC (RE + RC)] (S) (0.07 ICO) <

–3 1
 [20 – 2  0.5 (5 + 10)] (145.8  0.07  2.5  10 )<

1
 0.1275 <

  < 7.84 C/W  max = 7.84 C/W.
Ex. 8.11.5 : In a circuit shown in Fig. P. 8.11.5(a) determine the co-ordinates of operating point of the
transistor. Draw the DC load line on output characteristics and show the location of Q
point. Comment on the region of operation. Determine S ICO. .Page No. 8-40.

## (a) Given circuit (b) Thevenin's equivalent circuit

Fig. P. 8.11.5
Soln. :
Step 1 : Draw the Thevenin's equivalent circuit :
To obtain the Q point of the given circuit, remove all the capacitors and draw the Thevenin's
equivalent circuit as shown in Fig. P. 8.11.5(b).
R2 25
VTH =  VCC =  16
R1 + R2 (25 + 68)
 VTH = 4.3 V ...(1)
25  68
and RB = R1 || R2 = = 18.3 k ...(2)
25 + 68
Basic Electronics (GTU) 8-14 Transistor Biasing & Thermal Stability

Step 2 : Calculate IB :
Apply KVL to the base loop of Fig. P. 8.11.5(b) to write,
VTH – IB RB – VBE – IE RE = 0
 VTH – IB RB – VBE – (1 + ) IB RE = 0
VTH – VBE 4.3 – 0.7
IB = =
[RB + (1 + ) RE] [18.3 + (101  1.5)]  10
3

–5
 IB = 2.12  10 A
Step 3 : Calculate ICQ :
–5
ICQ =  IB = 100  2.12  10 = 2.12 mA
Step 4 : Calculate VCEQ :
VCEQ = VCC – IC RC – IE RE
–5 –3
But IE = (1 + ) IB = 101  2.12  10 = 2.1412  10
= 16 – (2.12  2.5) – (2.1412  1.5) = 7.4882 Volts.
Hence the Q-point is given by : (7.4882 V, 2.12 mA) ...Ans.
Step 5 : To draw the load line and locate Q point :

## Fig. P. 8.11.5(c) : Load line and Q-point

The load line is as shown in Fig. P. 8.11.5(c). The two extreme points A and B are given by,
16
Point A : IC max = VCC / (RC + RE) = 3 = 4 mA.
(2.5 + 1.5)  10
Point B : Corresponds to VCE = VCC = 16 V.
Region of operation : Active Region
Step 6 : Calculate SICO :
SICO is S, and the expression for S of a voltage divider bias circuit is given by,
1 + (RB / RE)
S = (1 + )
(1 + ) + (RB / RE)
1 + [18.3 / 1.5]
S = (1 + 100) = 11.78 ...Ans.
(1+ 100) + (18.3 / 1.5)
Basic Electronics (GTU) 8-15 Transistor Biasing & Thermal Stability

Ex. 8.11.6 : A p-n-p germanium transistor is used in the self biasing arrangement with
VCC = 5V, R1 = 27k, R2 = 3k, RE = 270 , RC = 2k and  = 50.
Find VCEQ and ICQ. .Page No. 8-40.
Soln. :
Given : VCC = 5V, R1 = 27  , R2 = 3, RE = 270  , RC = 2  and  = 50.
Step 1 : Draw the circuit :
The circuit is as shown in Fig. P. 8.11.6(a).
Step 2 : Draw Thevenin's equivalent circuit :
Thevenin's equivalent circuit is shown in Fig. P. 8.11.6(b), in which
R2 3
VTH =  VCC =  – 5 = 0.5 volts
R1 + R2 27 + 3
27  3
RB = R1 || R2 = = 2.7 k
27 + 3

## (a) Given circuit (b) Thevenin's equivalent circuit

Fig. P. 8.11.6
Step 3 : Calculate IB, IC and VCE :
Apply KVL to the base loop of Fig. P. 8.11.6(c) to write,
VTH = IE RE + VEB + IB RB
But IE = (1 + ) IB
 VTH – VEB = (1 + ) IB RE + IB RB
VTH – VEB 0.5 – 0.3
 IB = = = 13 A
RB + (1 +  ) RE 2.7 k + (51  0.27 k)

## (c) Base loop (d) Collector loop

Fig. P. 8.11.6
Basic Electronics (GTU) 8-16 Transistor Biasing & Thermal Stability

–6
Collector current, IC =  IB = 50  13  10 = 0.63 mA ...Ans.
Apply KVL to the collector loop of Fig. P. 8.11.6(d) to get,
VCC = IE + RE + VEC + IC RC
 VEC = VCC – IE RE – IC RC = 5 – (1+ ) IB RE – IC RC
–6 –3
= 5 – 51  13  10  270 – 0.63  10  2  10
3

##  VEC = 5 – 0.18 – 1.3 = 3.5 V

 VCE = – VEC = – 3.5 V ...Ans.

