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An Institute for IAS Examination



10 milion
years ago

38 million
years ago


55 million
years ago

71 million
years ago
Land Mass


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India is an ancient country, known Andaman and Nicobar has longest
as Bharatvarsh. It is surrounded by coastal line.
the sea on three sides and The southernmost point of the
separated from the rest of Asia by country as a whole lies further
lofty mountain chain. south in Andaman and Nicobar
The Arabian Sea lies to its Islands. It is now called Indira Point.
southwest, the Bay of Bengal to its It is situated at 6°45’N latitude. The
southeast and the Indian Ocean to westernmost point of India lies in
its south. This well-defined South Gujarat and the eastern most in
Asian landmass is called Indian Arunachal Pradesh.
sub-continent (consists of the The Tropic of Cancer passes almost
countries of India, Pakistan, halfway through the country. Thus
Bangladesh, Nepal, Bhutan and Sri half of the country to the south of
Lanka). the Tropic of Cancer is situated in
India lies wholly in the Northern the Tropical or Torrid Zone and the
Hemisphere, it extends between other half lying north of the Tropic
6°45’N to 37°6'N latitudes and from of Cancer falls in the Sub-tropical
68°7' E to 97°25' E longitudes. zone.
In area India is the seventh largest India has common boundary with
country in the world but in many neighboring countries like
population it stands next only to Pakistan, China, Nepal, Bhutan,
China. Myanmar, Bangladesh and Sri
In area Rajasthan is the largest Lanka.
state but in population Uttar The border between India and
Pradesh has first position in India. Pakistan is known as Radcliffe line.
It measures about 3,214 km from The Indian states Gujarat,
north to south, and 2,933 km from Rajasthan, Punjab and Jammu and
east to west. The northern most Kashmir shares boundary with
point of the Indian mainland lies in Pakistan.
the state of Jammu and Kashmir The Indian states Jammu and
and the southernmost point is Kashmir, Himanchal Pradesh,
Kanyakumari in Tamil Nadu. Uttrakhand, Sikkim and Arunachal
Gujarat, Maharashtra, Goa, Pradesh shares its boundary with
Karnataka, Kerala are along the China. The boundary line is known
western coast and West Bengal, as Mac Mohan line.
Odisha, Andhra Pradesh, Tamil The Nepal shares boundary with
Nadu are along the eastern coast. Uttrakhand, Uttar Pradesh, Bihar,
Gujarat has longest coast line and Sikkim and West Bengal.
Goa has smallest coast line in The Bhutan shares boundary with
mainland but when Union Arunachal Pradesh, Sikkim, Assam
territories of India are included the and West Bengal.
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The Indian states Arunachal and Mizoram share its boundary
Pradesh, Nagaland, Manipur and with Bangladesh.
Mizoram shares its boundary with The Palk Strait separates Indian
Myanmar. mainland from Sri Lanka.
The India has longest sharing Structurally, Sri Lanka is an
border with Bangladesh. West extension of the peninsular block of
Bengal, Assam, Meghalaya, Tripura India.

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‘Physiography’ of an area is the outcome of (1) The Northern and North-eastern Mountains
structure, process and the stage of (2) The Northern Plain
development. Based on the macro (3) The Peninsular Plateau
(4) The Indian Desert
variations, India can be divided into the
(5) The Coastal Plains
following physiographic divisions: (6) The Islands.

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(1) The Northern and North-eastern The folds of Great Himalayas are
Mountains: Geographically the entire asymmetrical in nature. The core of
Northern mountain system can be divided this part of Himalayas is composed
into- of granite.
Important mountain peaks of the
(a) The Himalayan Ranges Great Himalayas are- Mount Everest
(b) The Trans-Himalayas (8848m :Highest peak of the world),
(c) The Poorvanchal Kanchenjunga(8598m), Lhotse
(8516m), Makalu(8481m), Dhaulagiri
The Himalayan Ranges- The Himalayas, (8172m), Nanga Parbat (8126m),
geologically young and structurally fold Annapurna(8076m), Nandadevi
mountains stretch over the northern (7817m), Badrinath, Kedarnath
borders of India. The Ganga and the Yamuna, two
rivers originate from this Himalaya.
General Characteristic: Important passes-

These mountain ranges run in a Burzil pass- in Jammu and Kashmir,

North west/South east direction connects Srinagar and Gilgit.
from the Indus to the Brahmaputra. Zoji La- in Jammu and Kashmir, connects
They form an arc, which covers a Srinagar and Leh.
distance of about 2,400 Km. Their Shipki La- in Himachal Pradesh, connects
width varies from 400 Km in Kashmir shimla with Gartok town in Tibet and is an
to 150 Km in Arunachal Pradesh. important trade route.
These ranges are separated by deep Lipu Lekh- in Uttarakhand, Indian pilgrims
valleys. visit Masarovar through this pass.
The individual ranges have very steep Niti pass- in Uttarakhand
gradient towards the south but they Raxaul and Jogabani passes- in Bihar
present a much gentler slope towards Nathu La- in Sikkim, important trade pass.
the north. Jelep La- in Sikkim
The altitudinal variations are greater Bumla- in Arunachal Pradesh, between
in the eastern half than those in the Arunachal Pradesh and Tibet
western half. Diphu pass- in Arunachal Pradesh, gateway
from Arunachal Pradesh into Mayanmar
The Himalaya consists of three parallel
(ii) The Middle or Lesser Himalaya:
ranges in its longitudinal extent.
Lies between the Shivaliks in the
(i) Himadri or the Greater Himalayas: south and the Great Himalyas in the
Greater Himalayas or Himadri or The altitude varies between 3,700
Himagiri extends from the gorge of and 4,500 metres and the average
Indus river in the west to the bend width is of 50 Km.
at Namcha Barva in the east. While the Pir Panjal range forms the
It is the most continuous range. The longest and the most important
average height of these mountains is range, the Dhaula Dhar, Mussorie, Nag
6000 m and average width is around Tiba and the Mahabharat ranges are
120 – 190 km. also prominent ones.
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FIG. The Himalayas
This range consists of the famous varying between 900 and 1100
valley of Kashmir, the Kangra and metres.
Kullu Valley in Himachal Pradesh. These ranges are composed of
This region is well known for its hill unconsolidated sediments brought
stations like Shimla, Dalhousie, down by rivers from the main
Dharamshala are on Dhaula Dhar Himalayan ranges located farther
range and Lansdowne, Nanital, north.
Mussorie etc on Mussorie range. It is an almost unbroken succession
Important passes include Banihal of low hills for 2400 km from the
pass, in Pir Panjal range, which potwar plateau to Brahmaputra
connects Jammu and Srinagar. valley, except for a gap of 80 kms which
Kishanganga, Chenab, Jhelum rivers is occupied by valley of river Tista.
cut through Pir Panjal range. The shivaliks are known by different
Kashmir valley lies between Pir names in different areas. Thay are
Panjal range and Greater Himalayas. called Jammu hills in Jammu and
Sona-Pani glacier is in Pir Panjal Dafla, Miri, Abor, Mismi in Arunachal
range. Pradesh.
Duns and Duars like Dehra Dun are
(iii) The Shivalik Range: its chief characteristic.

It is the outermost range of the (b) The Trans- Himalaya:

Himalayas. They extend over a width
of 10-50 Km and have an altitude The Himalayan Ranges immediately
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north of the Great Himalayan range Rakaposhi is the important peak.
are called trans-Himalaya. Chorbat and Digarla are important
Also called Tibetan Himalyas as most passes.
of it lies in Tibet. Zaskar Range
It includes Karakoram, Zanskar,
Ladakh, and Kailash mountain This part of Trans Himalayas is
ranges. situated in the Indian state of Jammu
and Kashmir.
Karakoram Range: It branches off from the Great
This mountain range extends across Himalayan range from Nanga Parbat.
the borders of India, Pakistan, and Mount Kamet is the highest peak.
China. The northwest extremity of Satluj cut the Zaskar range when it
this range extends to Afghanistan enters India.
and Tajikistan. (c) The Purvanchal:
The average width of this range is 120 Beyond the Dihang gorge, the
– 140 km. Most peaks hardly ever fall Himalayas bend sharply to the south
below 5,500 m. Some of the peaks are and spread along the eastern
more than 8,000 m above sea level. boundary of India. They are known as
Four highest peaks (each over 8000 the Purvanchal or the Eastern hills and
meters height), named K2 (second mountains.
highest peak in the world), These hills running through the
Gasherbrum-l, Gasherbrum-ll, north-eastern states are mostly
and Broad Peak are situated very composed of strong sandstones
closely. which are sedimentary rocks.
K2 is the 2nd highest peak in the Covered with dense forests, they
world & the highest in India. It is also mostly run as parallel ranges and
known as Godwin Austin. valleys.
This range is the most heavily The Purvanchal comprises the Patkai
glaciated part of the world except the hills, the Naga hills, Manipur hills and
polar regions. The Siachen glacier the Mizo hills.
(the world’s largest non polar glacier In the north is the Patkai Bum which
is in this range. Other glaciers forms the International boundary
include Fed Chanko, Biafo, Baltoro). between India and Myanmar. After
Khunjareb, Aghil and Karakoram are running for some distance
the important passes in this range. southward it merges with the Naga
Important peaks : Hills where Saramati (3826m) is the
K2 or Godwin Austin (8,611 m) highest peak. South of Naga hills are
Gasherbrum l (8,080 m) the Manipur hills. Barail range
Gasherbrum ll (8,035 m) separates Naga Hills and Manipur
Broad peak (8,051 m) hills. Mikir hill is another famous hill.
South of Manipur hills are the Mizo
Ladakh Range hills where Blue Mountain (2157m)
This part of the Trans Himalayan is the highest peak.
Ranges lies to the north of the Leh. Elevation of the eastern hills
This range merges with the Kailash decreases as we move from north to
range in Tibet. south.
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Although comparatively low these between Indus and Satluj has been
hills are rather forbidding because traditionally known as Punjab Himalaya but
of the rough terrain, dense forests it is also known regionally as Kashmir and
and swift streams. Himachal Himalaya from west to east
respectively. The part of the Himalayas lying
Besides the longitudinal divisions, the between Satluj and Kali rivers is known as
Himalayas have been divided on the basis Kumaon Himalayas. The Kali and Tista
of regions from west to east. These divisions rivers demarcate the Nepal Himalayas and
have been demarcated by river valleys. For the part lying between Tista and Dihang
example, the part of Himalayas lying rivers is known as Assam Himalayas.

FIG. India : Relief

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(2) The Northern Plains: Most of the streams and rivers re-
emerge without having any properly
Formation: The northern plains are
demarcated channel, thereby,
formed by the alluvial deposits
creating marshy and swampy
brought by the rivers – the Indus, the
conditions known as the Tarai.
Ganga and the Brahmaputra and
This has a luxurious growth of natural
their tributaries.
vegetation and houses a varied wild
Features: life.
But today the Tarai region has been
These plains have characteristic reclaimed for agriculture causing
features of mature stage of fluvial loss of forest.
erosional and depositional landforms
such as sand bars, meanders, oxbow Bhangar:
lakes and braided channels.
The Brahmaputra plains are known The south of Tarai is a belt consisting
for their riverine islands (like Majuli of old alluvial deposits known as the
island) and sand bars. Bhangar.
Most of these areas are subjected to
They form the largest part of
periodic floods and shifting river
northern plain.
courses forming braided streams.
These river valley plains have a fertile They lie above the flood plains of rivers
alluvial soil cover which supports a and present terrace like structure.
variety of crops like wheat, rice, They contain calcareous deposit
sugarcane and jute, and hence, locally known as kankar.
supports a large population.
Sub- Division: From the north to the south, Khadar:
these can be divided into three major zones:
the Bhabar, the Tarai and the alluvial plains. A belt consisting of new alluvial
The alluvial plains can be further divided into deposits known as the Khadar.
the Khadar and the Bhangar. They are renewed almost every year and
so are very fertile.
(3) The Peninsular Plateau
Bhabar is a narrow belt ranging
between 8-10 km parallel to the Origin: It is formed due to the
Shiwalik foothills. breaking and drifting of the
Due to the break-up of the slope, the Gondwana land and thus making it
streams and rivers coming from the a part of the oldest landmass.
mountains deposit heavy materials
of rocks and boulders, and at times, Extent:
disappear in this zone. Delhi ridge in the northwest,
Tarai: (extension of Aravalis), the Rajmahal
hills in the east, Gir range in the west
South of the Bhabar is the Tarai belt, and the Cardamom hills in the south
with an approximate width of 10-20 constitute the outer extent of the
km. Peninsular plateau.
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However, an extension of this is also is also proved by the pattern of the
seen in the northeast, in the form of flow of rivers.
Meghalaya plateau and Karbi- Some of the important physiographic
Anglong plateau. features of this region are tors, block
mountains, rift valleys, spurs, bare
rocky structures, series of
It is the largest physiographic division hummocky hills and wall-like
of India. quartzite dykes offering natural sites
This is one of the oldest and the most for water storage.
stable landmass of India. The western and north-western part
The general elevation of the plateau of the plateau has an emphatic
is from the west to the east, which presence of black soil.

FIG. India : Peninsular Block

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The northwestern part of the plateau progressively increases from north to
has a complex relief of ravines and south.
gorges. The ravines of Chambal, The highest peaks include the Anai
Bhind and Morena are some of the Mudi (2,695metres) and the Doda
well-known examples. Betta (2,637 metres).

Sub-Division: On the basis of the prominent

Eastern Ghats:
relief features, the Peninsular plateau can
be divided into three broad groups:
The Eastern Ghats stretch from the
(i) The Deccan Plateau Mahanadi Valley to the Nigiris in the
(ii) The Central Highlands south.
(iii)The North-eastern Plateau. The Eastern Ghats are
discontinuous and irregular and
(i) The Deccan Plateau:
dissected by rivers draining into the
It is a triangular landmass that lie to Bay of Bengal.
the south of river Narmada. Mahendragiri (1,501 metres) is the
This is bordered by the Western Ghats highest peak in the Eastern Ghats.
in the west, Eastern Ghats in the east
and the Satpura, Maikal range and
Deccan Trap:
Mahadeo hills in the north.
One of the distinctive features of
Western Ghats:
Peninsular India is the Black soil
area known as Deccan Trap. It was
The western slope is like escarpment formed when Indian Plate came over
rising sharply from western coastal a Hotspot while moving northwards.
plains while eastern slope merges
This is of volcanic origin hence the
gently with plateau.
rocks are igneous. Actually these
Most of the Peninsular rivers have rocks have denuded over time and are
their origin in the Western Ghats. responsible for the formation of black
Western Ghats lie parallel to the soil.
western coast. They are continuous
and can be crossed through passes (ii) Central Highlands:
They are bounded to the west by the
The Western Ghats are higher than
Aravali range and the Satpura range
the Eastern Ghats. Their average
is on the south.
elevation is 900– 1600 metres as
The general elevation of the Central
against 600 metres of the Eastern
Highlands ranges between 700-
1,000 m above the mean sea level and
The Western Ghats cause orographic it slopes towards the north and
rain by facing the rain bearing moist north-eastern directions.
winds to rise along the western An eastern extension of the Central
slopes of the Ghats. Highland is formed by the Rajmahal
The height of the Western Ghats hills.
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It is a classic example of the relict physical weathering and wind
mountains which are highly denuded actions.
and form discontinuous ranges.
Most of the rivers in this region are
This region has undergone ephemeral. The Luni river flowing in
metamorphic processes in its the southern part of the desert is of
geological history, which can be some significance.
corroborated by the presence of
(5) The Coastal Plains
metamorphic rocks such as marble,
slate, gneiss, etc.
The Peninsular plateau is flanked by
stretch of narrow coastal strips,
(iii)The Northeastern Plateau:
running along the Arabian Sea on the
west and the Bay of Bengal on the east.
It is an extension of the main On the basis of the location it can be
Peninsular plateau. It is believed that broadly divided into two: (i) the
due to the force exerted by the north- western coastal plains; (ii) the
eastward movement of the Indian eastern coastal plains.
plate at the time of the Himalayan
origin, a huge fault was created (a)The Western coastal plains:
between the Rajmahal hills and the
Meghalaya plateau. Extent: Extending from the Gujarat coast
in the north to the Kerala coast in the south.
The Meghalaya plateau is further
sub-divided into three: (i) The Garo Features:
Hills; (ii) The Khasi Hills; (iii) The
The western coastal plains are an
Jaintia Hills, named after the tribal
example of submerged coastal plain.
groups inhabiting this region.
Because of this submergence it is a
An extension of this is also seen in narrow belt and provides natural
the Karbi Anglong hills of Assam. conditions for the development of
The Meghalaya plateau is rich in ports and harbours.
mineral resources like coal, iron ore, Kandla, Mazagaon, JLN port Navha
sillimanite, limestone and uranium. Sheva, Marmagao, Mangalore,
Cochin, etc. are some of the
important natural ports located
(4) The Indian Desert along the west coast.
The rivers flowing through this coastal
plain do not form any delta.
To the northwest of the Aravali hills
lies the Great Indian desert.
This region receives low rainfall Sub-division: the western coast may be
below 150 mm per year; hence, it has divided into following divisions –
arid climate with low vegetation
Kachchh and Kathiawar coast in
Due to extreme arid conditions, its
surface features have been carved by Konkan coast in Maharashtra- from
Daman to Goa
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Cannara coast in Karnataka- from (a) Andaman and Nicobar group of Island
Goa to Cannanore.It is the narrowest in Bay of Bengal:
part of the western coastal plains.
Here the Sharavati River, before They are continuation of Arakan
entering the plains, descends down Yoma ranges of Mayanmar and form
a 275 m high cliff and forms an elevated portion of submarine
the Gersoppa Falls (Jog Falls). mountains. However, some smaller
Malabar coast in Kerala- from islands are volcanic in origin. Barren
Cannanore to Cape Comorin. The island, the only active volcano in India
Malabar coast has got certain is also situated in the Nicobar
distinguishing features in the form islands.
of ‘Kayals’ (backwaters), which are
These are situated roughly between
used for fishing, inland navigation
6°N-14°N and 92°E -94°E.
and also due to its special attraction
for tourists. They are divided into two broad
categories – the Andaman in the
(b) The Eastern Coastal Plains: north and the Nicobar in the south.

Extent: It extends from the Ganga delta in They are separated by a water body
the north to Kanyakumari in south. which is called the Ten degree
Features: The Duncan Passage separates Little
Andaman and Great Andaman.
The eastern coastal plain is broader
and is an example of an emergent The coastal line has some coral
coast. deposits, like Car Nicobar island.
There are well developed deltas here, Some important mountain peaks in
formed by the rivers flowing eastward Andaman and Nicobar islands are
in to the Bay of Bengal. Saddle peak (North Andaman – 738
Because of its emergent nature, it has m), Mount Diavolo (Middle Andaman
less number of ports and harbours. – 515 m), Mount Koyob (South
The continental shelf extends up to Andaman – 460 m) and Mount
500 km into the sea, which makes it Thuiller (Great Nicobar – 642 m).
difficult for the development of good
ports and harbours.
Lake Chilka and Pulicat are the (b) Lakshadweep and Minicoy Islands:
famous brackish water lakes while
Kolleru is the fresh water lake The islands of the Arabian Sea include
between Krishna- Godavari deltas. Lakshadweep and Minicoy.

Sub-division: In the northern part, it is These are scattered between 8°N-

referred to as the Northern Circar, while the 12°N and 71°E -74°E.
southern part is known as the Coromandel The entire island group is built of
Coast. coral deposits.
The entire group of islands is broadly
(6) The Islands : There are two major island divided by the Eleventh degree
groups in India – channel, north of which is the Amini
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FIG. Andaman and nicobar Islands and

Island and to the south of the Nine Degree Channel separates

Canannore Island. Minicoy islands and main
Eight Degree Channel separates Lakshadweep islands.
Minicoy islands and Maldives.

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Definitions: Radial: When the rivers originate
Drainage: The flow of water through from a hill and flow in all directions,
well defined channels is called as the drainage pattern is known as
drainage. ‘radial’. The rivers originating from
Drainage basin: An area drained by the Amarkantak range present a
a river and its tributaries is called good example of it.
a drainage basin. Trellis: When the primary
Catchment area: A river drains the tributaries of rivers flow parallel to
water collected from a specific area, each other and secondary
which is called its ‘catchment area’. tributaries join them at right angles,
River basin: The catchments of large the pattern is known as ‘trellis’.
rivers are called river basins. Centripetal: When the rivers
Watershed: The catchment area of discharge their waters from all
small rivulets and rills are often directions in a lake or depression,
referred to as watersheds. the pattern is known as ‘centripetal’.
Water divide: Are the hills and Rectangular: In peninsular India,
ridges that separate two drainag river flow in faults and fractures of
basins. rocks often at right angles to show
Drainage pattern: rectangular pattern.
Dendritic: The drainage pattern
Drainage system of India:
resembling the branches of a tree
is known as “dendritic” the The Drainage system of India is an
examples of which are the rivers of outcome of physiography and
northern plain. characteristics of precipitation. On the
S.No Aspect Himalayan river Peninsular river
1 Place of origin Himalayan mountains Peninsular plateau and
Central highland
2 Nature of flow Perennial Seasonal
3 Type of Drainage Antecedent and consequent Super imposed, rejuvenated
leading to dendritic pattern resulting in trellis, radial
in plains and rectangular pattern
4 Nature of river Long course, flowing through Smaller, fixed course with
the rugged mountains well adjusted valleys
experiencing headward erosion
and river capturing; In plains
meandering and shifting
of course
5 Catchment area Very large basins Relatively smaller basin
6 Age of the river Young and youthful, active Old rivers with graded profile
and deepening in the valleys and have almost reached
their base level
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FIG. India : Drainage
basis of the mode of origin, nature and 1. The Himalayan drainage system
characteristics, the Indian drainage may 2. the Peninsular drainage system
be classified into:
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Himalayan Drainage system: Chandra and the Bhaga, which
originate near Bara Lacha pass in
1. The Indus system:
Himachal pradesh and join at Tandi
River Indus: near Keylong in Himachal Pradesh.
Hence, it is also known as
The total length of the Indus River Chandrabhaga.
system is 2,880 km (in India 1,114 Its flows in the state of Himachal
km). Pradesh and Jammu and Kashmir.
The Indus, which is also known as
the Sindhu, is the westernmost of River Ravi:
the Himalayan Rivers in India.
It rises west of the Rohtang pass in
The Indus originates from a glacier
the Kullu hills of Himachal Pradesh
near Bokhar Chu, near
It flows through the Chamba valley.
Mansarovar in the Tibetan region at
It drains the area lying between the
an altitude of 4,164 m in
south-eastern part of the Pir Panjal
the Kailash Mountain range.
and the Dhauladhar ranges.
In Tibet, the Indus is known as Singi
It drains the area of Himachal
Khamban or the Lion’s mouth.
Pradesh, Jammu and Kashmir and
Major tributaries of Indus are
the Shyok, the Gilgit, the Zaskar,
Second longest tributary of Indus.
the Hunza, the Nubra, the Shigar,
the Gasting, and the Dras in the River Beas:
upper part.
Originating from the Beas Kund
In the lower part, the Satluj,
near the Rohtang Pass at an
the Beas, the Ravi, the Chenab, and
elevation of 4,000 m above the mean
the Jhelum are the major tributaries
sea level.
of the Indus.
The river flows through the Kullu
River Jhelum: valley and forms gorges at Kati and
Largi in the Dhaoladhar range.
Rises from a spring at Verinag
It enters the Punjab plains where
situated at the foot of the Pir Panjal
it meets the Satluj near Harike.
in the south-eastern part of the
Flows in Himachal Pradesh and
valley of Kashmir.
It flows through Srinagar and the
It is the only river in Indus system
Wular lake before entering
which flows entirely in India.
Pakistan through a deep narrow
Shortest tributary of Indus.
Flows along India-Pakistan border River Satluj:
for around 170 kms.
The Satluj originates in the Rakas
Kishanganga is an important right
lake near Mansarovar at an altitude
bank tributary.
of 4,555 m in Tibet where it is
River Chenab: known as Langchen Khambab.
It flows almost parallel to the Indus
The Chenab is the largest tributary for about 400 km before entering
of the Indus. India, and comes out of a gorge at
It is formed by two streams, the Rupar.
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It passes through the Shipki La on the Ken and the Tons are its right
the Himalayan ranges and enters bank tributaries.
the Punjab plains. The Hindan, the Rind, the Sengar,
It is an antecedent river. the Varuna, etc. join it on its left
It is a very important tributary as it bank.
feeds the canal system of the The states of Uttarakhand (21.5%),
Bhakra Nangal project. Himachal Pradesh (1.6%), Haryana
Longest tributary. (6.5%), Rajasthan (29.8%), Madhya
Flows through Himachal Pradesh Pradesh (40.6%) and Delhi (0.4%)
and Punjab in India. accounts for its basin.
2. The Ganga River System: River Chambal:

