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Uses of the perfect infinitive

The perfect infinitive has the following structure: (to) have + past participle.

Examples are: to have missed, to have written, to have worked, to have left etc.

Perfect infinitives can have the same kind of meaning as perfect or past tenses.

 I am glad to have found a new job. (= I am glad that I have found a new job.)
 She was sorry to have missed the concert. (= She was sorry that she had missed the concert.)
 You seem to have annoyed him. (= It seems that you have annoyed him.)
 The perfect infinitive is often used after the modal auxiliary verbs could, would, might, ought,
should and needn’t to talk about unreal situations.
 You should have asked my permission before going out. (The person didn’t.)
 She should have discussed the matter with him. (She didn’t discuss the matter with him.)
 I would have gone to university, if I had passed my exam. (I didn’t pass my exam.)
 You shouldn’t have provoked him. (You provoked him.)
 We needn’t have waited for his approval. (We waited for his approval.)

Notes

The structure modal auxiliary + perfect infinitive is not always used to talk about unreal past situations. It
can also be used to express certainty.

 She should have arrived by now.


 They will have reached the station by now.

What Are Verb Tenses?


The tense of a verb tells you when a person did something or when something existed or happened. In
English, there are three main tenses: the present, the past, and the future.

The present
The present tense (e.g. I am, she works, we swim, they believe) is also called the present
simple or simple present. It's mainly used in the following ways:
to describe things that are currently happening or that are currently or always the case (I love chocolate ice
cream; my parents are in New York this week; he has fair hair and blue eyes; some birds eat worms and
insects).
to talk about something that exists or happens regularly (she goes out every Saturday night; it
always rains here in winter; I start work at 7.30 a.m.).

to refer to a future situation in certain cases and in some subordinate clauses (the bus arrives in London at
6 p.m.; I'll make us some coffee when we get home).

Find out how to form the present simple tense.

The past
The past tense (e.g. I was, he talked, we had, they worked) is also called the past simple or simple past.
As its description implies, it’s used to talk about things or situations which happened in the past, that is,
before the present time of speaking. Its main uses are as follows:
to refer to an event or situation which happened once and is now finished (I met Lisa yesterday; we ate a
huge breakfast this morning; they walked ten miles that day; you told me that before).

to describe a situation that lasted for a longer time in the past but is now finished (he went to college for
four years; my family lived in Oxford in the 1980s; I loved her for ages but never told her).

to talk about an event that happened regularly or repeatedly but is now over (she called for help over and
over again; we ate out every night last week; I phoned him three times today).

Find out how to form the past simple tense.

The future
The future tense (e.g. I shall [or will] go; he will talk; we shall [or will] have; they will work) is used to refer to
things that haven’t yet happened at the present time of speaking, but which are due, expected, or likely to
occur in the future. Here are the main situations in which the future is used:
to give or ask for information about the future (you will be in California tomorrow; how long will the
journey take?; OK, I’ll write that report on Thursday).
to talk about things that we think are likely or possible to happen in the future, but which aren’t completely
certain (I think she’ll retire soon; he won’t [will not] stay married to her for long; you’ll never lose weight,
you like food too much).

to refer to conditional situations, namely things that will or may happen if something else occurs (if it’s hot
I’ll go swimming later; you’ll get stressed out if you work all the time).

to make promises or threats, or to state decisions at the time of speaking (Fine, I’ll call you soon; Are you
going into town? We’ll give you a lift; I’ll never speak to you again).

The future tense is formed with will (or shall) and the infinitive of the verb without ‘to’. Learn more
about when to use will or shall.

Continuous and perfect tenses


There are two further types of tense: the continuous and the perfect. These tenses are sometimes
referred to as aspects rather than tenses. The term aspect is used in grammar to talk about the form of a
verb that shows, for example, whether the action happens once or repeatedly, is completed or still
continuing.