Ex. 8.11.7 : For the biasing arrangement as shown in Fig. P. 8.11.7, assume that the reverse
saturation currents of diode and transistor are equal. Show that :
IC – dc
S= = 1 and S = R .Page No. 8-40.
 ICO 1

Soln. :
Assumptions :
1. The diode D is made of same material as that of the
transistor.
2. The reverse saturation current of the diode i.e. Io is
equal to the reverse saturation current of the transistor
i.e. ICO.

 Io = ICO
To prove that S = 1 :
Looking at Fig. P. 8.11.7 we can write that, Fig. P. 8.11.7 : Given circuit
IB = I1 – Io ...(1)
The collector current IC is given as :
IC = dc IB + (1 + dc) ICO ...(2)
Substitute the value of IC from Equation (1) to get :
IC = dc (I1 – Io) + (1 + dc) ICO
 IC = dc I1 – dc I0 + ICO + dc ICO ...(3)
But Io = ICO
 IC = I1 dc + ICO ...(4)
IC
 S = =0+1
 ICO
 S = 1 Proved ...Ans.
Basic Electronics (GTU) 8-17 Transistor Biasing & Thermal Stability

–  dc
To prove that S  = :
R1

IC
S is defined as : S =
 VBE I and  costants
CO dc

Consider the base circuit of Fig. P. 8.11.7 and apply KVL to write,
VCC = I1 R1 + VBE
 I1 R1 = VCC – VBE
VCC – VBE
 I1 = ...(5)
R1
But from Equation (4),
IC = I1 dc + ICO
Substituting value of I1 we get,
(VCC – VBE) dc
IC = + ICO
R1
VCC dc
= – V +I
R1 R1 BE CO
As dc and ICO are assumed to be constants,
IC dc
S = =0– +0
 VBE R1
dc
S = – ...Proved. ...Ans.
R1

## Ex. 8.11.8 : For the circuit shown in Fig. P. 8.11.8(a).

Determine : 1. IC 2. VC 3. VE 4. VCE Assume dc = 100. .Page No. 8-41.

Fig. P. 8.11.8(a)
Basic Electronics (GTU) 8-18 Transistor Biasing & Thermal Stability

Soln. :
Step 1 : Draw the dc equivalent circuit :
 For dc analysis all the capacitors offer infinite
impedance. Hence they are replaced by open circuit in
the dc equivalent circuit of Fig. P. 8.11.8(b).
 The 470 k and 220 k resistances will appear in series
with each other in the dc equivalent circuit.
Step 2 : To obtain the base current IBQ and ICQ :

## Applying the KVL to the base circuit of Fig. P. 8.11.8(b) we

can write,
VCC = (IC + IB) RC+ IBRB+ VBE + IERE ...(1)

## Fig. P. 8.11.8(b) : Simplified circuit

for dc analysis
But, IC = dc IB and IE = ( 1 + dc ) IB
Substituting these values in Equation (2) we get,
IB ( RB+ RC ) = VCC – VBE – ( 1 + dc) IB RE – dc IB RC
 IB [RB + RC + (1 + dc ) RE + dc RC] = VCC – VBE
VCC – VBE
 IB = ...(3)
[RB + (1 + dc) RC + (1 + dc) RE ]
Substituting the values we get,
30 – 0.7
IB =
[690 + ( 101  6.2) + ( 101  1.5) ]  103
 IBQ = 19.96 A ≈ 20 µA ...(4)
  Collector current ICQ = dc IBQ = 100  20  10– 6
 ICQ = 2 mA ...Ans.
The emitter current IE = ( 1 + dc )  IB = 101  20  10– 6 = 2.02 mA ...(5)

## Step 3 : To calculate VE , VCE and VC :

To calculate VE :
VE = IE RE = 2.02  1.5 VE = 3.03 Volts ...Ans.
To calculate VCE :
Apply KVL to the collector circuit of Fig. P. 8.11.8(b) to write,
VCC = ( IC + IB ) RC+ VCE + VE
 VCE = VCC – VE – ( IC + IB ) RC
Basic Electronics (GTU) 8-19 Transistor Biasing & Thermal Stability

