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Awareness

Activity 4.1 You recently bought a flashing emergency light. You need to assemble its electrical
components.
What do you do? Do you use your experience or logic?
Do you read the manual? What is the best move to take? Why?

Input

STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURE (SOP)


Definition

 A document that describes the operations of a certain work, operations or job correctly and
always in the same manner to ensure its quality.

 It consists of a set of compulsory instructions, systems, procedures or steps which is written so


that other individuals can follow to complete the job safely as well as maximises operational
and production requirements.
 It should be available at the place where the work is performed. The original should be kept at
a secured place while working copies should be authenticated with stamps and/or signatures
of authorised persons.
Two Types of SOP

Technical SOP Administrative SOP

•Focuses more on technical activities •Highlights on the administrative processes


such as how to collect a laboratory such as reviewing contract documentation and
sample and how to fix the R2 engine. determining organizational training needs.

The Format of Technical SOP

 The format and length of SOP depend on the steps taken to describe the work procedures.
 It can be simple one-page hierarchical steps, graphic procedures such as a flow chart and
even a few pages of procedural process.

 An organisation will have its own format for SOP and you can follow the following format as a
guide to write your technical SOP.
Source: Standard Operating Procedures (n.d)

1
Sample Format for a Technical SOP

Ref. No
1
Date

Page No.

Title: Standard Operating Procedure for ………………………………………….……………………………. 2

Department/Unit 3

Purpose 4

Who can perform this 5


SOP?

Equipment/Tools Needed

Personal Protective 6
Equipment

Tools

Reference Materials

Others

7
Procedure

Prepared by ……………………………………………………………………… 8
(Name: )

Reviewed by ……………………………………………………………………..
(Name: )

……………………………………………………………………..
Approved by
(Name: )

2
How to write a Technical SOP?

1 Any SOP will need a notation which generally consists of the document reference
number, the date and the page number.
Reference
These are put in a box and written at the top on the upper right-hand corner of every
number,
page of the SOP.
the date
and the The reference number is for filing and record purposes. This will be different
page depending on the project, the department in charge of the project and also the
number organisation.
The date refers to the date the SOP is written. If there are any changes or revisions
made to the SOP, the date written should follow the date the information is revised.
The page number of the SOP should follow accordingly especially if the SOP consists
more than one page.

2 The title should be written at the top centre of the page.


The phrase ‘Standard Operating Procedure’ should precede the title of the
Title
procedure.
The title of the procedure should be written using a descriptive verb that defines the
purpose of the SOP
Examples:
Standard Operating Procedure for Transferring Liquid Chemicals

Standard Operating Procedure for Assembling the Computer Hardware

Standard Operating Procedure for Repairing Faulty Electrical Circuit

Note: The title should be clear; anyone who reads it will immediately understand
what the procedure is likely to be.

Activity 4.2 In your engineering field, identify technical processes which you can write a SOP. Write
the title of your SOP here.
Example: Standard Operating Procedure for Replacing a Faulty Light Bulb

a. ……………………………………………..………………………………..……………………………………………………………..

b. ………………………………………....……………………..……………………………………………………………………………

c. ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………

3
3 The unit or department in which the SOP is responsible needs to be identified e.g.
research and development laboratory.
Department
/ Unit Example:
This SOP has been written for the research and development laboratory. /

This SOP is written for the research and development laboratory.

Activity 4.3 Based on the title of the SOP that you have written in Activity 4.2, identify the
department or unit that will be in charge of the activity and also the unit’s responsibility.

a. ………………………………………………………………………………………………..………………………………………..………

b. …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..…………………..…………

c. ………………………………………………………………………………………………………….…………………………..…………

4 There are three parts to the purpose of the SOP.


1. The aim or the function of the SOP (important)
Purpose
2. The specific audience (optional)
3. The regulatory standards or the safety measure (optional)
Examples:
The purpose of this SOP is to provide instructions for the safe use of 50 percent
sulphuric acid to prevent spills, harmful vapours and injury to the worker and
environment.

This SOP tells how to safely use 50 percent acetone to prevent injury from vapours
or environmental damage.

This SOP explains how to prepare instructions for nurses coming onto the next shift.

Activity 4.4 Based on Activity 4.2 and 4.3, write the purpose of each SOP.

a. ………………………………………………………………………………………………..………………………………………..………

…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..…………..…………

b. …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..…………………..………..

…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..…………..…………

c. ………………………………………………………………………………………………………….…………………………..………….

