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Namma Kalvi

www.nammakalvi.org
R

bkhHpgapw;rp
ifnaL

12
ciuahrphpah;fs;:

Kidth; rp. gue;jhkd;/ M.A., M.Ed., M.Phil, Ph.D., n$. jh;kuh$; n$Rjh!;/ M.A., M.Ed.,
KJfiyj;jkpHhrphpah;/ flY}h;. cjtpj; jiyikahrphpah;/ jpz;Lf;fy;.

k.uhgh;l;/ M.A., B.Ed., M.Phil. Ph.D., FUro vk;.V. b$y!;od;/ M.A., B.Ed. M.Phil.,
KJfiyj;jkpHhrphpah;/ ghisa=;nfhl;il. KJfiyj;jkpHhrphpah;/ ehfh;nfhtpy;.

rp. $hz; @ khlrhkp/ M.A., B.Ed., M.Phil. nf.Mh;. k+;Rsh


KJfiyj;jkpHhrphpah;/ ghisa=;nfhl;il. KJfiyj;jkpHhrphpia/ kJiu.

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bghUslf;fk;
vz; jiyg;g[fs; gf;fk;

1 ghlg;gFjpa[k; Mrphpah;fSk; 1
2. ,yf;fzf; Fwpg;g[fs; 3
3. gFgj cWg;gpyf;fzk; 7
4. g[zh;r;rp tpjp 9
5. mzp ,yf;fzk; 10
6. jpiz tpsf;fk; 13
7. Jiw tpsf;fk; 15
8. jkpHhf;fk; bra;f 16
9. fiyr;brhw;fs; 19
10. gj;jpiag; goj;J tpdh mikf;f 20
11. rhd;nwhh; rpj;jpuk; 21
12. ctik bjhliu brhw;bwhlh;fspy; mikj;jy; 29
13. ka=;bfhypr; brhw;fs; 30
14. epWj;jf; FwpaPLfs; 37
15. bjhlh; gpiHfis ePf;fp vGJf 39
16. tpilf;nfw;w tpdh mikj;jy; 39
17. ty;ypd bka;fis ,l;Lk; ePf;fpa[k; vGJjy; 42
18. gHbkhHpfs; 44
19. ngr;R tHf;if vGj;J tHf;fhf khw;Wjy; 51
(iv)

20. milg;g[f;Ff;Fs; cs;s brhw;fis khw;wp vGJjy; 52


21. brhw;fisf; bfhz;L bjhlh; mikj;jy; 53
22. kug[g; gpiHfis ePf;fp vGJjy; 53
23. bghUs; ntWghlwpe;J bjhlh; mikj;jy; 55
24. btl;oa[k; xl;oa[k; ngRjy; 56
25. fijiag; goj;J ciuahlyhf khw;Wjy; 56
26. ciu vGJjy; 57
27. gj;jpiag; goj;J RUf;fp vGJjy; 58
28. fl;Liu vGJjy; 59
29. ftpijia goj;J ciu vGJjy; 60
30. ftpijfs; vGJjy; 60
31. brhy;Yk; bghUSk; 62
32. miHg;gpjiHg; gj;jpahf khw;Wjy; 64
33. Md;nwhh; bkhHpfs; (ghlg;gFjpapypUe;J) 66
34. nth;r;brhw;fis vr;rkhft[k; Kw;whft[k; khw;Wjy; 66
35. M=;fpyg; gHbkhHpf;F ,izahd jkpH;g; gHbkhHpia vGJf. 67
36. gpwbkhHpr; brhy; ePf;Fjy; 71
37. ctikfSf;nfw;w bghUs; 72
38. kqcr; brhw;fs; 73
39. ,izr; brhw;fs;?brhw;bwhlh; mikj;jy; 74
40. fij khe;jh;fs; (Jizg;ghlk;) 74
12 G jkpH; G bkhHpgapw;rp ifnaL www.nammakalvi.org 1