## Substituting values we get,

VCE = 30 – 3.03 – ( 2.02  6.2 ) = 14.45 Volt ...Ans.
To calculate VC :
VC = VCE + VE
 VC = 14.45 + 3.03 = 17.476 Volts ...Ans.
Ex. 8.11.9 : A CE amplifier employing NPN transistor has a load resistance RL connected between
collector and VCC supply of + 16 Volts. For biasing a resistor, R1 is connected between
VCC and base. Resistor R2 = 30 k is connected between base and ground. RE = 1 k.
Draw the circuit diagram. Calculate the value of R1 and RC and stability factor “S” if,
VBE = 0.2, IEQ = 2 mA, VCEQ = 6 Volt,  = 0.985. .Page No. 8-41.
Soln. :
Step 1 : Calculate dc and ICQ :
The circuit diagram is as shown in Fig. P. 8.11.9.
Let us first calculate the value of dc.
 0.985
dc = = = 65.67 ...(1)
(1 – ) 1 – 0.985
and ICQ =  IE = 0.985  2 = 1.97 mA ...(2)

## Apply KVL to the collector circuit of Fig. P. 8.11.9

to write,
VCC = ICQ RC+ VCEQ + IEQ RE
VCC – VCEQ – IEQ RE
 RC = Fig. P. 8.11.9
ICQ

## Substituting the values we get,

16 – 6 – ( 2  1 )
RC = = 4.06 k ...Ans.
1.97  10– 3
Step 3 : To obtain the value of R1 :
Apply KVL to the base circuit of Fig. P. 8.11.9 to write,
VCC = IR1 R1+ VBE + IEQ RE
VCC – VBE – ( IEQ RE)
 R1 = ...(3)
IR1
But we do not know IR1.
VB ICQ
 IR1 = IR2 + IB = +
R2 dc
(IEQ RE+ VBE) ICQ
= +
R2 dc
Basic Electronics (GTU) 8-20 Transistor Biasing & Thermal Stability

## (2 + 0.2) 1.97  10– 3

 IR1 = + = 103.2 A
30  103 65.67

## Substituting this value in Equation (3) we get,

16 – 0.2 – (2  1)
R1 = = 133.72 k ...Ans.
103.2  10– 6
R1R2 133.72  30
 RB = R1|| R2 = = = 24.50 k ...Ans.
R1+ R2 163.72
Step 4 : To obtain the stability factor S :
1 + dc 1 + 65.67
S = = = 18.64 ...Ans.

1 + dc 
R E   1 
 1 + 65.67
24.50 + 1
RB+ RE
Ex. 8.11.10 : In the self bias circuit shown in Fig. P. 8.11.10(a), R1 = RC = 500 , R2 = 5 k,
RE = 100  10 , hFE = 75, ICBO = 0.2 A and VCC = 20 V.
1. Find an expression for change in ICQ due to change in RE alone.
2. Calculate change in ICQ when RE changes from minimum to maximum value.
All other parameters are constant. .Page No. 8-41.

## (a) Given circuit (b) The modified circuit of Fig P. 8.11.10(a)

Fig. P. 8.11.10

Soln. :
Step 1 : The simplified DC equivalent circuit is shown in Fig. P. 8.11.10(b).
Step 2 : Apply KVL around the base loop to obtain expression for V B :

## VB = IB RB + VBE + (IB + IC) RE ...(1)

 VB = IB (RB + RE) + VBE + IC RE
 VB = IB (RB + RE) + VBE +  IB RE
 VB = IB [RB + (1 + ) RE] + VBE ...(2)
Basic Electronics (GTU) 8-21 Transistor Biasing & Thermal Stability

## We know that, IC =  IB + (1 + ) ICBO ...(3)

From Equation (2) we get
VB – VBE
IB =
[ RB + (1 + ) RE ]
Now substitute this expression into Equation (3) to get,
 [VB – VBE ]
IC = + (1 + ) ICBO
RB + (1 + ) RE
For  >> 1, (1 + )  
 (VB – VBE)
 IC = +  ICBO
RB +  RE
 (VB – VBE) +  ICBO (RB +  RE)
=
RB +  RE
 [VB – VBE + ICBO (RB +  RE)]
IC =
RB +  RE
Step 4 : Obtain the stability factor SRE :
Differentiating both sides of the above equation with respect to R E with ICBO, VB and  constants
we get stability factor SRE.
 IC 
= SRE = 2 [I R –  { VB + RB ICBO – VBE}] ...(4)
 RE ( RB + RE ) CBO B
Substitute RE = 100 – 10 = 90 ,  = hFE = 75
RB = R1 || R2 = 500  || 5 k = 454.5 
R1 500 
VB = V =  20V
R1 + R2 CC 500  + 5 k
VB = 1.82 V , ICBO = 0.2 A
Step 5 : Calculate the value of SRE :
Substituting the values into Equation (4) we get,
75 –6 –6
SRE = 2 [ 0.2  10  454.5 – 75 (1.82 + 454.2  0.2  10 – 0.7 ]
[454.5 + (90  75)]
–4
 SRE = – 1.1659  10 A/
This is the value of stability factor.
Step 6 : Obtain  IC :
Change in collector current is given by,
–4
 IC = SRE  RE = – 1.1659  10  (110 – 90)