…………………………………………………………………………………………………………..………………………..……………

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5 The specific individuals who can perform the procedures as stated in the SOP need
to be identified.
The person
who can Usually, they are stated in terms of position in the company.
perform the
job If the job must be performed in a team, list down the people who should be
involved in the team.
By doing this, the job will not likely be handled down to the person who is not
competent or qualified on conducting the tasks.

Activity 4.5 From the previous SOP activities, identify the person who should and can perform the
job for each SOP.

a. ………………………………………………………………………………………………..…………………………..……………………

…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..…………..…………

b. …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..……………………..………

…………………………………………………………………………..……………………………………………………………..………

c. ………………………………………………………………………………………………………….…………………….………..………

…………………………………………………………………………………………………………..………………………..……………

Personal Protective Equipment (PPE)


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 PPE are the tools that the person to work on the job must wear in order to
PPE, Tools, ensure that he is bodily protected.
Reference
 The PPE should be listed carefully by identifying the correct types.
materials:
Tools
 Any equipment or tool be it in liquid or solid form, which are needed to
carry out the job.
 Sometimes, it is necessary to include the safety precautions when handling
the tools.
Reference Materials
 Any sort of reading or reference materials that can be suggested or that has
been referred to when the SOP was written.

5
Activity 4.6 In relation to Activity 4.4, identify the equipment, tools and reference materials needed
for each SOP.

Equipment Tools Reference Materials

a.

b.

c.

7 The procedure is a list of step-by-step processes to describe the job.


It explains the process steps in sequential order in which an SOP user should
Procedure perform the steps.
Guidelines in writing a procedure for an SOP document:
 If two steps must be done at once, explain them in a sentence that clearly
says so. You may wish to highlight the first part to differentiate it from the
actual step.
 Provide a more detailed explanation if a reader needs more information to
fully understand the reason for performing a step.
 Provide readers with alternative steps to take in case a desired step does
not work.
 When SOP is time-dependent, indicate the times clearly.
 Decide where to use graphics to communicate clearly. Well-labelled
drawings are often better than text.
 The length of the SOP depends on how you write the procedure.

There are three kinds of format that can be used to write a procedure:
1. Flow Chart Operating Procedure Format
A flow chart is used to describe the procedure for an SOP when the process
involves simple steps and requires many decisions.

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It is a graphic way to present the logical steps in a decision-making process.
It provides an easy-to-follow mechanism for walking the reader through a
series of logical decisions and the steps that should be taken as a result.
2. Graphic Operating Procedure Format
When writing procedures for very long activities, a graphic format should be
considered.
This format breaks a long process into shorter sub-steps that consist of only
a few steps. Readers can learn several short sub-steps more easily than one
long procedure.
Sometimes, photographs and diagrams can also be used to illustrate the
procedures. With computer and digital technology, photos can be taken and
included in the SOP to create graphic SOP.
3. Hierarchical Steps Operating Procedure Format
A diary striving for very consistent work should use a more detailed and
precise format.
The hierarchical steps format allows the use of easy-to-read steps for
experienced users while including more detailed sub-steps as well.
Experienced readers may only refer to the sub-steps when they need to
while beginners will use the detailed sub-steps to help them learn the
process.

8  Person who prepares


Persons in The person who prepares or writes the SOP must put down his/her
Charge signature, write his/her full name. If more than one person is responsible
for the SOP, all the team members must put down the signatures and full
names.

 Person who reviews


The person who reviews SOP should be someone who has higher position
and is within the same department as the person who prepares the SOP. It
could be a Manager, a Supervisor or a Chief Officer.
 Person who approves
The person who approves the SOP should be someone from the Quality
Department or the Quality Unit of the Department who can determine the
quality of the SOP.

Study the SOPs and procedure formats presented in the next few pages.

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Flowchart Operating Procedure Format Flowchart Symbol Guide
Terminator: Start and stop points
Process: Description of action taken
Start
Decision: Decision making (question)

Heat the engine for 5 minutes.

Are there any Yes


problematic Fill in the report form and Send the car to
sounds? explain the problem. Workshop A

No

Drive the car at 80km/h at a


distance of 1 km.

Do the engine No
Fill in the report form and Send the car to
and wheels work explain the problem. Workshop B
properly?

Yes

Drive the car at 120km/h at a


distance of 1 km.

Do the engine
No
Fill in the report form and Send the car to
and wheels work
explain the problem. Workshop C
properly?

Yes

Send to Inspection Line B for


further inspection.