River Ganga: The Chambal rises near Mhow in

the Malwa plateau of Madhya
It rises as Bhagirathi from the
Pradesh and flows northwards
Gangotri glacier near Gaumukh
through a gorge up wards of Kota
(3,900 m) in the Uttarkashi district
in Rajasthan, where the
of Uttarakhand. It cuts through the
Gandhisagar dam has been
Central and the Lesser Himalayas
constructed. Then after passing
in narrow gorges. At Devprayag, the
through Bundi, Sawai Madhopur it
Bhagirathi meets the Alaknanda,
joins Yamuna in etawah district of
which has its source in the
Satopanth glacier above Badrinath,
Flows in a rift valley.
hereafter, it is known as the Ganga.
The Chambal is famous for its
The river has a length of 2,525 km.
badland topography called the
It is shared by Uttarakhand (110
Chambal ravines.
km) and Uttar Pradesh (1,450 km),
Banas, Kalisind and Parvati are its
Bihar (445 km) and West Bengal
important tributaries.
(520 km).
It flows through Madhya Pradesh,
The important left bank tributaries Rajasthan and Uttar Pradesh.
are the Ramganga, the Gomati, the
Ghaghara, the Gandak, the Kosi River Son:
and the Mahananda. The Son is a large south bank
Yamuna and Son are right bank tributary of the Ganga, originating
tributaries. in the Amarkantak plateau.
It joins the Ganga near Patna in
River Yamuna: Bihar.
The river Rihand and North Koel are
The western most and the longest its main tributaries.
tributary of the Ganga, has its
source in the Yamunotri glacier on Left Bank tributaries:
the western slopes of Banderpunch
1. River Ramganga:
range (6,316 km).
It joins the Ganga at Prayag The Ramganga is comparatively a
(Allahabad). small river rising in the Garhwal
The Chambal, the Sind, the Betwa, hills near Gairsain.
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It enters into the plains of Uttar 5. River Mahananda:
Pradesh near Najibabad and finally
Rising in the Darjiling hills. It joins
joins the Ganga near Kannauj.
the Ganga as its last left bank
2. River Ghaghara: tributary in West Bengal.
The Ghaghara originates in the River Damodar:
glaciers of Mapchachungo in Tibet.
The Damodar occupies the eastern
It flows through Nepal as Karnaili
margins of the Chotanagpur Plateau
where it flows through a rift valley
The river Sarda (Kali or Mahakali,
and finally joins the Hugli near
It forms boundary between Nepal
and Kumaon), Saryu (on the bank
The Barakar is its main tributary.
of which Ayodhya is situated) and
Once known as the ‘sorrow of
Rapti are its tributaries.
Bengal’, the Damodar has been now
It meets the Ganga at Chhapra, in
tamed by the Damodar Valley
corporation, a multipurpose project.
3. River Gandak:
3. The Brahmaputra river system:
The Gandak comprises two streams,
Has its origin in the
namely Kaligandak and
Chemayungdung glacier of the
Kailash range near the Mansarovar
It rises in the Nepal Himalayas
between the Dhaulagiri and Mount
It traverses eastward longitudinally
Everest and drains the central part
for a distance of nearly 1,200 km
of Nepal.
in a dry and flat region of southern
It enters the Ganga plain in
Tibet, where it is known as the
Champaran district of Bihar and
Tsangpo, which means ‘the purifier.’
joins the Ganga at Sonpur near
It creates a deep gorge by cutting
through the Himalayas near
Namcha Barwa. The river emerges
4. River Kosi:
from the foothills under the name
of Siang or Dihang. It enters India
The Kosi is an antecedent river with
west of Sadiya town in Arunachal
its source to the north of Mount
Pradesh. Flowing southwest, it
Everest in Tibet, where its main
receives its main left bank
stream Arun rises. After crossing
tributaries, viz., Dibang or Sikang
the Central Himalayas in Nepal, it
and Lohit; thereafter, it is known
is joined by the Son Kosi from the
as the Brahmaputra.
West and the Tamur Kosi from the
Left Bank tributaries- Burhi Dihing
east. It forms Sapt Kosi after uniting
and Dhansari.
with the river Arun.
Right Bank tributaries- Subhansari
It joins Ganga at Kursela, Bihar.
(is an antecedent river.), Kameng,
The river shifts it course frequently
Manas and Sankosh.
resulting in devastating floods in
Bihar. It is therefore called “Sorrow The Brahmaputra enters into
of Bihar”. Bangladesh near Dhubri and flows
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southward. In Bangladesh, the (i) Subsidence of the western flank of
Tista joins it on its right bank from the Peninsula leading to its
where the river is known as the submergence below the sea during
Yamuna. It finally merges with the the early tertiary period, leaving
river Padma, which falls in the Bay just the upper part of the west
of Bengal. flowing rivers above sea level.
The Brahmaputra is well-known for (ii) Upheaval of the Himalayas when the
floods, channel shifting and bank northern flank of the Peninsular
erosion. This is due to the fact that block was subjected to subsidence
most of its tributaries are large, and and the consequent trough faulting.
bring large quantity of sediments The Narmada and The Tapi flow in
owing to heavy rainfall in its trough faults.
catchment area. (iii)Slight tilting of the Peninsular block
from northwest to the south-
eastern direction gave orientation
Barak River:
to the entire drainage system
towards the Bay of Bengal during
It rises in the Manipur hills and the same period.
passes through Mizoram before it
The east flowing rivers of Peninsular
enters the plains of Assam near
Downstream of Silchar town and 1. River Mahanadi:
before entering Bangladesh the
Barak bifurcates into the Surma The Mahanadi rises near Sihawa in
River and the Kushiyara River. Raipur district of Chhattisgarh
Later, the river is called the Meghna (Dandkaranya plateau) and runs
and receives the combined flow of through Odisha to discharge its
the Ganga and Brahmaputra. water into the Bay of Bengal.
The principal tributaries of the Its drainage basin lies in Madhya
Barak in India are the Jirl, the Pradesh, Chhattisgarh and Odisha.
Dhaleshwari, the Singla, the The river Seonath, Hasdo, Mand, Ib
Longai, the Sonai and the and Tel are its tributaries.
2. River Godavari:
Peninsular Drainage system:
The Godavari is the largest
Three major geological events in the peninsular river system. It is also
distant past have shaped the present called the Dakshin Ganga.
drainage systems of Peninsular India: It rises in the Tryambak plateau,

West flowing rivers of Peninsular India East flowing rivers of Peninsular India
Flows into Arabian sea Flows into Bay of Bengal
Do not have extensive network of tributaries Have extensive network of tributaries
Small catchment area Large catchment area
Valley floors are above sea level Valley floors are at sea level
Form estuaries Form Deltas

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Nasik district, Maharashtra and Karnataka, Tamil Nadu and
discharges its water into the Bay Puducherry.
of Bengal. Its important tributaries joining
Its tributaries run through the from left are the Harangi, the
states of Maharashtra, Madhya Hemavati, the Shimsha and the
Pradesh, Chhattisgarh, Odisha, and Arkavati whereas the
Andhra Pradesh. Lakshmantirtha, the Kabbani, the
The Penganga, the Indravati, the Suvarnavati, the Bhavani, and the
Pranhita, and the Manjra are its Amaravati joins from right.
principal tributaries. The river descends from south
The Godavari is subjected to heavy Karnataka plateau to Tamil Nadu
floods in its lower reaches to the plains through the famous
south of Polavaram, where it forms Sivasamundram waterfall.
a picturesque gorge.
The river after Rajamundri splits 5. River Subarnrekha:
into several branches forming a
large delta. It originates near Nagri village in
Ranchi district of Jharkhand at an
3. River Krishna: elevation of 600 m.
Its principal tributaries joining from
The Krishna is the second largest right are the Kanchi, the Karkari
east flowing Peninsular river which and the Kharkai.
rises near Mahabaleshwar in
6. River Bhatarni:
The Koyna, the Tungbhadra, Musi,
Malaprabha, Ghataprabha and the
Originates from the hills of
Bhima are its major tributaries.
Keonjhar, Odisha.
The catchment area of the Krishna,
lies in Maharashtra, Karnataka, 7. River Brahmani:
Andhra Pradesh and Telangana.
The river South Koel and Sankh join
4. River Kaveri:
together near Rourkela(Odisha) to
The Kaveri rises in Brahmagiri hills become Brahmani river. It drains
(1,341m) of Kogadu district in into Bay of Bengal.
8. River Vamsadhara:
Since the upper catchment area
receives rainfall during the It originates in the southern part
southwest monsoon season of Odisha and flows through Andhra
(summer) and the lower part during Pradesh and drains into Bay of
the northeast monsoon season Bengal.
(winter), the river carries water
throughout the year with Note: River Penner and Palar originating
comparatively less fluctuation than in Karnataka and River Vaigai originating
the other Peninsular rivers. in Tamil Nadu are other important East
The Kaveri basin falls in Kerala, flowing rivers of Peninsular India.
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West flowing rivers of Peninsular India: branches, i.e. the Saraswati and
the Sabarmati, which join with each
River Narmada: other at Govindgarh. From here,
the river comes out of Aravali and
The Narmada originates on the
is known as Luni.
western flank of the Amarkantak
It flows towards the west till Telwara
and then takes a southwest
Flowing in a rift valley between the
direction to join the Rann of
Satpura in the south and the
Vindhyan range in the north, it
The entire river system is
forms a picturesque gorge in marble
rocks and Dhuandhar waterfall
near Jabalpur.
4. River Sabarmati:
After flowing a distance of about
1,312 km, it meets the Arabian sea
It is the combined stream of Sabar
south of Bharuch, forming a broad
and Hathmati, rising from the hills
27 km long estuary.
of Mewar in Aravali range.
There are several island in the
The Sabarmati basin extends over
estuary of which Aliabet is the
states of Rajasthan and Gujarat.
Ahmedabad is an industrial city
Since the river flows through a situated on the banks of Sabarmati.
narrow valley. It does not have major
tributaries with the exception of 5. River Mahi:
Hiran river on its right bank.
It originates in the northern slopes
2. River Tapi: of Vindhyas.
The Mahi basin extends over states
It originates from Multai in the of Madhya Pradesh, Rajasthan and
Betul district of Madhya Pradesh. Gujarat
Nearly 79 per cent of its basin lies
in Maharashtra, 15 per cent in Note: Other small but important west
Madhya Pradesh and the remaining flowing rivers of peninsular India are-
6 per cent in Gujarat.
Purna river is the major tributary Shetruniji, Bhadra, in Gujarat
Vaitarna, Ulhas in Maharastra
3. River Luni: Mandovi in Goa
Bedti, Sharavati (Jog/Gersoppa fall
Luni is the largest river system of is made by this river), Netravati in
Rajasthan, west of Aravali. Karnataka
It originates near Pushkar in two Bharatapunzha, Periyar and Pamba
in Kerala

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India’s climate is controlled by a number interior of India are far away from the
of factors which can be broadly divided into moderating influence of the sea. Such
two groups — factors related to location areas have extremes of climate.
and relief, and factors related to air
pressure and winds. (5)Altitude :

Factors related to Location and Relief Temperature decreases with height. Due
to thin air, places in the mountains are
(1) Latitude: cooler than places on the plains.
The Tropic of Cancer passes through the
(6)Relief :
central part of India in east-west direction.
Thus, northern part of the India lies in The physiography or relief of India also
sub-tropical and temperate zone and the affects the temperature, air pressure,
part lying south of the Tropic of Cancer direction and speed of wind and the
falls in the tropical zone. The tropical zone amount and distribution of rainfall.
being nearer to the equator, experiences
high temperatures throughout the year Factors Related to Air Pressure and Wind
with small daily and annual range. Area
The pressure and wind conditions
north of the Tropic of Cancer being away
over India are unique. During
from the equator, experiences extreme
winter, there is a high-pressure
climate with high daily and annual range
area north of the Himalayas. Cold
of temperature.
dry winds blow from this region to
(2)The Himalayan Mountains: the low-pressure areas over the
oceans to the south.
The Himalayas protect the subcontinent
In summer, a low-pressure area
from the cold northern winds The
develops over interior Asia as well
Himalayas also trap the monsoon winds,
as over northwestern India. This
forcing them to shed their moisture within
causes a complete reversal of the
the subcontinent.
direction of winds during summer.
(3)Distribution of Land and Water : Air moves from the high-pressure
area over the southern Indian
The differential heating of land and sea Ocean, in a south-easterly
creates different air pressure zones in direction, crosses the equator, and
different seasons in and around the Indian turns right towards the low-
subcontinent. Difference in air pressure pressure areas over the Indian
causes reversal in the direction of monsoon subcontinent. These are known as
winds. the Southwest Monsoon winds.
(4)Distance from the Sea : These winds blow over the warm
oceans, gather moisture and bring
With a long coastline, large coastal areas widespread rainfall over the
have an equable climate. Areas in the mainland of India.
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Upper air circulation : years. The changes in pressure
conditions are connected to the El
Subtropical westerly jet streams.
Nino. Hence, the phenomenon is
Over India, these jet streams blow
referred to as ENSO (El Nino
south of the Himalayas, all through
Southern Oscillations).
the year except in summer. The
western cyclonic disturbances Indian Monsoon:
experienced in the north and north-
The climate of India is strongly influenced
western parts of the country are
by monsoon winds. The southwest monsoon
brought in by this westerly flow.
is a continuation of the southeast trades
In summer, the subtropical westerly
deflected towards the Indian subcontinent
jet stream moves north of the
after crossing the Equator. Following factors
Himalayas with the apparent
affect the Indian Monsoon:
movement of the sun. An easterly jet
stream blows over peninsular India, (a) The differential heating and cooling of
approximately over 14°N during the land and water creates low pressure on the
summer months. landmass of India while the seas around
experience comparatively high pressure.
Tropical Cyclone:
(b) The shift of the position of Inter Tropical
The frequency and direction of tropical
Convergence Zone (ITCZ) in summer, over
cyclone, developed in Bay of Bengal
the Ganga plain (this is the equatorial
influence the weather conditions during
trough normally positioned about 5°N of the
southwest monsoon over most parts of India.
equator. It is also known as the
ENSO (El Nino Southern Oscillations): monsoontrough during the monsoon
There is a reversal in the pressure
conditions in southern oceans and (c) The presence of the high-pressure area,
the eastern Pacific has lower east of Madagascar, approximately at 20°S
pressure in comparison to the over the Indian Ocean. The intensity and
eastern Indian Ocean. This periodic position of this high-pressure area affects
change in pressure conditions is the Indian Monsoon.
known as the Southern Oscillation
(d) The Tibetan plateau gets intensely
or SO.
heated during summer, which results in
The difference in pressure over Tahiti
strong vertical air currents and the
in Pacific Ocean and Darwin in
formation of low pressure over the plateau
northern Australia is computed to
at about 9 km above sea level.
predict the intensity of the
monsoons. If the pressure (e) The movement of the westerly jet
differences were negative, it would stream to the north of the Himalayas and
mean below average and late the presence of the tropical easterly jet
monsoons. stream over the Indian peninsula during
A feature connected with the SO is summer.
the El Nino phenomenon in which a
warm ocean current that flows past (f) Changes in the pressure conditions over
the Peruvian Coast, in place of the the southern oceans (ENSO) also affect
cold Peruvian current, every 2 to 5 the monsoons.
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THE NATURE OF INDIAN MONSOON: differential heating of land and sea (thus
pressure difference) is the trigger for the
Onset of the Monsoon: The northward birth of Monsoon which is further affected
shift in the position of the ITCZ due to by other above mentioned factors.

FIG. Normal dates of onset of south-west Monsoons

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Advance/Path of Monsoon in India: due to different reasons:
(i) In northern India rains are likely to fail
The monsoon arrives at the southern if the rain-bearing storms are not very
tip of the Indian peninsula generally frequent along the monsoon trough or the
by the first week of June. ITCZ over this region.
Subsequently, it proceeds into two –
the Arabian Sea branch and the Bay (ii) Over the west coast the dry spells are
of Bengal branch. associated with days when winds blow
The Arabian Sea branch reaches parallel to the coast.
Mumbai about ten days later on
approximately the 10th of June. This
Retreat of Monsoon:
is a fairly rapid advance.
The Bay of Bengal branch also
advances rapidly and arrives in In September, the sun is again at
Assam in the first week of June. The equator therefore shifting of
lofty mountains causes the monsoon pressure belt to normal position and
winds to deflect towards the west thus no S-W monsoon winds. Rather
over the Ganga plains. the gradient of pressure is from land
By mid-June the Arabian Sea branch to sea (as sea is warm as compared
to land). Thus a N-W wind blow called
of the monsoon arrives over
Saurashtra-Kuchchh and the central retreating monsoon.
part of the country. Withdrawal or the retreat of the
The Arabian Sea and the Bay of monsoon is a more gradual process.
Bengal branches of the monsoon The withdrawal of the monsoon
merge over the north-western part of begins in north-western states of
the Ganga plains. Delhi generally India by early September. By mid-
receives the monsoon showers from October, it withdraws completely
the Bay of Bengal branch by the end from the northern half of the
of June (tentative date is 29th of peninsula. The withdrawal from the
June). southern half of the peninsula is
By the first week of July, western fairly rapid. By early December, the
Uttar Pradesh, Punjab, Haryana and monsoon has withdrawn from the
eastern Rajasthan experience the rest of the country.
monsoon. By mid-July, the monsoon
reaches Himachal Pradesh and the Meteorological seasons over India are:
rest of the country.
Winter Season/ the cold weather
Break in the Monsoon: season: December – February
Pre Monsoon Season/ the hot
During the south-west monsoon period after weather season: March – May
having rains for a few days, if rain fails to Southwest Monsoon Season: June -
occur for one or more weeks, it is known as September
break in the monsoon. These dry spells are
Post Monsoon Season/retreating
quite common during the rainy season.
Monsoon season: October –
These breaks in the different regions are
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(1) Winter Season/ the cold weather of snow to the Himalayan glacier It
season: January – February is this snow that sustains the flow of
water in the Himalayan rivers during
The mean daily temperature remains the summer months.
below 21°C over most parts of
northern India. The night (2) Pre Monsoon Season/ the Hot weather
temperature may be quite low, season: March – May
sometimes going below freezing point
in Punjab and Rajasthan. With the apparent northward
The Peninsular region of India, movement of the sun towards the
however, does not have any well- Tropic of Cancer in March,
defined cold weather season because temperatures start rising in north
of moderating influence of the sea and India and in the north-western part
the proximity to equator. of India, temperatures around 48°C
The weather in this season is are not uncommon in month of May.
characterised by feeble high The hot weather season in south
pressure conditions over the India is mild and not so intense as
northern plain. In south India, the air found in north India.
pressure is slightly lower. As a result, The summer months are a period of
winds start blowing from north- excessive heat and falling air
western high pressure zone to the pressure in the northern half of the
low air pressure zone over the Indian country. Because of the heating of the
Ocean in the south. subcontinent, the ITCZ moves
Western Disturbances: The pleasant northwards occupying a position
weather conditions, however, at centred at 25°N in July.
intervals, get disturbed by shallow In the heart of the ITCZ in the
cyclonic depressions originating over northwest, the dry and hot winds
the east Mediterranean Sea and known as ‘Loo’, blow in the afternoon,
travelling eastwards across West and very often, they continue to well
Asia, Iran, Afghanistan and Pakistan into midnight.
before they reach the north-western Dust storms in the evening are very
parts of India. On their way, the common during May in Punjab,
moisture content gets augmented Haryana, Eastern Rajasthan and
from the Caspian Sea in the north Uttar Pradesh. These temporary
and the Persian Gulf in the south. storms bring a welcome respite from
Rainfall in N-W India due to western the oppressing heat since they bring
disturbances, locally known as with them light rains and a pleasant
‘mahawat’. cool breeze.
Also the S-E coast of India (coast of
Heat Wave: continuous spell of abnormally
Tamil Nadu etc) receives rain from
hot weather. Heat Waves typically occur
the N-E monsoon.
between March and June, and in some rare
Importance of Western Disturbances for cases even extend till July. The extreme
India: temperatures and resultant atmospheric
conditions adversely affect people living in
It is highly beneficial for rabi crops. these regions as they cause physiological
They are the most important source stress, sometimes resulting in death.
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a) When normal maximum temperature of Its spatial distribution is also uneven
a station is less than or equal to 40º C: Heat which ranges from 12 cm to more
Wave Departure from normal is 5º C to 6º than 250 cm.
C and Severe Heat Wave Departure from The beginning of the rains sometimes
normal is 7º C or more. is considerably delayed over the
whole or a part of the country.
b) When normal maximum temperature of
The rains sometimes end
a station is more than 40º C : Heat Wave
considerably earlier than usual,
Departure from normal is 4º C to 5º C and
causing great damage to standing
Severe Heat Wave Departure from normal
crops and making the sowing of
is 6º C or more.
winter crops difficult.
c) When actual maximum temperature
remains 45ºC or more irrespective of normal
maximum temperature, heat wave should Drought is the consequence of a natural
be declared. reduction in the amount of precipitation over
an extended period of time, usually a season
Heat wave need not be considered till
or more in length, often associated with other
maximum temperature of a station reaches
climatic factors (viz. high temperatures,
at least 40º C for Plains and at least 30º C
high winds and low relative humidity) that
for Hilly regions.
can aggravate the severity of the drought
(3) Southwest Monsoon Season: June - event.
The different types of drought are:

The shift of ITCZ triggers the South- Meteorological Drought - according to India
west monsoon in India. It approaches Meteorological Department, meteorological
the Indian landmass in two branches- drought over an area is defined as a situation
The Arabian Sea branch and The Bay when the seasonal rainfall received over the
of Bengal branch and causes rainfall area is less than75% of its long term average
nearly all over India. value. It is further classified as “moderate
Monsoonal rainfall is largely drought” if the rainfall deficit is between 26-
governed by relief or topography. 50% and “severe drought” when the deficit
The monsoon rainfall has a declining exceeds 50% of the normal
trend with increasing distance from
Hydrological Drought - Hydrological
the sea.
Drought can be defined as a period during
The monsoon rains occur in wet spells
which the stream flows are inadequate to
of few days duration at a time. The
supply established use of water under a
wet spells are interspersed with
given water management system.
rainless interval known as ‘breaks’.
The summer rainfall comes in a heavy Agricultural Drought - It occurs when
downpour leading to considerable available soil moisture is inadequate for
run off and soil erosion. healthy crop growth and cause extreme
Monsoons play a pivotal role in the stress and wilting.
agrarian economy of India because
over three-fourths of the total rain in Socio-Economic Drought- Abnormal water
the country is received during the shortage affects all aspects of established
southwest monsoon season. economy of a region. This in turn adversely
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affects the social fabric of the society The widespread rain in this season
creating unemployment, migration, is associated with the passage of
discontent and various other problems in the cyclonic depressions which originate
society. Thus, meteorological, hydrological over the Andaman Sea and manage
and agricultural drought often lead to what to cross the eastern coast of the
is termed as Socio-economic drought‘. southern Peninsula. These tropical
cyclones are very destructive. The
How India Meteorological Department thickly populated deltas of the
declares a year as a Drought Year? In our Godavari, Krishna and Kaveri are
country, a year is considered to be a Drought their preferred targets.
Year in case the area affected by moderate
and severe drought, either individually or Distribution of Rainfall
together, is 20-40% of the total area of the
country and seasonal rainfall deficiency The average annual rainfall in India is about
during south-west monsoon season for the 125 cm, but it has great spatial variations.
country as a whole is at least 10% or more.
Areas of High Rainfall : The highest rainfall
When the spatial coverage of drought is more
occurs along the west coast, on the Western
than 40% it will be called as All India Severe
Ghats, as well as in the sub-Himalayan
Drought Year.
areas is the northeast and the hills of
Meghalaya. Here the rainfall exceeds 200
(4) Post Monsoon Season/Retreating
cm. In some parts of Khasi and Jaintia hills,
Monsoon season: October – November
the rainfall exceeds 1,000 cm. In the
By the end of September, the Brahmaputra valley and the adjoining hills,
southwest monsoon becomes weak the rainfall is less than 200 cm.
as the low pressure trough of the
Areas of Medium Rainfall : Rainfall between
Ganga plain starts moving southward
100-200 cm is received in the southern parts
in response to the southward march
of Gujarat, east Tamil Nadu, northeastern
of the sun.
Peninsula covering Odisha, Jharkhand,
The retreating southwest monsoon
Bihar, eastern Madhya Pradesh, northern
season is marked by clear skies and
Ganga plain along the sub-Himalayas and
rise in temperature. The land is still
the Cachar Valley and Manipur.
moist. Owing to the conditions of high
temperature and humidity, the Areas of Low Rainfall : Western Uttar
weather becomes rather oppressive. Pradesh, Delhi, Haryana, Punjab, Jammu
This is commonly known as the and Kashmir, eastern Rajasthan, Gujarat
‘October heat’. and Deccan Plateau receive rainfall between
In the second half of October, the 50-100 cm.
mercury begins to fall rapidly,
particularly in northern India. The Areas of Inadequate Rainfall: Parts of the
weather in the retreating monsoon Peninsula, especially in Andhra Pradesh,
is dry in north India but it is Karnataka and Maharashtra, Ladakh and
associated with rain in the eastern most of western Rajasthan receive rainfall
part of the Peninsula. Here, October below 50 cm.
and November are the rainiest
Snowfall is restricted to the Himalayan
months of the year.
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FIG. India : Annual Rainfall
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FIG. India : Varinability of Annual Rainfall
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Climatic Regions of India: Koeppen based his scheme of Climatic
classification on monthly values of
Major climatic types of India based on temperature and precipitation. He
Koeppen’s scheme have been described identified five major climatic types, namely:

FIG. India : Climatic Reglons According to Koppen’s Scheme

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(i) Tropical climates, where mean monthly temperature of the coldest month is between
temperature throughout the year is over 18°C and minus 3°C.
(iv) Cool temperate climates, where mean
(ii) Dry climates, where precipitation is very temperature of the warmest month is over
low in comparison to temperature, and 10°C, and mean temperature of the coldest
hence, dry. If dryness is less, it is semiarid month is under minus 3°C.
(S); if it is more, the climate is arid(W).
(v) Ice climates, where mean temperature
(iii) Warm temperate climates, where mean of the warmest month is under 10°C.