Continuous
These tenses (also called progressive tenses) are used to talk about actions that continue for a period of
time. They are formed with the relevant tense of the auxiliary verb to be and the present participle of the
main verb. There are three main continuous tenses:
the present continuous (I am working)

the past continuous (I was working)

the future continuous (I will be working)


Perfect
Perfect tenses are typically used to talk about actions that are completed by the present or a particular
point in the past or future. They are formed with the relevant tense of the auxiliary verb to have and
the past participle of the main verb. There are three main perfect tenses:
the present perfect (I have worked)

the past perfect (I had worked)

the future perfect (I will have worked)

Perfect continuous
There is a final set of tenses which combine features of the perfect and continuous tenses. They are
formed and used as follows:

the present perfect continuous (I have been working): used to talk about how long something has
continued up till now (I have been working there for a week)

the past perfect continuous (I had been working): used to talk about something which continued up to a
particular moment in the past but is now completed (I had been working there for a week before I resigned)

the future perfect continuous (I will have been working): used to talk about something which is expected
to end by a particular time in the future (By December, I will have been working there for 6 months)
Direct and indirect speech can be a source of confusion for English learners. Let's first define the terms, then look at how to talk
about what someone said, and how to convert speech from direct to indirect or vice-versa.

You can answer the question What did he say? in two ways:

 by repeating the words spoken (direct speech)


 by reporting the words spoken (indirect or reported speech).

DIRECT SPEECH
Direct speech repeats, or quotes, the exact words spoken. When we use direct speech in writing, we place the words spoken
between quotation marks (" ") and there is no change in these words. We may be reporting something that's being said NOW
(for example a telephone conversation), or telling someone later about a previous conversation.

EXAMPLES
 She says, "What time will you be home?"
 She said, "What time will you be home?" and I said, "I don't know! "
 "There's a fly in my soup!" screamed Simone.
 John said, "There's an elephant outside the window."

INDIRECT SPEECH
Reported or indirect speech is usually used to talk about the past, so we normally change the tense of the words spoken. We
use reporting verbs like 'say', 'tell', 'ask', and we may use the word 'that' to introduce the reported words. Inverted commas are
not used.

She said, "I saw him." (direct speech) = She said that she had seen him. (indirect speech)

'That' may be omitted:


She told him that she was happy. = She told him she was happy.

'SAY' AND 'TELL'


Use 'say' when there is no indirect object:
He said that he was tired.

Always use 'tell' when you say who was being spoken to (i.e. with an indirect object):
He told me that he was tired.

'TALK' AND 'SPEAK'


Use these verbs to describe the action of communicating:
He talked to us.
She was speaking on the telephone.

Use these verbs with 'about' to refer to what was said:


He talked (to us) about his parents.

Main Difference – Direct vs Indirect Object


An object is a noun, pronoun or a noun phrase that gives meaning to the subject and the verb in a sentence. In the
English language, there are two types of objects; they are direct objects and indirect objects. The main
difference between direct and indirect object is, direct object is the recipient of the action while indirect object is
the recipient of the direct object. In this article, we are going to look at the difference between Direct and Indirect
object.
What is a Direct Object
A direct object is a noun, pronoun, or a noun phrase that receives the action of a verb or shows the result of the action. It
answers the question “What?” or “Whom?” after an action verb. If you can find the subject and the verb in a sentence,
then you can find the direct object easily by using the formula,

Subject + verb + what or who = Direct Object


For example let’s take the sentence, “John and Paul played cricket.” In this sentence, “John and Paul” is the subject,
“play” is the verb and “cricket” is the object. If you form the question “What did John and Paul play?” you get the
object as the answer.
He repaired my car.
They played volleyball.
I told a lie.
I hate him.
She is eating an apple.

What is an Indirect Object


A sentence must always have a direct object first, for an indirect object to exist. In other words, an indirect object cannot
exist in a sentence without a direct object. An indirect object is a noun or pronoun that is affected by the action. It would
be correct to state that an indirect object is the recipient of the direct object.

