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Model solution for Hear Transfer Class Test - II

1. (a)

A

1

Considering unit area and equivalent write the heat transfer rate

e

s1

A

S

e

s2

A

2

circuit approach (as depicted in the above scematic), we car

 Q = b 1 - 1 - e 1 1 1 - e s 1 1 - e s 2 1 1 - e 2 + + + + + A 1 e 1 AF 1 1 - s A s e s 1 A s e s 2 AF 1 s - 2 A 2 e 2

E

E

 b 2

Substituting different terms, we can obtain

Q

=

(

5.67 10

4

-

4

4

)

1

-

0.8

1

+ +

1

-

0.05

+

1

-

0.6

1

+ +

1

-

0.8

0.8

0.05

0.6

0.8

= 2492.41

W

Shield temperature can be determined as :

2492.41

=

E

b

1

-

E

bs

1 -

e

1

1

+

1 -

e

s

+

e

1

F

1

-

2

e

s

, where

Thus,

2492.41

=

é

ê

ê

ë

5.67 10

4

-

æ

ç è

T

s

100

ö

÷ ø

4

ù

ú

ú û

1

-

0.8

0.8

+ +

1

1

-

0.05

0.05

 e s = 0.05 Þ T = 575.7 K s

If the installation is wrong, the total resistance for radiation heat transfer is the same. Temperature of the shield can be obtained as:

2492.41

=

é

ê

ê

ë

5.67 10

4

-

æ

è ç

T

s

100

ö

ø ÷

4

ù

ú

û ú

1

-

0.8

0.8

+ +

1

1

-

0.6

0.6

Þ

T

s

=

978.2 K

(b) The resistance (radiation between two concentric cylinders) depends on the diameters . So the radius of the intermediate cylinder (Radiation Shield) will affect the rate of heat transfer. The heat transfer between two concentric cylinder is given by:

q

12

=

s A 1

(

T

1

4

-

4

T

2

)

1

+

1 -

e

2

æ

ç

è

r

1

e

1

e

2

r

2

ö

÷

ø

which clearly shows the dependence on radius.

2. (a) Considering viscosity m = 0.04 Pa s , the Reynolds number of the flow can be obtained as

Re =

rVD

865

´ ´

3

1

100

=

m 0.04

= 649

Thus, the flow is laminar, fully developed. Tube surface is maintained at 40 o C . For this

condition the average Nusselt number is transfer coefficient as

. Using this we can obtain the average heat

Nu

D

= 3.66

hD

k

= 3.66

3.66

´

0.14

Þ = h

D

=

1

3.66

´

k

100

Þ h =51.24 W/m -K

2

=

3.66

´

0.14

´

2

100 W/m -K

Mass flow rate can be obtained as

&

m =

865 ´

ì

ï

í

ï î

p

´

æ

ç

è

1

4

100

ö

÷ ø

2

ï ü

þ

ý

ï

´

3 kg/s=0.204 kg/s.

Now, tube length can be obtained from the following equation

ln

Þ

Þ

æ T

ç

è

T

T

s

-

e

T

-

s i

ö ÷ =- ø

hA

&

mc

p

ln

L

æ 40

ç

-

= 312.7 m.

è

-

45 ö

÷

ø

40

60

=-

51.24 ´

p

´

1

100

´ L

0.204

´

1.78

´

1000

(b)

For the case of forced convection the local Nusselt number is

Nu

x

=

h x

x

= 0.332

Re

1/2

k x

Pr

1/3

,

and average Nusselt number is

Nu

H

=

h H

H

k

= 0.664

1/2

L

Re

Pr

1/3

. Using these one can obtain

Nu

H

1

=

Nu

H

2

, which means

h

H

1

=

h

H

2

. Similarly, for the case of natural convection over vertical flat

plate,

Nu

H

3

=

Nu

H

4

, which means

h

H

3

=

h

H

4

. The variation of

h

x

h

H

will be some nonlinear function

(e.g. for the case of forced convection it can be obtained as

h

x

1 ). The variation of
2 H
x

h

H

=

h

x

h

H

along the plate height can be shown in the following way: x
3/4
1/2
Natural convection
H
Forced convection
h
x
h
H