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Soil is the mixture of rock debris and 3. Climate: It is the most important factor
organic materials which develop on in Pedogenesis.
the earth’s surface.
Pedology is the study of soils in their Climate affects both vegetative
natural environment. production and the activity of
Pedogenesis is the natural process organisms.
of soil formation that includes a Hot, dry desert regions have sparse
variety of processes such as weather- vegetation and hence limited organic
ing, leaching, calcification etc. material available for the soil. The
The major factors affecting the formation of lack of precipitation inhibits
soil are relief, parent material, climate, chemical weathering leading to
vegetation and other life-forms and time. coarse textured soil in arid regions.
Besides these, human activities also Bacterial activity is limited by the
influence it to a large extent. cold temperatures in the tundra
causing organic matter to build up.
Factors :
In the warm and wet tropics, bacterial
1. Relief: Height and the Slope are the two activity proceeds at a rapid rate,
important factor governing soil formation thoroughly decomposing leaf litter.
process. The high annual precipitation also
Angle of slope decides the rate and flushes some organic material from
type of weathering, say at steep the soil. These factors combine to
slopes physical weathering takes create soils lacking much organic
place at high rate resulting in thin matter in their upper horizons.
layer of soil formation whereas Climate, interacting with vegetation,
gentle slope supports chemical also affects soil chemistry.
weathering at slow rate and results Quantity and quality of vegetation
in thick layer of soil. also affect the soil formation process,
Direction of slope also affect the soil say roots of some trees goes deep into
formation process as solar insolation the soil and enters the fracture of the
depends on this say in northern rock and widens it leading to physical
hemisphere the south facing slopes weathering of rock. Adds dead litter
a hill in high latitude receives solar to the soil.
2. Parent material: the parent material 4. Geological time: Pedogenesis process for
determines the colour, mineral composition longer period will give mature (not having
and texture of the derived soils. Say parent property of parent rocks) and thick layer of
material resistant to weathering produces soil.
a coarse grain soil and the fine grain soils
are formed when parent material readily Soil forming processes: It depends mainly
weathers like sedimentary rocks. on the climatic conditions.
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1. Laterization: Rich in water soluble salts brought
to surface by capillary action.
In hot and humid climate. No humus as deserted condition.
Strong chemical reactions dissolves Immature soils as generated by
the rocks thoroughly leaving behind physical weathering only.
only insoluble salts like Fe and Al.
Soil Horizon:
No humus as it is leached away.
Only have residual of rocks i.e Fe O1- undecomposed
oxide and Al oxide.
organic matter
Soil formed is Laterite. O2- Partly decomposed
Infertile for agriculture as no plant organic matter
A – Have humus Also called elluvial
and plant horizon
2. Podsolization:
nutrients called
Cold and humid climate (in regions top soil
of conifer vegetation). B- Mixture of soil Also called Illuvial
No chemical reaction as absence of particle and horizon as it
heat so immature soil formed by mineral grain, receives
physical weathering. called sub-soil the elluviation
Lot of litter as no bacterial action in particles
cold climate. C- Regoliths
Soil formed is Podsol. D- Rock bed
Agriculturally infertile as minerals
are not broken down therefore no
release of nutrients. Classification of Indian soils:

3. Gleization: On the basis of genesis, colour, composition

and location, the soils of India have been
Gleization is a pedogenic process classified into:
associated with poor drainage.
(i) Alluvial soils
This process involves the
accumulations of organic matter in (ii) Black soils
the upper layers of the soil. (iii) Red and Yellow soils
In lower horizons, mineral layers are (iv) Laterite soils
stained blue-gray because of the
(v) Arid soils
chemical reduction of iron.
Soils formed are called Bob soils or (vi) Saline soils
Histosols. (vii) Peaty soils
(viii) Forest soils.
4. Salinisation:

In hot and dry climate (hot deserts).

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Alluvial soil: Rajasthan, they extend into the
plains of Gujarat. In the Peninsular
They are depositional soils, region, they are found in deltas of the
transported and deposited by rivers east coast and in the river valleys.
and streams. The colour of the alluvial soils varies
Alluvial soils are widespread in the from ‘the light grey to ash grey.
northern plains and the river valleys. In the Upper and Middle Ganga plain,
Through a narrow corridor in two different types of alluvial soils
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have developed, viz. Khadar and called ‘Mar soil’ and in lower Ganga
Bhangar. Khadar is the new alluvium plains called ‘Karail soil’.
and is deposited by floods annually, They are Zonal soils.
which enriches the soil by depositing
fine silts. Bhangar represents a Red and Yellow soil:
system of older alluvium, deposited
away from the flood plains. Red soils are derived from
The alluvial soils vary in nature from weathering of old crystalline and
sandy loam to clay. metamorphic rocks under dry
They are generally rich in potash but condition.
poor in phosphorous. They are found in areas of low rainfall
Most fertile soil supporting variety of in the eastern and southern part of
crops. the Deccan Plateau, along the
They are Azonal soils. piedmont zone of the Western Ghat,
in parts of Odisha and Chattisgarh
Black soil: and in the southern parts of the
middle Ganga plain.
These soils are also known as the The soil develops a reddish colour due
‘Regur Soil’ or the ‘Black Cotton Soil’. to a wide diffusion of iron in
The black soils are generally clayey, crystalline and metamorphic rocks.
deep and impermeable. It looks yellow when it occurs in a
Are mature soils. hydrated form. Often their upper
They swell and become sticky when layer is red and the lower layer is
wet and shrink when dried. So, yellow.
during the dry season, these soil The fine-grained red and yellow soils
develop wide cracks. Thus, there are normally fertile, whereas
occurs a kind of ‘self ploughing’. coarse-grained soils found in dry
Because of this character of slow upland areas are poor in fertility.
absorption and loss of moisture, the They are generally poor in nitrogen,
black soil retains the moisture for a phosphorous and humus.
very long time, which helps the crops, They are Zonal soils.
especially, the rain fed ones, to
sustain even during the dry season. Laterite Soil:
Chemically, the black soils are rich
in lime, iron, magnesia and alumina. The laterite soils develop in areas
They also contain potash. with high temperature and high
But they lack in phosphorous, rainfall.
nitrogen and organic matter. These are the result of intense
The colour of the soil ranges from deep leaching due to tropical rains. Lime
black to grey. and silica are leached away, and soils
Black soil covers most of the Deccan rich in iron oxide and aluminium
Plateau which includes parts of compound, which are relatively
Maharashtra, Madhya Pradesh, insoluble, are left behind.
Gujarat, Andhra Pradesh and some Humus content of the soil is removed
parts of Tamil Nadu. fast by bacteria that thrives well in
In Bundelkhand region they are high temperature.
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These soils are poor in organic available for a sustainable plant
matter, nitrogen, phosphate and growth.
calcium, while iron oxide and potash Arid soils are characteristically
are in excess. developed in western Rajasthan.
Hence, laterites are not suitable for
Coarse grain like Bajra, Jowar etc are
cultivation; however, application of
grown in these soils.
manures and fertilisers are required
for making the soils fertile for
Saline Soils:
Red laterite soils in Tamil Nadu, They occur in arid and semi-arid
Andhra Pradesh and Kerala are more regions, and in waterlogged and
suitable for tree crops like swampy areas. So they are
cashewnut. widespread in Rann of Kachchh,
Laterite soils are widely cut as bricks deltas of eastern coast and
for use in house construction. Sunderban areas of West Bengal.
These soils have mainly developed in In the areas of intensive cultivation
the higher areas of the Peninsular with excessive use of irrigation,
plateau. The laterite soils are especially in areas of green
commonly found in Karnataka, revolution, the fertile alluvial soils
Kerala, Tamil Nadu, Madhya Pradesh are becoming saline.
and the hilly areas of Odisha and They are also known as Usara soils.
Assam. Saline soils contain a larger
proportion of sodium, potassium and
They are Zonal soils.
magnesium, and thus, they are
Arid Soil: Their structure ranges from sandy to
Found in region of dry climate with They lack in nitrogen and calcium.
high temperature and accelerated Farmers are advised to add gypsum
evaporation. to solve the problem of salinity in the
Arid soils range from red to brown in soil.
They are generally sandy in structure Peaty Soil:
and saline in nature.
They are found in the areas of heavy
They lack moisture and humus. rainfall and high humidity, where
Nitrogen is insufficient and the there is a good growth of vegetation.
phosphate content is normal. Thus, they occurs widely in the
Lower horizons of the soil are northern part of Bihar, southern part
occupied by ‘kankar’ layers because of Uttarakhand and the coastal areas
of the increasing calcium content of West Bengal, Orissa and Tamil
downwards. The ‘Kankar’ layer Nadu.
formation in the bottom horizons Accumulation of large quantity of
restricts the infiltration of water, dead organic matter in these areas
and as such when irrigation is made gives a rich humus and organic
available, the soil moisture is readily content to the soil.
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These soils are normally heavy and and more fertile top soil. When heavy rains
black in colour. At many places, they continue then finger shaped grooves are
are alkaline also. formed particularly on steeper slopes
causing Rill erosion. They get further
Forest Soils: enlarged to form gullies, called Gully
erosion. Ravines are most extreme form of
The soils vary in structure and erosion with intricate net work of various
texture depending on the mountain forms of gullies.
environment where they are formed.
They are loamy and silty on valley A region with a large number of deep gullies
sides and coarse-grained in the or ravines is called a badland topography.
upper slopes. Ravines are widespread, in the Chambal
In the snow-bound areas of the basin. Besides this, they are also found in
Himalayas, they experience Tamil Nadu and West Bengal.
denudation, and are acidic with low
humus content. Wind erosion- It is common in arid and semi
The soils found in the lower valleys arid areas of Rajasthan and Gujarat.
are fertile.
The slopes are used for Horticulture Soil erosion is a serious problem for Indian
and plantation crops like apple, tea, agriculture and its negative effects are seen
coffee etc while rice and wheat are in other spheres also. Eroded materials are
grown in valleys carried down to rivers and they lower down
their carrying capacity, and cause frequent
Soil Degradation in India: Soil degradation
floods and damage to agricultural lands.
is defined as the decline in soil fertility,
when the nutritional status declines and
Soil Conservation: Soil conservation is a
depth of the soil goes down due to erosion
methodology to maintain soil fertility,
and misuse. The important causes of Soil
prevent soil erosion and exhaustion, and
degradation in India are listed below-
improve the degraded condition of the soil.
Soil Erosion It can be achieved through following
Declining fertility (Soil exhaustion) practices-
Water logging
Salinity and Alkalinity Afforestation
Desertification Contour bunding- It consists of
building earthen embankments
Soil Erosion: The destruction of the soil
across the slope of the land, following
cover is described as soil erosion. Wind and
the contour as closely as possible. A
water are powerful agents of soil erosion
series of such bunds divide the area
because of their ability to remove soil and
into strips and act as barriers to the
transport it.
flow of water, thus reducing the
Water erosion- In regions with heavy rainfall amount and velocity of the runoff.
and steep slopes, erosion by running water Contour ploughing- It is the
is more significant. Sheet erosion takes farming practice of ploughing and
place on level lands after a heavy shower or planting across a slope following
and the soil removal is not easily noticeable. its elevation contour lines. These
But it is harmful since it removes the finer contour lines create a water break
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which reduces the formation of rills Twelve parameters which include
and gullies during times of heavy major nutrients, pH, total dissolved
water run-off; which is a major cause salts, minor nutrients etc. are
of soil erosion. tested — the test results are shown
Cover cropping- A cover crop is with colour codes for ease of
a crop planted primarily to manage understanding.
soil erosion, soil fertility, soil quality It is also accompanied by an advice
etc. It is normally carried out with on the various fertilizers and other
nitrogen fixing crops that grow fast soil amendments the farmer is
and require little inputs like water supposed to make.
and additional manuring.
Regulated forestry, controlled Benefits of SHC
grazing, mixed farming and crop
rotation are some of the other The existing Nitrogen – Phosphorous
remedial measures which are often – Potassium (NPK) consumption ratio
adopted to reduce soil erosion. in the country is skewed at 8.2:3.2:1
Efforts should be made to prevent (2012-13) as against the preferred
gully erosion and control their ratio of 4:2:1.
formation. Finger gullies can be
SHC will ensure that farmers do not
eliminated by terracing. In bigger
spend money unnecessarily on
gullies, the erosive velocity of water
purchase of fertilizers by adding more
may be reduced by constructing a
than required.
series of check dams. Special
attention should be made to control Promotion of integrated nutrient
headward extension of gullies. This system is expected to reduce the
consumption of chemical fertilizers
can be done by gully plugging,
terracing or by planting cover by 20% thereby easing the fiscal
strain on Government. Fertilizer
sector accounts for a significant
In arid and semi-arid areas, efforts
should be made to protect cultivable percentage of the total subsidies and
power consumption in the country.
lands from encroachment by sand
India imports large quantity of
dunes through developing shelter
belts of trees and agro-forestry. various fertilizers to meet the
demand — the soil test based
fertilizer usage will reduce import bill
Soil Health Card Scheme:
and will also ensure higher yields per
It is a printed report card issued to
Over a period of time SHC can
farmers once in three years
indicating the status of his soil in determine changes in soil health
that are affected by land
terms of 12 parameters.

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Natural vegetation refers to a plant They are well stratified forest with
community that has been left undisturbed dense undergrowth growth followed
over a long time, so as to allow its individual by short structured trees and tall
species to adjust themselves to climate and
soil conditions as fully as possible.
Mahagony, ebony, rosewood are
Natural vegetation adapts itself to the index species.
factors of natural environment such as
climate, soil, altitude, relief, etc and this (b) Tropical Semi Evergreen forest:
is visible in the great variety of natural
vegetation found in India. The semi evergreen forests are found
in the less rainy parts of Western
On the basis of certain common features Ghats, hills of N-E region and
such as predominant vegetation type and Andaman and Nicobar Island.
climatic regions, Indian forests can be Such forests have a mixture of
divided into the following groups: evergreen and moist deciduous
(i) Tropical Evergreen and Semi The under growing climbers provide
Evergreen forests an evergreen character to these
(ii) Tropical Deciduous forests forests.
(iii)Tropical Thorn forests Main species are white cedar, hollock
(iv) Montane forests and kail.
(v) Littoral and Swamp forests.
(c) Tropical Dry Evergreen forest:
1.Tropical Evergreen and Semi Evergreen
forests: Confined to coastal Tamil Nadu.
As they get rainfall from retreating
(a) Tropical Evergreen forests: south-west monsoon and North-east
monsoon and remains dry in South
These forests are found in the west monsoon season therefore
western slope of the Western Ghats, called Dry evergreen forest.
hills of the north-eastern region and Species- Tamarind, Neem,
the Andaman and Nicobar Islands. Casuarina.
They are found in warm and humid
areas with an annual precipitation of 2. Tropical Deciduous forest: These are the
over 200 cm and mean annual most widespread forests in India. They are
temperature above 22oC. also called the monsoon forests.
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(a) Tropical Moist Deciduous forest: pronounced in the regions which
record rainfall between 100-200 cm.
The Moist deciduous forests are more These forests are found in the
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northeastern states along the areas which receive rainfall less
foothills of Himalayas, eastern than 50 cm.
slopes of the Western Ghats and These consist of a variety of grasses
Odisha. and shrubs.
Teak, sal, shisham, mahua, amla,
It includes semi-arid areas of south
semul, and sandalwood etc. are the
west Punjab, Haryana, Rajasthan,
main species of these forests.
Gujarat, Madhya Pradesh and Uttar
(b) Tropical Dry Deciduous forest: Pradesh.
In these forests, plants remain
Dry deciduous forest covers vast
leafless for most part of the year and
areas of the country, where rainfall
give an expression of scrub
ranges between 70 -100 cm.
On the wetter margins, it has a
transition to the moist deciduous, Important species found are babool,
while on the drier margins to thorn ber, an wild date palm, khair, neem,
forests. khejri, palas, etc
These forests are found in rainier
areas of the Peninsula and plains of 4. Montane forests: In mountainous areas,
Uttar Pradesh and Bihar. the decrease in temperature with
They show Parkland appearance as increasing altitude leads to a corresponding
vegetation is scattered with open change in natural vegetation. Mountain
growth having grass. forests can be classified into two types:
They are also called Savannahs of
India. (a) Himalayan Montane forests:
Species- Teak, Sal, Shisam, Mahua
Tendu, Palas etc.
The Himalayan ranges show a
succession of vegetation from the
3. Tropical Thorn forests:
tropical to the tundra, which change
Tropical thorn forests occur in the in with the altitude.

Altitude Forest type Species

Above 4000 m Tundra forest mosses and lichens
3000-4000 m Alpine forest Silver firs, junipers, pines, birch
and rhododendrons
2000-3000 m Moist Temperate forest Blue Pine, spruce
1000-2000 m Wet Temperate forest Oak, Chestnut, Pine,
Chinar, Deodar(only in
western Himalaya)
Foothills of Himalayas Deciduous tress

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(b) Peninsular Montane forests: water level of the spring tide in the tropical
and subtropical region. They survive in the
The southern mountain forests
harsh environment say lack of oxygen, high
include the forests found in three salinity and diurnal tidal inundation.
distinct areas of Peninsular India viz;
the Western Ghats, the Vindhyas, How they adapt to this harsh
Satpura and the Nilgiris. environment?
As they are closer to the tropics, and
The adaptation includes succulent leaves,
only 1,500 m above the sea level,
sunken stomata, aerial breathing roots
vegetation is temperate in the higher
called ‘pneumatophores’, higher cellular
regions, and subtropical on the lower
salt concentration, vivipary, support
regions of the Western Ghats,
structure likes stilt roots and buttresses etc.
especially in Kerala, Tamil Nadu and
Karnataka. Role of Mangroves:
The temperate forests are called
Sholas in the Nilgiris, Anaimalai and Mangroves moderate monsoonal tidal
Palani hills. floods and reduce inundation of
These Shola forests are India’s oldest coastal lowlands.
forests and show special They prevents coastal soil erosion.
characteristic- as they have stunted They protects coastal lands from
Tropical forest ( very dense, tsunami, hurricanes and floods.
hardwood, evergreen )in the Mangroves enhance natural
temperate climate. recycling of nutrients.
Species- Laurel, chincona, wattle. Mangrove supports numerous flora,
avifauna and wild life.
5. Littoral and Swamp forests: Provide a safe and favorable
environment for breeding, spawning,
They can survive and grow both in
rearing of several fishes.
fresh as well as brackish water and
They supplies woods, fire wood,
are also called wetland forest. Occur
medicinal plants and edible plants to
in and around the deltas, estuaries
local people.
and creeks prone to tidal influences
They provides numerous employment
(delta or tidal forests).
opportunities to local communities
Mangroves grow along the coasts in
and augments their livelihood.
the salt marshes, tidal creeks, mud
flats and estuaries. Threats: They are increasingly threatened
They consist of a number of salt- by biotic pressure, changing land use
tolerant species of plants. pattern and natural calamities.
Crisscrossed by creeks of stagnant Mangrove cover in India:
water and tidal flows, these forests
give shelter to a wide variety of birds. Mangroves are spread over an area of 4921
They are highly developed in the sq km (0.15 % of total geographical area) in
Andaman and Nicobar Islands and India, which is nearly 3.3% of the world’s
the Sunderbans of West Bengal. mangrove vegetation. Sunderbans in West
Other areas of significance are the Bengal accounts for half of the mangrove
Mahanadi, the Godavari and the cover in India.
Krishna deltas. According to 2017 Forest Report there has
been increase of 181 sq km in Mangrove cover
Mangroves: Mangroves are the halophytic of the country as compared to 2015
trees and bushes growing below the high assessment.
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Figure: Mangrove cover in India
Bamboo Resources of the country: conditions varying from organically
poor to mineral rich soil and moisture
Bamboo belonging to the family of
to drought to flooding which makes
poaceae grows in tropical, sub tropical
it effective for reclaiming degraded
and temperate regions of the world.
In India they are found in almost all
part of India except Kashmir. Bamboo also plays an important role
Bamboo is one of the fastest growing in carbon sequestration and biodiver-
plants with ability to survive in wide sity conservation.
variety of climatic and edaphic
conditions. Their diversity in size, being light yet
It is capable of growing under soil strong, hard and straight, fast growth
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and abundance makes it amenable list {transferred from the State List to the
to versatility of use. Concurrent List in 1976} of the constitution
so both centre and state governments are
It is a non wood forest produce used
enabled to legislate on these matters. While
in furniture, construction, shoots as
central government can make laws,
food, pulp and paper industry,
implementation of these laws is with states.
handicraft and even in channelizing
Due to this, prevention and mitigation of
water instead of pipes.
wildfires is primarily duty of the state
Bamboo is therefore known as green governments while policy, planning and
gold, poor man’s timber etc. financing comes under Central
· The total area under bamboo Government.
cultivation has shown a increase in In states, there are no separate departments
2017 forest survey but with regional for wildfires and the regular forest
variations say Mizoram shown department staff carries out the activities
highest decrease whereas Madhya of forest fire management. However, during
Pradesh and Maharashtra have the forest fire seasons, the state government
shown considerable increase. recruit the fire watchers.

Forest Fires in India: At central level, the Ministry of

Environment, Forests and Climate Change
Fire has always played an important role in (MOEFCC) is responsible for forest
shaping forest since ancient times. conservation and protection.
Foresters use it as a tool in scientific forest
management as certain species regenerate This ministry has a “Forest Protection
and establish well under light fire Division” headed by Deputy Inspector
conditions. However uncontrolled fire is one General of Forests. The ministry had come
of the major causes of degradation of forests up with a Modern Forest Fire Control
and loss of valuable forest resources and the Methods scheme in which the states are
stored carbon. provided financial assistance for fire
prevention and control.
Other reasons of forest fires includes- the
intentional burning of forest by communities Forest Fires and Community Involvement
to promote grass growth, clear areas for The Joint Forest Management (JFM)
shifting cultivation, clear forest floor for Committees established at the village level
NTFP collection etc and sometimes due to are expected to involve people in forest
arson specially for hunting wildlife or protection and conservation. These
encroaching forest land. Unintentional fires committees have also been given
from cigarette/ bidi buts sometimes cause responsibilities to protect the forests from
havoc if not noticed at early stage. Even the fires. A revision of Modern Forest Fire
invasive species like Lantana Camara make Control is being envisaged in which the JFM
the control of forest fire difficult by supplying would be made an integral part of the forest
ample fuel fire prevention strategy.

Policy Framework around Forest Fire Research Issues

There is an urgent need to initiate the
Forestry issues are in the concurrent research in fire detection, suppression and
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fire ecology for better management of (iii) Pressure on forests mounted due to
wildfires. One reason for need of original lopping for fodder and fuelwood and removal
research is that such research conducted of small timber by the local people.
in western countries is not always suitable (iv) Grazing by domestic cattle caused an
for Indian environment. Further, there is adverse effect on wildlife and its habitat.
a need to establish a National Institute of Forest
Fire Management with satellite centres in (v) Hunting was taken up as a sport by the
different parts of the country to bring the elite and hundreds of wild animals were
latest forest fire fighting technologies killed in a single hunt. Now commercial
through proper research, training of poaching is rampant.
personnel, and technology transfer on a long
term basis. (vi) Incidence of forest fire.

Wildlife Conservation in India:

In 1972, a comprehensive Wildlife Act was
Wildlife of India is a great natural heritage. enacted, which provides the main legal
It is estimated that about 4-5 per cent of all framework for conservation and protection
known plant and animal species on the earth of wildlife in India. The two main objectives
are found in India. The main reason for this of the Act are; to provide protection to the
remarkable diversity of life forms is the great endangered species listed in the schedule
diversity of the ecosystem. However their of the Act and to provide legal support to the
number is decreasing at an alarming rate conservation areas of the country classified
in recent past because of the following as National parks, sanctuaries and closed
reasons: areas.