Example:
He sent me a present.
In this sentence, “present” is the direct object and “me” is the indirect object. You can also note that “me” is the
recipient of the direct object. So we can ask the question “for whom did he send a present?” to know the indirect
object. An indirect object always answers the questions ‘to whom’, ‘for whom’ or ‘for what.’ etc.
She gave it to me.
I told my teacher a lie.
He bought a present for her mother.
She gave her English notes to me.
As seen from the above examples, indirect objects can appear before or after the direct object. But, they are always the
recipient of the direct object. For instance, look at the second example above (I told my teacher a lie.) Here “teacher” is
the indirect object. It answers the question ‘to whom did you tell a lie?’
I gave him a present.

Difference Between Direct Object and Indirect Object


Definition
Direct Object: Direct object is a noun or pronoun receiving the action.
Indirect Object: Indirect object is a noun or pronoun affected by the action and it is also the recipient of the direct
object.
Conditions
Direct Object: Its presence does not depend on the indirect object.
Indirect Object: A direct object is necessary for an indirect object to be present
Verb Type
Direct Objects: They are generally represented by transitive verbs.
Indirect Objects: They are generally represented by intransitive verbs.
Position
Direct Objects: They are preceded by the verb.
Indirect Objects: They are often preceded by prepositions.
Simple infinitive is to+V1 Eg

She loves to play football on Sundays.

Here TO LOVE is simple infinitive. Some sentence may omit TO with the infinitive. Eg

You must go to the doctor. Here TO has been omitted though GO is the infinitive

Perfect infinitive is to+have+V3. Eg

She claims to have written this poem.


TO HAVE WRITTEN is the perfect infinitive in this sentence.

However, such sentences can be rewritten.

She claims she has written this poem.

He pretended to have read the book.

He pretended he had read the book.

In PERFECT INFINITIVE too TO may be omitted in some cases ie generally with modals. Eg

Sh...

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Related QuestionsMore Answers Below

 What's the difference in use between the present infinitive and the present perfect infinitive?
 What is perfect infinitive?
 What is the perfect infinitive of "give"?
 When do we use the perfect infinitive?
 What is the difference between infinite and infinitive?

Kamal Bhattacharyya
Answered Jul 8, 2018 · Author has 224 answers and 442.8k answer views

Simple infinitive as we know to plus verb1. And lot of variatios are there see any grammar book.

Perfect infinitive:We form the perfect infinitive with to have + the -ed form of a verb. We use the perfect
infinitive after verbs such as claim, expect, hate, hope, like, love, prefer, pretend:

He pretended to have lost her number and so had been unable to contact her. (or He pretended that he had
lost her number …)

The perfect infinitive often refers to things that might have happened in the past:

She claims to have met a number of famous people, but I don’t believe her. (or She claims she has met...

(more)

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Shahid Khan, Engineering (CS) from Jamia Millia Islamia (2015)


Answered Jul 8, 2018 · Author has 452 answers and 184.8k answer views

Thanks for A2A.

1. Simple infinitive: It refers to the same time as that of the preceding verb (finite verb).
Simple infinitive: (to) + v1 [ For active ]

For examples:

A. I’m happy to see you.

B. You must be happy .

2. Perfect infinitive: It refers to a time before that of the preceding verb (finite verb).

Perfect infinitive: (to) have+ v3 [ For active ]

For examples:

A. I’m happy to have met them.

B. You seem to have fallen asleep.

Note: Infinite shows the temporal relationship between the action expressed by the infinitive and the time of
the preceding verb.

In English grammar, an infinitive is the base form of a verb that can function as a noun, adjective,
or adverb. "Infinitive" comes from the Latin word infinitus meaning endless. The infinitive is a type
of verbal, or word derived from a verb that does not function as a verb, that is almost always
preceded by the particle "to".

Infinitive Phrases
Infinitives beginning with "to" and making up infinitive phrases are separate from prepositional
phrases that use "to" (as in "She drove to Chicago") to describe movement.
An infinitive phrase is made up of the particle "to", an infinitive, and any
accompanying objects, modifiers, or complements.

Examples of infinitive phrases:

 She plans to write a novel.


 They are going to run around the block.
 The dog was not hungry enough to eat.