1 ghlg;gFjpa[k; Mrphpah;fSk;
bra;a[s;
E}y; E}yhrphpah;
1. ,se;jkpnH rpw;gp ghyRg;gpukzpak;
2. jz;oay=;fhuk; (jd;ndh; ,yhj jkpH;) jz;o
3. gpwbfhU ehs; nfhil ma;ag;g khjtd;
4. beLey;thil ef;fPuh;
5. tpUe;jpdh; ,y;yk; $yhYj;jPd; qkp
6. fk;guhkhazk; fk;gh;
7. ,jpy; btw;wp bgw Rujh
8. ,ilaPL rp. kzp
9. g[wehD}W xsitahh;
10. bja;tkzpkhiy ,uhkyp=;f mofshh;
11. njthuk; jpU+hd rk;ge;jh;
12. mfehD}W mk;@tdhh;
13. ftpijfs; eFyd;
14. rpyg;gjpfhuk; ,s=;nfhtofs;
15. bka;g;ghl;oay; bjhy;fhg;gpah;
16. mjpra kyh; jkpH;ejp
17. njapiyj; njhl;lg; ghl;L Kfk;kJ ,uht[j;jh;
18. g[wehD}W gprpuhe;ijahh;
19. Kfk; Rfe;jp Rg;gpukzpad;
20. rpWghzhw;Wg;gil ,ilf;fHpehl;L ey;Y}h; ej;jj;jdhh;;
21. ,ul;rzpa ahj;jphpfk; vr;. V. fpUl;ozdhh;;

ciueil
E}y; E}yhrphpah;
1. jkpH; bkhHpapd; eil mHfpay; jp.R. eluhrd;
2. jkpHh; FLk;g Kiw gf;jtj;ry ghujp
3. gz;ila fhyj;Jg; gs;spf;Tl=;fs; c. nt.rhkpehjh;
4. ,yf;fpaj;jpy; nkyhz;ik bt. ,iwad;g[/ ,.M.g
2  12 G jkpH; G bkhHpgapw;rp ifnaL

Jizg;ghlk;
E}y; E}yhrphpah;
1. ghujpapd; fojk; (jk;gp bey;iyag;gUf;F ghujpahh;
2. Kjy;fy; cj;jknrhHd;
3. chpikj;jhfk; g{kzp
4. jiyf;Fsk; njhg;gpy; KfkJ kPuhd;
5. eofh; jpyfk; ghyr;re;jpud; Rs;spf;fhL
6. r=;ffhyf; fy;btl;Lk; vd; epidt[fSk; Iuhtjk; kfhnjtd;
7. nfhil kiH rhe;jh jj;

mwpit tphpt[ bra;


1. ghujpapd; foj=;fs; ? uh.m. gj;kehgd;
2. ,yf;fz cyfpy; g[jpa ghh;it ? lhf;lh; bghw;nfh
3. jkpH; mHfpay; ? jp.R. eluhrd;
4. fhl;L thj;J ? e.gpr;r@h;j;jp
5. bey;Y}h; muprp ? mfpyd;
6. Rtbuhl;ofs; ? e. Kj;Jrhkp
7. gj;Jg;ghl;L Muha;r;rp ? kh. ,uhrkhzpf;fdhh;
8. ,aw;iff;Fj; jpUk;g[k; ghij ? krhdh Bg[nfhfh
9. Rw;Wr;NHy; fy;tp ? g. utp
10. fUg;g[ kyh;fs; ? eh. fhkuhrd;
11. thdk; trg;gLk; ? gpug+;rd;
12. fk;gh; ahh;> ? t.Rg.khzpf;fk;
13. rf;futh;j;jp jpUkfd; ? ,uh$h$p
14. tapWfs; ? g{kzp (rpWfijj; bjhg;g[)
15. rpiw ? mDuhjh ukzd;
16. g[spa kuj;jpd; fij ? Re;ju uhkrhkp
17. eP=;fSk; ftpghlyhk; ? fp.th. $fe;ehjd;
18. gilg;g[f;fiy ? K. Rje;jpuKj;J
19. JiwKfk; ? Rujh
20. ,Jtiu ? rp. kzp
21. ftp+uhf ? m. fp. gue;jhkdhh;
22. xU Fl;oj;jPtpd; tiuglk; ? njhg;gpy; KfkJ kPuhd;
(rpWfijj; bjhFg;g[)
23. xU ghh;itapy; brd;id efuk; ? mnrhfkpj;jpud;
24. brd;idg; gl;lzk; ? uhkr;re;jpu itj;jpaehj;
25. ,uhkyp=;f mofs; tuyhW ? Cud; mofs;
26. vdJ Rarhpij ? rpth$p fnzrd;
12 G jkpH; G bkhHpgapw;rp ifnaL 3

27. bka;g;ghL ? jkpHz;zy;