For the purpose of effective conservation of

(i)Industrial and technological
flora and fauna, special steps have been
advancement brought about a rapid
initiated by the Government of India in
increase in the exploitation of forest
collaboration with UNESCO’s ‘Man and
Biosphere Programme’. Special schemes
like Project Tiger (1973) and Project
(ii) More and more lands were cleared for Elephant (1992) have been launched to
agriculture, human settlement, roads, conserve these species and their habitat in
mining, reservoirs, etc. a sustainable manner.
Protected Areas of India (as on January, 2018)

No. Total Coverage % of Country

Area (km2)
National Parks (NPs) 103 40500.13 1.23
Wildlife Sanctuaries (WLSs) 544 118931.80 3.62
Conservation Reserves (CRs)76 2567.95 0.08
Community Reserves 46 72.61 0.002
Protected Areas (PAs) 769 162072.49 4.93
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National Parks: or its environment. No human activity is
permitted inside the national park except
An area, whether within a sanctuary or not, for the ones permitted by the Chief Wildlife
can be notified by the state government/ Warden of the state under the conditions
Central government to be constituted as a given in CHAPTER IV, WPA 1972.
National Park, by reason of its ecological,
faunal, floral, geomorphological, or There are 103 existing national parks in
zoological association or importance, India covering an area of 40,500.13 km 2 ,
needed to for the purpose of protecting & which is 1.23% of the geographical area
propagating or developing wildlife therein of the country.
List of National Parks
S. No. Name of State/ Year of Area (km2)
Protected Area Establishment District(s)
Andaman & Nicobar Islands
1 Campbell Bay NP 1992 426.23 Nicobar
2 Galathea Bay NP 1992 110.00 Nicobar
3 Mahatama Gandhi Marine
(Wandoor) NP 1983 281.50 Andaman
4 Middle Button Island NP 1987 0.44 Andaman
5 Mount Harriett NP 1987 46.62 Andaman
6 North Button Island NP 1987 0.44 Andaman
7 Rani Jhansi Marine NP 1996 256.14 Andaman
8 Saddle Peak NP 1987 32.54 Andaman
9 South Button Island NP 1987 0.03 Andaman

Andhra Pradesh
1 Papikonda NP 2008 1012.86 East & West
2 Rajiv Gandhi (Rameswaram) NP 2005 2.40 Kadapa
3 Sri Venkateswara NP 1989 353.62 Chittoor &

Arunachal Pradesh
1 Mouling NP 1986 483.00 Upper Siang
2 Namdapha NP 1983 1807.82 Changlang

1 Dibru-Saikhowa NP 1999 340.00 Tinsukia &
2 Kaziranga NP 1974 858.98 Golaghat,
Nagaon &
3 Manas NP 1990 500.00 & Barpeta
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4 Nameri NP 1998 200.00 Sonitpur
5 Rajiv Gandhi Orang NP 1999 78.81 Darrang
& Sonitpur

1 Valmiki NP 1989 335.65 West

1 Guru Ghasidas (Sanjay) NP 1981 1440.71 Surguja
& Koria
2 Indravati (Kutru) NP 1982 1258.37 Dantewada
3 Kanger Valley NP 1982 200.00 Bastar

1 Mollem NP 1992 107.00 North Goa

1 Vansda NP 1979 23.99 Navasari
2 Blackbuck (Velavadar) NP 1976 34.53 Bhavnagar
3 Gir NP 1975 258.71 Junagadh
4 Marine (Gulf of Kachchh) NP 1982 162.89 Jamnagar
1 Kalesar NP 2003 46.82 Yamuna
2 Sultanpur NP 1989 1.43 Gurgaon

Himachal Pradesh
1 Great Himalayan NP 1984 754.40 Kullu
2 Inderkilla NP 2010 104.00 Kullu
3 Khirganga NP 2010 710.00 Kullu
4 Pin Valley NP 1987 675.00 Lahul & Spiti
5 Simbalbara NP 2010 27.88 Sirmaur

Jammu & Kashmir

1 City Forest (Salim Ali) NP 1992 9.00 Srinagar
2 Dachigam NP 1981 141.00 Srinagar &
3 Hemis NP 1981 3350.00 Leh
4 Kishtwar NP 1981 425.00 Kishtwar &

1 Betla NP 1986 226.33 Latehar

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1 Anshi NP 1987 417.34 Uttara
2 Bandipur NP 1974 874.20 Mysore &
3 Bannerghatta NP 1974 260.51 Bangalore
4 Kudremukh NP 1987 600.32 Dakshin
Udipi &
5 Nagarahole (Rajiv Gandhi) NP 1988 643.39 Kodagu &

1 Anamudi Shola NP 2003 7.50 Idukki
2 Eravikulam NP 1978 97.00 Idukki
3 Mathikettan Shola NP 2003 12.82 Idukki
4 Pambadum Shola NP 2003 1.32 Idukki
5 Periyar NP 1982 350.00 Idukki &
6 Silent Valley NP 1984 89.52 Palakkad

Madhya Pradesh
1 Bandhavgarh NP 1968 448.85 Umaria &
2 Fossil NP 1983 0.27 Mandla
6 Indira Priyadarshini Pench NP 1975 292.85 Seoni &
3 Kanha NP 1955 940.00 Mandla,
Balaghat &
4 Madhav NP 1959 375.22 Shivpuri
5 Panna NP 1981 542.67 Panna &
7 Sanjay NP 1981 466.88 Sidhi
8 Satpura NP 1981 585.17 Hoshangabad
9 Van Vihar NP 1979 4.45 Bhopal

1 Chandoli NP 2004 317.67 Sangli,
2 Gugamal NP 1975 361.28 Amravati
3 Nawegaon NP 1975 133.88 Bhandara
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4 Pench (Jawaharlal Nehru) NP 1975 257.26 Nagpur
5 Sanjay Gandhi (Borivilli) NP 1983 86.96 Thane &
6 Tadoba NP 1955 116.55 Chandrapur

1 Keibul-Lamjao NP 1977 40.00 Bishnupur

1 Balphakram NP 1985 220.00 South Garo
2 Nokrek Ridge NP 1986 47.48 East Garo

1 Murlen NP 1991 100.00 Champhai
2 Phawngpui Blue Mountain NP 1992 50.00 Lawngtlai

1 Intanki NP 1993 202.02 Dimapur

1 Bhitarkanika NP 1988 145.00 Kendrapara
2 Simlipal NP 1980 845.70 Mayurbhanj

1 Mukundra Hills NP 2006 200.54 Kota &
2 Desert NP 1992 3162.00 Barmer &
3 Keoladeo Ghana NP 1981 28.73 Bharatpur
4 Ranthambhore NP 1980 282.00 Sawai
5 Sariska NP 1992 273.80 Alwar

1 Khangchendzonga NP 1977 1784.00 North Sikkim

Tamil Nadu
1 Guindy NP 1976 2.82 Chennai
2 Gulf of Mannar Marine NP 1980 6.23 Ramanathpuram
& Tuticorin
3 Indira Gandhi (Annamalai) NP 1989 117.10 Coimbatore
4 Mudumalai NP 1990 103.23 Nilgiris
5 Mukurthi NP 1990 78.46 Nilgiris
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1 Kasu Brahmananda Reddy NP 1994 1.43 Hyderabad
2 Mahaveer Harina Vanasthali NP 1994 14.59 Ranga Reddy
3 Mrugavani NP 1994 3.60 Ranga Reddy

1 Clouded Leopard NP 2007 5.08 West Tripura
2 Bison (Rajbari) NP 2007 31.63 South

Uttar Pradesh
1 Dudhwa NP 1977 490.00 Lakhimpur

1 Corbett NP 1936 520.82 Nainital &
Pauri Garhwal
2 Gangotri NP 1989 2390.02 Uttarkashi
3 Govind NP 1990 472.08 Uttarkashi
4 Nanda Devi NP 1982 624.60 Chamoli
5 Rajaji NP 1983 820.00 Dehradun,
Pauri Garhwal
& Haridwar
6 Valley of Flowers NP 1982 87.50 Chamoli

West Bengal
1 Buxa NP 1992 117.10 Jalpaiguri
2 Gorumara NP 1992 79.45 Jalpaiguri
3 Jaldapara NP 2014 216.51 Jalpaiguri
4 Neora Valley NP 1986 159.89 Darjeeling
5 Singalila NP 1986 78.60 Darjeeling
6 Sunderban NP 1984 1330.10 North &
24 Paraganas

Wildlife Sanctuary: activities are allowed inside the Sanctuary

area details of which are given in CHAPTER
Any area other than area comprised with IV, WPA 1972.
any reserve forest or the territorial waters
There are 543 existing wildlife sanctuaries
can be notified by the State Government to
in India covering an area of 118,918 km2,
constitute as a sanctuary if such area is of
which is 3.62 % of the geographical area of
adequate ecological, faunal, floral,
the country
geomorphological, natural. or zoological
significance, for the purpose of protecting, Biosphere Reserve:
propagating or developing wildlife or its
environment. Some restricted human Biosphere reserves are sites established by
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countries and recognized under UNESCO’s The purpose of the formation of the biosphere
Man and the Biosphere (MAB) Programme reserve is to conserve in situ all forms of life,
to promote sustainable development based along with its support system, in its totality,
on local community efforts and sound so that it could serve as a referral system
science.The programme of Biosphere for monitoring and evaluating changes in
Reserve was initiated by UNESCO in 1971. natural ecosystems.

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Tiger Reserves: country. Starting from nine (9) reserves in
Project Tiger was launched by the 1973-2016 the number is grown up to fifty
Government of India in the year 1973 to save (50). A total area of 71027.10 km2 is covered
the endangered species of tiger in the by these project tiger areas.

l. No. Name of
Area of Area of
Tiger Reserve
the core / the buffer
critical /
State tiger peripheral Total
habitat (In (In Sq. area(In
Sq. Kms.) Kms.) Sq.Kms.)

1 Nagarjunsagar
Srisailam (part)* Andhra Pradesh 2595.72* 700.59* 3296.31*
2 Namdapha Arunachal Pradesh 1807.82 245 2052.82
3 Kamlang TigerReserve Arunachal Pradesh 671.00 112.00 783.00
4 Pakke Arunachal Pradesh 683.45 515 1198.45
5 Manas Assam 840.04 2310.88 3150.92
6 Nameri Assam 200 144 344
7 Orang Tiger Reserve Assam 79.28 413.18 492.46
8 Kaziranga Assam 625.58 548 1173.58
9 Valmiki Bihar 598.45 300.93 899.38
10 Udanti-Sitanadi Chattisgarh 851.09 991.45 1842.54
11 Achanakmar Chattisgarh 626.195 287.822 914.017
12 Indravati Chhattisgarh 1258.37 1540.7 2799.07
13 Palamau Jharkhand 414.08 715.85 1129.93
14 Bandipur Karnataka 872.24 584.06 1456.3
15 Bhadra Karnataka 492.46 571.83 1064.29
16 Dandeli-Anshi Karnataka 814.884 282.63 1097.514
17 Nagarahole Karnataka 643.35 562.41 1205.76
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18 Biligiri Ranganatha
Temple Karnataka 359.1 215.72 574.82
19 Periyar Kerala 881 44 925
20 Parambikulam Kerala 390.89 252.772 643.662
21 Kanha Madhya Pradesh 917.43 1134.361 2051.791
22 Pench Madhya Pradesh 411.33 768.30225 1179.63225
23 Bandhavgarh Madhya Pradesh 716.903 820.03509 1598.1
24 Panna Madhya Pradesh 576.13 1021.97** 1578.55
25 Satpura Madhya Pradesh 1339.264 794.04397 2133.30797
26 Sanjay-Dubri Madhya Pradesh 812.571 861.931 1674.502
27 Melghat Maharashtra 1500.49 1268.03 2768.52
28 Tadoba-Andhari Maharashtra 625.82 1101.7711 1727.5911
29 Pench Maharashtra 257.26 483.96 741.22
30 Sahyadri Maharashtra 600.12 565.45 1165.57
31 Nawegaon-Nagzira Maharashtra 653.674 - 653.674
32 Bor Maharashtra 138.12 - 138.12
33 Dampa Mizoram 500 488 988
34 Similipal Odisha 1194.75 1555.25 2750
35 Satkosia Odisha 523.61 440.26 963.87
36 Ranthambore Rajasthan 1113.364 297.9265 1411.291
37 Sariska Rajasthan 881.1124 332.23 1213.342
38 Mukandra Hills Rajasthan 417.17 342.82 759.99
39 Kalakad-Mundanthurai Tamil Nadu 895 706.542 1601.542
40 Anamalai Tamil Nadu 958.59 521.28 1479.87
41 Mudumalai Tamil Nadu 321 367.59 688.59
42 Sathyamangalam Tamil Nadu 793.49 614.91 1408.4
43 Kawal Telangana 893.23 1125.89 2019.12
44 Amrabad Telangana 2166.37* 445.02* 2611.39*
45 Dudhwa Uttar Pradesh 1093.79 1107.9848 2201.7748
46 Pilibhit Uttar Pradesh 602.798 127.4518 730.2498
47 Amangarh (buffer of
Corbett TR) Uttar Pradesh - 80.6 80.6
Corbett Uttarakhand 821.99 466.32 1288.31
48 Rajaji TR Uttarakhand 255.63 819.54 1075.17
49 Sunderbans West Bengal 1699.62 885.27 2584.89
50 Buxa West Bengal 390.5813 367.3225 757.9038
TOTAL 40340.12 30686.98 71027.10

PROJECT ELEPHANT 1. To protect elephants, their habitat &

Project Elephant was launched by the
Government of India in the year 1992 as a 2. To address issues of man-animal conflict.
Centrally Sponsored Scheme with following
objectives: 3. Welfare of captive elephants
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The Project is being mainly implemented in Climate Change provides the financial and
16 States / UTs , viz. Andhra Pradesh, technical support to major elephant range
Arunachal Pradesh, Assam, Chhattisgarh, states in the country through Project
Jharkhand, Karnataka, Kerala, Elephant.
Maharashtra, Meghalaya, Nagaland,
Orissa, Tamil Nadu, Tripura, Uttarakhand, Ramsar Convention:
Uttar Pradesh, West Bengal.
The Ramsar Convention is an international
The Ministry of Environment, Forest and treaty for the conservation and sustainable

Sl.No. Name of Site State Location Date of Area

Declaration (in sq.km.)

1 Asthamudi Wetland Kerala 19.8.2002 1860

2 Bhitarkanika Mangroves Orissa 19.8.2002 525
3 Bhoj Wetlands Madhya Pradesh 19.8.2002 31
4 Chandertal Wetland Himachal Pradesh 8.11.2005 38.56
5 Chilka Lake Orissa 1.10.1981 1140
6 Deepor Beel Assam 19.8.2002 4.14
7 East Calcutta Wetlands West Bengal 19.8.2002 378
8 Harike Lake Punjab 23.3.1990 86
9 Hokera Wetland Jammu and Kashmir 8.11.2005 13.75
10 Kanjli Lake Punjab 22.1.2002 14.84
11 Keoladeo Ghana NP Rajasthan 1.10.1981 28.73
12 Kolleru Lake Andhra Pradesh 19.8.2002 673
13 Loktak Lake Manipur 23.3.1990 945
14 Nalsarovar Bird
Sanctuary Gujarat 24/09/12 120
15 Point Calimere Tamil Nadu 19.8.2002 17.26
16 Pong Dam Lake Himachal Pradesh 19.8.2002 307.29
17 Renuka Wetland Himachal Pradesh 8.11.2005 Not Available
18 Ropar Lake Punjab 22.1.2002 41.36
19 Rudrasagar Lake Tripura 8.11.2005 2.40
20 Sambhar Lake Rajasthan 23.3.1990 736
21 Sasthamkotta Lake Kerala 19.8.2002 11.3
22 Surinsar-Mansar Lakes Jammu and Kashmir 8.11.2005 3.50
23 Tsomoriri Lake Jammu and Kashmir 19.8.2002 120
24 Vembanad Kol Wetland Kerala 19.8.2002 4583
25 Upper Ganga River Uttar Pradesh
(Brijghat to Narora
Stretch) 8.11.2005 265.90
26 Wular Lake Jammu & Kashmir 23.3.1990 173
Total Area (sq. km.) 12119.03
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utilization of wetlands, recognizing the World Heritage Site:
fundamental ecological functions of
wetlands and their economic, cultural, A UNESCO World Heritage Site is a place
scientific, and recreational value.

Natural World Heritage Sites in India

Sl. Name of WH Site State Year of Area

No. Location Notification (sq.km)
1 Great Himalayan National Park Himachal Pradesh 2014 905.4

Conservation Area

2 Western Ghats Maharashtra, 2012 7,953.15


Tamil Nadu andKerala

3 Nanda Devi and Valley Uttarakhand 1988 630.00

of Flowers National Parks 87.50

4 Sundarbans National Park West Bengal 1987 1,330.10

5 Kaziranga National Park Assam 1985 429.96

6 Keoladeo National Park Rajasthan 1985 28.73

7 Manas Wildlife Sanctuary Assam 1985 391.00

that is listed by the United Nations significance, wild ancestors of domestic/

Educational, Scientific and Cultural cultivated species or their varieties, past
Organization as of special cultural or pre-eminence of biological components
physical significance. represented by fossil beds and having
significant cultural, ethical or aesthetic
Biodiversity Heritage Sites values and are important for the
maintenance of cultural diversity, with or
“Biodiversity Heritage Sites” (BHS) are well without a long history of human association
defined areas that are unique, ecologically with them.
fragile ecosystems - terrestrial, coastal and
inland waters and, marine having rich
biodiversity comprising of any one or more Under Section 37 of Biological Diversity Act,
of the following components: richness of wild 2002 (BDA) the State Government in
as well as domesticated species or intra- consultation with local bodies may notify in
specific categories, high endemism, the official gazette, areas of biodiversity
presence of rare and threatened species, importance as Biodiversity Heritage Sites
keystone species, species of evolutionary (BHS).
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S. Name of the Name of the Taluk Area Importance of the area
No. Site District

1 Nallur Bengaluru Devanahalli 54 acres It is popularly believed to be

Tamarind a relic of the Chola Dynasty
Grove that ruled nearly 800 years
ago, is spectacle of awesome
wonder and a freakish site.
This BHS spread over 54 acres
comprising a population of
nearly 300 trees, is a picture of
dynamic pattern of plant
diversity. The significant
component of this popular
structure is a group of old
plants standing like ageless
sentinels, firmly rooted to the
ground with their gigantic
trunks, along with large
picturesque crowns spread
very high and aloft like open

2 Hogrekan Chikmagalur Kadur 2508.15 The area has unique Shola

acres vegetation and grass land with
number of floral species which
are unique and having lot of
medicinal value. Hogrekan is
moderately wooded land and its
vegetation is of dry deciduous
type and has a link with
Bababudanagiri and
Kemmangundi, adjoining
Bhadra Wildlife Sanctuary and
Yemmedode Tiger Reserve and
serving as “Wildlife Corridor”
between Kudremukha and
Bhadra Wildlife Sanctuary.

3 University of Bengaluru 167 The GKVK campus is

hectares considered one of the greenest
areas in Bengaluru. Biological
diversity of this campus
GKVK Campus,
constitutes a critical
repository of various forms of
flora and fauna (including 13 sp

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of mammals, 10 sp of reptiles,
165 sp of birds and 530 sp of
plants) which needs to be
protected nurtured to posterity.

4 Ambaraguda Shimoga 3857.12 It is a revenue land located

hectares between Sharavathi Wild Life
Sanctuary and Someshwara
Wildlife Sanctuary. It has
Shola vegetation which is
primitive vegetation in the
Western Ghat and also has

5 Glory of Gadchiroli 6 hectares It is a reserved forest being

Allapalli preserved as natural forest
having biological, ethinical and
historical values.

6 Tonglu BHS Darjeeling 230 It is a under the Medicinal

hectares Plant Conser- vation Areas

7 Dhotrey BHS Darjeeling 180 It is a Medicinal Plant

under the hectares Conservation Areas

8 Dialong Village Tamenglong 11.35 —-

under the Sq.km

9 Ameenpur lake Sangareddy Ameenpur —- —-

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Agriculture is predominant economic interior parts of country,
activity in India, engaging nearly three-fifths namely kharif, rabi, and zaid.
of its working population. Though the share The kharif season largely coincides
of agricultural sector in gross domestic with Southwest Monsoon under
product has considerably declined to about which the cultivation of tropical
one-fourth yet the importance of agriculture crops such as rice, cotton, jute,
as employment provider to workforce jowar, bajra and tur is possible.
especially in the countryside is very high. The rabi season begins with
Agriculture involves not only crops raising the onset of winter in October-
but also animal ranching and fishing. November and ends in March-
April. The low temperature
The total land area on which crops are
conditions during this season
grown in a region is called net sown
facilitate the cultivation of tempe-
area (NSA). The net sown area and
rate and subtropical crops such as
the area sown more than once
wheat, gram and mustard.
together are called gross cultivated
Zaid is a short duration summer
area. This implies that if we deduct
cropping season beginning after
net sown area from gross cropped
harvesting of rabi crops, the
area; what we find is those areas
cultivation of watermelons,
where crops are cultivated for more
cucumbers, vegetables and
than once in a particular agriculture
fodder crops during this season is
done on irrigated lands.
States namely Punjab, Haryana,
However, this type of distinction in
West Bengal, Uttar Pradesh, have the
the cropping season does not exist
high proportional share of NSA than
in southern parts of the country.
the national average.
Here, the temperature is high
enough to grow tropical crops
during any period in the year
There are three distinct crop provided the soil moisture is
seasons in the northern and available. Therefore, in this region

Cropping season Major crops cultivated

Northern States Southern States
Kharif Rice, Cotton, Bajra, Maize, Rice, Maize, Ragi,
June-September Jowar, Tur Jowar, Groundnut
Rabi Wheat, Gram, Rapeseeds and Rice, Maize, Ragi
October-March Mustard, Barley Groundnut, Jowar
Zaid Vegetables, Fruits, Fodder Rice, Vegetables,
April-June Fodder

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same crops can be grown thrice in an Chhattisgarh and Andhra Pradesh.
agricultural year provided there is In northeast, such type of cultivation
sufficient soil moisture. is known as “Jhuming”.

Dry Farming: This type of farming is

Terrace Cultivation:It is practiced in hilly
practiced in the areas where the amount of
areas. The farmers in these regions carve
annual rainfall is generally less than 80 cm.
out terraces on the hill slopes, conserve soil
Only one crop can be grown in a year. and water to raise crops.
Millets like jawar, bajra, ragi, pulses
etc. are important crops grown under Due to pressure of population, terrace
this type of farming. cultivation is being adopted in the
Rajasthan, Maharashtra, parts of North-Eastern states of India where
Madhya Pradesh, Southern Haryana, shifting agriculture was practiced
part of Gujarat and Karnataka fall earlier.
under this category of farming.
Plantation Agriculture: Well organized and
Wet Farming: This type of farming is managed cultivation of crops particularly a
practiced in the areas of alluvial soils where single one on a large scale is called
annual average rainfall is more than 200cm. plantation agriculture. It requires large
Here more than one crop is grown in investment on the latest technology and
a year because enough amount of proper management.
moisture in the soil is available.Rice Tea, coffee and rubber are examples
and jute are the main crops of these of plantation agriculture. This
types of farming. agriculture is practiced in Assam,
West Bengal, Assam, Nagaland, West Bengal and the slopes of Nilgiri
Meghalaya, Tripura, Manipur, hills.
Mizoram and Malabar Coast fall
under this category of farming. Commercial Farming: Under this farming,
the farmers raise crops mainly for the
Subsistence Farming: The main objective market, generally those crops are grown
of this farming is to provide subsistence to which are used as raw materials for
the largest number of people of a given area. industries.
Size of holdings is small, use of manual
Cultivation of sugarcane in Uttar
labour and simple farm implements are
Pradesh and Maharashtra; cotton in
common features of this type of farming.
Gujarat, Maharashtra and Punjab;
Subsistence agriculture is practised and Jute in West Bengal are some of
in parts of Chhattisgarh, the examples of this farming.
Uttarakhand, Jharkhand and the
Contract Farming: In this system,
hilly areas of the country.
companies engaged in processing/
Shifting Cultivation: In this type of marketing of agriculture products enter into
cultivation, land is cleared by cutting and contract with the farmers. They provide the
burning of forests for raising crops. farmers necessary facilities and buy back
This farming is practiced in some the products with a rate specified in
pockets of the hilly areas of Northeast advance.
and in some tribal belts of Orissa, Ballapur and ITC provide farmers
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with fast growing cloned varieties of enough to grow two crops: either two main
tree that mature in just four years crops, or one main crop followed by a cover
and buy the out-put. crop.

Eco-Farming or Organic Farming: This Growing Crops two crops may also be
farming avoids the use of synthetic possible if there are two rainy seasons, or
fertilizers, pesticides, growth regulator and if there is enough moisture left in the soil
livestock feed additives. These types of to grow a second crop.
farming rely on crop rotation, crop residues,
Intercropping: Examples- Planting
animal manure, off-farm organic wastes and
alternating rows of maize and beans, or
biological pest control to maintain soil
growing a cover crop in between the cereal
rows. Intercropping means growing two or
more crops in the same field at the same
A few farmers from Rajasthan,
Andhra Pradesh, Madhya Pradesh,
Pondicherry and Punjab are adopting Mixed Intercropping: Distribution of the
this types of agriculture. seeds of both the crops, or dibbling the seeds
without any row arrangement. This process
Type of Cropping System:
is called mixed intercropping. It is easy to
Monocropping: Example Planting Wheat do but makes weeding, fertilization and
year after year in the same field. harvesting difficult. Individual plants may
Monocropping is when the field is used to compete with each other because they are
grow only one crop season after season. too close together.

