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University of the Philippines Chemical Engineering Society, Inc.

(UP KEM)
ChE 122 – 1st Long Exam Reviewer

ENERGY BALANCE FOR A CLOSED SYSTEM: Non-ideality causes work to be irreversible. When work
is done on the system (+W), irreversibility increases the
magnitude of this work. When work is done by the
system (-W), irreversibility decreases the magnitude of
The left side of the equation contains properties of the this work. The signs of work are retained for both cases:
system: kinetic energy, potential energy, and internal
energy. The right side of the equation contains external
forces that bring about a change in energy. Joule’s
experiments verify that energy can also be transferred in
the form of work and not just heat.
ENERGY BALANCE ON OPEN SYSTEM
STATIONARY CLOSED SYSTEM

where: n is in [mass/time] and ∆U (from steam tables) is MASS BALANCE ON OPEN SYSTEM
in [energy/mass].

WORK
1. Shaft Work, value given directly in [energy/time]
2. Expansion or Contraction Work or PV-Work:
EVALUATING STATE FUNCTIONS

Constant-Pressure

PV-Work for a process is therefore the area under the Constant-Volume


curve when that process is plotted in a PV-diagram. To
calculate PV-Work for steam as working fluid, a
numerical integration using values from the steam table PROPERTIES OF PURE FLUIDS
is a possible solution.

Using the ideal gas assumption (invalid for steam):

SPECIAL CASE: IDEAL GAS

Ideal gas assumption: no molecular interaction (Z=1)


such that the Virial Equation of state reduces to:
This integral can be easily evaluated at constant
temperature. The above equations are used to calculate
for the reversible work.
The consequence of which is the functionality of both U
and H in temperature ONLY such that the following
equations hold even if the process is non-constant in
pressure or volume:

However, ∆U and ∆H cannot be readily equated to


heat in these cases.
University of the Philippines Chemical Engineering Society, Inc. (UP KEM)
ChE 122 – 1st Long Exam Reviewer

The heat capacities are easily calculated:


Monoatomic
Diatomic

PROCESS CALCULATIONS FOR IDEAL GASES


(4) Polytropic Process
(1) Isothermal Process

(2) Isobaric Process

Polytropic processes can model all preceeding


processes for the following equivalent values of γ:

(3) Isochoric Process

(4) Adiabatic Process