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Endocrine System b.

) activate or inactivate enzyme

- Along with the Nervous System, it coordinates c.) stimulate or inhibit enzymes
and directs the activity of the body’s cells d.) promote or inhibit cell division
- Acts more slowly by using chemical e.) promote or inhibit secretion of a product
messengers called hormones, which are f.) turn off/on transcription of a certain genes
released into the blood to be transported
throughout the body. Direct Gene Activation
- Reproduction, growth and development, - 2 mechanisms by w/c the hormones trigger
mobilizing body defenses against stressors, changes in cells:
maintaining electrolyte, water and nutrient a.) steroid hormones can use the mechanism
balance of the blood of DGA due to its lipid-soluble molecules. It
- Endocrinology, study of hormones and can diffuse through the plasma membranes of
endocrine glands their target cells

An Overview SH enter nucleus -> binds to specific hormone ->

- Organs of endocrine system are small and hormone receptor complex binds to specific site on
unimpressive DNA -> activate certain genes to transcribe RNA ->
- Lacks the structural or anatomical continuity translation of mRNA in the cytoplasm -> synthesis of
typical of most organ system new proteins
- In terms of function, ES are impressive
because they maintain body’s homeostasis Second Messenger System
- Protein and peptide hormones, not water
Hormones soluble and are unable to enter target cells
- Chemical substances secreted by the directly. They bind to hormone receptors
endocrine cells into the extracellular fluids situated on the target cells plasma membrane
that regulate the metabolic activity of other and use a second-messenger system.
cells in the body
- Can be classified as either Amino Acid-based H binds to the receptor protein on the membraine ->
molecules (protein, peptide, amine) or activated receptor sets off a series of reaction ->
steroids (made from cholesterol) enzyme catalyzes reaction produce second-
- Steroid hormones include sex hormones messnegr molecules (cAMP, oversee additional
made by the gonads and the hormones intracellular changes that promote the typical
produced by the adrenal cortex response of the target cells to the H) -> many
- Prostaglandins, hormones that act locally, possible target cell responses
third chemical class and made from highly
active lipids released from nearly all cell Stimuli for Control of Hormone Release
membranes. - Negative feedback, chief means of regulating
blood levels of nearly all hormones
Hormone Action - 3 major categories of stimuli that activate EG:
- Target cells or target organs, affects only a.) hormonal
certain tissue or cell  Most common stimulus
- Receptor, point of attachment  Prodded into action by other H
- Hormone -> to arouse (greek word), or to  H release promoted by this
bring about their effects on by altering cellular mechanism tends to be rhythmic, with
activity H blood levels rising and falling again
- Hormones can: and again
a.) change plasma membrane permeability or
membrane potential by opening or closing ion b.) humoral
 Changing blood levels of certain ions are transported along the axons of the
and nutrients may also stimulate hypothalamic neurosecretory cells to
hormone release the posterior for storage
 Humor indicates various body fluids  Growth H and prolactin, exert their
 E.g., decreasing blood calcium ion major effects on non E targets
level in the release of PTH  Follicle stimulating H, Luteneizing H,
 Other H released in response to Throtropic H, and Adrenocorticotropic
humoral stimuli: calcitonin, released by H, all tropic hormones, which means
the thyroid gland, and insulin, they stimulate their target organs
produced by the pancreas.  All are proteins, acts through second
messenger system, regulated by the
c.) neural hormonal stimuli and in most cases
 Nerve fibers stimulate H release negative feedback.
 Sympathetic NS stimulation of the
adrnal medulla to release Growth H
catecholamines norepinephrine and - General metabolic h
epinephrine during periods of stress - Growth of skeletal muscles and long bones of
the body
Major Endocrine Glands - Protein sparing and anabolic H which causes
- Hypothalamus, part of the NS but is also the building of amino acids into proteins
recognized as major EG because it produces - Causes fats to be broken down while it spares
several hormones glucose, helping to maintain homeostasis
- Endo fxns: anterior pituitary, thyroid, - Pituitary dwarfism, hyposecretion of GH
parathyroid, and adrenals during childhood
- Both endo and exo fxns: gonads and - Gigantism, hypersecretion of GH during
pancreas childhood. 8 to 9 feet but body proportions are
- Both glands are formed in the epithelial normal
tissue, EG are ductless glands that produces - Acromegaly, hypersecretion after long bone
hormones that release into the blood or lymph growth has ended. Facial bones (lower jaw
and boy ridges)
Pituitary Gland and Hypothalamus
- Pituitary Gland, size of a pea Prolactin
- Hangs by a stalk from the inferior surface of - Similar to GH
the hypothalamus - Breast
- Surrounded by sella turcica (Turk’s saddle) of - After childbirth, it stimulates milk prod by the
the sphenoid bone mother’s breast
- 2 functional lobes: - Function in men is unknown
a.) anterior pituitary (glandular tissue)
 Master EG Gonadotropic H
 Its removal or destruction has a - Regulate the hormonal actrivity of the gonads
dramtic effect on the body
 Adrenal, thyroid, gonads atrophy and Follicle stimulating H
results of hypersecretion is obvious - Development in the ovaries
 Not all-powerful because the release - Produce estrogen and eggs ready for
of each of its H is controlled by ovulation
releasing and inhibiting H produced by - Form men, stimulates spem dev. By the
the Hypothalamus testes
 Hypothalamus also makes additional
Luteneizing H
H: oxytocin and antidiuretic H which
- Triggers ovulation of an egg from the ovary Pineal Gland
and causes ruptured follicle to produce - Small, cone shaped gland that hangs from the
progesterone and some estrogen. roof of the third ventricle of the brain
- For men, testosterone prod. - Fxn is still a mystery
- Only melatonin appears to be secreted in
Hyposecretion of FSH and LH leads to sterility, lack substantial amounts
of ability to successfully reproduce - Peak level is at night whih makes us drowsy
- Lowest level is at daylight around noon
Thyrotropic H - Melatonin is a sleep trigger
- Thyroid stimulating H - Sleep-wake cycle
- Influences the growth and activity of the - Coordinate the hormones of fertility and to
thyroid gland inhibit RS