Disadvantages: it is difficult to maintain Planting the main crop in rows and then
cover on the soil; it encourages pests, spreading the seeds of the intercrop (such
diseases and weeds; and it can reduce the as a cover crop).
soil fertility and damage the soil structure. Row Intercropping: Planting both the main
crop and the intercrop in rows. This is called
Crop Rotation: Example Planting maize one row intercropping. The rows make weeding
year, and beans the next. Crop Rotation and harvesting easier than with mixed
means changing the type of crops grown in intercropping.
the field each season or each year (or
changing from crops to fallow). Stir Cropping: Example Planting
alternating strips of maize, soybean and
Crop rotation is a key principle of agriculture finger millet. Stir Cropping involves planting
conservation because it improves the soil broad strips of several crops in the field. Each
structure and fertility, and because it helps strip is 3–9 m wide. On slopes, the strips can
control weeds, pests and diseases. be laid out along the contour to prevent
erosion. The next year, the farmer can rotate
Sequential Cropping: Example- Planting
crops by planting each strip with a different
maize in the long rains, then beans during
the short rains. Sequential Cropping
involves growing two crops in the same field, Advantages:
one after the other in the same year.
It produces a variety of crops, the
In some places, the rainy season is long legume improves the soil fertility, and
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rotation helps reduce pest and weed intercrop. It also uses the field for a longer
problems. time, since the cover crop usually continues
The residues from one strip can be to grow after the main crop is harvested.
used as soil cover for neighbouring
Cropping Pattern in India:
At the same time, strip cropping
avoids some of the disadvantages of Cropping Pattern mean the proportion of
intercropping: managing the single area under different crops at a point of time,
crop within the strip is easy, and changes in this distribution overtime and
competition between the crops is factors determining these changes.
Factors affecting cropping pattern in India
Relay Cropping: Example- Planting maize,
then sowing beans between the maize rows
1. Natural factors like rainfall, soil and
four weeks later.

2. Land type and size of land holding.

Relay Cropping the process of growing one
crop, then planting another crop (usually a 3. Technology
cover crop) in the same field before
harvesting the first. This helps avoid 4. Government policies- say higher MSP
leads to over cultivation of the crop.
competition between the main crop and the

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MAJOR CROPS IN INDIA: like Gangetic plain, it is also grown
below sea level at Kuttanad (Kerala),
FOODGRAINS hill terraces of north eastern part of
India and valleys of Kashmir.
The importance of foodgrains in Indian Labor: Rice cultivation
agricultural economy may be gauged from requires easily available
the fact these crops occupy about two-third labour because, most of the activities
of total cropped area in the country. associated with it are labor
Foodgrains are dominant crops in all parts oriented and are not very well
of the country whether they have suited for mechanization.
subsistence or commercial agricultural Distribution: Rice is grown in almost
economy. On the basis of the structure of all the states of India.
grain the food grains are classified
as cereals and pulses.
2. WHEAT: Wheat is the second most
CEREALS important food crop of India next to rice. It
is a Rabi or winter crop. It is sown in the
Cereals occupy about 54 percent of total beginning of winter and harvested in the
cropped area in India. India produces a beginning of summer.
variety of cereals, which are classified
as fine grains (rice, wheat) and coarse Temperature: It is primarily a crop
grains (jowar, bajra, maize, ragi). of mid-latitude grassland. It
requires cool climate. The ideal
1. RICE: It is the most important food crop temperature is between 10 0 C to
of India. It is predominantly a Kharif crop . 150C at the time of sowing and 210C
It covers about one third of total cultivated to 26 0 C at the time
area of the country and is staple food of more of ripening and harvesting.
than half of the Indian population.

Temperature: Rice requires hot and Rainfall: Wheat thrives well in areas
humid conditions. The temperature receiving annual rainfall of about
should be fairly high i.e. 240C mean 75cm. Annual rainfall of about 100
monthly temperature with average cm is the upper limit for wheat
temperature of 220C to 320C. cultivation. Light drizzles at the time
of ripening help in increasing the
Rainfall: Rainfall ranging yield. But on the other hand, frost at
between 150 and 300 cm is suitable the time of flowering and hailstorm
for its growth. In areas of Punjab, at the time of ripening can cause
Haryana and Western Uttar Pradesh heavy damage to the wheat crop.
where rainfall is less than 100cm;
rice is cultivated with the help of Soil: well drained fertile loamy and
irrigation. clayey loamy soil is best suited for
wheat cultivation.
Soil: Rice is grown in varied soil
conditions but deep clayey and loamy Distribution: The largest wheat
soil provides the ideal conditions. producing states are U.P, Punjab
Rice is primarily grown in plain areas and Madhya Pradesh.
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3. MILLETS: Millets are short are coarse grain crops and are used for
duration warm weather crops. These both food and fodder. These are Kharif crops
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though sometimes grown in rabi seasons too. India. Though, these are known as coarse
These are sown in May-August and grains, they have very high nutritional
harvested in October-November. Today value. For example, ragi is very rich in iron,
millets are mostly consumed by poor people calcium, other micro nutrients and
as their staple food. In India, lots of millet roughage.
is grown and these are known by various local Maize is a crop which is used both as food
names. Some of these are Jowar, Bajra, Ragi, and fodder. It is a kharif crop which requires
Korra, Kodon, Kutki, Hraka, Bauti and temperature between 21°C to 27°C and
Rajgira. In India, Jowar, Bajra and Ragi are grows well in old alluvial soil. In some states
grown on large areas but unfortunately area like Bihar maize is grown in rabi season
under these crops has drastically reduced also. Use of modern inputs such as HYV
over the years. Some of the geographical seeds, fertilisers and irrigation have
conditions for growing these crops are as contributed to the increasing production of
follows: maize. Major maize-producing states
are Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka,
Temperature: These crops are grown Maharashtra, Uttar Pradesh, Bihar,
where the temperature Telangana and Madhya Pradesh.
is high which ranges between 27 0C
to 320C.
Rainfall: As mentioned earlier that India is the largest producer as well as the
millets are ‘dry land crop’, therefore, consumer of pulses in the world. These are
rainfall ranging from 50 to 100 cm is the major source of protein in a vegetarian
ideal for their cultivation. These diet. Pulses need less moisture and survive
crops are rain-fed. even in dry conditions. Being leguminous
Soil: Millets are less sensitive to soil crops, all these crops except arhar(pigeon
deficiencies. They can be grown pea) helps in restoring soil fertility by fixing
in inferior alluvial or loamy soil. nitrogen from the air. Therefore, these
Distribution: Jowar and Bajra are are mostly grown in rotation with other
grown both in north and south crops. Most of these are green manure
India whereas ragi is generally crops too. Major pulse producing statesin
concentrated in the southern India. India are Madhya Pradesh, Rajasthan,
Jowar and Bajra are grown in Maharashtra, Uttar Pradesh and
Madhya Pradesh, Gujarat, Karnataka.
Rajasthan, Maharashtra,
Karanataka, Tamil Nadu, Andhra Though gram and tur (arhar or pigeon pea/
Pradesh, Haryana and Punjab. Ragi red gram) are the more important pulses,
is mostly concentrated in the several other pulses such as urd (black
southern India i.e. Tamil Nadu, gram), mung (green gram), masur (lentil),
Karnataka and Andhra Pradesh. In kulthi (horse gram), matar(peas), khersi,
total, coarse cereals can be found cow pea(black-eyed gram) and moth are also
in Rajasthan, Karnataka and grown. Pulses are generally fodder
Andhra Pradesh. crops too.
Gram: It is the most important of all the
Jowar(sorghum), Bajra (Pearl millet/Bull
pulses. It accounts for about 37% of the
Rush millet) Ragi (Finger millet/Buck
production and about 30% of the total area
wheat) are the important millets grown in
of pulses in India. It is a Rabi cropwhich is
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sown between September and November and known Cluster Bean (guar gum) got a big
is harvested between February and April. export market. The new market was due
It is either cultivated as a single crop or to the multibillion shale and oil gas drilling
mixed with wheat, barley, linseed or business in U.S, which has found the gel or
mustard. Some of the geographical hydrocolloid produced from cluster beans to
conditions are as follows: be an excellent lubricant for the ‘fracking’
process. Fracking is used to extract gas
Temperature: It is grown in a wide
trapped some 6,000 to 10,000 feet beneath
range of climatic condition. Mild cool
the surface making hard shale rock more
and comparatively dry climate
porous. Large amounts of water, typically
with 200C -250C temperature.
three to five million gallons, are mixed with
Rainfall: 40-45 cm rainfall is
small amounts of chemical additives, sand
favorable for gram cultivation.
and pressure injected into holes in the well
Soil: It grows well on loamy soils.
bore forcing cracks in the surrounding rocks,
Distribution: Although gram is
allowing much more gas to flow back into the
cultivated in several parts of the
well bore. It has also turned guar into a
country, however, 90% of the total
precious commodity, farmers now
production comes from 5 states.
call ”black gold”. In 2011, India exported
These states are Madhya Pradesh,
guar worth $915 million to the United States,
Rajasthan, Maharashtra, Uttar
with most of product intended for oil and gas
Pradesh, and Haryana
industry use. It was India’s largest
Green Manure Crops: Crops grown for the agricultural export to the United States.
purpose of restoring or increasing the organic India accounts for 80% of the total guar
matter content in the soil are called Green produced in the world. 70% of India’s
manure crops. Use of Green manure crops production comes from Rajasthan. The
in cropping system is called ’Green other producers are Gujarat, Haryana,
Manuring’ where the crop is grown in situ or Punjab, Uttar Pradesh and Madhya
brought from outside and incorporated when Pradesh. The cheapest legume, grown in dry
it is purposely grown. Green manuring and arid lands by poor farmers was priced
are low cost and effective technology in low till few years back then.
minimising cost of fertilizers and
Uses of Guar:
safeguarding productivity. Green Leaf
Manuring consists of gathering green The leaves and beans of the guar plant
biomass from nearby location and adding to have traditionally been used as
the soil. Objectives of green manuring are an animal feed and as a vegetable for
to add Nitrogen to the companion or human consumption.
succeeding crop and add or sustain organic Farmers take advantage of the
matter in the soil. Examples of leguminous nitrogen fixing abilities of the guar
Green Manures are as follows: Local name- plant by using it as a green manure
Cowpea, Cluster bean (Guar), Green gram crop.
(Mung bean), Sesbania, Dhaincha, Guar gum is used in baking as a
Sunhemp, Wild Indigo, Pillipesara, dough thickener. It is used to thicken
Berseem, Madras Indigo etc. dairy products such as milk, yogurt,
cheese, ice cream and sherbet.
Cluster Bean (guar gum): After 2010,
In processed foods guar gum is used
India’s much neglected and little-
as a thickener in salad dressing,
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sauces, ketchup, soupand many heavy manures and fertilizers
other products. because it exhausts the fertility of
Guar gum has medicinal uses which soils quickly and extensively.
include: water-soluble fiber, bulk- Labour: It is a labour oriented
forming laxative and creating a cultivation and required cheap labour.
feeling of satiety. Industrially it is Ample human hands are required at
used in mining, petroleum drilling every stage, i.e. sowing, hoeing,
and textile manufacturing. weeding, irrigation, cutting and
carrying sugarcanes to the factories.
Distribution: India has the largest
Cash crops are those crops which are grown area under sugarcane cultivation in
for sale either in raw form or semi processed the world and the second largest
form. Major of them are as follows: producer next to Brazil. As far as
distribution of sugarcane cultivation
SUGARCANE: Sugarcane is a Kharif crop. in India is concerned, there are three
It is the main source of sugar, gur and distinct geographical regions in the
khandsari. It also provides raw material for country. These regions are:
the manufacturing of alcohol.Bagasse, the
crushed cane residue, has also multiple 1. The Sutlej-Ganga plain from Punjab to
uses. It is used for manufacturing of paper. Bihar containing 51% of the total area and
It is also an efficient substitute for petroleum 60% of the country’s total production. Uttar
products and a host of other chemical Pradesh is the largest producer of sugar in
products. A part of it is also used as fodder. India.
Some of the geographical conditions for the 2. The black soil belt from Maharashtra to
growth of sugarcane are as follows: Tamil Nadu along the eastern slopes of the
Western Ghats.
Temperature: It requires hot and
humid climate with an average 3. Coastal Andhra Pradesh and Krishna
temperature of 21 0C to 27 0C. river valley.
Rainfall: 75-150 cm rainfall is
COTTON: Cotton is the most important fibre
favorable for sugarcane
crop not only of India but also of the entire
cultivation. Irrigation is required in
world. It not only provides raw material for
those areas where rainfall is less
cotton textile industry but also its seed
than the prescribed limit.
is used in Vanaspati oil industry. The cotton
Soil: It can grow in a variety of soils.
seed is also used as part of fodder for milch
In fact sugarcane can tolerate any
cattle for better milk production. Cotton is
kind of soil that can retain moisture.
basically a kharif crop.
But deep rich loamy soil is ideal for
its growth. The soil should be rich in Distribution: The main states for
nitrogen, calcium and cotton production are Andhra
phosphorous but neither it should Pradesh, Telegana, Maharashtra,
be too acidic nor alkaline. Flat, plain Gujarat, Punjab and Haryana.
and level pleatue is an advantage for Labour: As picking of cotton has not
sugarcane cultivation because it been made mechanized till now,
facilitates irrigation and transporta- therefore a lot of cheap and efficient
tion of cane to the sugar mills. labour is required at the time of
Sugarcane cultivation requires picking.
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Soil: Cotton cultivation is very closely grows well in alluvial soils of the
related to Black soils of Deccan and Sutlej plain and red and laterite soils
Malwa plateau. However, it also of the peninsular region.

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Rainfall: It grows mostly in the areas Further attraction of Jute lies in
having at least 210 frost free days in its easy availability, inexhaustible
a year. It requires modest amount of quantity at a comparatively cheaper
rainfall of 50 to 100 cm. However, rate. Moreover, it can easily be
cotton is successfully grown with blended with other natural and
the help of irrigation in the areas manmade fibres.
where rainfall is less than 50
Jute cultivation is mainly concentrated in
cm. High amount of rainfall in
the eastern and north eastern
the beginning and sunny and dry
India especially in Gangetic Plain Major
weather at the time of ripening are
jute and mesta producing states are West
very useful for a good crop.
Bengal, Bihar and Assam.
Temperature: Cotton is the crop of
tropical and sub-tropical areas and OILSEEDS: It is one of the important groups
requires uniformly high tempera- of commercial crops in India. Oil extracted
ture varying between 210C and 300C. from oilseeds not only forms an important
item of our diet but also serves as raw
material for the manufacturing of
JUTE hydrogenated oils, paints, varnishes, soaps,
lubricants etc. Oil-cake (the residue after
the oil is extracted from the oilseeds) form
is an important natural fibre crop in an important cattle feed and manure.
India next to cotton.
Drylands of Malwa plateau (Madhya
It is a kharif crop. It requires hot and Pradesh), Marathwada (Maharashtra),
humid climate with 120-150cm Gujarat, Rajasthan, Telangana and
rainfall for its growth. Rayalseema region of Andhra Pradesh and
Light sandy or clayey soils is best Karnataka plateau are oilseeds growing
for its cultivation. It is labour regions of India. These crops together
intensive. occupy about 14 percent of total cropped
area in the country. Groundnut, rapeseed
In trade and industry, jute and mesta
and mustard, sesamum, linseed, castor
crop together known as raw jute as
seed, soyabean and sunflower are the main
their uses are almost same.
oilseed crops grown in India.
It has now emerged as a versatile raw Groundnut: It is the most important oilseed
material for diverse applications, of India. Groundnut is grown both as kharif
such as, textile industries, paper and Rabi crop but 90-95% of the total area is
industries, building and automotive devoted to kharif crop. It is a rainfed crop.
industries, use as soil saver, use as Some of the geographical conditions are as
decorative and furnishing materials, follows:
Raw jute being bio-degradable and Temperature: It thrives best in the
annually renewable source, it is tropical climate and requires 200C to
considered as an environment- 30 0C temperature.
friendly crop and it helps in the Rainfall: 50-75 cm rainfall is
maintenance of the environment and favorable for groundnut cultivation.
ecological balance. It is highly susceptible to frost,
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prolonged drought, continuous rain Soil: Well drained light sandy loams,
and stagnant water. Therefore, dry red, yellow and black soils are well
winter is needed at the time of suited for its cultivation.
ripening. Distribution: It is the most important
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oilseed of India and accounts Sunflower: Sunflower as an oilseed is
for about half of the major oilseeds a newly introduced crop in the country. Due
produced in the country. India is to source of high quality edible oil,
the largest producer of groundnut in sunflower oil is used as cooking oil in
the world. Andhra Pradesh, Tamil different recipes. Its importance increases
Nadu, Rajasthan and Gujarat are as sunflower oil is considered as a heart
the main producer of groundnut in friendly oil. Besides oil, almost every part
India and account for about 60% of of sunflower has commercial value. This crop
the total production. Another 30% of has gained importance due to its short
the total production comes from duration of maturity, containing of excellent
Maharashtra, Karnataka and Orissa. quality of oil, photo-insensitivity, wide
adaptability into different kinds of cropping
Soybean: Soybean is known as the ”Golden pattern, high-energy hull and drought
Bean” of the 20 th Century. Though, tolerance. It is a short duration crop and
Soybean is a legume crop, yet it is widely completes its life cycle in about three
used as oilseed. Due to very poor cookability months. Hence can be incorporated
on account of inherent presence of trypsin in different type of cropping pattern. Since
inhibitor, it cannot be utilized as a pulse. It it is a photo-insensitive crop, it can be grown
is now the second largest oilseed in throughout the year. Sunflower is cultivated
India after groundnut. It grows in varied as both kharif and rabi seasons but, two-
agro-climatic conditions but it is best crop thirds of production comes from rabi
in Kharif season. It has emerged as one of season crop. In addition, sunflower is also
the important commercial crop in many cultivated as summer crop in Punjab and
countries. Due to its worldwide popularity, West Bengal. Oil cake is rich in high quality
the international trade of Soybean is spread protein (40 – 44 percent) and used as cattle
globally. Several countries such as Japan, and poultry feed. This crop is considered
China, Indonesia, Philippines, and European valuable from economic as well as
countries are importing Soybean to ornamental point of view. Karnataka,
supplement their domestic requirement Andhra Pradesh and Odisha are the major
for human consumption and cattle feed. sunflower producing states.

Soybean has great potential as Sesamum (Til): Sesamum is a rainfed

an exceptionally nutritive and very rich crop and requires 45-50 cm rainfall. It
protein food. It can supply the much needed thrives well in areas having 21 o -23 o C
protein to human diets, because it contains temperature. Frost, prolonged drought and
above 40 per cent protein of superior heavy rains for a longer duration are
quality and all the essential amino harmful to this crop. Well-drained light
acids particularly glycine, tryptophan and loamy soils are best suited to sesamum. It
lysine, similar to cow’s milk and animal is cultivated in plains as well as on elevations
proteins. Soybean also contains about 20 upto 1,300 metres. It is grown as a kharif
per cent oil with an important fatty acid, crop in the north and as a rabi crop in the
lecithin and Vitamin A and D. The 4 percent south.
mineral salts of soybeans are fairly rich in Rapeseed and Mustard: Like wheat and
phosphorous and calcium. Major soyabean gram, they thrive only in cool climate of
producing states are Madhya Pradesh, the Satluj-Ganga plain and very small
Maharshtra and Rajasthan quantity is grown in the peninsular India.
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They are mainly grown as rabi crop in pure plant and grows better when planted
or mixed form with wheat, gram and barley. along with shady trees.
Labour: Cheap and efficient labour is
Linseed: Although this crop can be grown
required for tea production.
under varied geographical conditions,
Distribution: Assam is the leading
it prefers cool, moist climate with about
producer that accounts for more than
20oC temperature and 75 cm rainfall.Clay
50% of tea production of India. Tea
loams, deep black soils and alluvial soils are
producing areas of Assam are the hill
best suited for its cultivation. It can be
slopes bordering the Brahmaputra and
cultivated upto a height of 800 metres above
Surma valleys. West Bengal is the
sea level. It is a rabi-crop which is sown in
second largest producer of tea where
October-November and harvested in March-
tea is mostly grown in the districts of
Darjeeling, Siliguri, Jalpaiguri and
PLANTATION CROP cooch Bihar districts. Tamil Nadu is
the third largest producer where tea
TEA: India is famous for its tea gardens. Tea growing areas are mostly restricted to
plantation in India was started by the Nilgiri hills.
Britishers in 1923 when wild tea
plants were discovered by them in the hilly COFFEE: It is the indigenous crop of
and forest areas of Assam. Tea is made Ethiopia (Abysinia Plateau). From Ethiopia,
from tender sprouts of tea plants by drying it was taken to Arabia in 11th Century. From
them. India is one of the leading tea Arabia, the seeds were brought by Baba
producing country in the world. China and Budan in 17 th Century and were raised
Sri Lanka are other leading producers of tea. in Baba Budan hills of Karnataka. But it was
Some of the geographical conditions for the British planters who took keen interest and
growth of tea are as follows: large coffee estates were established in the
hills of Western Ghats. Some of the
Temperature: It requires hot and wet geographical conditions for the growth of
climate. The ideal temperature for coffee are as follows:
the growth of tea bushes and leaf
varies between 20 0 C to 30 0 C. If Temperature: It requires hot and
temperature either rises above 350C humid climate with temperature
or goes below 10 0 C, it would be varying between 150C and 280C. it is
harmful for the growth of tea generally grown under shady trees.
bushes and leaves. Therefore,strong sun shine, high
Rainfall: As mentioned above tea temperature above 300C, frost and
requires a good amount of rainfall snowfall are harmful for coffee
ranging between 150-300 cm and the cultivation. Dry weather is necessary
annual rainfall should be well at the time of ripening of berried.
distributed throughout the Rainfall: Rainfall between 150 and
year. Long dry spell is harmful for tea. 250 cm is favorable for coffee
Soil: Tea bush grows well in well cultivation.
drained, deep, friable loamy soil. Soil: Well drained, rich friable loamy
However, virgin forest soil rich in soil containing good deal of humus
humus and iron content are and minerals like iron and
considered to be the best soils for the calcium are ideal for coffee to
tea plantation. Tea is a shade loving increase productivity.
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Labour: Like tea, coffee cultivation plucking, drying, grading and
also requires plenty of cheap and packaging of coffee.
skilled labour for various purposes Distribution: Karnataka, Kerala and
like sowing, transplanting, pruning, Tamil Nadu are the main states of
coffee production in India.