28. fhg;gpaj;jkpH; ? ,uh. fhrpuhrd;
29. m$ad;ghyh ? cyfj; jpiug;gl tuyhW I, II, III
30. brHpad; ? cyf rpdpkh I, II, ngRk; glk;
31. mk;&d; Fkhh; ? rpdpkh ,urid
32. flt[Sk; fe;jrhkpg; gps;isa[k; ? g[Jikg;gpj;jd;
33. fy;btl;L ? Kr;re;jp ,yf;fpak; ? M. ,uh. bt=;flhrygjp
34. jkpHh; tsh;j;j mHFf; fiyfs; ? kapiy rPdp. nt=;flrhkp
35. khWgl;Lr; rpe;jpf;fyhkh> ? rpgp nf. rhykd;
36. vG bgUts;sy;fs; ? fp. t. $fe;ehjd;
37. ,ul;rzpa ahj;jphpfk; ? g[yth; nr. Re;juuhrd;
38. ,naR fhtpak; ? fz;zjhrd;
39. nfhgy;y fpuhkk; ? fp. uh$ehuhazd;
40. ghy;tPjp ? mg;Jy; uFkhd;
41. tPughz;oa fl;lbghk;kd; ? mU.uhkehjd;

2 ,yf;fzf; Fwpg;g[fs;
,d;wpaikahj ,yf;fzf;Fwpg;g[fs;/ fz;lwpa vspikahd rpy tHpfs;
1. tpa=;nfhs; f/ ,a/ ,ah; vd;gjpy; KotJ.
tpidKw;W v.fh: thH;f/ bghHpf/ thHpah;/ thHpa.
2. gz;g[j;bjhif ,uz;L brhw;fSf;F ,ilna `Mfpa~ gz;g[Ug[ kiwe;J tUtJ.
totk;/ gz;g[/Rit/ vz; gw;wp tUk;. gphpj;jhy; `ik~ tpFjp ,lk; bgWk;.
v.fh: bgUk;gil/ ,Uepjp/ eW+;Rit.

3. bjhHpw;bgah; jy;/ my;/ mk;/ if/ I/ rp/ g[ vd;gjpy; KotJ bjhHpw;bgah;.


v.fh: ghLjy;/ Xl;lk;/ fhz;g.
4. chpr;brhy; bjhlh; rhy/ jt/ jl/ edp/ ky;yy;/ kh/ Th;/ kH/ FH/ fo/ fHp/ cW/ it Kjypa
chpr;brhw;fspy; bjhl=;fpdhy; chpr;brhy; bjhlh;.
v.fh: kh+hyk;/ jtr;rpwpJ/ jlf;fhp/ ky;yyk; FUj;J/ foefh;/ itnty;.
5. bgabur;rk; brhy; `m~ tpy; Koe;jhy; bgabur;rk;.
v.fh: cz;l rhj;jd;/ te;j gR.
6. tpidbar;rk; brhy; `c~ my;yJ `,~ vd;gjpy;; Koe;jhy; tpidbar;rk;.
v.fh: te;J brd;whd;/ Mo Koj;jhd;.
7. <Wbfl;l vjph;kiwg; ....`M~ tpy; Koa[k;. Kot[ bgwhky; ,Uf;Fk; mJ <Wbfl;l vjph;kiwg;
bgabur;rk; bgabur;rk;.
v.fh: ntz;lh Fg;ig/ Xlh Fjpiu/ jPjpyh tlkPd;.
4  www.nammakalvi.org 12 G jkpH; G bkhHpgapw;rp ifnaL

8. tpidahyiza[k; tpidiar; bra;jtDf;F milbkhHpahf tUk; td;/ th;/ Mh;/ Md;/


bgah; md;/ Mh;/ Xh; Mfpatw;wpy; KotJ tpidahyiza[k; bgah;.
v.fh: Xoatd;/ te;jhh;/ bfhz;nlhh;.
9. ,ul;ilf;fpstp ,ul;ilr; brhy; gphpj;jhy; bghUs; juhJ. mJ ,ul;ilf;fpstp.
v.fh: glgl/ jfjf/ rlrl/ gsgs.
10. mLf;Fj;bjhlh; ,uz;L my;yJ @d;W Kiw mLf;fp tUk;. gphpj;jhy; bghUs; jUk;.
mJ mLf;Fj; bjhlh;.
v.fh: nghngh/ jPjPjP/ tUf tUf.
11. tpidj;bjhif @d;W fhyj;ija[k; kiwKfkhff; fhl;LtJ tpidj;bjhif.
v.fh: 
bfhy;ahid/ (bfhy;fpd;w ahid/ bfhy;Yk; ahid/ bfhd;w
ahid)/ Ftp bkhl;L.
12. xUbghUl;gd;bkhHp xnu bghUisf; Fwpf;f ntW brhw;fs; tUk;. mJ xUbghUl;gd;bkhHp.
v.fh: x
 U jdp (xU?xd;W/ jdp?xd;W)/ X=;fpaa
[ h;ej
; / gpiwf;Td;.
13. ctikj;bjhif `nghy~/ `nghd;w~ Mfpa ctkcUg[fs; kiwe;J tUk;. mJ ctikj;bjhif.
v.fh: k
 yh;Kfk; (kyh; nghd;w Kfk;)/ fay;tpHp/ gts tha;.
14. cUtfk; `Mfpa~ vd;w brhy;YUg[ kiwe;J tUk;. ctikapd; jd;ikiag;
bghUspd; kPJ Vw;wpf; TWtJ cUtfk;.
v.fh: thH;f;ifg;nghh; (thH;f;ifahfpa nghh;)/ gpwtp ,Us;/ xspaKJ.