A negative infinitive phrase can be formed by placing the negative particle "not" in front of "to".

Examples of negative infinitive phrases:

 She told me not to drink the milk.


 I was going to really try not to be late.
 They were warned not to go near the poison ivy.

Examples of Infinitives in Literature and Film


Mark Twain: "It is better to keep your mouth closed and let people think you are a fool than to open it
and remove all doubt."
Will Rogers: "Half our life is spent trying to find something to do with the time we have rushed
through life trying to save."
Susan Sontag: "Until the advent of television emptied the movie theaters, it was from a weekly visit
to the cinema that you learned (or tried to learn) how to walk, to smoke, to kiss, to fight, to grieve."
Fred Allen: "A celebrity is a person who works hard all his life to become well known, then wears
dark glasses to avoid being recognized."

Functions of Infinitives and Infinitive Phrases


Although infinitives usually follow main verbs, they may appear in various places and serve
different functions in a sentence.

Here are a few examples of infinitives that do not follow main verbs and/or are being used as
sentence parts other than subjects or objects:

 To raise a child is the highest form of education.—"to raise" is the subject of the verb "is"
 We want to raise our children in a safe environment.—"to raise" is the object of the verb
"want"
 Her only goal is to graduate.—"to graduate" is the subject complement after the linking
verb "is"
 Each child has a list of chores to complete.—"to complete" is the adjective modifying
the noun phrase "a list of chores"

James Thurber on the Perfect Infinitive


A perfect infinitive is defined as "to" + "have" + a past participle. James Thurber spoke about
perfect infinitives in his article for The New Yorker titled "Our Own Modern English Usage: The
Perfect Infinitive.” Below is an excerpt from this article that describes the perilous situation of too
many "haves".

Too Many "Haves"

"It is easy enough to say that a person should live in such a way as to avoid the perfect infinitive
after the past conditional, but it is another matter to do it. The observance of the commonest
amenities of life constantly leads us into that usage. Let us take a typical case. A gentleman and his
wife, calling on friends, find them not at home. The gentleman decides to leave a note of regret
couched in a few well-chosen words, and the first thing he knows he is involved in this: 'We would
have liked to have found you in.'

Reading it over, the gentleman is assailed by the suspicion that he has too many 'haves,' and that
the whole business has somehow been put too far into the past. His first reaction is to remedy this
by dating the note: '9 p.m. Wednesday, June 12, 1929.' This at once seems too formal, and, with a
sigh, he starts in again on the sentence itself.

That is where he makes a fatal mistake. The simplest way out, as always, is to seek some other
method of expressing the thought...What he does, however, is to lapse into a profound study of this
particular grammatical situation, than which there is no more hazardous mental occupation...

"First the victim will change the sentence to: 'We would have liked to find you in.' ...this is correct
(barring the use of 'would' instead of 'should'), but, alas, the gentleman does not realize it. Few
people ever do realize it. This is because the present infinitive, 'to find,' seems to imply success.
They, therefore, fall back on the perfect infinitive, 'to have found,' because it implies that the thing
hoped for did not come to pass. They have fallen back on it so often that, after the ordinary past
tenses, its use has come to be counted as idiomatic, even though it is incorrect...

"There is a simple rule about past conditionals...After 'would have liked,' 'would have hoped,'
'would have feared,' etc., use the present infinitive. The implication of non-fulfillment is inherent in
the governing verb itself, that is, in the 'would have liked,' etc. You don't have to shade the
infinitive to get a nice note of frustration...Avoid the perfect infinitive after the past conditional as
you would a cobra."