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HORTICULTURE CROPS On the basis of some homogeneity and
commonness, major crop regions in India
In simple terms, horticulture can
may be divides as follows:
be defined as the science of growing fruits,
vegetables, and flowers. India is a producer 1. Rice Region
of tropical as well as temperate 2. Wheat Region
fruits.Mangoes of Maharashtra, Andhra 3. Jowar-Bajra Region
Pradesh, Telangana, Uttar Pradesh and 4. Cotton Region
West Bengal, oranges of Nagpur and 5. Millet and Maize Region
Cherrapunjee (Meghalaya), bananas of
6. Fruit and Spice Region
Kerala, Mizoram, Maharashtra and Tamil
Nadu, lichi and guava of Uttar Pradesh and
Bihar, pineapples of Meghalaya, grapes of THE RICE REGION
Andhra Pradesh, Telangana and
Maharashtra, apples, pears, apricots and Rice is considered as the first-ranking
walnuts of Jammu and Kashmir and crop in the vast region stretching from lower
Himachal Pradesh are in great demand the Gangetic Plain to Brahmaputra Valley in
world over. Major flower growing states are the east and the circum-coastal alluvial
Karnataka, Tamil Nadu and Andhra Pradesh tracts of the peninsula region. Rice
in South, West Bengal in East, Maharashtra cultivation is done around Bay of Bengal,
in West and Rajasthan, Delhi and Haryana barring isolated pockets bordering the
in North. Major exporting flower Arabian Sea. The isohyets line (a line on a
like orchid covers the entire region map connecting points having the same
of North-Eastern region especially in the amount of rainfall in a given period) 150 cm
state of Arunanchal Pradesh which is also demarcates the lower boundary of rice,
known as Orchid State of India. India except in some edges where rice grows even
produces about 13 per cent of the world’s in 100 cm of annual rainfall. Though rice
vegetables.. It is an important producer displays overall dominance, considering the
of pea, cauliflower, onion, cabbage, tomato, secondary importance of other crops, this
brinjal and potato. region may be subdivided into following
1. Rice-Jute-Tea: This association of
The study of crop combinations constitutes
crops occurs in farthest east,
an important aspect of agricultural
near Assam Valley northern West
geography. In fact, it provides a good
Bengal and lower Gangetic plains.
basis foragricultural regionalization
and helps in the formulation of 2. Rice-Pulses-Millets-: This
strategy for agricultural development. association occurs in the western
Crops are generally grown in combinations section of the former zone,
and it is rarely that a particular crop occupies covering central Bihar, eastern
a position of total isolation. The distribution Madhya Pradesh and eastern Uttar
maps of and their concentrationare Pradesh.
interesting and helps in knowing the
density and concentration of individual 3. Rice-Millets: This zone comprises
crops, but it is even more important to view the entire Andhra Pradesh, south
theintegrated assemblage of the various Orissa and some parts of Tamil
crops in a region. Nadu.
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4. Rice-Coffee-Spices: This zone is River Valleys are basically heartlands of
found in the southern extremity of cotton cultivation. As a cash-crop, cotton
Kerala and Tamil Nadu. cultivation is always associated with one
food grain cultivation, preferably Jowar,
THE JOWAR-BAJRA REGION Bajra or oil seeds. The different sub-regions
This crop combination occurs relatively
in less rainfall region of 50-100 cm in red 1. Cotton-Jowar-Bajra grows in close
soil region. As the region is drought association with one another in
prone, Jowar-Bajra is more popular. the Maharashtra and Western
Madhya Pradesh.
1. Jowar-Cotton in Maharashtra. 2. Cotton-Oilseeds-Combination
2. J o w a r - C o t t o n - O i l s e e d s - developed in Gujarat.
Millets in Karnataka and Maharashtra. 3. C o t t o n - P u l s e s - R i c e - R e g i o n
3. Jowar-Wheat in entire Rajasthan, developed in Narmada banks and
Haryana and some parts of Uttar eastern Gujarat.
4. Bajra-Jowar-Pulses in Rajasthan THE MILLET-MAIZE REGION
desert and semi-desert areas.
The cultivation of millet, maize and ragi are
THE WHEAT REGION found in close association with other major
cereals like bajra, wheat, rice etc. Maize
This region covers the entire north-western cultivation dominates in Rajasthan,
India including the state of Punjab, Gujarat, and Madhya Pradesh. In Himachal
Haryana, Uttar Pradesh and Rajasthan. Pradesh, Maize-Barley-wheat
The major sub-regions are: combination has developed, particularly in
the foothills of the Himalayas. Some parts
1. Wheat-Maize-Sugar Cane: This of the Aravalli have the peculiar crop
region comprises a combination of Maize-Cotton-Oilseeds-
greater part of wheat regions, Millets-Wheat. Ragi cultivation
covering West Uttar Pradesh, predominates in South of Karnataka.
Himachal Pradesh and Jammu.
2. W h e a t - J o w a r - B a j r a i n I n d u s THE FRUIT & SPICE REGION
Plain covering Punjab and Haryana.
3. Wheat-Jowar-Bajra in Vindhyan This is the smallest region among the
scarp land and Malwa Bundel- different crop regions. High-altitude hilly
khand plateau. areas come under the territory of this
region. The ‘Duns’and valleys in Himalayas,
foothills of Nilgiri, Annamalai, Palni and
Cardamom hills in Tamil Nadu and Kerala
may be classified as fruit and spice region.
In the black cotton soil as regur region in Here, the dominant agricultural activity
the North West India, cotton cultivation is fruit orchards and plantations.
predominates. The cotton cultivation covers
the Deccan trap region and Gujarat Plain. CATTLE REARING:Cattle rearing are an
The Narmada, Tapti, Purna, Sabarmati important economic activity in India. Milk
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and milk products (Butter, Ghee etc.) meat, Pradesh are major states where
eggs, leather, and silk are raw materials for sheep are in large numbers.
industries. Animals provide a large
proportion of energy required in the farm FISHING:Fishing has been an important
sector. The bullocks, buffaloes, horses, occupation of the people in the coastal
ponies, camel etc. are used as draught areas.Fisheries are of two types (i) the inland
animals. and (ii) the open sea. The inland fishing is
done in rivers, tanks, ponds and canals. The
major rivers like Brahmaputra, Ganga,
India is leading producer of milk in
Satluj, Narmada, Mahanadi and Godavari;
the world. It is due to initiative taken
and numerous tanks and ponds are tapped
by government through ‘Operation
for fishing.
The largest number of livestock is
The rapid increase in the production
found in Uttar Pradesh followed by the
of fish in the country is called Blue
states of Rajasthan, Bihar and
Revolution. This is synonymous with
Madhya Pradesh.
shrimp farming or Aquaplosion.
Sheep are found mostly in the cold
and dry regions of the country. They
Open sea fishing or marine fishing,
develop hoof diseases in hot and
done in sea water, is caught in
humid climate. Rajasthan, Tamil
shallow water in our country. More
Nadu, Jammu & Kashmir, Himachal
than two-thirds of marine fish is
Pradesh, Andhra Pradesh and Uttar
landed on western coast of India.

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India is a country with oldest geological that of Schist includes mica, talc,
bodies and features. It has a very unique hornblende etc.
geological and structural conditions of
The Dharwar System
almost all ages of the geological time scale.
All kinds of rock masses, mineral deposits, The weathering of the Archaean
mineral fuels including coal and oil rocks yielded the earliest sediments
resources occur in India. and formed the oldest sedimentary
Based on this complex and varied geological strata, the Dharwar system.
history, the Geological Survey of India has These are found today in
classified rock systems of the country into metamorphic forms and do not
4 major divisions: contain fossils.
These rocks occur in Dharwar-
The Indian Corresponding Bellary-Mysore belt of Karnataka,
Classification period of earth’s Ranchi and Hazaribagh in
h’s Jharkhand, Meghalaya plateau,
Geological time scale
Balaghat and Rewa in Madhya
Archean Early Precambrian Eon
Pradesh, Bastar and Dantewara in
Purana Later Precambrian Eon Chattisgarh, Sundergarh and
Dravadian 600-400 myr Keonjhar in Odisha, Aravalis,
Himalayan region etc
Aryan 400 myr to present
The Dharwar rocks are economically
The Archaean rock system (Early Pre- the most important rocks because
Cambrian) they possess valuable minerals like
The Archaean group of rocks consists of two high-grade iron ore, manganese,
systems- copper, lead, gold, quartzite, slates,
mica, etc.
(a) The Archaean granites and gneisses
(b) The Dharwar System The Purana Rock System (Late Pre-
The Archaean Gneisses and Schists
The Archean System contains the The Archaean gneiss and the Dharwar rocks
first formed rocks of the earth. underwent further erosion leading to the
formation of the Purana Rock system.
The rocks are primarily gneisses and
The Purana rock system is further
granites, having no marks of fossils.
subdivided into (i) the Cuddapah and (ii) the
The system is generally known as Vindhyan
the basement complex or
fundamental gneisses. The Cuddapah
The Archaean rocks cover two-thirds These rocks are generally without
of the peninsular India. fossils
The mineral composition of Gneiss These formations, named after the
varies from granite to gabro whereas Cuddapah district in Andhra Pradesh
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are sedimentary metamorphic Chhattisgarh (Dantewara, Bastar,
formations. etc), Jharkhand and Odisha and
These are found in Andhra Pradesh along the main axis of Aravallis.
(Cuddapah, Kurnool), southern The principle rocks of the Cuddapah
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System are inferior quality of iron- purpose quartzite and cement grade
ore, manganese ore, asbestos, limestone.
copper, nickel, cobalt (Delhi System), The metallic content in ores of
marble, jasper, deposits of building Cuddapah rocks is low and at places
uneconomical for extraction.

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The Vindhyan System rocks are buried under the Deccan
This system derives its name from
It stretches from Sasaram in Bihar
the Vindhyan mountains
to Chittorgarh in Rajasthan with the
Consists of enormous sedimentary
exception of the central tract of
deposits. In some tracts, Vindhyan
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Bundelkhand gneiss which makes a Panna and Golconda lie in the
gap in this belt. Teses rocks are also Vindhayan region.
found in Chattisgarh, Bhima valley
of Karnataka andKurnool district of This rock system is well known for red
Andhra Pradesh. sandstone, sandstone, durable
stones, ornamental stones, raw
The well-known diamond mines of materials for lime, glass, cement and
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chemical industries but they are Odisha, the Godavari valley.
devoid of metalliferous minerals.
Gondwana rocks contain nearly 98
The Dravidian Rock system (Cambrian to percent of India’s coal reserves.
middle carboniferous) Gondwana coal is much younger than
the Carboniferous coal and hence its
The formations of this period are carbon content is low.
almost absent in the Peninsular They also have deposits of Iron ore,
India except near Umaria in Rewa. copper, uranium and antimony.
These formations exist in the Pir-
Panjal, Handwara, Lidder-Valley,
The Deccan Trap:
AnantnagofKashmir Uammu &
Kashmir), Spiti, Kangra, Shimla
region (Himachal Pradesh), and Towards the end of the Mesozoic era,
Garhwal and Kumaun intensive volcanic activity took place,
(Uttarakhand). which flooded with lava vast areas of
It was during this period that the Maharashtra and other parts of the
Pangaea was broken and the Tethys Deccan known as the Deccan traps.
Sea came into existence. Present Deccan Trap covers about 5
The Cambrian rocks include shales, lakh sq km mainly in parts of
sandstones, clays, quartzites slates, Kuchchh, Saurashtra, Maharashtra
salts, marble, etc. the Malwa plateau and northern
They are source of quartz, agate and
The Aryan Rock system (Upper
road building material.
Carboniferous to recent)
The weathering of these rocks for a
long time has given birth to black
The Gondwana System: cotton soil known as ‘regur’.
The peninsula during the Upper
Carboniferous period experienced
crustal movements, which led to the
formation of basin-shaped
depressions. These depressions had
countless terrestrial plants and
animals, which were buried to from
coal deposits in India known as the
Gondwana Rocks.
These rocks have also marks of
climatic changes from arctic cold to
tropical and desert conditions.
These Rocks are found mainly in the
Damodar and Son valley, the
Mahanadi valley in Chattisgarh and

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Tertiary System The tertiary is the most significant
Eocene to Pliocene about 60 to 7 period in India’s geological history
million years ago. because the Himalayas were born
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and India’s present form came into very recent deposits, which contains
being in this period. fossils of species with living
The Pleistocene and recent formations
These include Satluj-Ganga-
(The quaternary period)
Brahmaputra plains and Karewa
Quaternary is the name proposed for formations of the Kashmir valley.
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Mineral Resource (Jharkhand), Odisha Plateau, West

Bengal and parts of Chhattisgarh.
India is endowed with a rich variety of mineral It has variety of minerals viz. iron ore
resources due to its varied geological coal, manganese, bauxite, mica.
structure. Bulk of the valuable minerals are The Chhotanagpur plateau is known
products of pre-palaezoic age and are mainly as the mineral heart land of India, also
associated with metamorphic and igneous Ruhr of India.
rocks of the peninsular India.On the basis of
chemical and physical properties, minerals The South-Western Plateau Region:
may be grouped under two main categories
of metallics and non-metallics. This belt extends over Karnataka, Goa
and contiguous Tamil Nadu uplands
Metallic minerals are the sources of and Kerala.
metals. Iron ore, copper, gold produce This belt is rich in ferrous metals and
metal and are included in this category. bauxite. It also contains high grade
Metallic minerals are further divided iron ore, manganese and limestone.
into ferrous and non-ferrous metallic This belt packs in coal deposits except
minerals. All those minerals which Neyveli lignite.
have iron content are ferrous such as This belt does not have as diversified
iron ore itself and those which do not mineral deposits as the north-eastern
have iron content are non-ferrous belt. Kerala has deposits of monazite
such as copper, bauxite, etc. and thorium, bauxite clay. Goa has
Non-metallic minerals are either iron ore deposits.
organic in origin such as fossil fuels
also known as mineral fuels which are The North-Western Region:
derived from the buried animal and
plant life such as coal and petroleum. This belt extends along Aravali in
Other type of non-metallic minerals are Rajasthan and part of Gujarat and
inorganic in origin such as mica, minerals are associated with Dharwar
limestone and graphite, etc. system of rocks.
Copper, zinc have been major
Distribution of Minerals in India : minerals. Rajasthan is rich in
building stones i.e. sandstone,
Minerals are generally concentrated in granite, marble. Gypsum and
three broad belts in India. There may Fuller’s earth deposits are also
be some sporadic occurrences here extensive. Dolomite and limestone
and there in isolatedpockets. These provide raw materials for cement
belts are : industry. Gujarat is known for its
petroleum deposits.
The North-Eastern Plateau Region:
The Himalayan belt is another mineral
This belt covers Chhotanagpur belt where copper, lead, zinc, cobalt
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and tungsten are known to occur. (Nishi-khal), Koraput (Kutinga),
They occur on both the eastern and Bolangir, Keonjhar, Mayurbhanj.
western parts. b) Maharashtra: Nagpur (Kodergaon,
Assam valley has mineral oil Gumgaon, Ramdongiri), Bhandara,
deposits. Besides oil resources are Ratnagiri.
also found in off-shore-areas near c) Karnakata: Shimoga, Chitradurga,
Mumbai Coast (Mumbai High). Bellary, North canara.
d) M.P.: Balaghat, Chindwara, Jhabua,
Metallic Minerals: Jabalpur.
Telangana, Goa, and Jharkhand are
1. Iron ore:
other minor producers of
India is endowed with fairly abundant
resources of superior quality iron ore. 3. Bauxite:
Bauxite is the ore which is used in
a) Odisha– Mayurbhanj (Guruma-
manufacturing of aluminium.
hisani, Sulaipet, Badampahar ),
Bauxite is found mainly in tertiary
Keonjhar (Kiruburu), Sundergarh
deposits and is associated with
laterite rocks occurring extensively
b) Jharkhand– Singhbhum (Noamu-
either on the plateau or hill ranges
ndi and Gua).
of peninsular India and also in the
c) Chattisgarh – Bastar- Bailadila;
coastal tracts of the country.
Durg- Dalli-Rajhara.
a) Odisha (33%): Kalahandi,
d) Karnataka: Bellary (Sandur-
Sundergarh, Koraput and
Hos-pet area), Chikmanglur (
Bababudan Hills, Kudremukh),
b) M.P.: Amarkantak Plateau-
Sargujar, Raigarh, Bilaspur;
The districts of Chandrapur, Bhandara
Maikala Range – Balaghat; Katni
and Ratnagiri in Maharashtra,
Range – Jabalpur.
Karimnagar and Warangal district of
c) Jharkhand: Palamu, Lohardaga,
Telangana, Kurnool, Cuddapah and
Anantapur districts of Andhra Pradesh,
d) Gujarat: Jamnagar, Khaira,
Salem and Nilgiris districts of Tamil
Nadu and Goa are other iron mining
e) Maharashtra: Kolhapur, Kolaba,
Satara, Ratnagiri,
2. Manganese: Tamil Nadu, Karnataka and Goa are
minor producers of Bauxite.
Manganese is an important raw
material for smelting of iron ore and 4. Copper:
also used for manufacturing ferro
Copper is an indispensable metal in
alloys. Manganese deposits are found
the electrical industry for making
in almost all geological formations,
wires, electric motors, transformers
however, it is mainly associated with
and generators. It is alloyable,
Dharwar system.
malleable and ductile. It is also mixed
with gold to provide strength to
a) Odisha: Sundargarh, Kalahandi
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a) Jharkhand – Singhbhum ( 50% b) Rajasthan – Khetri- Singhana
of total country’s reserves at Area (Kolihan, Mandhan, Akwali,
Mosabani, Rakha, Dhobani, Rajdah, Berkhera), Dariba .
Surdah, Pathargara, Tamapahar, c) M.P. – Balaghat (Malanjkhand)

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Other producer of copper are Non-Metallic minerals:
Agnigundala in Guntur District
(Andhra Pradesh), Chitradurg and 1. Mica:
Hasan districts (Karnataka) and South
Arcot district (Tamil Nadu). Mica is mainly used in the electrical
and electronic industries. It can be
5. Gold: split into very thin sheets which are
tough and flexible. India is largest
India is poor in Gold reserves.There producer and exporter of mica.
are three main areas- Kolar district a) Jharkhand- A belt existing over 150
of Karnataka, Hutti mines in km in length and 20-22 km in width in
Raichur district of Karnataka and lower Hazaribagh plateau. Kodarma
Ramgiri gold mines in Anantpur mines are one of the most important
district in Andhra Pradesh. mica producing region of India.
Negligible amount of gold is also
obtained from the sands of river b) Bihar- Gaya district
Subarnarekha. c) Andhra Pradesh- Gudur , Sangam
& Nellore are the main producing
6. Silver: regions of Green- mica, also called
Electrical- mica (lightest of all types).
India is poor in Silver reserves.
d) Rajasthan- mica belt extends for
Rajasthan, Karnataka, Jharkhand
about 320 kms from Jaipur to Bhilwara
and Tamil Nadu have deposits of
and around Udaipur.
silver. Galena and the Lead-Zinc
ores of Zawar are the principle
source of silver. 2. Limestone

Limestone rocks are composed of

either calcium carbonate, the double
7. Lead and Zinc: carbonate of calcium and magnesium,
or mixture of both.
These two minerals generally Limestone deposits are of sedimentary
occurs together. origin and exist in all the geological
sequences from Pre-Cambrian to
a) Rajasthan – Zawar and Banjawi
Recent except in Gondwana.
An important raw material for cement,
b) Andhra Pradesh –Zangamarajupalle iron and steel industry.
(in Chuddapah district) limestone is also used in paper, sugar,
fertilizers, etc.
8. Tin: India is poor in Tin reserves. The chief Almost all the states of India produce
deposits are found in Bihar and Jharkhand. some quantity of limestone.
Over three-fourths of the total
limestone of India is produced by
9. Nickel: India is poor in Nickel reserves. Madhya Pradesh, Rajasthan,
Mainly found in Mayurbhanj and Cuttack Andhra Pradesh, Gujarat,
district of Odisha. Chhattisgarh and Tamil Nadu.
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3. Dolomite Singhbhum and Hazaribagh
districts of Jharkhand, Gaya
Limestone with more than 10 per district of Bihar, and in the
cent of magnesium is called sedimentary rocks in Saharanpur
dolomite. district of Uttar Pradesh.
When the percentage rises to 45, it But the largest source of uranium
is true dolomite. comprise the monazite sands.
Iron and Steel industry is the chief
Monazite sands occur on east and
consumer of dolomite [90 per cent]
west coasts and in some places in
followed by fertilizer, ferro-alloys
Bihar. But the largest concentration
and glass.
of monazite sand is on the Kerala
Dolomite is widely distributed in the
all parts of the country.
Orissa, Chhattisgarh, Andhra Over 15,200 tonnes of uranium is
Pradesh, Jharkhand, Rajasthan estimated to be contained in monazite.
and Karnataka are the main
producing states and contribute Some uranium is found in the copper
more than 90 per cent of the total mines of Udaipur in Rajasthan.
Thorium: It is derived from monazite. It is
produced in Kerala, Jharkhand, Bihar, Tamil
4. Asbestos Nadu, and Rajasthan. In addition to uranium
and thorium, beryllium and lithium are also
It is a fibrous material and is used the atomic minerals found mainly in
for making sheets used in building Jharkhand, Madhya Pradesh, and Rajasthan.
construction. Its deposits are found
in Andhra Pradesh and Jharkhand.
Beryllium: Its reserves are in the states of
5. Gypsum- It is used in cement industry Rajasthan, Jharkhand, Andhra Pradesh and
and for reclamation of alkaline soils. Jodhpur Tamil Nadu.
and Bikaner districts of Rajasthan have rich
deposits of gypsum. Other deposits are found
in Tamil Nadu, Jammu and Kashmir, Uttar Zircon: It is found mainly in the coastal sand
Pradesh, Gujarat and Himachal Pradesh. of Kerala.

6. Diamond- Panna belt in M.P is the most

important area in India for diamonds. Other Antimony: It is found Himachal Pradesh and
area s are in Andhra Pradesh and Karnataka. Madhya Pradesh.

7. Barytes- Andhra Pradesh and Maharastra

have Barytes deposits. Graphite: Odisha is the largest producer of
graphite. Its largest reserve is in
Atomic minerals in India:
Ramanathpuram in Tamil Nadu. Its
Uranium: reserves are also in Jharkhand, Rajasthan
and Andhra Pradesh.
Uranium deposits occur in
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Energy Resources: Chattisgarh and Odisha. Korba and
Talcher are important coal fields.
Energy is the key to development. In The Godavari valley Coalfield- Mainly
fact, the amount of energy production in Telangana. Singreni coalfield is the
and consumption is sometimes most important.
considered as an index of a country’s
The Wardha valley Coalfield- In
economic development. India is
Maharashtra. Chandrapur,
growing fast. Energy is central to
Yavatmalare major coal fields.
achieving India’s development
ambitions, to support an expanding The Rajmahal Coalfield- In Jharkhand.
economy, to bring electricity to those Lalmatia is an important coal field.
who remain without it, to fuel the Tertiary Coalfields- Meghalaya
demand for greater mobility and to (Dadenggiri, Cherrapunji,Maolong),
develop the infrastructure to meet the Upper Assam (Makum, Nazia, jeypore),
needs of what is soon expected to be Arunachal Pradesh (Namchik, Namruk,
the world’s most populous country. Dingrak), Jammu and Kashmir
Conventional (Non-Renewable) Energy
Resources: The brown coal or lignite occur in the
coastal areas of Tamil Nadu,
1. Coal: Pondicherry, Gujarat and Jammu and
Coal is a one of the important minerals
which is mainly used in the generation Types of Coal or Coal Energy
of thermal power and smelting of iron
ore. The amount of fixed carbon and hydro carbons
Coal occurs in rock sequences mainly forms the basis of classification of coal into
of two geological ages, namely various types given as under:
Gondwana and tertiary deposits.
About 80 per cent of the coal deposits Anthracite is a hard and dense coal which is
in India is of bituminous type and is relatively free of iron compounds and
of non-coking grade. moisture. The amount affixed carbon may be
as high as 95 percent. It is jet black, lustrous
and has a fine texture. It burns with a blue
Major Coal areas-
flame and gives no smoke.
The Damodar Valley Coalfield- in
Jharkahnd and West Bengal. Jharia, Bituminous coal is unusually black and
Chandrapura, Bokaro, Giridih, highly lustrous. The moisture content is
Karanpura in Jharkhand and Raniganj relatively low. The fixed carbon content ranges
in West Bengal are major coal fields. from about 50 to over 80% and that of volatile
The Son Vally Coalfield- mainly in matter from 40 to 15 per cent.
Madhya Pradesh and partly in Uttar
Pradesh. Singrauli, Umaria, Lignite is also known as brown coal. The
Tatapani are the major coalfields. higher grades vary from dark brown to
The Mahanadi Valley Coalfield- In almost black. It is characterized by high
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moisture content, generally about 40%. Peat occurs in bogs, especially in areas of
The fixed carbon content is also about 40%. cool temperate climates.
The structure is fibrous, and sometimes
2. Petroleum
woody. It has the tendency to crumble into
fine coal in shipment and in storage. Crude petroleum consists of