15. ck;ikj;bjhif bjhlh;g[ila ,Ubrhw;fspy; `ck;~ vd;w ,ilr;brhy; kiwe;J tUtJ


ck;ikj;bjhif.
v.fh: t
 py; ths; (tpy;Yk; thSk; bjhlh;g[ila nghh;f; fUtpfs;. `ck;~
kiwe;J te;Js;sJ.)
fhRgzk;
16. vz;Qk;ik bjhlh;g[ila ,Ubrhw;fspy; `ck;~ vd;w ,ilr;brhy; btspg;ilahf
tUtJ ck;ikj;bjhif.
v.fh: thapYk; rd;dYk;
17. brhy;ypir @d;W khj;jpiu mstpy; tpidbar;rg;; bghUspy; tUk; msbgil ,J
msbgil `,~ vd;W vGj;Jld; Koa[k;.
v.fh: XhP,/ ek;bgHP,/ cudir ,.
18. ,d;dpir msbgil @d;W khj;jpiu mstpy; @d;W mirr; brhw;fspy; miktJ ,d;dpir
msbgil
v.fh: cz;gJ}k; (cz;/gJ}/ck;) cLg;gJ}ck;.
19. bra;a[spir @d;W khj;jpiu mstpy; ,uz;L mir brhw;fspy; miktJ bra;a[spir
msbgil msbgil
v.fh: MmJk;/ fGckzp/ glhmgiw/ bjhHh mh;.
20. ntw;Wikj; bjhif ,ize;j bjhifr; brhy;iy tphpj;jhy; ,ilapy; ntw;Wik cUg[fspy;
(I/ My;/ ,d;/ F/ mJ/ fz;) VnjDk; xd;W kiwe;jpUg;gJ.
v.fh: Typ ntiy (Typf;F ntiy).
12 G jkpH; G bkhHpgapw;rp ifnaL 5

21. md;bkhHpj; bjhif Fbgah; nghy; xU bjhifr; brhy; ntW my;yhj xd;iwf; Fwpg;gJ
M
md;bkhHpj; bjhif
v.fh: b
 re;jhkiu (gz;g[j; bjhif) bre;jhkiu te;jhs; (md;bkhHpj;
bjhif)
22. jd;ik gd;ik mk; Xk; vd;w tpFjpfSld; KotJ
tpidKw;W : v.fh: nghw;WJk;.
23. bra;a[k; vd;Dk; bra;a[k; vd;w brhy;iyg; nghd;nw bjhdpg;gJ
tha;g;ghl;L v.fh: gLk;.
tpidKw;W :
24. brapd; vd;Dk; brapd; vd;w brhy;iyg; nghd;nw bjhdpg;gJ.
tha;g;ghL v.fh: bgwpd;.
tpidKw;W
25. MFbgah; xd;wpd; ,aw;bgah; kw;bwhd;Wf;F Mfp tUtJ.
v.fh: cyF (cyf kf;fisf; Fwpf;Fk;) Ch; rphpj;jJ.
26. Kjy; epiy jphpe;j xU bjhHpw;bgahpd; tpFjp bfl;L/ Kjy; vGj;Jk; khwp xypg;gJ
bjhHpw;bgah; v.fh: bfLjy;.
bfLjy; → bfL → nfL
bgWjy; → bgW → ngW