End

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SOP with the Flow Chart Operating Procedure Format
Ref. No. 2/11
Date 09/11/2016
Page No. 1 of 3

Title: Standard Operating Procedure for Testing the Performance of a New Car

Department/Unit This SOP has been written for Quality Control department.
The purpose of this SOP is to provide an effective procedure to check the
Purpose
efficiency and condition of new cars.
Who can perform this SOP? Q.C Operator / Officer
Equipment/Tools Needed
Personal Protective Equipment helmet, goggles and gloves

Tools None
King, S. (2000). Checking New Cars For Dummies. London: Alfred
Reference Materials
Publishing House.
Others None

Procedure
Start

Heat the engine for 5 minutes.

Are there any Yes


Fill in the report form and Send the car to
problematic explain the problem. Workshop A
sounds?
No

Drive the car at 80km/h at a


distance of 1 km.

No
Do the engine and Fill in the report form and Send the car to
wheels work properly? explain the problem. Workshop B

Yes

Drive the car at 120km/h at a


distance of 1 km.

No
Do the engine and Fill in the report form and Send the car to
wheels work properly? explain the problem. Workshop C

Yes

Send to Inspection Line B for further


inspection.

End

9
Prepared by : ………………………………………………………….
(Mohd Ammar bin Emran, Q.C Engineer)

Reviewed by : ………………………………………………………….
(Syarifah Dewi Orked bt Syed Ramadhan, Senior Q.C Engineer)

Approved by : ………………………………………………………….
(Hannah bt Hussein, General Manager)

Source: Standard Operating Procedures (n.d.)

Graphic Operating Procedure Format

EQUIPMENT DURING ALIGNMENT AFTER ALIGNMENT


BEFORE ALIGNMENT PREPARATION

1. Assure lab is 1. Name the 1. Use the buddy 1. Ensure all beam
secured. equipment needed. system when blocks, enclosures,
performing and beam barriers are
2. Mark the 2. Locate the
alignments, OR back in place.
laboratory’s door with equipment.
the notice sign. 2. Let someone else 2. Remove the notice
3. Ensure all
know your location. sign from the
equipment is in good
3. Assure the optical laboratory’s door.
condition.
table remains clear of 3. Assure the
Laser obstructions. appropriate ANSI laser
warning is in place and
Alignment in 4. Always close beam
shutter when correct.
Progress
adjusting optics.
DO NOT
5. Make sure all optics
ENTER are secured to the
EYE table prior to opening
PROTECTION the shutter.
REQUIRED.

10
Hierarchical Operating Procedure Format

When a distillation flask becomes discoloured and filled with a brown semisolid, it is time to start
over with new solvent and drying material (usually sodium or lithium metal or a metal hydride). One
must first "quench" the old flask. This procedure should be performed as soon as possible to avoid
the possible formation of peroxides in the solvents, and to avoid injuries.
1. Remove the flask to a clean, clear fume hood.
a. Acquire a labelled container to place the unused portion of the solvent to be dried.
b. If this is to be discarded, label it as hazardous waste.
c. Obtain a container of sufficient size to hold both ice water and the flask.
2. Decant the bulk of the remaining solvent into the appropriate labelled container.
a. Place the flask into the ice-water bucket, and secure it with a clamp and ring stand if
necessary to prevent it from falling over.
b. Aim the mouth of the flask away from any people or equipment.
c. If you feel uncomfortable, or are quenching a large volume of alkali metal or metal
hydride, obtain and use a blast shield.
3. Now, use a pipette to add a small aliquot of sec-butanol.
a. If gaseous bubbles appear, wait until they stop, then add another small aliquot of
sec-butanol.
b. Continue this cautious stepwise addition until the generation of gaseous bubbles
becomes very slow.
4. After the sec-butanol has been added, add an alcohol with more freely available protons,
such as n-butanol.
a. Continue the same cautious step wise approach until the gas-bubble generation
slows considerably.
b. Remember to stir or swirl the flask occasionally, always keeping the mouth of the
flask pointed away from anyone.
5. Once you have used n-butanol, try the same stepwise. Be cautious when adding these
solvents in sequence: isopropyl alcohol, ethanol, methanol and water.
a. Be very careful with the addition of water. Even after methanol has been added, the
drying agent can still react violently with water, especially if there has not been
sufficient mechanical stirring of the solution.
6. Once the reaction with water is complete, use a suitable acid solution (such as 3 M HCl) to
neutralise the basic solution you have created.
a. Add the acid in aliquots with the goal of obtaining a pH of 7. Do not be obsessive
about obtaining this exact value; the range of 5-9 is acceptable.
7. Pour this solution into a properly labelled waste container, and see that it is disposed of in a
safe, legal manner.
a. To properly label the waste container with the percentages, keep track of the
approximate amounts of the various solvents you used in this quenching process.

