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INTRODUCTION

CHAPTER 1

1.1 Introduction

Assessment is perceived to serve to monitor learning progress during instruction and evaluate

achievement of instruction. Assessment is carried out to see what children and young people to

know understanding and is able to do. Assessment, defined as “a systematic process for

gathering data about student achievement,” is an essential component of teaching (Dhindsa,

Omar, &Waldrip2007).

Assessment enhances learning, provides feedback about student progress, builds

self-confidence and self-esteem, and develops skills in evaluation. In addition, they

argue that effective learning occurs when correspondence exists between teaching,

evaluation, and results. Therefore, due to its close relation with instruction and

learning outcomes, assessment has a key role i n learning. These characteristics of

assessment build the foundation for the current study involving student perceptions

of classroom assessment.(Goodrum,Hackling, &Rennie2001).

The term assessment refers to the wide variety of methods or tools that educators use to

evaluate, measure, and document the academic readiness, learning progress, skill acquisition, or

educational needs of students. The action of assessing someone something. Assessment is carried

out to see what children and young people to know understanding and is able to do. Education

is a key human capital formation. Quality of human resources depends upon the quality of

education of a country. Sustainable economic development needs skilled manpower which is

raised through productivity and efficiency of individuals that is only possible through

education(Nasir,&nazil 2001).
In education is the product of the 20th century. Proposes the use of formative and summative

assessment in order to make the distinction between the roles of evaluation. Hence, assessment is

perceived to serve two different purposes. Firstly informative, to improve instruction, and,

secondly summative to measure students’ achievement The use of assessment to classify, predict,

and sort has also changed to advance the process of teaching and learning in addition to

accountability purposes.(Gordon, 2008).

Two strategies can instead be applied examine the research on assessment forms approaches that

teachers use; inquire into students’ perceptions about assessment. Looking at students’ and

teachers’ perceptions about the role of assessment in the classroom and students’ approach to

learning will enrich this study. First, because students’ perceptions of assessment will affect their

learning approach as argued in the literature which 4 will affect in turn the extent to which

students are successful in their classrooms. Second, integrating teachers’ perceptions will build a

foundation and rationale for the assessment practice they use in their classrooms, through which

one can learn to what extent and in what ways students’ perceptions of classroom assessment

impacts their learning.(Cavanagh, Waldrip, Romanoski, & Dorman,2005).

Assessment is more than the collection of data .A basis for data gathering must clarify goals and

objectives for student learning and be aware of where these goals and objective are addressed in

the curriculum. After data are gathering, result to improve educational program. The purpose of

outcomes assessment is to understand how educational programs are working and to determine

whether they are contributing to student growth and development. Assessment indicates what the

experiences of students add up to and what experiences imply about educational programs.

Assessment contributes to improved teaching and learning and that it also satisfies reporting

requirements. Assessment greatest benefit is fostering academic introspection making the


institution more self-conscious about what its programs are accomplishing

(Trudy,&Catherine2015).

Two major functions can be pointed out for classroom assessment: One is to show whether or not

the learning has been successful, and the other one is to clarify the expectations of the teachers

from the students. Assessment can have both formative and summative purposes .the aim of

formative assessment is essentially to help students by providing feedback on their performance

which will help them develop and learn. The aim of summative assessment is to achieve a

summary mark which captures a student’s performance relative to that of other students(Taghi,

2009).

1.2 Statement of the Problem

The purpose of this study is to show that providing opportunities for to be useful, quality

feedback, the proper use of feedback by students and revision of practice to accommodate

assessment is necessary. This foundation guides the selection of assessment instruments and

facilities the use of assessment results it also provides explicit information to student and the

public about the aim secondary education. Assessment is more than the collection of data .As a

basis for data gathering must clarify goals and objectives for student learning and be aware of

where. These goals and objective are addressed in the curriculum. After data are gathering, result

to improve educational program. So the study aimed at finding out teacher efficacy of class room

discipline.
1.3 Significance of the study

Assessment is a critical step in the learning process. It determines whether or not the

course's learning objectives have been met. Assessment for testing students the end of instruction

is used to determine whether not they comprehend material, check in students learning , see

how students are doing as the work progresses, identify students effective, and keeps the students

on task with learning. Assessment was the process of measuring students achievements

assessment is helpful to judge the teaching methodology, assessment and its effects on student

learning at secondary level. Assessment is the study about sub process of measurement and

assessment providing sufficient and constructive data upon which the ultimate judgments are

made. This might be helpful in finding the holes of assessment process. So, the study aimed to

investigates the role of assessment in students learning at secondary level.

1.4 Objective of the Study

Following will be the objectives of the study:

1. To identify the role of assessment techniques in students learning at secondary level.

1.5 Research Question of the Study

Following will be the research questions of the study:

1. What type of assessment techniques is helpful for student?


2. How student feel assessment as a techniques for learning improvement?

3. How students understand their mistakes after assessment from teacher in classroom?

1.6 Delimitation of the study

This study will be delimited to the all-female teachers and all female students of public and

private sector of Gujranwala city.

1.7 Operational definition

a.Assessment

Assessment is the systematic process of documenting and using empirical data on the

knowledge, skills, attitude, and belief to refine programs and improve student learning.

b.Techniques

A techniques is a particular method of doing an activity, usually a method that involves practical

skills.

c. Effect

A change which is a result or consequence of an action or other cause.

d. Learning

A change in human disposition or capability that persist over a period of time and is not simply

ascribable to process of growth.


e.Student

A student is a person who is studying at a school, college and university.