  IC = – 2.3318 mA ...Ans.
Basic Electronics (GTU) 8-22 Transistor Biasing & Thermal Stability

## Ex. 8.11.11 : The silicon transistor shown in Fig. P. 8.11.11

has ICBO = 0.5 A, VBE = 0.7 V and  = 75 at
room temperature. Calculate the value of I CQ.
If ICBO doubles for every 10 C rise in
temperature and VBE has a temperature
coefficient of 2 mV/C. Calculate value of ICQ if
the temperature rises by 20C. Assume  to
be constant. .Page No. 8-42.

Fig. P. 8.11.11
Soln. :
Step 1 : To calculate IB and IC at room temperature :
By applying KVL around the base loop we get,
– 6 + IB RB + VBE + (IB + IC) RE = 0
But IC =  IB + (1 + ) ICO   IB
 – 6 + IB RB + VBE + IB RE +  IB RE = 0
 IB [RB + RE +  RE] = 6 – VBE
6 – VBE
IB = ...(1)
RB + (1 + ) RE
6 – 0.7
= = 42 A ...(2)
50 k + 76 k
Our assumption is justified.
–6
IC = ICQ =  IB = 75 42  10
IC = 3.15 mA. ...(3)
Step 2 : New values of VBE and ICBO at increased temperature :
T2 – T1
10 20/2
ICBO2 = ICBO1 2 = ICBO1 2
= 0.5 A  2 = 2 A
2
...(4)
VBE2 = VBE1 – 2 mV/C  20 C
= 0.7 V – 40 mV = 0.66 V ...(5)
Step 3 : New value of IB :
From Equation (1), we can get the new value of IB as,
6 – 0.66
IB =
50 k + 76 k
IB = 42.4 A ...(6)
Step 4 : New value of IC :
IC =  IB + (1 + ) ICBO
= (75  42.4 A) + (76  2 A) = 3.332 mA ...Ans.
Basic Electronics (GTU) 8-23 Transistor Biasing & Thermal Stability

Ex. 8.11.12 : An amplifier circuit is shown in Fig. P. 8.11.12(a). Determine the co-ordinates of the
operating point Q and the thermal stability factor S ICO. .Page No. 8-42.

## (a) Given circuit (b) DC equivalent circuit

Fig. P. 8.11.12
Soln. :
Step 1 : Draw the DC equivalent circuit :
The DC equivalent circuit is as shown in Fig. P. 8.11.12(b). This is obtained by replacing all the
capacitors in the given circuit by open circuit.
Step 2 : Draw the Thevenin's equivalent circuit :
The Thevenin's equivalent circuit is as shown in Fig. P. 8.11.12(c).
Step 3 : Obtain IB :
Apply KVL to the base loop to write
VTH – IB RB – VBE – IE RE + 6 = 0
 – 2.92 – IB RB – 0.7 – (1 + ) IB RE + 6 = 0
 2.38 – IB [RB + (1 + ) RE] = 0
2.38
 IB =
RB + (1 + ) RE
From the data sheet (typical) = 180 , and RE = 940  or 0.94 k
2.38
 IB = = 12.68 A
17.5 k + (181)  0.94 k

## Fig. P. 8.11.12(c) : Thevenin's equivalent circuit

Basic Electronics (GTU) 8-24 Transistor Biasing & Thermal Stability

## Step 4 : Calculate IC and VCE :

–6
 IC =  IB = 180  12.68 10 = 2.283 mA ...Ans.
–6
IE = (1 + ) IB = 181  12.68  10 = 2.2951 mA
Apply KVL to the collector loop to write
6 – IC RC – VCE – IE RE + 6 = 0
 VCE = 12 – IC RC – IE RE = 12 – (2.283  2.5) – (2.2951  0.94)
 VCE = 4.135 Volts ...Ans.
Step 5 : Calculate SICO :
For a voltage divider bias circuit SICO is given by,
 IC 1 + (RB/ RE)
SICO = = (1 + )
 ICO (1 + ) + (RB/ RE)
1 + (17.5/0.94)
= (1 + 180)
(1 + 180) + (17.5/0.94)
 SICO = 17.79 ...Ans.