27. ,yf;fzg; nghyp Xh; ,yf;fz mikg;g[ila brhy;Yf;F nghypahf miktJ


v.fh: jir (rij)
28. vGj;Jg; nghyp U brhy;ypy; vGj;J khwpdhYk; bghUs; khwhJ. ,J Kjy;/ ,il/
x
filrpapy; mika[k;. Kw;wpYk; khWgl;L mika[k;.
v.fh: eyd; (eyk;) filg;nghyp/ m+;R (Ie;J) Kw;Wg;nghyp
29. kUcr; brhy; fhyg;nghf;fpy; kUtp khwp tUgit
v.fh: ve;ij (vd; je;ij) ngh; (bgah;)
30. ,ilf;Fiw tpfhuk; U brhy;ypd; ,ilapy; Xh; vGj;J Fiwe;J khWgl;lhYk; mnj
x
bghUisj; jUtJ
v.fh: csk; (cs;sk;) fzPh; (fz;zPh;)/
31. ,U bgabuhl;Lg; U brhw;fspy; Kjy; brhy; rpwg;g[g; bgauhft[k; mLj;Js;s brhy;
,
gz;g[j; bjhif bghJg; bgauhft[k; ,Ug;gJ.
v.fh: jkpH;bkhHp/ ,kakiy.
32. jd;ik xUik vd;/ Vd; vd;w tpFjpfSld; KotJ
tpidKw;W v.fh: bfhs;ntd;.
33. Kw;bwr;rk; U tpidKw;Wr; brhy; tpidbar;rg; bghUspy; te;J kw;bwhU
x
tpidKw;iwf; bfhz;L Koa[k;.
v.fh: goj;jdd; njwpdhd;.
6  12 G jkpH; G bkhHpgapw;rp ifnaL

g[j;jfg; gFjp

gz;g[j;bjhif tpidj;bjhif bjhHpw;bgau; vz;Qk;ik


brk;ghpjp/ bre;jkpH;/ tpupfly;/ fha;bey;/ tpaj;jy;/ gz]g[k; gaDk;/
bre;epwk;/ bt=;fjph;/ g[hpFHy;/ NH;RHy;/ nehf;fy; mwpt[k; g[fGk;/
g[Jg;bgay;/ Kj;jkpH; tsh;jyk;/ ta=;FbkhHp/ vGJjy;/ ciuj;jy; MlYk; ghlYk;/
bfhL=;nfhy;/ jhH;fly; brg;gy;/ ,Uj;jy; xUKf vHpdpa[k;/
mUe;jpwy;/ beLtHp/ tH=;fy; bghUKf vHpdpa[k;/
bts;sUtp/ ed;bkhHp/ kiHjy; bry;tKk; gz]g[k;
beLnty;/ ed;dhL/
fUe;jlk;/ bt=;FUjp/
btz]Fil/
brhy;ypir
chpr;brhw;bwhlh; ctikj; bjhif
bjhy;bewp/ bgU=;fly;
msbgil
khjtk;/ khkapiy tis,/ xhP,/ kyuo/ fly;jhid
jlf;if Kid,a/ jPj;JhP,/
btuP,a

tpidahyiza[k;
bgabur;rk; tpidbar;rk; mLf;Fj;bjhlh;
bgah;
bfhd;w/ tha;j;j/ bte;J/ rpde;J/ nghe;J/ Kj;J Kj;jha; cah;e;njhh;/ brw;wth;
ctg;g/ bfhLj;j/ <e;j/ epd;W/ rpte;J/ <d;W/ Cd;w Cd;w thH;gtd;/ ghjfh;
brhw;w/ jpUe;jpa/ g[f;f tps=;fp/ te;J/ tpae;J/ ahh; ahh; bfhs;th;/ bjhpth
mwpe;J/ mWj;J

tpah;it bts;sk; ? cUtfk;


cHhmJ/ tHhm/ fthmd; ? bra;a[spir msbgil
gLg;gJ}ck; ? ,d;dpir msbgil
rpwhmh; ? ,irepiw msbgil.
bgha;ah/ milah/ kwth/ mwpah ? <Wbfl;l vjph;kiwg; bgabur;rk;
mhpJ/ bghpJ ? xd;wd;ghy; Fwpg;g[ tpidKw;W
tUfpnwhk; ? jd;ikg;gd;ik tpidKw;W
cd;dyph; ? Kd;dpiyg;gd;ik tpidKw;W
Xh;kpd; ? Vty; gd;ik tpidKw;W
m+;Rf ? tpa=;nfhs; tpidKw;W
Ee;ij ? Ek; je;ij vd;gjd; kqc
,yhj/ csJ ? ,ilf;Fiw
J}f;fpd; ? vjph;fhy tpidbar;rk;
E}y;bewp/ J}z] epHy; ? Mwhk; ntw;Wikj; bjhiffs;
ePyk; ? MFbgah;
mutf;fly; ? ,uz;lhk; ntw;Wik cUg[k; gaDk; cld;bjhf;f bjhif
12 G jkpH; G bkhHpgapw;rp ifnaL www.nammakalvi.org 7