11
SOP with Hierarchical Steps Format
Ref. No. 17/18
Date 09/11/2017
Page No. 1 of 3

Title: Standard Operating Procedure for Quenching the Bottom of a Solvent-Drying Still

Department/Unit This SOP has been written for Chemical Laboratory department.
The purpose of this SOP is to provide a step-by-step guide in proper
Purpose and safe quenching of solvent- drying stills to avoid mishaps to lab
operators.
Who can perform this
Lab Operators
SOP?
Equipment/Tools Needed
Personal Protective
Goggles, gloves, blast shield (if required)
Equipment
Tools Ring stand, clamps, buckets,pipettes
Doofenschmirts, A. H. (2016). Chemical Lab Quenching. New York: Tri
Reference Materials
State Publishing.
Others None

Procedure
When a distillation flask becomes discoloured and filled with a brown semisolid, it is time to start
over with new solvent and drying material (usually sodium or lithium metal or a metal hydride).
One must first "quench" the old flask. This procedure should be performed as soon as possible to
avoid the possible formation of peroxides in the solvents, and to avoid injuries.
1. Remove the flask to a clean, clear fume hood.
a. Acquire a labelled container to place the unused portion of the solvent to be
dried.
b. If this is to be discarded, label it as hazardous waste.
c. Obtain a container of sufficient size to hold both ice water and the flask.
2. Decant the bulk of the remaining solvent into the appropriate labelled container.
a. Place the flask into the ice-water bucket, and secure it with a clamp and ring stand if
necessary to prevent it from falling over.
b. Aim the mouth of the flask away from any people or equipment.
c. If you feel uncomfortable, or are quenching a large volume of alkali metal or metal
hydride, obtain and use a blast shield.
3. Now, use a pipette to add a small aliquot of sec-butanol.
a. If gaseous bubbles appear, wait until they stop, then add another small aliquot of sec-
butanol.
b. Continue this cautious stepwise addition until the generation of gaseous bubbles
becomes very slow.
4. After the sec-butanol has been added, add an alcohol with more freely available protons,
such as n-butanol.

12
a. Continue the same cautious step wise approach until the gas-bubble generation slows
considerably.
b. Remember to stir or swirl the flask occasionally, always keeping the mouth of the
flask pointed away from anyone.
5. Once you have used n-butanol, try the same stepwise, cautious addition with these solvents
in sequence: isopropyl alcohol, ethanol, methanol, and water.
Be very careful with the addition of water. Even after methanol has been added, the drying
agent can still react violently with water, especially if there hasn't been sufficient mechanical
stirring of the solution.

6. Once the reaction with water is complete, use a suitable acid solution (such as 3 MHCl) to
neutralize the basic solution you have created.
Add the acid in aliquots with the goal of obtaining a pH of 7. Do not be obsessive about
obtaining this exact value; the range of 5-9 is acceptable.

7. Pour this solution into a properly labelled waste container, and see that it is disposed of in a
safe, legal manner.
To properly label the waste container with the percentages, keep track of the approximate
amounts of the various solvents you used in this quenching process.

Prepared by : ………………………………………………………………..
(Riyadh Firdaus bin Affendi, Q.C Engineer)

Reviewed by : ……………………………………………………………………..
(Farah Liyana bt Ahmad, Senior Q.C Engineer)

Approved by: : …………………………………………………………………...


(Dr Chiam Kee Swan, General Manager)

Source: Quenching Solvent Drying Still Bottoms (n.d)

Activity 4.7 Read and complete the sentences below.

a. The main idea of the SOP is called ……………………………………………………

b. The reason of writing the SOP is known as ……………………………………………………

c. ………………………………… procedure is where each step of the SOP is written out in great detail.

d. Gears used to protect ourselves from harm, is written in …………………………………………. section.

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e. An SOP that requires simple steps and many decisions is written in the
…………………………………. procedure.

f. If you have many long procedures, you should consider ……………………………………. procedure.

g. The aim is usually a part of the …………………………………………………………. section.

h. The ……………………………………………. is a sequential, step by step guide in performing the work.

i. Any equipment or tools be it in liquid or solid form, which are needed in order to carry out
the job is called ………………………………………………………….

j. You can include ………………………………………………………….in the graphic SOP procedure.

Activity 4.8 Change the following sentences so that it is appropriate for SOP.

a. Alt is pressed first and followed by Tab button.

…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………...............
b. A cable with two RCA plugs is connected on one end to the back of the VCR, and the stereo
mini-plug is connected on the other end of the cable to the line-in jack on the sound card.

……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………............

……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………............

c. Using a screwdriver, the screws at the bottom of the metal body are removed.

……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………............

d. The electric contacts, which need to be located and inspected, will be below the carriage
lever.

……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………............

