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Circuit Switching and Packet Switching

Switching Networks


Long distance transmission is typically done
over a network of switched nodes

Nodes not concerned with content of data

End devices are stations
—Computer, terminal, phone, etc.

Each station attaches to a node, and
collection of nodes is a communications
network

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Switched network

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Switched networks

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CIRCUIT-SWITCHED
NETWORKS

It consists of a set of switches connected by
physical links.

A connection between two stations is a dedicated path
made of one or more links.

However, each connection uses only one
dedicated channel on each link.

Each link is normally divided into n channels by using
FDM or TDM.

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Figure 8.3 A trivial circuit-switched
network

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Three phases


Setup phase

Data transfer

Teardown
phase

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Three phases


End system A needs to communicate with M, A
needs to request a connection to M that must be
accepted by M, is called setup phase

The dedicated path made of connected circuits is
established, data transfer can take place

Teardown phase:

When one of the parties needs to disconnected, a
signal is sent to each switch to release the
resources

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Note

In circuit switching, the resources


need to be reserved during the setup
phase; the resources remain
dedicated for the entire duration of
data transfer until the teardown phase.

8.9
Example
8.1
As a trivial example, let us use a circuit-switched network
to connect eight telephones in a small area.
Communication is through 4-kHz voice channels. We
assume that each link uses FDM to connect a maximum of
two voice channels. The bandwidth of each link is then 8
kHz. Figure 8.4 shows the situation. Telephone 1 is
connected to telephone 7; 2 to 5; 3 to 8; and 4 to 6. Of
course the situation may change when new connections are
made. The switch controls the connections.

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Figure 8.4 Circuit-switched network used in Example
8.1

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Efficiency


Not as efficient as the other types

Resources are allocated during the entire duration
of the connection

These resources are unavailable to
other connections

Example: In telephone network, terminate the
communication when they finished
conservation their

In computer n/w: computers are connected even if
there is no activity for a long time
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Delay in a circuit-switched network

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Circuit-Switched Telephony

Traditional PSTN Approach

SS7 Signaling
Network
Signaling Class
4
Switc
h

Class Class
5 Circuit-based 5
Switch Switch
Trunks
Typically 64 kb/s digital
analog
“loop”, voice Media
Data travels overstream
a parallel (but separate)
network
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Data
communication

We need to send messages from one end system to
another

If the message is going to pass through a packet-switched
network, it needs to be divided into packets of fixed or
variable size

The size of the packet is determined by the network and
the governing protocol.

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Packet switching


No resource allocation for a packet
—It means no reserved BW & no scheduled
processing time

Resources are allocated on demand
—Allocation is done on a first come, first serve

When a switch receives a packet, no matter what is the
source or destination
—Packet must wait if there are other packets being
processed

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Figure 8.7 A datagram network with four switches
(routers)

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DATAGRAM NETWORKS


Here, each packet is treated independently of all
others.
Even if a packet is part of multipacket transmission

It is normally done at the network layer

Packet travel different paths to reach their destination

Packets arrive at their destination out of order with different delays

Packet may also be lost or dropped because of a lack
of resources

It is a connectionless network

—It means the switch not keep info about the


does connection state
—No setup or teardown
phases
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Routing table in a datagram
network

Each switch has a routing table which is
based on the destination address

Dynamic & updated periodically

Destination address and
forwarding output ports are
recorded in tables

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Note

A switch in a datagram network uses a routing table


that is based on the destination address.

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Note

The destination address in the header of a packet in a


datagram network remains the same during the entire
journey of the packet.
Efficiency is better than ckt switched network;
resources are allocated only when there are packets to
be transferred

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Delay in a datagram
network

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VIRTUAL-CIRCUIT
NETWORKS
A virtual-circuit network is a cross between a circuit-switched
network and a datagram network. It has some characteristics
of both.

There are setup, teardown, and data transfer phase like ckt

Resources can be allocated during the setup phase, as in a
ckt switched n/w, or on demand, as in a datagram

In datagram, data are packetized and eack packet carries an
address in the header

In ckt switched n/w, all packets follow the same
path established during the connection

A virtual-ckt is implemented in data link layer, a ckt switch
n/w in physical, datagram in network layer
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Figure 8.10 Virtual-circuit
network

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Addressing


Two types of address are involved: global and local
Global Addressing

Source or destination needs to have global address
—That can be Unique

Global address in virtual ckt is used only to create a virtual
ckt identifier
Virtual ckt identifier (VCI)

Identifier that is actually used for data transfer

A VCI, unlike a global, is a small number that has
only
switch scope
• When
It is used frame arrives
by a frame at a two
between switch, it has a VCI, when
switches
a it
Figure 8.11 Virtual-circuit
identifier

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Data transfer phase


Frame from S to D , all switches need to have a
table entry for this virtual ckt

It is active untill data transfer completes

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Switch and tables in a virtual-circuit network

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Source-to-destination data transfer in a virtual-circuit
network

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Setup phase


Source A needs to create a virtual ckt to B

2 steps are required:
—setup request
—Acknowledgment

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Figure 8.14 Setup request in a virtual-circuit
network

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Figure 8.15 Setup acknowledgment in a virtual-circuit
network

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Note

In virtual-circuit switching, all packets belonging to the


same source and
destination travel the same path;
but the packets may arrive at the destination with different
delays
if resource allocation is on demand.

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Figure 8.16 Delay in a virtual-circuit
network

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Note

Switching at the data link layer in a switched WAN is


normally implemented by using
virtual-circuit techniques.

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