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The nose

- Olfactory receptors are located in the mucosa Trachea (windpipe)


on the superior surface - 4 inches long tube that connects larynx and
- The rest of the cavity is lined with respiratory bronchi
mucosa (lysozyme enzyme) , which: - Walls are reinforced with C- shaped hyaline
o Moistens air cartilage, which keeps the trachea patent
o Traps incoming foreign particles - Lined with ciliated mucosa
- Lateral walls have projections called conchae o Cilia beat continuously in the opposite
o Increase surface area direction of incoming air
o Increase air turbulence within the nasal o Expel mucus loaded with dust and other
cavity debris away from lungs
- The nasal cavity is separated from the oral
cavity by the palate Main (primary) Bronchi
o Anterior hard plate (bone) - Formed by division of the trachea
o Posterior soft plate (unsupported) - Each bronchus enters the lung at the hilum
- Functions of the sinuses: (medial depression)
o Lighten the skull - Right bronchus is wider, shorter, straighter than
o Act as resonance chambers for speech left
o Produce mucus that drains into the - Bronchi subdivide
nasal cavity
Lungs
The pharynx - Occupy the most of the thoracic cavity
- Muscular passage form nasal cavity to larynx o Heart occupies central portion called
- 3 regions of the pharynx: mediastinum
o Nasopharynx, superior region behind - Apex is near the clavicle (superior portion)
nasal cavity - Base rests on the diaphragm (inferior portion)
o Oropharynx, middle region behind - Each lung is divided into lobes by fissures
mouth (food) o Left lung- 2 lobes
o Laryngopharynx, (air) o Right lung – 3lobes
- Pharyngotympanic tubes, opnes into the - Serosa covers the outer surface of the lungs
nasopharynx o Pulmonary (visceral) pleura, covers the
- Tonsils (composed of lymphatic cells – produce lung surface
antibodies) of the pharynx o Parietal pleura lines the wall of the
o Pharyngeal tonsil (adenoid), located in thoracic cavity
the nasopharynx
o Palatine tonsils, located in the Bronchial (respiratory) Tree Divisions
oropharynx - All but the smallest of these passageways have
o Lingual tonsils, found at the base of the reinforcing cartilage in their walls
tongue - Conduits to and from the respiratory zone
o Primary
Larynx (voice box) o Secondary
- Routes air and food into proper channels o Tertiary
- Plays a role in speech o Bronchioles
- Made of eight rigid hyaline cartilages and a - Respiratory zone Structures:
spoon-shaped - Respiratory Membrane
- Thyroid cartilage o Thin squamous epithelial layer lines the
o Largest of the hyaline cartilages alveolar walls
o Protrudes anteriorly o Alveolar pores connect neighboring air
- Epiglottis sacs
o Protects o Pulmonary capillaries cover external
- Vocal folds (true vocal chords) surface of alveoli
o Vibrate with expelled air o Respiratory membrane (air-blood
o The glottis barrier)
 On one side
o Gas crosses the respiratory membrane
by diffusion
 Oxygen enters the blood
 CO2 enters the alveoli
o Alveolar microphages, add protection
by picking up bacteria, carbon particles,
and other debris
o Surfactant, (a lipid molecule)
 coats gas exposed alveolar
surfaces
 Important in lowering of the
surface tension of the lungs
- 4 events of Respiration
1.) Pulmonary ventilation, moving air into and
out of the lungs (breathing)
2.) External Respiration
3.) Respiratory gas transport, transport of O and
CO2 via the bloodstream
4.) Internal Respiration

- Mechanics of breathing (Pulmonary Ventilation)