……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………............

e. Here, the heavier materials, which cannot be burnt such as glass, metal and ceramics, are
separated out and sent to a glass-and-metal-recovery system.

……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………............

……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………............

14
f. In order to preview how much background or foreground is within the focus, depth-of-field
preview button is pressed.

……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………............

……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………............

g. The SOP needs to be reviewed once in two months.

……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………............

h. The ftp directory on the Remote System section should be double clicked, and then, the file
that you want to copy to your ftp directory should be highlighted.

……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………............

……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………............

i. Appropriate amount of water must be added to the cement.

……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………............

Input

TIPS FOR LISTENING


1. Read before you listen – predict the answer
The difficulty in any listening task is that the listeners are multi-tasking during the activity. They
are not just listening, but reading the question and writing the answer all at the same time. The
tip is to read the questions before you listen so that you know what you are listening for. It is a
difficult skill, but it can sometimes help to predict the type of answer you are looking for.
2. Read as you listen – focus on the whole question
A huge proportion of mistakes are made not because you haven’t listened well, but because you
you do not focus on the question. As you are listening, focus on the precise wording of the
question.
3. Look at 2 questions at once
One difficulty is that the answers to 2 questions often come quickly one after the other. Can you
get both answers? Maybe, maybe not: but the only way you can is if you must get ready for the
next question.
It is no problem getting one question wrong. The real problem is if you lose track of where you
are in the listening. The audio has moved onto question 15 but you are still at question 13.
4. Don’t leave the writing to the end
Sometimes candidates leave the writing part to the end, thinking that they will remember what
they heard. This does not work. There’s a lot of information so write down the answers.

15
5. Practice your shorthand
You do not have to write everything that you down: you have 10 minutes at the end to copy
your answers onto the answer sheet. So what you need to do is to learn how to write down
enough for you to recognise as you are listening so that you can write it out in full later.
6. Check your spelling
It is a requirement to spell words in listening. If you get any spelling wrong, you lose the mark.
Therefore, check your spelling before handing in your paper.
7. Don’t write the answer too quickly
Sometimes you hear what you think is the answer but the speaker goes on to correct themselves
or give slightly different information:
8. Don’t leave any blank answers
There are 2 reasons for this. Firstly, your guess may well be correct. Secondly, there is a danger if
you leave a blank that you write the answers in the wrong boxes.
9. Listen for repeated information
This doesn’t always work, but sometimes the words that are the answer are repeated: if you
need to make a guess choose the words you hear repeated, they could well be answer.

10. Look for clues in the question


A frequent method of finding answers is to find clues by looking at the other information in the
text given.

Activity 4.9 Listen to the text on the SOP on the use of laboaratory notebooks and write your answer
in the blanks provided in the SOP format. Fill in the blanks with no more than 4 words for each
answer. All answers must be CORRECTLY spelt. The text will be read twice.

Standard Operating Procedure for using laboratory


notebook___________________________________________ (1)
This SOP has been written for the Regenal soil survey
Department/Unit: institute_______________________ (2) Chemical Department’s
use of laboratory notebooks.
This procedure is to give instruction for proper lay-out, use and
administration of laboratory notebooks in order to guarantee the
Purpose:
integrity and retrievability of raw data, calculations and notes
pertaining to laboratory work .(3).

Who can perform this SOP? Staff and research personnels


Equipment/Tools Needed:

16
Personal Protective Equipment: None

Tools: None
__Modal Page of Laboratory
Reference Materials: Notebook______________________________________________
(4)
Procedure
Requirements
1. Bound notebooks with about 100-150 consecutively numbered pages. Any binding which
cannot be opened is suitable; a spiral_______________ (5) binding is very convenient.

2. Both ruled and squared paper___________ (6) can be used. On each page provisions for
dating and signing for entries, and signing for _verification___________ (7) or inspection
may be made.

Issue
1. Notebooks are issued by or on behalf of the Head of Laboratory (HoL) who keeps a record of
the books in circulation ___________ (8).

2. Mark the book with an assigned serinal number _____________ (9) and a name of the user
or project on the cover.

3. _____write_______ (10) the date of issue and sign the notebook. This is done by HoL.

4. Sign the circulation record for receipt____________ (11) by project leader.

Use
1. Date and write in ___ink_________ (12) all entries. Sign per entry in _project_________
(13) notebooks or at least per page in personal______________ (14) notebooks.

2. _inspect___________ (15) or verify entries and sign the pages concerned. This is done by
the HoL.

3. If enteries _are_line out__________ (16) all corrected entries with a single line. Initial and
date essential corrections.

Do not remove pages. If necessary, delete a whole page by a _diagonal line___________ (17).