Verb Tenses

You know that verbs are words that express an action-physical or mental-or a state of being.
Verbs also have tense, or the time when the action is occurring.
There are three main verb tenses-past, present, and future.
For regular verbs in the English language, the present tense is formed simply by using the verb.
This rule is true except for forming the third person singular (he, she it). For the 3rd person
singular present tense, you add an "s":
To form the past tense for regular verbs in the English language, you add an "ed".
To form the future tense for regular verbs in the English language, you add "will" or "shall" in
front of the verb.
Examples of Verb Tenses:

Below are some examples of the three verb tenses for regular verbs.
3rd
Verb Present Person Past Future
Singular

Ask Ask Asks Asked Will ask

Burn Burn Burns Burned Will burn

Crash Crash Crashes Crashed Will crash

Dress Dress Dresses Dressed Will dress

Explain Explain Explains Explained Will explain

Float Float Floats Floated Will float

Glow Glow Glows Glowed Will glow

Inform Inform Informs Informed Will inform

Walk Walk Walks Walked Will walk

Watch Watch Watches Watched Will watch

Cook Cook Cooks Cooked Will cook

Stop Stop Stops Stopped Will stop

Related
Links:
Examples
Grammar
Examples

100 Examples of Direct and Indirect Speech


SEPTEMBER 6, 2019 BY ADMIN

Find here complete examples of direct and indirect speech for all classes, with solved answers. Direct and
Indirect Speech examples with present, past, future tense, with imperative, exclamatory, optative, with let
and question sentences, pdf download.
Direct and Indirect speech Examples

Table of Contents
 Direct and Indirect Speech Examples-All Tenses
 Reported speech examples: Question Sentences
 Direct and Indirect Speech examples: Exclamatory Sentences
 Reported speech examples: Optative Sentences
 Imperative sentences-Reported speech examples
 Reported speech examples with ‘Let Sentences’
 Modal change in reported speech-Examples
 Pronoun change-Reported speech examples
o Need to Practice online with 100 Reported Speech Exercises Online?
o Find here Solved Reported Speech Exercises
 Related Posts:
Direct and Indirect Speech Examples-All Tenses

Reported speech examples: Present Tense

DIRECT SPEECH INDIRECT SPEECH

1. He said,"I work in a small company" He told that he worked in a small company.

2. She said, "I am waiting for my salary" She told that she was waiting for here salary.

3. Alex said to me, "It have worked very hard for this Alex told me that he had worked very hard for that

project" project.

4. I said to him, "I do not care about small issues" I told him that I did not care about small issues.

5. She said to me, "I am making good progress on She told me that she was doing good progress on

this project" that project.

6. We said, "You have better future than us" We said that he had better future than us

7. They said, "It is getting on very boring here" They told that it was getting on very boring there.

8. She said, "You have to decide by tomorrow" She said that I had to decide by the next day.
DIRECT SPEECH INDIRECT SPEECH

9. Alex said, "I have been writing this paragraph" Alex said that he had been writing that paragraph.

10. They said, "We do not listen to their advice" They said that they don't listen to their advic

Reported speech examples: Past Tense

DIRECT SPEECH INDIRECT SPEECH

11. He said, "I worked very hard but failed" He said that had worked very hard but failed.

12. She said to me, "It did not work for me" She told me that it had not worked for her

13. Alex said, "I was listening Indian music" Alex said that he had been listening Indian music.

14. "We were going to a new mission" they said. They said that they had been going to a new mission.

15. "I had collected ancient books" he said. He said that he had collected ancient books.

16. They said, "We had better alternative than They told that they had better alternative than that.

this"

17. He said to me, "We watched a wonderful He told me that they had watched a wonderful movie.

movie."

18. Alex said, "I was writing codes for a new Alex told that he had been writing codes for new

program" program.
DIRECT SPEECH INDIRECT SPEECH

19. She said to him, "I had no intention to marry She told him that she had no intention to marry him.

you."

20. He said, "I wasted my time after her." He said that he had wasted his time after her.

Reported speech examples: Future Tense

DIRECT SPEECH INDIRECT SPEECH

21. She said, "I will perform better in next She told she would perform better in next

competition" competition.

22. He said to his teacher, "I will bring good results He said to his teacher that he would bring good

in exams" results in exams.

23. She said to mother, "I will bring good name to She said to her mother that she would bring good

you" name to her.

24. Alex said to Mark, "I will be waiting for you at Alex said to Mark that he would be waiting for him at

the main gate" the main gate.

