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CIRCUIT-FIELD

RELATIONS
CIRCUIT-FIELD RELATIONS
• Maxwell's equations are usually referred to as field equations since
the quantities appearing in them are all field quantities.
• Maxwell's equations can also be written in terms of what are usually
referred to as circuit quantities; the corresponding forms are denoted
circuit equations.
Kirchhoff's Voltage Law
• According to Maxwell's equation
 
V   E  ds (1)
  d m
 E  ds   dt   dt SB.da   dt LS i    LS dt
d d di
(2)

• because by definition Ψ= Lsi where Ls is an inductance and i is the


associated current.
Kirchhoff's Voltage Law

d m
V   dt   dt SB.da   dt LS i    LS dt
d d di

• Above equation states that the voltage drops along a closed path of a
circuit are equal to the time rate of change of the magnetic flux
passing through the surface enclosed by the closed path or equal to the
voltage drop across an inductor Ls that is used to represent the stray
inductance of the circuit.
Kirchhoff's Voltage Law
• This is the well-known Kirchhoff loop voltage law which is used
widely in circuit theory, and its form represents a circuit relation. Thus
we can write the following field and circuit relations:

Field Relation Circuit Relation


  d m d m
 v   dt   dt LS i    LS dt
d d di
 E  ds   dt SB.da   dt 
Kirchhoff's Voltage Law
• In lumped-element circuit analysis, where usually the wavelength is
very large (or the dimensions of the total circuit are small compared to
the wavelength)
• The stray inductance L of the circuit is very small,
• The right side of Equ (2)is very small and it is usually set equal to zero.
• Equation (2) states that the voltage drops (or rises) along a closed
path are equal to zero, and it represents a very widely used relation to
most of us.
Kirchhoff's Voltage Law

• From the figure, where a


voltage source and three ideal
lumped elements (a resistance
R, an inductor L, and a
capacitor C) are connected in
series to form a closed loop.
• According to equ.(2)

di
 v S  v R  v L  vC   LS  -v sL (4)
dt
Kirchhoff's Voltage Law
Kirchhoff's Current Law
• The left side of the integral form of the continuity equation,
𝑑 𝑑Ψ𝑒
‫= 𝑎𝑑 ∙ 𝐽 ׯ‬ − ‫𝑣𝑑𝜌 ׬‬
𝑑𝑡
= −
𝑑𝑡
(6)
• can be written in circuit form as
• σ 𝑖 = ‫𝑎𝑑 ∙ 𝐽 ׯ‬ (7)
• where Σi represents the sum of the currents passing through closed surface S.
• Since by definition Ψe= Csv where Cs is a capacitance (assumed to be constant)
and v is the associated voltage.
𝑑Ψ𝑒 𝑑 𝑑𝑣
• σ𝑖 = − = − 𝐶𝑠 𝑣 = −𝐶𝑠 (8)
𝑑𝑡 𝑑𝑡 𝑑𝑡
Kirchhoff's Current Law