3 gFgj cWg;gpyf;fzk;
1. gFjp brhy;ypd; Kjypy; epw;Fk; cWg;g[. fl;lisahfnt tUk;.
rhd;W `thH;f~ vd;gjpy; `thH;~ gFjp. el/ ngh/ th/ fhz; vd;gd nghy tUk;

2. re;jp gFjpiaa[k; ,ilepiyiaa[k; ,izg;gJ re;jp. f;/ r;/ g;/ j; Mfpad re;jpahf tUk;

rhd;W `ghh;f;fpd;w~ vd;gjpy; `f;~ vd;gJ re;jp. `ghh;~ vd;w gFjpf;Fk; `fpd;W~ vd;w ,ilepiyf;Fk;
,ilapy; epw;gJ
3. tpfhuk; gFjp jphpe;njh my;yJ re;jp jphpe;njh tUtJ tpfhuk;.
rhd;W `fz;l~ vd;gjpy; `fhz;~ gFjp `fz;~ vd;gJ tpfhuk;.
`foe;j~ vd;gjpy; `j;~ vd;w re;jp jphpe;J `e;~ tpfhukhdJ.
4. ,ilepiy gFjpf;Fk; tpFjpf;Fk; ,ilapy; epd;W fhyk; fhl;LtJ ,ilepiy. epfH;fhyk; ? fpW/
fpd;W/ Mepd;W" vjph;fhyk; ? g;/ t;"
,we;jfhyk; ? j;/ l; / w;/ ,d;
rhd;W `ghh;f;fpd;w~ vd;gjpy;/ `ghh;~ vd;w gFjpf;Fk; `m~ vd;w tpFjpf;Fk;
`fpd;W~ vd;w epfH;fhy ,ilepiy te;Js;sJ.

5. rhhpia ,ilepiyf;Fk; tpFjpf;Fk; ,ilapy; ,dpa Xirf;fhf ,lk;bgWtJ rhhpia.


F/ c/ md;/ m Mfpaitna bgUk;ghYk; rhhpiaahf tUk;.
rhd;W jzpe;jJ vd;gjpy; `j;~ vd;w ,ilepiyf;Fk; `J~ vd;w tpFjpf;Fk; ,ilapy; cs;s `m~
rhhpia.
`ghh;j;jdd;` vd;gjpy; `j;;~ vd;w ,we;jfhy ,ilepiyf;Fk; `J~ tpFjpf;Fk; ,ilapy;
cs;s `md;~ rhhpia.
6. tpFjp brhy;ypd; ,Wjpapy; epw;Fk; cWg;g[ tpFjp. jpiz/ vz;/ ghy;/ ,lk; Mfpatw;iw
czh;j;Jk;.
rhd;W `thH;f~ vd;gjpy; ,Wjpapy; epw;Fk; `f~ vd;gJ tpFjpahFk;.
`fz;l~ vd;gjpy; `m~ vd;w ,Wjp vGj;J tpFjp.

tpk;Kfpd;w = tpk;K + fpd;W + m epidf;fpd;w = epid + f; + fpd;W + m


tpk;K ? gFjp epid ? gFjp" f; ? re;jp"
fpd;W ? epfH;fhy ,ilepiy fpd;W ? epfH;fhy ,ilepiy
m ? bgabur;r tpFjp m ? bgabur;r tpFjp.
bra;j = bra; + j; + m brd;w ? bry;(d;) + w; + m
bra; ? gFjp bry; ? gFjp (d;) MdJ tpfhuk;
j; ? ,we;jfhy ,ilepiy w; ? w;/ ,we;jfhy ,ilepiy
m ? bgabur;r tpFjp m ? m/ bgabur;r tpFjp
gifj;j = gif + j; + j; + m <e;j = < + j;(e;) + j; + m
gif? gFjp < ? gFjp
j; ? re;jp j; ? re;jp (`e;~ MdJ tpfhuk;)
j; ? ,we;jfhy ,ilepiy j; ? ,we;jfhy ,ilepiy
m ? bgabur;r tpFjp m ? bgabur;r tpFjp
8  12 G jkpH; G bkhHpgapw;rp ifnaL

jh=;fpa = jh=;F + ,(d;); + a; + m ,Ue;jha; = ,U + j;(e;) + j; + Ma;