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hydrocarbons of liquid and gaseous large amount, thus considered
states varying in chemical perpetual energy resource and is
composition, colour and specific considered major future source of
gravity. energy.
Solar energy influences earth’s climate.
It is an essential source of energy for
Wind energy, biomass and hydropower
all internal combustion engines in
are the resultant of solar energy.
automobiles, railways and aircraft.
Its numerous by-products are Applications of Solar energy
processed in petrochemical industries
such as fertiliser, synthetic rubber, A. Photovoltaic: Conversion of Solar Energy
synthetic fibre, medicines, vaseline, of Electricity
lubricants, wax, soap and cosmetics.
Crude petroleum occurs in sedimentary Semiconductors when irradiated with
rocks of the tertiary period. sunlight, electrons present in their ground
state get energized to jump to an excited state
i.e. flow of electrons occur and generates
Distribution of Oilfield: electricity. The phenomenon is known as
Photovoltaic’s (PVs).
Assam- Digboi, Naharkatia, Moran-
Hugirijang, Surma valley oilfields are Thus, Photovoltaic’s are the arrays of cells
major oilfields. consisting of semiconductors that effectively
Gujarat- Ankaleshwar, Khambat, converts solar radiation into electricity (Direct
Kallol, Mehsana, Nawagam, Kosamba Current), used to power bulb or equipment
oilfields. or to recharge a battery. An inverter converts
Western offshore oilfields- Bombay DC to AC for, grid connected power
High, Bassein, Aliabet oilfields. generation.
Eastern coast oilfields- In Krishna-
Godavari river basin, Cauvery basin B. Solar Thermal
(Narimanam, Kovilappal)
Solar Thermal Power systems, also known
3. Natural Gas as Concentrating Solar Power systems, use
concentrated solar radiation as a high
It is obtained alongwith oil in all the oil temperature energy source to produce
fields but exclusive reserves have been electricity using thermal route.
located along the.
eastern coast as well as (Tamil Nadu, C. Other Applications of Solar Energy
Odisha and Andhra Pradesh), Tripura,
Rajasthan and off-shore wells in Solar cooker, Solar water heater, Solar
furnace, Solar toys, Solar air-conditioning,
Gujarat and Maharashtra.
Solar vehicle, Day lighting (solar street lights
and traffic lights etc.
Renewable Energy Resources
Advantages of Solar Energy
1. Solar Energy
(i) It is renewable energy resource.
Solar energy is available in very (ii) Solar power is pollution free.
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(iii)Solar powered instruments are easy The main criteria for a tidal power
to install and use e.g. solar panels, generation site are that the mean tidal
solar water heaters, solar lighting, range must be greater than 5 metres.
solar Pumps, solar fountains. The tidal power is harnessed by
(iv) Long life and low maintenance. building a dam across the entrance to
(v) Solar Photovoltaics are used for the a bay or estuary creating a reservoir.
electricity generation in remote and As the tide rises, water is initially
isolated areas e.g. forest, hills, prevented from entering the bay. Then
deserts. PV is frequently used in when tides are high and water is
watches, pocket calculators and sufficient to run the turbines, the dam
toys. is opened and water flows through it
into the reservoir (the bay), turning
2. Wind Energy the blades of turbines and generating
Wind energy is absolutely pollution
Again when the reservoir (the bay) is
free, inexhaustible source of energy.
filled, the dam is closed, stopping the
The kinetic energy of wind, through
flow and holding the water in reservoir
turbines is converted into electrical
when the tide falls (ebb tide), the water
level in the reservoir is higher than
The permanent wind systems such the
that in the ocean.
trade winds, westerlies and seasonal
The dam is then opened to run the
wind like monsoon have been used as
turbines (which are reversible),
source of energy. Besides these, local
electricity is produced as the water is
winds, land and sea breezes can also
let out of the reservoir.
be used to produce electricity.
The dams built to harness the tidal
The Indian wind energy sector has an
power adversely affect the vegetation
installed capacity of 32,380.18 MW (as
and wildlife.
on March 31, 2017). I
n terms of wind power installed
4. Geothermal Energy
capacity, India is ranked 5th in the
World. Today India is a major player
Geothermal energy is natural heat
in the global wind energy market.
from the interior of the earth that can
Tamil Nadu, Maharashtra, Gujarat,
be used to generate electricity as well
Rajasthan and Karnataka have the
as to heat up buildings.
large share of installed windenergy.
The core of the earth is very hot and it
3. Tidal and Wave Energy is possible to make use of this
geothermal energy.
Ocean currents are the store-house These are areas where there are
of infinite energy. Large tidal waves volcanoes, hot springs, and geysers,
are known to occur along the west and methane under the water in the
coast of India. Hence, India has oceans and seas.
great potential for the development In some countries, such as in the
of tidal energy along the coasts. USA water is pumped from
Tidal power projects attempt to underground hot water deposits and
harness the energy of tides as they used for heating of houses.
flow in and out. Geothermal energy in India
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In India, Northwestern Himalayas includes agricultural residues,
and the western coast are municipal, industrial and other
considered geothermal areas. wastes.
The Geological Survey of India has Bioenergy is a potential source of
already identified more than 350 hot energy conversion. It can be
spring sites, which can be explored converted into electrical energy,
as areas to tap geothermal energy. heat energy or gas for cooking.
The Puga valley in the Ladakh region It will also process the waste and
has the most promising geothermal garbage and produce energy.
This will improve economic life of
rural areas in developing countries,
5. Bio-energy
reduce environmental pollution,
enhance self-reliance and reduce
Bio-energy refers to energy derived
pressure on fuel wood.
from biological products which


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Industry implies the transformation of owned by the state and its agencies,
existent materials into something new, into like Bharat heavy Electricals Ltd. or
goods that are used as end-products Bhilai Steel Plant or Durgapur Steel
themselves, or are utilized to manufacture Plant and Integral Coach Factory at
more goods. Kapurthala are public sector
Industries can be classified into several (iii)Joint Sector Industries: Industries
groups. A brief account is given below: owned jointly by the private firms and
the state or its agencies, such as
1. On the basis of strength of Labour: Gujarat alkalies Ltd. or Oil India Ltd.,
fall in the group of joint sector
(i) Large-scale Industries industries.
(ii) Medium-scale Industries
(iii) Small-scale Industries 4. On the basis of source of Raw Material:

2. On the basis of Raw Material and Finished (i) Agro-based Industries: Agro-based
Goods: industries are those industries which
obtain raw material from agriculture.
(i) Heavy Industries: Industries, which Cotton textile, jute textile, silk, sugar,
use heavy and bulky raw materials and vegetable oil and paper industry are
produce products of the same representative industries of agro-
category, are called heavy industries. based group of industries.
Iron and steel industry presents a (ii) Mineral-based Industries: The
good example of heavy industries. industries that receive raw material
(ii) Light Industries: The light industries primarily from minerals such as iron
use light raw materials and produce and steel, aluminium and cement
similar finished products. Textile industries fall in this category.
industry, electronics, fans, sewing (iii)Pastoral-based Industries: These
machines are light industries. industries depend upon animals for
their raw material. Hide, skin, bone,
3. On the basis of Ownership: Since the horn, shoes, dairy, etc., are some of
beginning of the planned development of the pastoral-based industries.
Indian economy in 1951, industries are (iv) Forest-based Industries: The
divided into the following three classes: industries which use forest products
as their raw materials are known as
(i) Private Sector Industries: Industries forest-based industries. Paper, card-
owned by individuals or firms such as board, lac, rayon, resin, basket, etc.
Bajaj Auto or TISCO situated at are examples of forest based
Jamshedpur are called private sector industries:
(ii) Public Sector Industries: Industries 5. Miscellaneous Industries: Industries can

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also be classified into the following categories: However, recent technological
developments in transport as well as
(i) Village industries: Village industries processing, the use of scrap as raw
are located in villages and primarily material and agglomeration economies
cater to the needs of the rural people. make market location, especially
They usually employ local machinery coastal, advantageous as well.
such as oil extractor, flour-grinding The steel manufacturing centers all the
and agricultural implements. world over, exhibit different sorts of
(ii) Cottage Industries: Industries which locational orientation, viz,
artisans set up in their own houses,
a) Near coal deposits or iron ore mining
work with wood, cane, brass, stone,
areas, especially for inland location;
etc., are called cottage industries.
Handloom Khadi and leather work at b) Near the major steel consuming
centers; or
the artisans’ house fall in this category.
(iii)Consumer Industries: Consumer c) Sea port locations.
industries convert raw materials or
primary products into commodities Distribution
directly used by the people. Textile
industry, bakeries, etc., are some of a) TISCO: Jamshedpur (Singhbhum
the consumer industries. district, Jharkhand),
(iv) Basic Industries: Industries, on which b) IISCO (Burnpur, Hirapur, Kalti)
depend many other industries for their c) VISL (Bhadravati): (1923) on Bhadra
manufacturing processes, are called River in Karnataka, Shimoga district
basic industries. Iron and steel d) HSL-Bhilai: Largest plant in India
industry and power generating established with Soviet assistance in
industry are included in this category. 1959 in Raipur district of M.P.
(v) Capital-intensive Industries: e) HSL-Rourkela: established in 1965
Industries requiring huge investments with German assistance in
are called capital-intensive industries. Sundargarh district of Odisha.
Iron and steel, cement and aluminium f) HSL-Durgapur: established in 1962
are capital-intensive industries. with British assistance in Burdwan
(vi) Labour-intensive Industries: Such district of West- Bengal.
industries which require huge labour g) BSL-Bokro: established in 1972 with
force for running them are called Soviet collaboration in Hazaribag
labour-intensive industries. In these district on the confluence of Bokaro
industries, labour is more important and Damodar rivers.
than capital. Shoe- manufacturing and h) Salem: Tamil Nadu
bidi making, etc. are included in these i) Vishakhpatnam: first integrated plant
industries. in the coastal area

Iron and Steel Industry Aluminum Industry

The location of steel industry is Aluminium Industry in India is one of the

generally oriented to one or the other leading industries in the Indian economy. The
raw material sources, mainly iron ore main operations of the India aluminium
or coal. industry is mining of ores, refining of the ore,
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casting, alloying, sheet, and rolling into foils. Alumina is produced at Muri from
India is the sixth largest producer of bauxite bauxite available at Bagru Hills.
and ninth largest producer of alumina in the e) Mettur (Madras Al. Co. Ltd.) T. N.:
world. Bauxite – Sheravoy Hill. Electricity –
Mettur HEP.
Locational Factors: f) Ratnagiri (Bharat Al. Co. Ltd.)
Maharashtra: Bauxite – Kolaba,
a) Aluminium is a raw material oriented Kolhapur, satara of Udaigiri
industry as it grossly weight loosing. Dhangarvedi region. Koyna HEP
b) Bauxite is the basic raw material in provides power.
the aluminium manufacturing process. g) Nalco (National Al. CO Ltd): established
Bauxite is converted into alumina in in 1981.
alumina refineries.
c) Due to the high quality of bauxite and Textile Industry
close proximity between bauxite mines
and alumina refineries, the cost of A. Cotton Textile Industry
bauxite to Indian producer is one-third
of that of global producers. Cotton textile industry comprises of three
d) Other raw materials used in the sectors: mill sector, handloom and power-
manufacturing process are calcine, loom. The share of large mill, handloom and
petroleum, coke, caustic soda, power-loom sector in the total production of
aluminium fluoride, fuel oil, steam coal cotton cloth in 1998-99 was 5.4 per cent, 20.6
and anthracite coal. per cent and 74 per cent respectively.
e) The reduction of bauxite into alumina
requires heavy amount of energy. The Cotton and synthetic fiber textile
Therefore, beside nearness to bauxite industry has made tremendous progress. Per
deposits, cheap availability of power capita availability of cloth from both the types
is the major consideration in the was 15 meters only in 1960-61. In the year
location of this industry. 1995-96, it has risen to 28 meters.

Major Production Centers This has enabled us to export cotton yarn,

cotton fabrics and cotton and synthetic
a) Korba – (Bharat Al. Co. Ltd): Bauxite – garments on a large scale. In 1995-96 we
Amarkantak – Phula- Kapahara region, earned 2.6 billion dollars by their exports.
Electricity- Korba Thermal Power Plant.
Transport – Harwa- Nagpur Rail-line. Distribution: Cotton Textile Industry
b) Renukoot (Hindustan All. Co. Ltd): set
up in 1988 as one of the biggest unit. a) Cotton textile industry is one of the
Bauxite – Bagni Hills (Bihar) and most widely distributed industries in
Amarkanatak Mts. Electricity – Rihand our country. These mills are located
Dam. in more than 88 centers in different
c) Belgaum (Indian Al. Co. Ltd.): Bauxite parts of the country. But majority of
– Chandgad, (Kohlapur Dist). cotton textile mills are still located in
Electricity – Sharavati Hep. the cotton growing areas of the Great
d) Alwaye (Indian Al. Co. Ltd.): both Plains and peninsular India.
convert alumina into Aluminium metal. b) Maharashtra is the leading producer
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of cotton textile in the country. c) Means of transport – This region is
Mumbai is the major centre of textile well connected with the rest of India
mills. About a half of the Cotton textile by roads and railways. It, therefore,
mills are located in Mumbai alone. It facilities transportation of finished
is, therefore, rightly called as products.
‘Cottonpolis’ of India. Sholapur, d) Accessibility to the market –
Kohlapur, Nagpur, Pune, Aurangabad Maharashtra and Gujarat has a large
and Jalgaon are other important market to sell textile products here.
centers in Maharashtra. Developed means of transportation
c) Gujarat, which ranks second in the help in movement of textile products
production of cotton textiles, to other market centers as well as to
Ahamedabad is the major centre of the foreign market. Nowadays the market
state. Surat, Bharauch, Vadodara, has become a dominant factor in
Bhavnagar and Rajkot are other determining the location of cotton
centers in the state. textile industry.
d) Tamil Nadu has emerged as an e) Nearness to ports – Mumbai port
important producer of cotton textiles facilitates the import of machinery and
in southern states. Coimbatore is an good quality of cotton from abroad and
important centre in the state. export of the finished products.
Tirunelveli, Chennai, Madurai,
f) Cheap labour – Cheap and skilled
Tiruchirapalli, Salem and Thanjavour
labour is easily available from the
are other important centers here.
surrounding areas.
e) In Karnataka, cotton textile industry
is concentrated at Bangalore, Mysore, g) Availability of power – Cheap and
Belgaum and Gulberga. sufficient power is easily available
f) Kanpur, Etawah, Modinagar, Varanasi,
and Hathras are important centers in
Uttar Pradesh. B. Silk Textile Industry
g) In Madhya Pradesh this industry is
concentrated at Indore and Gwalior. Indian Silk is known for its exquisiteness
h) Howrah, Serampur and Murshidabad world over and has a long history of silk
are important Cotton textile centers exports. The silk was mainly produced by the
in West Bengal. handloom sector. Only in the late 20th
i) Rajasthan, Punjab, Haryana and century the modern silk fabric manufacturing
Andhra Pradesh are the other states techniques developed. Even today the finer
producing cotton textiles. or the special textured fabrics are done on
the handlooms.
Factors for the localization of textile
industry: Ahmadabad– Mumbai – Pune India holds 2nd position after China in the
region field of silk production. There are four
a) Availability of raw material – A large different types of silk- (1) Mulberry (2) Tasar
amount of cotton is grown in this belt. (3) Eri (4) Muga (golden yellow).
b) Availability of capital – Mumbai,
Ahmadabad and Pure are the places India is also the 2nd largest producer of tasar
where capital for investment is easily after China. India has also a monopoly in
available. Muga, Assam is the only producer.
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The first modern factory was established in Varanasi & Bombay are the main silk weaving
1932 at Howrah. State wise the distribution centres.
of silk industry is as follow:-
C. Jute Industry
Karnataka: 70% of total country’s silk output
(only Mulberry). Jute is a rain-fed crop with little need for
fertilizer or pesticides. The production is
a) Production area: Banglore, Mysore, concentrated in India and Bangladesh. India
Kolar, Mandya, Tumkur, Belgaum and with overall of 66% of world’s production tops
Coorg districts. the production of jute. Bangladesh with 25%
b) Mill- Channapatna, Mysore. lies at second position followed way behind
by China with 3%.
Assam: 2% of total country putput, third
largest producer of non-mulberry silk and the It supports nearly 4 million farm families,
only Muga producing region. besides providing direct employment to about
2.6 lakh industrial workers and livelihood to
a) Production – Goalpara, Kamrup, another 1.4 lakh people in the tertiary and
Nawgaong; Mill – Jagi-Road. allied activities.

West Bengal: 13% of the country’s production, Locational factors for high concentration
mostly mulberry. of jute mills in Hugli basin are as follows:

a) Production – Malda, Murshidabad, a) The Ganga-Brahmaputra delta grows

Birbhum, Bankura. about 90 per cent of India’s jute and
b) Mill- Bishnerpur, Baswa, Raghuna- provides raw material to jute mills
thpur, Chak-Islampur here.
Jharkhand: 8% of the country’s production, b) Coal is obtained from Raniganj fields
mostly tassar. which are hardly 200 km away.
c) Cheap water transportation is
a) Production- Palamu, Ranchi, available. The area is also served by a
Hazaribagh. network of roads and railways.
Bihar – Bhagalpur. d) Abundant water is available for
processing, washing and dyeing jute.
M.P.: 2.7% of the country, largest tassar
producer after Bihar e) Humid climate is very convenient for
spinning and weaving.
a) Production – Balaghat, Bastar, f) Kolkata is a big port which helps in
Bilaspur, Raigarh, Surguja the import of machinery and spare
parts and in the export of finished jute
J&K: mostly mulberry producer; “Tabby”- products.
white plain silk of J&K
g) High density of population in West
Bengal and in the neighbouring parts
b) Production – Anantnag, Baramula,
of Jharkhand and Bihar provides
Doda, Jammu, Udhampur.
abundant cheap labour. Some labour
Odisha: Tasar producer. comes from Uttar Pradesh also.
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h) Big capitalists are living in and around which can carry it upto 20-25
Kolkata which makes easy flow of kilometers. Recently tractor trolleys
capital in this industry. and trucks have been used to carry
i) Banking and insurance facilities are sugarcane to the sugar mills.
also available in and around Kolkata. 3) Beside these factors, capital, market,
j) The early arrival of British merchants labour and power also play significant
under the aegis of East India Company role in localization of this industry.
in Kolkata helped in setting this
industry here. So Kolkata enjoys the Reasons for shifting of sugar industry from
advantage of an early start. North India to Peninsular India

Agro Industries Sugarcane industry is gradually shifting from

north Indian states to states in Peninsular
A. Sugar Industry India. Some of the important reasons:

Sugar industry is the second largest agro- 1) The production of sugarcane per
based industry of India. If we take Gur, hectare is higher is Peninsular India.
Khandsari and Sugar together, then India In fact, sugarcane crop grows well in
becomes the largest producer of sugar the tropical climate of south India.
product in the world. This industry employs 2) The sucrose content is higher in the
about 2.5 lakh people. tropical variety of sugarcane grown in
the south.
3) The crushing season in south India is
longer than in north India.
Most of the sugar mills are concentrated in
4) In south India most of the mills have
six states, namely Uttar Pradesh, Bihar,
Maharashtra, Tamil Nadu, Karnataka and modern machinery.
Andhra Pradesh. 5) Most of the mills in Peninsular India
are in cooperative sector, where profit
Localization Factors maximization is not the sole objective.

The following are the factors for the B. Tea Industry

localization of sugar industry –
Nearly 98 per cent of the tea production comes
1) Sugarcane is the main raw material from Assam, West Bengal, Tamil Nadu, Kerala
for making sugar. Sugar mills can be and Karnataka. Some tea is also grown in
set up only in the sugarcane Himachal Pradesh, Arunachal Pradesh,
producing areas. Sugarcane gets dry Manipur and Tripura.
soon after harvesting. It can neither
be stored nor kept for long period of The tea estates are generally set upon cleared
time. Sugarcane should be taken hill slopes while in Assam, tea cultivation is
immediately to the sugar mills after done in the lowlands, above the flood level.
harvesting. The production of tea has more than doubled
2) Transportation cost of sugarcane is since independence mainly through increase
high. Generally sugarcane is in yield by improved varieties and optimum
transported through bullock carts use of inputs.
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The tea industry provides direct gainful D. Leather Goods Industry
employment to more than one million workers
mainly drawn from the backward and socially Hides and skins are the basic raw materials
weaker sections of the society. which come from pelts of cattle and large
animals and small ones like goat and sheep.
It is also a substantial foreign exchange earner India has a large livestock population.
and provides significant contribution to the
state and central exchequer. West Bengal and Tamil Nadu are the largest
producers of cattle hides and Uttar Pradesh
Tea plantations in India are mainly located in
and West Bengal of the goat skin.
rural, hill and backward areas of
north-eastern and southern states.
Rajasthan and Madhya Pradesh also produce
C. Coffee Industry substantial quality hides. Major footwear
production centres in the country include
Coffee was first grown in Bababudan Hills in Kanpur, Agra, Lucknow, Kolkata, Chennai,
Karnataka during the 17th century, but on a Mumbai, Bengaluru and Jaipur.
plantation scale, it was cultivated in
Chikmaglur (Karnataka) in 1826. Later, coffee Leather is a highly labour-oriented industry
cultivation was extended to Wynad, Shevaroy in India, and has been identified as one of
and the Nilgiris. the major thrust areas for export. It is one of
the traditional industries of India spread over
Although India contributes only a small organized and unorganized sector.
percentage of the world production, Indian
coffee has created a niche for itself in the The small-scale, cottage and artisan sector
international market. Indian robustas, are account for over 75 per cent of the total
highly preferred for their good blending leather production. India has traditionally a
quality. Arabica coffee from India is also well rich advantage in this industry both in terms
received in the international market. of raw material and skilled manpower. People
employed in this sector are predominantly
Distribution from the minorities and disadvantaged
sections of the society.
a) More than half of the country’s coffee
production comes from Karnataka, of Petrochemical Industry
which 80 per cent comes from Coorg
and Chikmagalur. Hasan is the third Petro-chemicals industry is one of the fastest
largest producer in the state. growing industries of India. This industry has
b) In Kerala, coffee is produced in Wynad revolutionized the industrial scene by
(Palghat region), Kozhikode and providing the products which are substituting
Cannanore. the traditional raw materials like wood, glass
c) In Tamil Nadu, coffee comes from the and metals.
Nilgiris, Annamalai (Coimbatore region)
Shevaroy hills (Salem district), Palani India is self sufficient in the production of
hills, Tirunelveli and Madurai. petrochemicals.
d) Small quantities come from Odisha,
Andhra Pradesh and the north- Petro-chemicals are derived from petroleum
eastern states. or natural gas. We use a variety of products
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from morning till evening made from Nitrogen provides vital foods for plants and
petrochemicals such as Toothbrushes, sustenance for human life. Ironically, in the
toothpaste, combs, hairpins, soap cases, form of nitric acid as an ingredient of
plastic mugs, electric switches, lipstick, and munitions and explosives, it causes enormous
foam etc. human destruction.

Locational Pattern Localization & Distribution:

a) The location pattern of existing as well
a) The localization of fertilizer industry
as those proposed clearly indicates
is closely related to petrochemicals.
that the refineries seek mostly sea
About 70 per cent of the plants
board location to take advantages of
producing nitrogenous fertilizer use
the imported crude or the crude
naphtha as the basic raw material.
produced by the offshore oil field like
That is why most of the fertilizer plants
Mumbai high.
are located near the oil refineries.
b) Other trend is raw material based like b) However, some fertilizer plants draw
Assam refineries which are based on their feed stock from steel slug as well
inland oilfield. as coke and lignite.
c) Further, more government policy has c) Phosphatic fertilizer plants are
played an important role in setting up primarily dependent upon mineral
of certain market based refineries like ‘phosphate’ which is available in Uttar
Mathura, Barauni and Panipat. Pradesh, Madhya Pradesh and
d) Indian Petro-Chemical Corporation has Rajasthan. Some plants are based on
set up a huge petro-chemical complex imported phosphate mineral.
near vadodara producing a wide range d) Sulphur is another important mineral
of products. Gandhar, and Hazira in used for manufacturing fertilizers.
Gujarat and Nagathone in This is available in Tamil Nadu.
Maharashtra are other important e) Gujarat is the largest producer of
centers of petro-chemical industry. fertilizers in India and accounts for
more than one- fourth of the total
Fertilizer Industry production of nitrogenous as well as
phosphatic fertilizers of the country.
The fertility of the soil is the most important This state has more than 14% of the
factor in agriculture. It depends upon country’s total installed capacity.
phosphorus, potassium, nitrogen, calcium, f) Tamil Nadu accounts for about 11 per
magnesium, sulphur, and others in proper cent of the country’s installed
amounts. capacity. At present Tamil Nadu is the
second largest producer of phosphate
Phosphorus, potassium and nitrogen are the fertilizers (about 16%) and the fourth
principal elements in fertilizer industry which largest producer of nitrogenous
is an important branch of chemical industry. fertilizers nearly 9% of India.
Animal, vegetable, and mineral kingdoms also
contribute many materials used as fertilizer. Drugs and Pharmaceutical Industry
The fertilizer manufacture is chiefly
dependent on three principal raw materials: The pharmaceutical industry is one of the
phosphate, potash, and nitrogen. oldest in India. The Indian pharmaceutical
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industry is at the top of the chart amongst localization factors, which favour the
India’s science- based industries with wide growth of cement industry in India.
ranging capabilities in the complex field of c) Limestone is the main raw material and
drug manufacture and technology. comprises 60-65 per cent of the total
product. On an average 1.5 tonnes of
The drugs and pharmaceutical units are limestone are required to produce one
mostly located in Kolkata, Mumbai, tonne of cement. Hence, the location
Ahmedabad, Vadodara, Delhi, Pune, of a cement plant is based on the
Rishikesh, Hyderabad, Kanpur, Indore and limestone deposits.
Jaipur. d) The other raw materials used are sea
shells, slag from steel plants and slag
The pharma industry of India ranks very high from fertilizer plants and these raw
amongst all the third world countries, in materials influence the localization of
terms of technology, quality and the vast cement industry in their own way.
range of medicines that are manufactured. e) The transportation cost is also reduced
if the manufacturing plant is located
It ranges from simple headache pills to near the market. In fact, ready market
sophisticated antibiotics and complex cardiac is the pre-requisite for the proper
compounds, almost every type of medicine is growth of an industry, producing heavy
now made by the Indian pharmaceutical commodity with low specific cost like
industry. cement.

The pharmaceutical industry in India is among Distribution of Cement Industry

the most highly organized sectors. This
industry plays an important role in promoting a) India ranks second in the world next
and sustaining development in the field of only to China in the production of
global medicine. cement.
b) It is because of constraint of raw
Due to the presence of low cost manufacturing material that 86 per cent of the
facilities, educated and skilled manpower and factories and 75 per cent of the
cheap labour force among others, the industry production capacity is found in
is set to scale new heights in the fields of Madhya Pradesh, Chhattisgarh,
production, development, manufacturing and Andhra Pradesh, Rajasthan, Gujarat,
research. Tamil Nadu, Karnataka and Bihar.

