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Chapter 5 Section 1 and 2

CHAPTER 1: CULTURES OF THE MOUNTAINS AND THE SEA

Setting the Stage:


• Minoans live on Crete
• Indo-European migrated from Black Sea and Anatolia to Greece
• Seaborne commercial spread eastern Mediterranean

GEOGRAPHY SHAPES GREEK LIFE _

• lands western coast anatolia part of greece


• 1,400 islands in Aegean and Ionian seas
• mountainous peninsulas jetting out mediterranean sea

THE SEA:
• Greeks didnt live on land but around sea
• traveled 85 miles sea
• black sea transportation routes for greek ppl
• skilled sailors connect Grecce other soieties
• poor natural resources lack timber precious metals usable farmland

THE LAND:
• ¾ rugged mountains
• mountains divide land # different regions
• chains run northwest to southeast along balka peninsulas
• greeks hard to get into a single government
• 7 days to travel 60 miles
• land was stoney only 20 % arable sutible for farming
• ¼ fertial land greece
• not able to support large populations
• diet grapes prains olives

THE CLIMATE:
• climate third important enviromental influence on greek civilazation
• spent time out side more men dicuss public issues exchange news active
civic life
MYCENEAN CIVILIZATION DEVELOPS:
• Myceneans settled from Eurasian steppes to Europe, India and Southwest
Asia
• leader Mycenae
• wall protect form attack
• influenced and militaristic rulers such as tiryns and athens
• 3 kings dominated Greece from 1600 to 1200 bc

CULTURE AND TRADE:


• nobles gold pichers and silver cups
• warrior kings won weath controling commercial trade
• Mycenaens died burried with treasures
• led armies in search of plunder
• common ppl used tools less expensive mateials such as stone and wood
• Myceneans invaded Crete
• mycenaens invastions prevented minoans rebulding
• mycenaean traders sailed islands aegen cooastal towns of anatolia to cities in
syria egypt italy and crete
• mycenaeans adapted writing system minoan
• legends bases with minoan desighns

THE TROJAN WAR:

• Myceneann kings 10 year battle against troy


• greek army besieged and destroyed trou because a trojan youth had
kidnapped helen wife of greek king
• Trojan War fictional
• around 1870 german archaeologist Heinrick Schliman began excavting hills
northwest turkey
• German historian Manfred Korfman excavated maritime cemetry site of troy
• trojan war control waterways aegean sea
• attack troy last campaigns of mycenaens

GREEK CULTURE DECLINES UNDER THE DORIANS:


• After Trojan war mycenaeans civilzation collapesd
• Dorians moved into this war torn countryside
• spoke dialect of greek relatives of bronze age greeks
• greeks forgotten art of writing during Dorian age

EPICS OF HOMER:
• Homer – blind man storyteller composed epics And Trojan war
• Lliad the Odysseey
• lliad – heros achilles ,hector of troy wife doest want them to fought
• arete – virture and excellence
• Odyssey 10 year journy home uses trickery to defeat Trojans

GREEKS CREATE MYTHS:

• myths – traditional stories about their gods that explain the unexplainible
• gods human qualities
• zeus – ruller of gods
• Hera – wife of zeus jelous zeus relationships
• Athena – goddess of wisdom daughter of zeus and favorite
• Athena thought as guardian of cities like athens named in her honor

CHAPTER 2
WARRING CITY – STATES

SETTING THE STAGE:


• dorains moved after sea ppl invaded mailand greece
• dorians and myceaens adapted to city state culture

RULE AND ORDER IN GREEK CITY STATES_

• Polis – city state


• agora – public center
• Acropolis – fortified hilltops
• is where male ppl gather conduct business

GREEK POLITICAL STRUCTURES:


• monarchy – kings or monarchs rule
• aristocracy – ruled by small group of noble land owning familys
• rich gained power after working kings military cavalry
• oligarchy – government ruled by few powerful ppl
• looked down on non greeeks considered them barbarians