Ex. 8.11.13 : In the circuit of Fig. P. 8.11.13, transistor has  = 100 and VBE (active) = 0.6 V. Calculate
the values of R1 and R3 such that collector current is of 1 mA and VCE = 2.5 V.
.Page No. 8-43.

## Fig. P. 8.11.13 : Given circuit

Soln. :
1. To calculate value of R3 :
It is given that IC = 1 mA and VCE = 2.5 V.
Apply KVL to the collector circuit of Fig. P. 8.11.13 to get,
VCC = IC R3 + VCE + IE R4
Substitute IE = (IC + IB) and IB = IC /

VCC = IC R3 + 2.5 +  IC +
IC
R
  4

R3) + 2.5 + 1 mA +
–3 1 mA
Substituting the other values, 5 = (1  10 300
 100 
–3
5 = (1  10 R3) + 2.803
 R3 = 2.197 k ...Ans.
Basic Electronics (GTU) 8-25 Transistor Biasing & Thermal Stability

## 2. To calculate the value of R1 :

VR1 5 – VB
R1 = =
I1 I2 + IB
But VB = IE R4 + VBE
But IE = 1.01 mA
 VB = (1.01  0.3) + 0.6 = 0.903 volt
IC 1 mA
and IB = = = 0.01 mA = 10A
 100
As R2 = 10 k  ...given
VB 0.903 –3
I2 = = = 0.0903  10
R2 10  103
 I2 = 90.3 A
Substituting all these values we get,
5 – 0.903
R1 = – 6 = 40.8 k  ...Ans.
(90.3 + 10)  10
Ex. 8.11.14 : The circuit shown in Fig. P. 8.11.14(a) uses a Si transistor with  = 200 and it is designed
to make Vo = 0 and VCEQ = 3 V. (a) Determine RC and RE (b) Using the values obtained in
(a) find the change in Vo if  is halved. .Page No. 8-43.

## Fig. P. 8.11.14(a) : Given circuit

Soln. :
(a) Redraw the output circuit of the Fig. P. 8.11.14(a) :
Redraw only the output circuit of Fig. P. 8.11.14(a) as shown
in Fig P. 8.11.14(b). Now apply KVL to write,
6 – IC RC – VCEQ – IE RE + 6 = 0 ...(1)
But VCEQ = 3 V
 12 – IC RC – 3 – IE RE = 0
9 – IC RC – IE RE = 0 ...(2)
Fig. P. 8.11.14(b)
Basic Electronics (GTU) 8-26 Transistor Biasing & Thermal Stability

## Looking at Fig. P. 8.11.14(b) we can write that,

Vo = VCEQ + IE RE – 6 ...(3)
But Vo = 0 and VCEQ = 3 V
 0 = 3 + IE RE – 6
 IE RE = 3 V ...(4)
Substitute Equation (4) into Equation (2) to get,
9 – IC RC – 3 = 0
 IC RC = 6 V ...(5)
We know that  = 200 but we do not know the value of IB to calculate IC and IE.
1. To obtain the value of IB :
Redraw only the input side of the given circuit as shown in
Fig. P. 8.11.14(c).
Applying KVL we get,
0 – [(90 k || 90 k)  IB] – 0.7 – IE RE + 6 = 0
Substitute IE RE = 3 V
And (90 || 90) = 45 k to get Fig. P. 8.11.14(c)
0 – (45 k  IB) – 0.7 – 3 + 6 = 0
 IB = 58.11 A ...(6)
2. To obtain the value of RE :
IE RE = 3 V
3 3
 RE = =
IE (1 + ) IB
3
 RE = – 6 = 292  ...Ans.
201  51.11  10
3. To obtain the value of RC :
IC RC = 6 V
6 6 6
 RC = = = = 586.96  ...Ans.
IC  IB 200  51.11  10– 6
(b) To obtain the change in Vo if  = 100 :
The new values of IC and IE are as follows :
IC = 100  51.11 A = 5.11 mA
and IE = 101 51.11 A = 5.16 mA
From Equation (3) we have,
–3
Vo = VCEQ + IE RE – 6 = 3 + (5.16  10  292) – 6
 Vo = – 1.4932 Volts
Hence change in Vo = – 1.4932 – 0 = – 1.4932 Volts ...Ans.