Withdrawal
1. In fall, _____exchange____ (18) the notebook for a new one. The HoL is responsible for
proper archiving.

2. When the employee leaves the lab for another post, hand thenotebooks ___________ (19)
to the HoL.

17
Related SOPs
 Standard Operating Procedures of Administarting SOP_______________ (20)
 Standard Operating Procedures for Preparing SOPs for Special Investigations

Prepared by : ………………………………………………….
(Low Boon Wei, Senior Excecutive)
Reviewed by : ………………………………………………….
(Kalarani a/p Krisnamaninam, Manager)
Approved by : ………………………………………………….
(Dani Yusuf, Head of Laboratory)

Activity 4. 10 Listen to the text on the SOP on managing waste segregation and write your answer in
the blanks provided in the SOP format. Fill in the blanks with no more than 5 words for each answer.
All answers must be CORRECTLY spelt. The text will be read twice.

Standard Operating Procedure how to mangaing waste


segregation_________________________________________ (1)

This SOP has been written for all departments and units’
Department/Unit:
management of the waste stream.
This procedure is to ensure that waste streams in offices are
Purpose: managed in a way that facilitates _recycling______________
(2).

Who can perform this SOP? staff, contractors and cleaners

Equipment/Tools Needed:

Personal Protective Equipment: latex gloves, sanitizer

Tools: forcepts, tongs, plastic bags, waste-bins

Reference Materials: recycling guidelines

Responsibilities and authorities:


The ______EMS co-ordinator_______ (3) is responsible for ensuring the following:

 all staff and contractors, including _______cleaners________ (4), are aware of this
procedure.

 appropriate recycling infrastructure is placed around the office and in the _______loading
dock________ (5).

18
 ______Contractors_________ (6) collect the waste at the stipulated times.

 ______coordination_______ (7) of monitoring of waste management.

Procedure:

1. In the office, each waste stream is collected in a separate bin with clear signs and
________colour coding_______ (8), or in a worm farm, as appropriate.

2. Adequate bins shall be positioned around the __office_________ (9).

3. A worm farm is located in the _________kitchenathe______ (10) on each floor, and the
cafe operates its own worm farm.

4. _____________Limited_ (11) general waste bins shall be placed in the office, not at each
employee’s desk.

5. Each employee shall have a tray, box or bin for clean paper waste at their
_____desks__________ (12).

6. Cleaners shall empty all bins in the office daily, and place segregated
waste_______________ (13) into specially marked bins in the loading dock for
_____collection purposes__________ (14).

7. Contractors shall remove waste and deal with it according to contract requirements.
Significant _______contamination________ (15) of waste for recycling shall be reported to
the EMS Co-ordinator. Similarly, an occurrence of significant __recycleable_____________
(16) waste in the general waste bin shall also be reported.

Training and Competency Requirements


This procedure shall be included in _____inductions__________ (17) for new staff, and new
contractors who are expected to work in the agency’s office for more than ____two___________
(18) days.

19
Associated Documents

 Standard Operating Procedures__Separating contidential paper


____________________________________(19)

 Standard Operating Procedures operating work


farm._______________________________________(20)

Waste signs (Insert associated waste signage)

Prepared by : …………………………………………………

(Ong Boon Keat, Senior Excecutive)

Reviewed by : …………………………………………………

(Subramaniam a/l Balachandran, Manager)

Approved by : …………………………………………………

(Hassan Bin Hussein, EMS Co-ordinator)

Activity 4.11 Read the text carefully and write a complete SOP based on it. Use the SOP format
provided.

How to Feed Lactating Cows

You are the senior assistant in the Research and Development Department. Your manager, Mr
Chong Kong Meng requires you to prepare a SOP on how to feed the lactating cows. The purpose is
to ensure that all general workers and part timers are well equipped with the knowledge of feeding
lactating cows and have the ability to carry out the job efficiently. Your reference materials are from

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the research manuals from your department. Please include the safety personal protective
equipment (gloves, working coats and boots) and write down the tools in the SOP.

Feeding the lactating cows requires 4 steps; preparing feed bunk, loading mixer, mixing feed and
distributing feed. To prepare feed bunk, feed refusals are swept to the end of the feed bunk. Then,
they are scooped into the TMR mixer. In the feeder notebook, the weight is recorded. At the steer
pen, food refusals are distributed in bunk. Next, load the mixer. To do this, the amount of
ingredients to mix stated in the feeder notebook is checked. Protein concentrate from bin#1 is
added and IBS is recorded in the feeder notebook. After that, ground corn from bin#2 is added and
followed by an IBS record in the feeder notebook again. Then, from bunker#1, corn silage is added
and IBS is recorded in the feeder notebook too. Lastly, from bunker #2, haylage is added and once
again IBS is recorded in feeder notebook. For mixing feed, the sub-steps are as follows: For exactly 5
minutes, the feed is mixed. While the mixer is running, do not move the tractor. Lastly, in the feeder
notebook, the total amount of feed is recorded. In distributing feed which is the final step, feed is
distributed evenly along the entire length of the feed bunk. Again in feeder notebook, time is
recorded. Tractor and mixer are returned to the equipment shed.