25. I said to him, "I will have to convince my I told him that I would have to convince my parents

parents for this" for that.

26. They said, "we will have to stay more active" They said that they would have to stay more active.

27. She said, "I will be looking for your response" She said that she would be looking for my response.
DIRECT SPEECH INDIRECT SPEECH

28. He said to me, "I will have to think twice before He said to me that he would have to think twice

taking such action" before taking such actions.

29. I said to him, "You will have wait for me for two I told him that he would have to wait for me for two

hours" hours.

30. She said, "We will be signing an agreement on She said that they would be signing an agreement on

next Sunday" next Sunday.

Reported speech examples: Question Sentences

DIRECT SPEECH INDIRECT SPEECH

31. She said,"What will be age limit for next She asked what would be the age limit for the next

exam? exam.

32. He said, "Do you live in nearby town" He asked whether I lived in nearby town.

33. He said, "Why are you calling Jack?" He asked why I was calling Jack.

34. They said, "Will there be backup plan for us? They asked if there would be backup plan for them.

35. I said, "Which is the best method to find I asked which was the best method to find him.

him?"

36. She said to him, "Are you looking for a job?" She asked him whether he was looking for a job.
DIRECT SPEECH INDIRECT SPEECH

37. They said, "Do you still believe in this They asked whether I still believed in that theory.

theory?"

38. He said, "Do you think this is an easy job?" He asked whether I thought it was an easy job.

39. I said to him, "Are you serious about this job? I asked him whether he was serious about that job.

40. She said, "Where can I find good books?" She asked where she could find good books.

Direct and Indirect Speech examples: Exclamatory Sentences

DIRECT SPEECH INDIRECT SPEECH

41. She said, "Alas! he left us so early" She exclaimed with sorrow that he had left them so

early.

42. He said, "Hurrah! the time proved and we He exclaimed with joy that the time proved and they

became successful" became successful.

43. She said, "Vow! I have never seen such a She exclaimed with wonder that she had never seen

beautiful valley" such a beautiful valley.

44. He said, "Bravo! captain did a wonderful job." He applauded captain that he did a wonderful job.

45. She said, "Aha! my only brother was killed in She exclaimed with sorrow that her only brother was

an accident." killed in an accident.

46. Father said, "well done! you are my proud." Father exclaimed with joy that I was his proud.
DIRECT SPEECH INDIRECT SPEECH

47. Teacher said, "Good! you guys have played Teacher exclaimed with surprise that we had played

well" well.

48. She said, "Hurrah! the train is coming" She exclaimed with wonder that the train was coming.

49. They said, "Alas! we could not perform well They exclaimed with sorrow that they could not

in the match" perform well in the match.

50. Teacher said, "well done! I am proud of my Teacher exclaimed with joy that he was proud of his

students" students.

Reported speech examples: Optative Sentences

DIRECT SPEECH INDIRECT SPEECH

51. The old lady said, "would that! I had died in my The old lady wished that she had died in her youth.

youth"

52. Father said, "May God bless you a sound health!" Father prayed that God might bless me a sound

health.

53. She said, "would that! I could marry my true She wished that she could marry her true lover.

lover"

54. I said, "May God! reward our efforts in this I prayed that God might reward our efforts in that

exam" exam.

55. They said to me, "Good night! Alex" They bad good bye to me.
DIRECT SPEECH INDIRECT SPEECH

56. He said, "O that! a single last sight of my He wished for a single last sight of his beloved.

beloved"

57. Old lady said, "May God protect you from danger Old lady prayed that God might protect me from

always" danger always.

58. He said, "Would that! I were born again" He wished that he were born again.

59. Mother said to me, "May you and your friends Mother prayed that me and my friends might shine

shine always" always.

60. He said, "May God help you in your journey!" He prayed that God might help me in my journey.

61. Alex said, "Would that! I were born at ancient Alex wished that he were born at the ancient times.

times"

Imperative sentences-Reported speech examples

DIRECT SPEECH INDIRECT SPEECH

61. He said to his servant,"Clean the tables again" He ordered his servant to clean the tables again

62. Mother said to her daughter, "Shut up! go into Mother ordered her daughter to shut up and go

your room" inside her room.