jh=;F ? gFjp ,U ? gFjp
,(d;) ? ,ilepiy `d;~ g[zh;e;J bfl;lJ j;(e;) ? re;jp (e; MdJ tpfhuk;
a; ? clk;gLbka; j; ? ,we;j fhy ,ilepiy
m ? bgabur;r tpFjp Ma; ? Kd;dpiy xUik tpidKw;W tpFjp
itj;J = it + j; + j; + c mwpe;J = mwp + j;(e;) + j; + c
it ? gFjp mwp ? gFjp
j; ? re;jp j; ? re;jp (e; MdJ tpfhuk;)
j; ? ,we;jfhy ,ilepiy j; ? ,we;jfhy ,ilepiy
c ? tpidbar;r tpFjp. c ? tpidbar;r tpFjp
mWj;J = mW + j; + j; + c epd;W = epy;(d;) + w; + c
mW ? gFjp gFjp ? epy;?d;/ MdJ tpfhuk;
j; ? re;jp ,ilepiy ? w;/ ,we;jfhy ,ilepiy
j; ? ,we;jfhy ,ilepiy tpFjp ? c/ tpidbar;r tpFjp
c ? tpidbar;r tpFjp
,oe;J = ,o + j;(e;) + j; + c fise;J = fis + j;(e;) + j; + c
,o ? gFjp fis ? gFjp
j; ? re;jp (e; MdJ tpfhuk;) j; ? re;jp (e; MdJ tpfhuk;)
j; ? ,we;jfhy ,ilepiy j; ? ,we;jfhy ,ilepiy
c ? tpidbar;r tpFjp c ? tpidbar;r tpFjp
rhw;wp = rhw;W + , Ve;J = Ve;J + ,
rhw;W ? gFjp gFjp ? Ve;J
, ? tpidbar;r tpFjp tpFjp ? ,/ tpidbar;r tpFjp
tpae;J =tpa + j;(e;) + j; + c te;J = th(t) + j;(e;) + j; + c
tpa ? gFjp th(t) ? gFjp" t vdf; FWfpaJ tpfhuk;
j;(e;) ? re;jp (e; MdJ tpfhuk;) j;(e;) ? re;jp (e; MdJ tpfhuk;)
j; ? ,we;j fhy ,ilepiy j; ? ,we;j fhy ,ilepiy
c ? tpidbar;r tpFjp c ? tpidbar;r tpFjp
ngRthh; = ngR + t; + Mh; cz]ghh; = cz] + g; + Mh;
ngR ? gFjp gFjp ? cz]
t; ? vjph;fhy ,ilepiy ,ilepiy ? g;/ vjph;fhy ,ilepiy
Mh; ? gyu;ghy; tpidKw;W tpFjp. tpFjp ? Mh;/ gyh;ghy; tpidKw;W tpFjp
gHpj;jdh; = gH + j; + j; + md; + mh; fz;lhd; = fhz;(fz;) + l; + Md;
gHo ? gFjp fhz; ? gFjp (fz; vdf; FWfpaJ tpfhuk;)
j; ? re;jp l; ? ,we;jfhy ,ilepiy
j; ? ,we;jfhy ,ilepiy Md; ? Mz;ghy; tpidKw;W tpFjp
md; ? rhhpia
mu ? gyh;ghy; tpidKw;W tpFjp
nrh;jy; = nrh; + jy; eif = eF + I
gFjp – nrh; eF ? gFjp (eif MdJ tpfhuk;)
tpFjp – jy; bjhHpw;bgah; tpFjp I ? bjhHpw;bgah; tpFjp
12 G jkpH; G bkhHpgapw;rp ifnaL 9

mku;e;jhd; = mku; + j;(e;) + j; + Md; mku;e;jdd; = mku; + j;(e;) + j; + md; + md;