You are required to complete the SOP and once your manager approves, he will send the document
to Mr Baskaran Raj, your Deputy Director for endorsement. Your deadline is on 1 December 2015
and the reference number for this document is SOP005/15.

Ref No
Date
Page No.

TITLE:

Department/Unit:

Purpose:

Who can perform this


SOP?

Equipment/Tools Needed:

21
Personal Protective
Equipment:

Tools:

Reference Materials:

22
Procedure

Prepared by:

Reviewed by:

Approved by:

Activity 4. 12 Read the following text and develop an appropriate SOP using an appropriate format.

You are the administrative assistant of the Editorial Department. Your editorial manager,
Encik Azman Hussein requires you to prepare an SOP on how to write a book on the history
of underground utility tunnels. He will review the SOP and seek approval from Mr. James

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Benedict, the editor before it is being handed to the writing team. The purpose of this SOP is
to ensure work force is synchronized and the team writers have the ability to work
independently towards the production of a book on the history of underground utility
tunnels. Knowing the scope of work will lessen uncertainties of what has to be done and
increase productivity. Encik Azman Hussein has also handed you a guide book entitled,
“Effective Writing” by Simon Edwin and instructed you to check out more information
pertaining to this matter on eWriting Tutorials. He reminded you the SOP you prepared
should be easy-to-follow steps. He expects you to include the reference no: HIS2015(1), date
and pages. After much reading, finalise your SOP regarding writing a book on the history of
underground utility tunnels into three important stages; Research, Write and Review. Below
are the steps you require the team writers to follow.
In the initial stage, two articles or books pertaining to the topic are to be found and read to
gather general understanding of the matter. Then, three specialized engineers in the field
are to be interviewed to attain more information on the underground utility tunnels.
Afterwards, the utility maps dating from 1890 are to be searched thoroughly before
replacing them with contemporary maps. At least eight photos of the underground tunnels
are to be taken during the site visit. The next phase; the outline and the history of the
underground utility tunnels are to be written clearly. The current status is to be summarized
concisely in less than a page. Next, future plans and projections are to be drafted out in
point form. A TOC and an index are then to be compiled for easy reference. Lastly, the
complete book is to be emailed to Editor in Chief and three reviewers on the R-Lists. The
review feedback is to be incorporated and a second draft is to be written. The second draft
is then sent for another review cycle. The second set of the review notes is incorporated and
a final draft is written. The final draft is given to the printer for printing purposes.
Source: Adapted from http://www.technicalcommunicationcenter.com/(2010)

Ref No
Date
Page No.

TITLE:

Department/Unit:

Purpose:

Who can perform


this SOP?

Equipment/Tools Needed:

Personal Protective
Equipment:

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Tools:

Reference Materials:

Procedures:

Prepared by:

Reviewed by:

Approved by:

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SENTENCE STRUCTURES
There are three types of sentence structures.
1. Simple sentences expresses one idea and usually have one verb. It has the most basic
elements that make it a sentence: a subject, a verb, and a completed thought, e.g.
She is a good girl.
I am hungry.
That is a dog.
2. A compound sentence refers to a sentence made up of two independent clauses (or complete
sentences) connected to one another with a coordinating conjunction (for, and, nor, but, or,
yet, so), e.g.
Ahmad waited for the train, but the train was late.
I looked for Yusuf and Dani at the bus station, but they arrived at the station before
noon and left on the bus before I arrived.
3. A complex sentence is made up of an independent clause and one or more dependent clauses
connected to it.
 A dependent clause is similar to an independent clause, or complete sentence, but it
lacks one of the elements that would make it a complete sentence, e.g.
… because Mary and Samantha arrived at the bus station before noon …
… while he waited at the train station …
… after they left on the bus …
 Dependent clauses such as those above cannot stand alone as a sentence, but they can
be added to an independent clause to form a complex sentence.
 Dependent clauses begin with subordinating conjunctions. Some of the most common
subordinating conjunctions are after, because, if, unless, whenever, although, before,
since, until, whereas, as, even though, though, when, while.
 Complex sentences are often more effective than compound sentences because a
complex sentence indicates clearer and more specific relationships between the main
parts of the sentence. For example, the word ‘before’ tells readers that one thing occurs
before another; and the word ‘although’ conveys a more complex relationship than a
word like ‘and’.
 The dependent clauses can go first in the sentence, followed by the independent clause.
When the dependent clause comes first, a comma should be used to separate the two
clauses, e.g.
Because Yusuf and Dani arrived at the bus station before noon, I did not see them at
the station.
While he waited at the train station, Ahmad realised that the train was late.
 Conversely, the independent clauses can go first in the sentence, followed by the
dependent clause. When the independent clause comes first, a comma should not be
used to separate the two clauses, e.g.

