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FLUID MECHANICS II COMPLEX

ENGINEERING PROBLEM
CEP-I

Problem:
Plot a chart between given values of Reynold’s number and friction factor. The given range of
Reynold’s number is 40,000 to 10,000,000. Moreover, determine the value of f related to a
relative roughness of 0.0000005 using moody chart and compare both values.
𝜀
1 2.51
𝐷
= −2 log10 ( + )
√𝑓 𝑅𝑒√𝑓 3.7

Solution:
In order to solve this problem, we are to use an Engineering software called EES (Engineering
Equation Solver). It solves problems by generating parametric tables. We have selected 100 runs
for our range in order to get better results. Next step is to compare these results with the values
obtained from Moody’s chart for which Reynold’s number ranges from 40,000 to 10,000,000.

Our first step is to insert the given equation in in a coded format in the equation windows of EES.

Figure 1: Screenshot of the Equation in Coded Format


The formatted equation windows shows formatted equation.

Figure 2: Screenshot of formatted Equation

Figure 3: Variable Information Setting


The Curve obtained in EES is shown here:

Figure 4: The required Moody Curve


1. Plot Digitizer

Figure 5: Plot Digitizer in use

Theoretical Theoretical Experimental Error

Re F f %

1979379.8 0.01048042 0.01054 0.572496

3094839.5 0.010179142 0.009811 3.981446778

4052688 0.009898431 0.009545 4.335005852

4756955 0.009736639 0.00935 4.645547346

5538410 0.009537285 0.009177 5.672322132

5978514 0.009444032 0.009115 4.601068399

6561749 0.009307098 0.009014 4.283035847

7442047.5 0.009108003 0.008866 3.604591788

8254222.5 0.009030204 0.008755 2.935606366

8.84E+06 0.008918473 0.008719 2.456124698


Results:
Affect of friction factor on the flow behaviour:

Friction is to be calculated in order to analyze any fluid flow. It’s a very non-linear function and
it’s a necessary part of fluid flow equations. We can use two methods to calculate friction factor’s
value. We can either solve its non-linear function equation by using EES or we can take t’s value
directly by the use of Moody’s Chart.

Head loss:

Fanning equation shows the effect of friction factor on head loss:

𝐻𝑓 = 4𝑉𝐷𝑓𝑓 𝐿 22𝑔

Where,

𝑉 = 𝑓𝑙𝑢𝑖𝑑 𝑣𝑒𝑙𝑜𝑐𝑖𝑡𝑦

𝐷 = 𝐷𝑖𝑎𝑚𝑒𝑡𝑒𝑟 𝑜𝑓 𝑡ℎ𝑒 𝑝𝑖𝑝𝑒

𝐿 = 𝐿𝑒𝑛𝑔𝑡ℎ 𝑜𝑓 𝑡ℎ𝑒 𝑝𝑖𝑝𝑒

𝐻𝑓 = ℎ𝑒𝑎𝑑 𝑙𝑜𝑠𝑠 𝑏𝑦 𝑓𝑟𝑖𝑐𝑡𝑖𝑜𝑛

𝑓𝑓 = 𝑓𝑎𝑛𝑛𝑖𝑛𝑔 𝑓𝑟𝑖𝑐𝑡𝑖𝑜𝑛 𝑓𝑎𝑐𝑡𝑜𝑟

Pressure loss:

Darcy’s Equation gives the mathematical relation between friction factor and pressure drop.

𝑃 = 105 × 6.254 𝑊𝑡 𝑓𝑚 𝜌 𝑑 5
Where,

𝑊𝑡 = 𝑆𝑢𝑚 𝑜𝑓 𝑣𝑎𝑝𝑜𝑟 𝑎𝑛𝑑 𝑙𝑖𝑞𝑢𝑖𝑑 𝑓𝑙𝑜𝑤 𝑟𝑎𝑡𝑒

From the above equations, its clear that head loss and pressure drop both are directly
proportional to the friction factor, so, both increases when friction factor increases. While,
friction factor depends upon the Reynold’s number, number used to see the nature of flow i.e.
laminar and turbulent.
CEP-II

Problem:

Solution:
As we know,

𝜌 𝑉𝑔ℎ𝑝𝑢𝑚𝑝
𝑊𝑒𝑙𝑒𝑐𝑡 =
𝜂𝑝𝑢𝑚𝑝 − 𝑚𝑜𝑡𝑜𝑟
ℎ𝑝𝑢𝑚𝑝, 𝑢 = 7 + ℎ𝑙
ℎ𝑙 = ℎ𝑙,1 = ℎ𝑙,2
𝑣
𝑉=
𝐴

𝜌𝑉𝐷
𝑅𝑒 =
µ

1/𝑓^0.5 = −2𝑙𝑜𝑔10{2.51/𝑓^0.5 ∗ 𝑅𝑒 + (𝑒/𝐷)/3.7}

𝐿𝑉2
ℎ𝑙 = 𝑓
𝐷2𝑔

So, by using EES and given data:

V = 0.0300 m3/s,
V1=0.00415 m3/s,
V2= 0.0259 m3/s,
v1=3.3 m/s
v2= 5.15 m/s
hL= 11.1m
hpump= 19.1m
Re1= 131,600
Re2= 410,000
f1= 0.0221
f2= 0.0182
Results:

Series Piping:
A larger diameter pipe is similar to smaller diameter pipes in series. As we increase the pipe
diameter, velocity of fluid flowing through it decreases according to the Continuity equation.

𝑉 = 𝐴𝑣
Thus, we can decrease head losses due to friction by increasing a fluid velocity. In case of series
piping, total head loss divides. Bernoulli’s equation for this case is:

𝐻 = 𝑧2 − 𝑧1

Parallel Piping:
Head losses during a fluid flow are affected by velocity of fluid (square of velocity) and the pipe’s
roughness (friction factor). In case of parallel piping, the volume flow rate divides , because it
must be remained constant before and after the parallel flow. While, the head loss remains
constant.

References:
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pipe_flow
https://www.sciencedirect.com/topics/engineering/flow-behaviour-index
https://scialert.net/fulltext/?doi=tasr.2006.496.503