Adrenocorticotropic H Thyroid Gland

- Regulates the E activity of the cortex portion - Located at the base of the throat
of the adrenal gland - Inferior to Adam’s Apple
- Easily palpated
b.) posterior pituitary (nervous tissue) - Large consists of 2 lobes joined by isthmus
 Not an EG in the strict sense because (central mass)
it does not make peptide H - Thyroid H and calcitonin
 Acts as a STORAGE AREA for H - Follicles, hollow structures which store a
made by hypothalamic neurons sticky colloidal material
 Oxytocin, released in significant amts. - Thyroid H, Body’s major metabolic H that
Only during childbirth and nursing. contains active iodine containing H, thyroxine
Stimulates powerful contraction of the (t4) and triiodothyronine (t3). Controls the rate
uterine muscle during sexual relations, at which glucose is burned and converted to
labor and breastfeeding. Causes milk body heat
ejection (let down reflex) in a nursing - Important for normal tissue growth and dev,
woman. This is used to induce labor esp in RS and NS
that is progressing at a slow pace. - IODINE IS SUPER IMPT
Used to stop postpartum bleeding - Goiter, iodine deficiency, enlargement of the
 Antidiuretic H (ADH), Diuresis is urine thyroid
production. Antiduretic is a chemical - Cretinism = dwarfism, adult body remains
that inhibits or prevents urine childlike. They are intellectually impaired. Hair
production. It causes the kidneys to is scanty and skin is dry
reabsorb more water from the urine; - Myxedema, physical and mental sluggishness
urine volume decreases and blood - Graves disease, eyes may bulge or protrude
volume increases. Water is a powerful anteriorly called exopthalmus
inhibitor of ADH. It also increases BP - Calcitonin, acts antagonistically to
by causing constriction of the parathyroid. Made by the parafollicular cells
arterioles which is why it’s called as found in the connective tissue between the
vasopressin. Alcohol inhibits ADH follicles
secretion. These drugs are used to
manage edema (water retention in Parathyroid Glands
tissues). - Tiny masses of glandular tissue most often
 Hyposecretion of ADH leads to found on the posterior surface of the thyroid G
diabetes insipidus, excessive urine - 4 parat
output - It secretes PTH, most impt, regulator of
calcium ion homeostasis of the blood
- PTH, hypercalcemic hormone
- Calcitonin, hypocalcemic H
- Stimulates the kidneys and intestine to absorb
more calcium ions
- Blood calcium ion level low = irritable neurons
= muscle spasm (tetany)

- Located in the upper thorax, posterior to the
- Large in infants and children
- It decreases throughout adulthood
- Mostly fibrous connective tissue and fat
- Thymosin, essential for dev. Of WBC and
immune response

Adrenal Glands
- Curve over the top of the kidneys like
triangular hats.