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I did not see them at the station because Mary and Samantha arrived at the bus
station before noon.
Joe realized that the train was late while he waited at the train station.

YES/NO QUESTIONS
Yes/No questions are questions that can be answered with ‘yes’ or ‘no’. Questions can be formed in
two ways:
 Aux + Subject + the rest of the question?, AND
 Aux + Subject + Verb + the rest of the question?

Aux + Subject + rest of the question?


 What is an auxiliary (Aux) ?
An auxiliary is a verb that helps the main verb and is also called a "helping verb." With
auxiliary verbs, you can write sentences in different tenses, moods, or voices. Several
auxiliary verbs include be, do, have, will, shall, would, should, can, could, may, might, must,
ought, etc.

 In Yes/No Questions, the auxiliaries are very important. Usually, we find them in an
affirmative or negative sentence that is used to form the question. For example,
The chemical lab is next door.
I am the first person to reach the laboratory.
 To form Yes/No questions, place the auxiliary verb TO BE in front of the subject:
Is the chemical lab next door?
Are you the first person to reach the laboratory?

Aux + Subject + Verb + the rest of the question?

 In the preceding example, the auxiliary-verb TO BE is simply placed in front of the subject.
However, how do you form sentences when there aren’t any auxiliary-verbs in the
affirmative or negative sentences? For example,
Mr. Ramli drives a truck.
Sarah has three pairs of safety boots.
 In these sentences, drives and has are irregular verbs in the simple present tense, which
cannot be placed in front of the subject.
Drives Mr. Ramli a truck?
Has Sarah three pairs of safety boots?
 In that case you must insert the auxiliaries Do, Does accordingly for verbs in the simple
present tense and Did for the simple past tense.
Does Mr. Ramli drive a truck?
Does Sarah have three pairs of safety boots?

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 Notice that the verbs TO DRIVE and TO HAVE are in the infinitive (base) form. Conjugation
occurs between the auxiliary for third person singular (Mr. Ramli and Sarah) and the action
verb.
 Another kind of auxiliary we use for making Yes/No questions is MODALS. For example,
You can run the test after four hours.
Can you run the test after four hours?
Source: Using English (n.d)

Activity 4.13 Identify the types of sentences and write ‘S’ for simple, ‘C’ for compound and ‘CC’ for
complex sentences.

Bibi and Danny arrived at the bus station before noon, and they left on the bus
a. ……….
before I arrived.
Siti and Farid left on the bus before I arrived, so I did not see them at the bus
b. ……….
station.
c. ………. Joe waited for the train.
After they left on the bus, Magesh and Kalai realised that Joe was waiting at the
d. ……….
train station.
e. ………. Zizan and Tony took the bus.

f. ………. The train was late.


Muslim and Samad realised that Joe was waiting at the train station after they left
g. ……….
on the bus.
h. ………. Because the dog howled so loudly, the student couldn't eat his hamburger.

i. ………. Kathy and Maryam went to the movies after they finished studying.

j. ………. I tried to speak Spanish, and my friend tried to speak English.

k. ………. Some students like to study in the mornings.

l. ………. Jamil and Arthur play football every afternoon.

m. ………. I love conjunctive adverbs, but my students love each other.

n. ………. A brown bat may live in a barn or it may prefer a cave.

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Activity 4.14 Write the auxiliary forms of these sentences in the spaces provided.

a. ………. it safe ? f. ………. the materials available ?

b. ………. it work well ? g. ………. he build a prototype ?

c. ………. you mould plastics easily ? h. ………. they drawn a lot of sketches ?

d. ………. she make a model ? i. ………. she think nylon is the best?

e. ………. she designed a lot of products ? j. ………. you design sports equiptment ?

Activity 4.15 Surf the Internet in groups of three and find an example of an SOP used in the industry.
Compare the SOP you found with the SOP you have produced and ask the following questions.

 Does your SOP cover the same aspects as the other SOP?
 What extra aspects does your SOP cover?
 What extra aspects does your SOP lack compared to the other SOP?

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