A NEW KIND OF ARY EMERGERS -


• during dorian age rich only afford things bronze
• iron cheaper and stronger
• shift form bronze iron army of merchants artisans small landowners
• Hoplites - Foot soldiers
• Phalanx – ferson fomations stood side by side spear one hand shield in
other
TYRANTS SEIZE POWER:
• unemployed city states debt ridden revolt against nobles
• tyrants – powerful individuals
• apealed to the poor got power over government
• City states tow most powerful sparta, athens

Sparta BUILDS A MILITARY STATE:


• Sparta cutt off by gulf of corith on part of Peloponnesus

SPARTA DOMINATES MESSENIANS:


• sparta concored messenia
• Helots – peasants forced to stay on the land they worked
• messenians outnumbered spartans 8 to 1

SPARTA'S GOVERNMENT AND SOCIETY -


• 2 groups governed sparta
• 1 – all free adult males elected officials votes major issues
• 2 – councils of elders proposed lawas assembly voted
• 5 elected officials called ephores carried out laws passed
• 2 kings rull sparta's military
• spartas pop diverse
st
• 1 decendedts form origanal inhabitants farmers
• 2nd noncitizens but free worked commerce industry
• helots a little higher than slaves

SPARTAN EDUCATION:
• men military training
• 7
• girls – ran wrestled played sports
• service over family
• women family estates
• husbands severd the plis
• women not right to vote
• didnt value art valed duty strength disciplin over individuality beauty
and freedom

ATHENS BUILDS A LIMITED DEMOCRACY_


• anthens contrasted spara
• ambassador form city state of corinths compared sparty to athenias
strong army but to cautions

POLITICAL DEVELOPMENTS IN ATHENS:


• avoded civil war making timely reforms athenians
• Democracy – ruled by the ppl
• 1/3 slaves
• only free adult males counted
• athenian women – chiled rearing wevng cloth preparing meals and
managing the household
• women little with city intellectual life

SOLON'S POLITICAL AND ECONOMIC REFORMS:

• clashes aristocrats and commoners


• cylon – group foiled an attempt by an athenian bobleman
• written cod of lwas
• draco – wrote first legal code
• aristocrates trusted statesman names solon to head the government to
prevent war
• athenians gave full powr
• solon outlawed debt
• solon all ciitizens participate dand deated polices
• introduced the legal concept bring charges against wrongdoesr
• initiated political and economic changes neglected land reforms
• Pisistratus – nobleman military leader
• he sized pwer
• athens first tyrants
• provide funs to buy farm equitments
• launched masive programs building
• more jobs

REFORMS OF CLEISTHENES:
• cleithenes – athenial leader introdluced futher reforms
• full democracy assembed break up power of novilitoy
• allowed all citizens submit laws for debate and passage
• Cleisthenes created council of 500 rd
• 1/5 athenian residents were actuall citizens

THE PERSIAN WARS:


• Helot revolt led to sparta to a military state
• revolutions of poverty farmers led to a democracy
• invasiton persian armies – moved sparta and athens to glory

BATTTLE OF MARATHON:

• Persian wars – greece and persian empice began in inonia


• persians conquered the area
• persian king Darius defeted rebels and vowed to destroyu athens in
revenge
• Marathon – a plain on northeat of aia
• Persians lost to athenians
• Pheidippides – runner of army leaders died and dilivered the message
• persians reatreat

THERMOPYLAE AND SALAMIS :

• 10 years later Darius the great was dead


• Son succesor Xerxes tried to crush Greece
• Xerxes army ment no resistnce
• Thermopylae
• Persian king undermested power
• Spartas sarifice impressive to greek
• Themistocles – athenian statesman
• convinced ahterens to exacuate city fight a sea
• salamis island few miles southwes of athens
• set fire to athens xerses blocked both ends of channel
spartand defeated the rest of the persian army at the third battle on the plain
of Plataea

CONSEQUENCES OF THE PERSIAN WARS:


• Athens defeated persians
• Delian League – alliance of f140 city states
• drove persians form greece
• golden age