63. He said to the waiter, "Bring me the detailed He ordered the waiter to bring him the detailed bill.

bill"
DIRECT SPEECH INDIRECT SPEECH

64. He said, "Close the door, Raja" He ordered his friend Raja to close the door.

65. Father said to his son, "Get ready, we will leave Father ordered his son to get ready as they would

quickly" leave quickly.

66. I said to policemen, "please, help the poor lady" I requested the policemen to help the poor lady.

67. The old man said, "Please, release my son this The old man requested to release his son that time.

time"

68. She said to him, "Don't ever try to talk me" She warned him from trying to talk her ever

69. Teacher said to students, "Stand up all" Teacher ordered his students to stand up all.

70. He said to his son, "Avoid sitting with bad guys" He advised his son not to sit with the bad guys.

71. The doctor said to him, "Stay away from junk The doctor advised him to stay away from junk food.

food"

Reported speech examples with ‘Let Sentences’

DIRECT SPEECH INDIRECT SPEECH

71. I said, "Let him sleep before we leave" I suggested that he should be allowed to sleep before we

leave.

72. She said to him, "Let's meet her parents She suggested that we should meet her parents

somewhere" somewhere.
DIRECT SPEECH INDIRECT SPEECH

73. I said to her, "Let me think before I give you I requested her to that I should be allowed to think

any proposal." before I give him any proposal.

74. She said to her father, "Let me buy some She requested her father that she should be allowed to

books for Alex" buy some books for Alex.

75. I said, "Let's start reading this novel I suggested that we should started reading that novel

together" together.

76. The teacher said, "Let's start over a new The teacher suggested that they should start over a new

chapter." chapter.

77. She said, "let me to be more prepared for She requested that she should be allowed to be more

the task." prepared for the task.

78. I said, "Let me find a best solution to solve I told them that I should be allowed to find a best solution

this issue permanently." to solve that issue permanently.

79. They said, "Let's play a game where the They suggested that they should play a game where the

winner will win a gold prize." winner will win a gold prize.

80. She said to me, "Please, let me stay here She requested me let her stay there until her brother

until my brother comes." comes.


Modal change in reported speech-Examples

DIRECT SPEECH INDIRECT SPEECH

81. He said, "I can read and write a new language" He said that he could read and write a new language.

82. She said, "I can understand her situation" She said that she could understand her situation.

83. He said, "I may visit you tomorrow" He said that he might visit me the next day.

84. She said, "I must know the rules of an She said that she had to know the rules of an

organization" organization.

85. He said, "I must work hard for the next level" He said that had to work hard for the next level.

86. Alex said, "I should buy new car" Alex said that he should buy new car.

87.He said, "I might bring a gift for you" He said that he might bring a gift for me.

88. She said, "I would apply for the job" She said that she would apply for the job.

89. He said, "I might ask my friends for help" He said that he might ask his friends for help.

90. Alex said, "I must apply for a new visa" Alex said that he had to apply for a new visa.

Pronoun change-Reported speech examples

DIRECT SPEECH INDIRECT SPEECH

91. He said, "I am working hard for the upcoming He said that he was working hard for the upcoming

tests" tests.
DIRECT SPEECH INDIRECT SPEECH

92. She said, "My only wish is to become a good man" She said that her only wish was to become a good

man.

93. He said, "I am learning the rules of new language" He said that he was learning the rules of new

language.

95. I said to her, "You seem to be a nice girl" I said to that she seem to be a nice girl.

96. He said to me, "You should be responsible in your He said to me that I should be responsible in my

duty" duty.

97. Alex said, "It is a rule to obey the master" Alex said that it was a rule to obey the master.

98. They said, "We are waiting for our brothers" They said that they are waiting for their brothers.

99. I said, "I am the winner in this game" I said that I was the winner in that game.

100. They said, "We are learning English by ourselves" They said that they were learning English by

themselves.