• Above equation states that the sum of the currents crossing a surface
that encloses a circuit is equal to the time rate of change of the total
electric charge enclosed by the surface or equal to the current flowing
through a capacitor Cs that is used to represent the stray capacitance
of the circuit.
Field Relation Circuit Relation
𝑑 𝑑Ψ𝑒 𝑑Ψ𝑒 𝑑𝑣
• ‫= 𝑎𝑑 ∙ 𝐽 ׯ‬ − ‫𝑣𝑑𝜌 ׬‬ = − ֞ σ𝑖 = − = −𝐶𝑠
𝑑𝑡 𝑑𝑡 𝑑𝑡 𝑑𝑡
Kirchhoff's Current Law
• To demonstrate Kirchhoff's node current law, let us consider the circuit
of Figure where a current source and three ideal lumped elements (a
resistance R, an inductor L, and a capacitor C) are connected in
parallel to form a node.
• According to Kirchhoff's node current law
𝑑𝑣
• 𝑖𝑠 + 𝑖𝑅 + 𝑖𝐿 + 𝑖𝐶 = −𝐶𝑠 = 𝑖𝑠𝑐
𝑑𝑡
• where Cs, shown dashed in Figure 2, represents the total stray
capacitance associated with the circuit of Figure 2
Kirchhoff's Current Law
• If the stray capacitance Cs of the
circuit and the time rate of change
of the total charge Ψe are small (the
case for low-frequency
applications),
• The right side of (Equ 8) is small
and can be set equal to zero.
Kirchhoff's Current Law
• The current isc associated with the stray capacitance Cs also includes
the displacement (leakage) current crossing the closed surf ace S of
Figure 2 outside of the wires.
Ohm's law
Ohm's law which states that the voltage drop vR across a resistor R is equal
to the product of the resistor R and the current iR flowing through it
vR =RiR or iR = vR/R = Gv
Ohm's law of circuit theory is a special case of the constitutive relation.
Thus
Field Relation Circuit Relation
𝐽 = 𝜎𝐸 ֞ iR = vR/R = GvR
2 1 2
𝑝𝑑 = 𝐸. 𝐽𝐶 = 𝜎𝐸 𝑃𝑑 = 𝑣𝑖 = 𝑣
𝑅
• Another element law is associated with an inductor L and states that
the voltage drop across an inductor is equal to the product of L and
the time rate of change of the current through the inductor
vL = L diL/ dt
• The magnetic flux Ψm is equal to the product of the inductance L and
the corresponding current i. Ψm= LiL

Field Relation Circuit Relation


B=μH ֞ Ψm= LiL
• We can write for a homogeneous and non-time-varying medium that
𝝏𝑩 𝝏 𝝏𝑯
𝑴𝒅 = = µ𝑯 = µ
𝝏𝒕 𝝏𝒕 𝝏𝒕
• where Md is defined as the magnetic displacement current density.
• This relation analogous to the electric displacement current density
𝝏𝑫 𝝏 𝝏𝑬
𝑱𝒅 = = ε𝑬 = ε
𝝏𝒕 𝝏𝒕 𝝏𝒕
• 𝛁 × 𝑬 = −𝑩ሶ
• Taking the surface integral of both sides , we can write
𝝏𝑩 𝝏
න 𝛁 × 𝑬 . 𝒅𝒂 = − න 𝒅𝒂 = න 𝑴𝒅 𝒅𝒂 = − න 𝑩. 𝒅𝒂
𝝏𝒕 𝝏𝒕
• With the aid of the right side and the circuit relation of (equ 2) we can
write
d m d
 Li   L  v L
d di

dt S
B.da 
dt dt dt
• we can write the following relations:
• Field Relation Circuit Relation
𝝏𝑯 di
𝑴𝒅 = µ ֞ vL  L
𝝏𝒕
dt
• Using a similar procedure, for a capacitor C we can write the field and
circuit relations analogous to those of (1-22) and (l-22c):
• Field Relation Circuit Relation
• D=εE ֞ Ψe=Cve
𝝏𝑫 𝑑𝑣𝐶
• 𝑱𝒅 = 𝑖𝑐 = 𝐶
𝝏𝒕 𝑑𝑡
Energy
• Field Relation Circuit Relation
Electric energy Energy in capacitor
𝑤𝑒 = 1Τ2 𝐷. 𝐸 = 1Τ2 𝜀𝐸 2 ֞ 𝑊𝑒 = 1Τ2 𝑞𝑣 = 1Τ2 𝐶𝑣
Magnetic energy Energy in inductor
𝑤𝑚 = 1Τ2 𝐵. 𝐻 = 1Τ2 𝜇𝐻 2 ֞ 𝑊𝑚 = 1Τ2 Ψ𝑖 = 1Τ2 𝐿𝑖 2