Cement Industry Industrial corridors in India

The Industrial corridor programme

Locational Factors:
concentrates on infrastructural development
of Cities with the objective to expand
a) Manufacturing of cement requires
manufacturing and services base.
heavy, low value and weight loosing
The industrial corridors in India are:
materials and is primarily a raw
material oriented industry. a) Delhi-Mumbai Industrial Corridor
b) The availability of raw materials, bulk
transport facilities at reasonably low The corridor project, being developed in co-
cost and market are the three main operation with the government of Japan
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The DMIC runs across the six states of Uttar Dharwad and Belgaum (in Karnataka),
Pradesh, Haryana, Madhya Pradesh, Kolhapur, Sangli, Satara, Karad and Pune,
Rajasthan, Gujarat and Maharashtra. and end in Mumbai (in Maharashtra).

b) Amritsar-Kolkata corridor e) Visakhapatnam-Chennai Industrial

Corridor (VCIC)
AKIC will be developed in a band of 150-200
km on either side of the Eastern Dedicated VCIC’s long coastline and strategically located
Freight Corridor (EDFC) in a phased manner. ports provide it with an opportunity to create
multiple international gateways to connect
AKIC will be spread across a belt of at least India with the vibrant global production
5.5 lakh sq km comprising 20 cities in seven networks of Southeast and East Asia that form
states — Punjab, Haryana, Uttar Pradesh, the bedrock of global manufacturing.
Uttarakhand, Bihar, Jharkhand and West
Bengal Major Industrial Regions of India

The cities which will covered by the ADKIC 1. Kolkata – Hooghly Belt
Project are Amritsar, Jalandhar, Ludhiana,
Ambala, Saharanpur, Delhi, Roorkee, It is an old and important region of the country
Moradabad,Muzaffarnagar, Bareilly,Aligarh, stretching along the either side of the river –
Kanpur, Lucknow, Allahabad, Varanasi, from Naihati to Budge- Budge along the left
Patna, Hazaribagh, Dhanbad, Asansol, Bank and from Tribeni to Nalpur in the right
Durgapur and Kolkata bank.

c) Chennai-Bangalore Industrial Corridor Cotton textile, silks, jute engineering chemical

and pharmaceuticals, leather and foot-wears
The corridor plans to come up along Chennai, industries are located here.
Sriperumbudur, Ponnapanthangal, Ranipet,
Chittoor, Bangarupalem,Palamaner, The region is facilitated with rich hinterland
Bangarpet, Hoskote and Bangalore. of Ganga, Brahmaputra Plain, and the enough
availability of good coal, cheap local labour
It is expected to boost commerce between and the port facility of Kolkata.
south India and east Asia by enabling quicker
movement of goods from these places to the The region is experiencing stagnation and
Chennai and Ennore ports. relative decline in industrial growth in recent
The corridor project, being developed in co-
operation with the government of Japan. The main problems are:

d) Bengaluru-Mumbai Economic Corridor a) High degree of congestion

b) Gradual filling of Kolkata port making
The corridor project, being developed in co- the shipping facilities somewhat
operation with the government of UK. difficult
c) Bottle-neck in South-East and Eastern
The corridor will start from Bengaluru, rainy-days.
passing through Tumkur, Chitradurga, Hubli, d) Paucity of space
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e) Shortage of drinking water and civic Availability of cheap hydel power helped
amenities in various ways. Cotton textile, sugar
f) Environmental pollution plants, leather goods, chemicals, Iron and
Steel, Hindustan Aeronautics have
2. Mumbai-Poona Belt assisted the development of this area.

It is the most important industrial region of 5. Chotanagpur Plateau Region

the country. It has a heavy concentration of
cotton textile, engineering, oil refiners, Locally available coal, iron-ore mica, bauxite
fertilizers and chemical industries. copper, limestone, manganese have given rise
to heavy industries like iron and steel at
The belt consists of Mumbai, Kurla, Jamshedpur, Durgapur, Kulti, Burnpur,
Ghatkopar, Andheri, Jogeshwari, Thane, Bokaro along with many associated industries.
Bhandrup, Kalyan, Pimpri and Poona.
Proximity to Kolkata port, vast network of
Cheap labour, easy availability of railways, cheap labour supply from the tribal
hydroelectricity, raw cotton along with the areas and the development of DVC and
port facilities; act as the main assets of this numerous thermal power stations helped the
area. area to develop as a major industrial region
on the map of India.
The industrial development of this region has
almost reached its saturation stage. After
Besides, many more mini industrial regions
partition cotton producing area reduced thus
and industrial districts are fast emerging in
effected the raw material supply and high
different parts of the country in recent times.
transport cost of coal and other minerals
effected the growth. But now it has developed
6. Mathura-Delhi-Saharanpur-Ambala belt
as an economic hub.

3. Ahmedabad-Vadodara-Surat Belt It has the advantage of the proximity of the

national capital; availability of cheap raw
It is the third largest industrial region materials; nearness of large market and
comprising within its fold the centers of Kalol, regular supply of power.
Ahmedabad, Nadiad, and Vadodara, Surat,
Nava sari and Ankleshwar. This region spreads in two separate belts
running in north-south direction between
Leather goods and a wide variety of Faridabad and Ambala in Haryana and
engineering units are established here. Mathura and Saharanpur in Uttar Pradesh.

The initial advantage was the availability of The capital city has predominance of
raw cotton from the hinterland and the engineering, electronic, chemical, glass and
transport network along with the Kandla port. consumer industries.

4. Madurai-Coimbatore-Bangalore Region 7. Vishakhapatnam-Guntur Industrial

Cheap and skilled labour, large market were
the chief factors, which attracted a number This industrial region extends from
of industries. Vishakhapatnam district in the north-eastern
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part of Andhra Pradesh to Kurnool and 8. Kollam-Thiruvananthapuram Industrial
Prakasham districts in the south-east and Region:
covers most of the coastal Andhra Pradesh.
This is comparatively small industrial region
The industrial development of this region and spreads over Thiruvananthapuram,
mainly depends upon Vishakhapatnam and Kollam, Alwaye, Emakulam and Allapuzha
Machili-patnam ports. districts of south Kerala.

Developed agriculture and rich mineral The region is located far away from the mineral
resources in the hinterlands of these ports belt of the country as a result of which the
provide solid base to the industrial growth in industrial scene here is dominated by
this region. Coal fields of the Godavari basin agricultural products processing and market
are the main source of energy. oriented light industries.

The other industries of this region include Plantation agriculture and hydroelectricity
sugar, textiles, paper, fertilizers, cement, provide the industrial base to this region.
aluminium and light engineering.
The main industries are textiles, sugar,
The important industrial centres of this region rubber, match box, glass, chemical fertilizers,
are Vishakhapatnam, Vijaywada, Vijaynagar, food and fish processing, paper, coconut coir
Rajahmundry, Kurnool, Elum and Guntur. products, aluminium and cement.
Recent discovery of natural gas in Krishna-
Godavari basin is likely to provide much Important industrial centres are Kollam,
needed energy and help in accelerated growth Thiruvananthapuram, Alluva, Kochi,
of this industrial region. Alappuzha and Punalur.


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Water is essential for human civilisation, living Surface Water Resources:

organisms, and natural habitat. It is used for
drinking, cleaning, agriculture, There are four major sources of surface
transportation, industry, recreation, and water. These are rivers, lakes, ponds,
animal husbandry, producing electricity for and tanks.
domestic, industrial and commercial use. On
The mean annual flow in all the river
a global scale, total quantity of water available
basins in India is estimated to be
is about 1600 million cubic km. The hydrologic
1,869 cubic km. However, due to
cycle moves enormous quantity of water
topographical, hydrological and other
around the globe.
constraints, only about 690 cubic km
(32 per cent) of the available surface
water can be utilised.
However, much of the world’s water has little
potential for human use because 97.5% of Water flow in a river depends on size
all water on earth is saline water. Out of the of its catchment area or river basin
remaining 2.5% freshwater, most of which and rainfall within its catchment area.
lies deep and frozen in Antarctica and Given that precipitation is relatively
Greenland, only about 0.26% fish in rivers, high in the catchment areas of the
lakes and in the soils and shallow aquifiers Ganga, the Brahmaputra and the
which are readily usable for mankind. Barak rivers, these rivers, although
account for only about one-third of the
total area in the country, have 60 per
India has about 4% of world’s freshwater cent of the total surface water
resources ranking it among the top ten water resources.
rich countries. Despite this, according to the
Due to vast and indented coastline, a
Working Group II report of the Fourth
number of lagoons and lakes have
Assessment of the Intergovernmental Panel
formed. The States like Kerala, Odisha
on Climate Change, India is designated a
and West Bengal have vast surface
‘water stressed region’ with current utilisable
water resources in these lagoons and
freshwater standing at 1122 cubic meter (cu
lakes. Although, water is generally
m) per year and per capita compared to
brackish in these water-bodies, it is
international limiting standards of 1700 cum.
used for fishing and irrigating certain
varieties of paddy crops, coconut, etc.
In future, at the current rate it is expected
that India with high demands will be termed
Deterioration of surface water quality:
a ‘water scarce region’ as utilizable freshwater
falls below the international standard of 1000 Most Indian rivers are cesspools of
cu m per year and per capita. Water demand waste dumped from various urban and
is on a high due to rapid urbanization and industrial centres. The pattern of
industrialization along with the traditional destruction is similar for any river -
demand for agriculture. industrial and domestic pollution,
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jagged urbanization and Groundwater Resources:
encroachment, agricultural fertilizer
and pesticide runoffs, erosion and The total replenishable groundwater
silting, over withdrawal of water, and resources in the country are about 432
inconsiderate religious practices. cubic km. the Ganga and the
Brahamaputra basins, have about 46
The demand for water is ever
per cent of the total replenishable
increasing leading to over-extraction.
groundwater resources. In peninsular
This abstraction of water in excess
India, the underlying geology limits the
from the river lessens the flow in it. It
formation of large continuous aquifers.
is very important to maintain the flow
Coastal regions are rich in
as it helps in diluting and carrying the
groundwater owing to the largely
sewage and pollutants away.
alluvial terrain, but the aquifers risk
Irrigation canals and industrial units being contaminated by saltwater
extract huge volumes of water, and in ingress due to over pumping.
return, discharge agricultural runoff
It is contributing more than 85 % of
waste and poisonous effluents. Many
the drinking water requirements of
rivers suffer from silt deposition in its
rural areas, about 58 % of irrigation
bed — reducing flow, and disturbing
requirements and more than 50 % of
the ecosystem.
the urban and industrial water
Deforestation near the source of the supplies.
rivers, is leading to soil erosion, The incessant and mindless
landslide, floods, silt formation and withdrawal over the past decades has
sedimentation in rivers. In Indian suddenly triggered off a series of
rivers, siltation rate is among the crisis. Foremost among them is the
highest in the world. plummeting of the water table.
To regulate the flow in these rivers This led to exploring of fossil aquifers
and store water and divert water for that cannot be replenished. Excessive
irrigation, and generate power, a drilling of borewells, along with the use
number of large dams and barrages of mechanised pumping has led many
have been built on many rivers. parts of the country’s groundwater
However, these measures have been aquifers to go dry and have been
detrimental to the flow of water declared as ‘dark zones’.
resulting in silt deposition. With the Another major problem due to the
storage of water, the natural flow in abstraction of groundwater from the
rivers is obstructed affecting the fossil aquifers resulted in chemical
ecosystems. reaction of water with the rocks
Draining of lake water for real estates ushering in contaminated water. The
in cities and cultivable and factory land aquifer waters became contaminated
in villages; dumping of effluents — both with high levels of arsenic and fluoride
domestic and industrial; agricultural from the rocky layers.
runoff; encroachments, and general Excessive abstraction of groundwater
neglect. Other threats include water especially in coastal areas has resulted
hyacinth growth and discharge of dyes in seawater ingression making the
and paints through idol immersion. available water useless.
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Water Conservation and Management: have initiated many watershed
development and management
Since there is a declining availability programmes in the country such as
of fresh water and increasing demand, Haryali, Neeru-Meeru (Water and You)
the need has arisen to conserve and programme (in Andhra Pradesh) and
effectively manage this precious life Arvary Pani Sansad (in Alwar,
giving resource for sustainable Rajasthan).
development. Besides developing Tamil Nadu has made water harvesting
water saving technologies and structures in the houses compulsory.
methods, attempts are also to be made
to prevent the pollution. There is need Rain Water Harvesting:
to encourage watershed development,
rainwater harvesting, water recycling Rainwater harvesting essentially means
and reuse, and conjunctive use of collecting rainwater on the roofs of building
water for sustaining water supply in and storing it underground for later use. Not
long run. The legislative provisions only does this recharging arrest groundwater
such as the Water (Prevention and depletion, it also raises the declining water
Control of Pollution) Act 1974, and table and can help augment water supply.
Environment Protection Act 1986 have
not been implemented effectively. Some of the benefits of rainwater harvesting
There is a strong need to generate are as follows
public awareness about importance of
water and impacts of water pollution. Increases water availability
The public awareness and action can Checks the declining water table
be very effective in reducing the Is environmentally friendly
pollutants from agricultural activities, Improves the quality of groundwater
domestic and industrial discharges. through the dilution of fluoride,
nitrate, and salinity
Watershed development: Prevents soil erosion and flooding
especially in urban areas
Watershed management includes
conservation, regeneration and Traditional rain water harvesting in rural
judicious use of all resources – natural areas is done by using surface storage bodies
(like land, water, plants and animals) like lakes, ponds, irrigation tanks, etc. There
and human with in a watershed. are many traditional water bodies which have
It refers to efficient management and been in disuse for the longer time. These
conservation of surface and bodies can be reused as the recharging
groundwater resources. It involves points.
prevention of runoff and storage and
recharge of groundwater through Recycle and Reuse of Water:
various methods like percolation tanks,
recharge wells, etc. Use of water of lesser quality such as
The success of watershed reclaimed waste-water would be an attractive
development largely depends upon option for industries for cooling and fire
community participation. fighting to reduce their water cost. Similarly,
The Central and State Governments in urban areas water after bathing and
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washing utensils can be used for gardening. Fog and dew contain substantial
Water used for washing vehicle can also be amounts of water that can be used
used for gardening. directly by adapted plant species.
Artificial surfaces such as netting-
Conservation of water in the agricultural surfaced traps or polyethylene sheets
sector: can be exposed to fog and dew. The
resulting water can be used for crops.
Simple techniques can be used to reduce the
demand for water. The underlying principle Contour farming is adopted in hilly
is that only part of the rainfall or irrigation areas and in lowland areas for paddy
water is taken up by plants, the rest fields. Farmers recognize the efficiency
percolates into the deep groundwater, or is of contour-based systems for
lost by evaporation from the surface. conserving soil and water.
Therefore, by improving the efficiency of water
use, and by reducing its loss due to
Salt-resistant varieties of crops have
evaporation, we can reduce water demand.
also been developed recently. Because
these grow in saline areas, overall
There are numerous methods to reduce such
agricultural productivity is increased
losses and to improve soil moisture. Some of
without making additional demands on
them are listed below.
freshwater sources. Thus, this is a
good water conservation strategy.
Mulching, i.e., the application of
organic or inorganic material such as
plant debris, compost, etc., slows Better Irrigation System: The use of micro
down the surface run-off, improves irrigation techniques over surface irrigation
will help in better conservation of water by
the soil moisture, reduces evaporation
losses and improves soil fertility. promoting its judicious use.
Soil covered by crops, slows down run- Other prominent methods to solve the
off and minimizes evaporation losses. problem of water crisis in India:
Hence, fields should not be left bare
for long periods of time. Use of Desalination technologies such
Ploughing helps to move the soil as distillation, electro-dialysis and
around. As a consequence it retains reverse osmosis particularly in coastal
more water thereby reducing areas and brackish water in arid and
evaporation. semi-arid areas.
Shelter belts of trees and bushes along Inter linking of rivers-transfer of water
the edge of agricultural fields slow from water surplus areas to water
down the wind speed and reduce deficit areas through inter linking of
evaporation and erosion. rivers.
Planting of trees, grass, and bushes Sustainable water pricing policy.
breaks the force of rain and helps Efficient use of water in Household
rainwater penetrate the soil. activities.


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Transport carries the people and goods from make railway line from Jammu to
one place to another. It helps both the Baramula via Katra. At this line the
production, distribution as well as highest railway bridge of the world
consumption processes. Transport consists made.
of three different modes - land, water and
The metro rail project has been
air. Each one of them has some advantages
launched in many cities like Delhi,
and disadvantages. They all compete with one
Mumbai, Bengaluru, Chennai,
another. More importantly they complement
Lucknow etc.
each other and in the process constitute a
single integrated network. Between Mumbai to Ahmadabad the
Bullet train proposed with the help of
RAIL TRANSPORT: Indian railway network
is the fourth largest in the world after Russia,
Railway Zones: Indian railway has 17 zones
the U.S.A. and Canada. Indian railways have
taken several measures to improve their
efficiency and usefulness to the public:
Zone Head Quarter

Considerable increase in railway running

track. NR NDLS (Delhi)
CR Mumbai (CST)
Increase in electrification of busy trunk WR Mumbai (Church gate)
routes. ER Kolkata
SER Kolkata
Conversion of meter gauge railway lines into Kolkata Metro Kolkata
broad gauge.
SR Chennai
SCR Secunderabad
introducing several types of fast and superfast
passenger trains NER Gorakhpur
NE Frontier Malegaon (Guwahati)
running fast goods and special food grain E Central Hajipur
N Central Allahabad

Provide better facilities for reservation and W Central Jabalpur

other customer care services, SEC Bilaspur
SW Hubli
Introducing reservation through internet. NW Jaipur
EC Bhuvneshwar
Recently Indian railways achieve to
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ROAD TRANSPORT:Road transport is an old country. India has more than 90000 km road
means of transport. It plays a significant rolein network.
carrying goods and people in all parts of the
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N-H 7 from Varanasi to Kanyakumari is longest N-H 5 from Chennai to Kolkata is longest
national highways. national highways.
N-H 6 from Kolkata to Hazera is longest N-H 15 from Samiakhali (Kandla) to Pathankot
national highways. is longest national highways.
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Waterways:The Indian mainland together state governments. The 12 major ports
with its island groups has a long coastline of handle90% of international water borne trade
over 6100 km. This long coastline is dotted of the country.
with 12 major ports managed by the central
government. Then there are 186 minor Inland waterways: the inland waterways
portsoperating under the jurisdiction of the authority of India is at Noida Uttar Pradesh.
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Sea ways: lines over other modes of transport (i)
Pipe line can be laid through difficult
Sagarmala Project: terrain as well as under water. (ii)
Initial cost of laying pipeline is high
This project is to develop Indian port. but subsequent cost for maintenance
To industrialization and urbanization. and operation is low. (iii) It ensures
To improving trade and infrastructure. steady supply and minimizes
transshipment losses and delays. (iv)
Pipe lines: It is basically used for transport Pipe line operation involves very low
of crude oil and gas. consumption of energy.

There are certain advantages of pipe Petroleum pipe lines in Assam connect
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oil fields with the oil refineries of Assam line (1220 km). There are several pipe
and Bihar. Pipe line between Kandla lines in the Gujarat and Maharashtra
and Mathura is the longest oil pipe connecting the oil fields, refineries and
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marketing centers. The longest gas natural gas to six fertilizer plants and
pipe line has been laid from Hazira two thermal power plants.
(Gujarat) to Jagdishpur (UP) via
Bijaipur (MP). This HBJ pipe line is Air transport:Air transport becomes very
1730 km in length and supplies important in the regions where surface
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meansof transport are difficult forests, marshy land, hilly terrain and high
todevelop.These regions may have dense mountains.
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1. Population 17.7 per cent during 2001-11,
against 21.5 per cent in the
India’s total population stands at previous decade.
1.21 billion, which is 17.7 per cent Among the major states, highest
more than the last decade, and decadal growth in population has been
growth of females was higher than recorded in Bihar (25.4 per cent) while
that of males. 14 states and Union Territories have
There was an increase of 90.97 million recorded population growth above 20
males and increase of 90.99 million per cent.
2females. The growth rate of
females was 18.3 per cent which is 2. Rural and urban population
higher than males — 17.1 per
cent. India’s population grew by Altogether, 833.5 million persons

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live in rural area as per Census per cent — an increase of 10.9 per
2011, which was more than two- cent than 2001.
third of the total population, while The highest increase took place in
377.1 million persons live in urban Dadra and Nagar Haveli by 18.6
areas. Urban proportion has gone points (from 57.6 per cent to 76.2
up from 17.3 per cent in 1951 to per cent), Bihar by 14.8 points (from
31.2 per cent in 2011. Empowered 47.0 per cent to 61.8 per cent),
Action Group (EAG) states have Tripura by 14.0 points (from 73.2
lower urban proportion (21.1 per per cent to 87.2 per cent)
cent) in comparison to non-EAG
Improvement in female literacy is
states (39.7 per cent).
Highest proportion of urban higher than males in all states and
UTs, except Mizoram (where it is
population is in NCT Delhi (97.5 per
same in both males and females)
cent). Top five states in share of urban
population are Goa (62.2 per cent), during 2001-11.
Mizoram (52.1 per cent), Tamil Nadu The gap between literacy rate in
(48.4 per cent), Kerala (47.7 per cent) urban and rural areas is steadily
and Maharashtra (45.2 per cent). declining in every census. Gender
gap in literacy rate is steadily
3. Literacy declining in every census. In
Census 2011, the gap stands at 16.3
Literacy rate in India in 2011 has points.
increased by 8 per cent to 73 per cent Top five states and UTs, where
in comparison to 64.8 per cent in 2001. literacy rate is the highest, are
While male literacy rate stands at 80.9 Kerala (94 per cent), Lakshadweep
per cent – which is 5.6 per cent more (91.8 per cent), Mizoram (91.3 per
than the previous census, the cent), Goa (88.7 per cent) and
female literacy rate stands at 64.6 Tripura (87.2).
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The bottom five states and UTs are 4. Density –
Bihar (61.8 per cent), Arunachal
Pradesh (65.4 per cent), Rajasthan The density of population in the
(66.1 per cent), Jharkhand (66.4 per country has also increased from 325
cent) and Andhra Pradesh (67 per in 2001 to 382 in 2011 in per sq
cent). km. Among the major states, Bihar
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occupies the first position with a followed by Jammu and Kashmir
density of 1106, surpassing West (889 female) and Punjab (895
Bengal which occupied the first females).
position during 2001. The other two worst-performing
Delhi (11,320) turns out to be the most states in terms of skewed sex ration
densely inhabited followed by are Uttar Pradesh (912 females)
Chandigarh (9,258), among all states and Bihar (918 females).
and UT’s, both in 2001 and 2011 Five top performing states in terms of
Census. The minimum population sex ratio were Kerala (1,084 females),
density works out in Arunachal Tamil Nadu (996), Andhra Pradesh
Pradesh (17) for both 2001 and 2011 (993), Chhattisgarh (991), Odisha
Census. (979).

5. Sex ratio 6. Child population

The sex ratio of population in the Child population in the age of 0 to 6

country in 2011 stands at 940 female years has seen an increase of 0.4 per
against 1000 males, which is 10 per cent to 164.5 million in 2011 from
cent more than the last census when 163.8 million in 2001.
the number female per thousand male
· The child population (0-6) is almost
stood at 933. Haryana has the dubious
stationary. In 17 states and UTs, the
distinction of having the worst male-
child population has declined in 2011
female ratio among all states while
compared to 2001.
Kerala fares the best.
The number of females per 1000 males With the declaration of sex ratio in
in Haryana in 2011 stands at 879 the age group 0-6, the Census

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authorities tried to bring out the The best performing states are
recent changes in the society in its Chhattisgarh (969), Kerala (964),
attitude and outlook towards the Assam (962), West Bengal (956)
girl child. It was also an indicator Jharkhand (948) and Karnataka
of the likely future trends of sex (948).
ratio in the population.
There has been a decline of 8 per 7. SC/ST data
cent in the sex ratio of 0-6 age
group. In 2011, the child sex ratio
(0-6) stands at 919 female against According to the Census, Scheduled
1000 male in comparison to 927 Castes are notified in 31 states and
females in 2001. UTs and Scheduled Tribes in 30
Male child (0-6) population has states. There are altogether 1,241
increased whereas female child individual ethnic groups, etc. notified
population has decreased during as SC’s in different states and UT’s.
2001-11. Eight states, Jammu and The number of individual ethnic
Kashmir, Rajasthan, Uttar Pradesh, groups, etc. notified as ST’s is 705.
Bihar, Jharkhand, Arunachal There has been some changes in the
Pradesh, Mizoram, and Meghalaya list of SC’s/ST’s in states and UT’s
have proportion of child population during the last decade.
more than 15 per cent.
The SC population in India now
The worst performing states in
stands at 201.4 million, which is 20
regard to sex ration in the age group
per cent more than the last census.
of 0 to 6 years are Haryana (834
The ST population stands at 104.3
females), Punjab (846), Jammu and
million in 2011 – 23.7 per cent more
Kashmir (862), Rajasthan (888) and
than 2001.
Gujarat (890).
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8. Religious demographics – The religious in the 2011 census. – 0.24% of India’s
data on India Census 2011 was released population of 1.21 billion. Given below is
by the Government of India on 25 August the decade-by-decade religious
2015. Hindus are 79.8% (966.3 million), composition of India till the 2011 census.
while Muslims are 14.23% (172.2 million)
There are six religions in India that have
in India. For the first time, a “No religion”
been awarded “National Minority” status
category was added in the 2011
– Muslims, Christians, Sikhs, Jains,
census. 2.87 million Were classified as
Buddhists and Parsis.
people belonging to “No Religion” in India


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