mku; ? gFjp mku; ? gFjp
j; ? re;jp (e; MdJ tpfhuk;) j; ? re;jp (e; MdJ tpfhuk;)
j; ? ,we;jfhy ,ilepiy j; ? ,we;jfhy ,ilepiy
Md; ? Mz;ghy; tpidKw;W tpFjp md; ? rhupia
md; ? Mz;ghy; tpidKw;W tpFjp
cah;e;njhh; = cah; + j;(e;) + j; + Xh; je;jdd; = jh(j) + j; + j; + md; + md;
cah; ? gFjp jh ? gFjp" (j vdf; FWfpaJ tpfhuk;)
j;(e;) ? re;jp (e; MdJ tpfhuk;) j;(e;) ? re;jp (e; MdJ tpfhuk;)
j; ? ,we;j fhy ,ilepiy j; ? ,we;j fhy ,ilepiy
Xh; ? gyh;ghy; tpidKw;W tpFjp md; ? rhhpia
Mh; v  d;gjd; <w;wabyGj;jhd ~~M~~ ``X~~ Mfj; jphpa[k; md; ? glh;fi ; f Mz;ghy; tpidKw;W
(ed; 353) tpFjp
kUl;if = kUs; + if btFsp = btFs; + ,
if ? gFjp (`s;~ `l;~ MdJ tpfhuk;) btFs; ? gFjp
tpFjp/ bjhHpw;bgah; tpFjp , ? bjhHpw;bgah; tpFjp
tUfpnwhk; = th(tU) + fpW + Xk; bjhGjdu; = bjhG + j; + md; + mu;
gFjp ? th ? tU MdJ tpfhuk; bjhG ? gFjp " j; ? ,we;jfhy ,ilepiy
,ilepiy ? fpW/ epfH;fhy ,ilepiy md; ? rhupia" mu; ? glu;f;ifg; ghy;
tpFjp ? Xk;/ jd;ikg;gd;ik tpidKw;W tpidKw;W tpFjp
tpFjp
bghype;jhd; = bghyp + j;(e;) + j; + Md; rha;g;ghd; = rha; + g; + g; + Md;/
bghyp ? gFjp rha; ? gFjp
j;(e;) ? re;jp (e; MdJ tpfhuk;) g; ? re;jp
j; ? ,we;j fhy ,ilepiy g; ? vjph;fhy ,ilepiy
Md; ? Mz;ghy; tpidKw;W tpFjp Md; ? glh;fi ; f Mz;ghy; tpidKw;W tpFjp
fy=;fp = fy=;F + ,
fy=;F ? gFjp
, ? tpidbar;r tpFjp

4 g[zh;r;rp tpjp
cly;nky; caph; te;J xd;Wtnj ,ay;g[ tpjp ? 1 : caph;thpd; cf;Fws; bka;tpl;nlhLk;
tpjp ? 2 : `cly;nky; caph;te;J xd;WtJ ,ay;ng~
thdbky;yhk;/ cuDil/ ,Usfw;Wk;/ thdpil M=;ftw;Ws;/ ed;wy;yJ/ tFj;jd/ ciwe;jw;W
nehaw;w/ ,ldwpe;J
<Wnghjy; tpjp tpjp ? 1 : <Wnghjy;
tpjp ? 2 : Kd;epd;W bka;jphpjy;
brk;ghpjp/ btz;bfhil/ ed;bkhHp bre;jkpnH/ bt=;fjph;/ bjhy;bewp
10  www.nammakalvi.org 12 G jkpH; G bkhHpgapw;rp ifnaL

tpjp ? 1 :,/ </ I/ tHp at;t[k; tpjp ? 1 : jdpFwpy; Kd; xw;W caph;thpd; ,ul;Lk;
tpjp ? 2 :`cly;nky; caph;te;J xd;WtJ tpjp ? 2 : `cly;nky; caph;te;J xd;WtJ ,ay;ng~
,ay;ng~
jdpahHp/ ViHbad/ xUika[ld;/cd;iday;y fz;zpil/ kz;zfk;/ Kd;Dil/ cs;bshd;W
Jizapy;iy
tpjp ? 1 : <Wnghjy; tpjp ? 1 : <Wnghjy;
tpjp ? 2 : ,
 ay;gpDk; tpjpapDk; epd;w caph;Kd; tpjp ? 2 : ,dkpfy;
frj kpFk;
g[Jbgay; mU=;fhdk;/ bgU=;fly;
kt;tpU xw;wspe;J caphPW xg;gt[k; Kw;Wk; mw;W Xnuh tHp
,depiu ca;tpy;iy
,ay;gpDk; tpjpapDk; epd;w caph;Kd; frj kpFk; g{g;bgah; Kd; ,dbkd;ika[k; njhd;Wk;
vj;jpir/ mj;jpir/ jiynfhy;/ tpidj;jpl;gk;/ g{k;ghtha;/ g{=;bfho
jpUf;Fws;

5 mzp ,yf;fzk;
1. bghUs; ntw;Wikazpiar; rhd;W je;J tpsf;Ff.
mzp ,yf;fzk; :
bra;a[spy; ftp+h; ,UntW bghUs;fSf;fpilna xw;Wikia Kjypy; Twpag;gpd; xd;wpypUe;J
xd;iw ntWgLj;jpf; fhl;LtJ bghUs; ntw;Wik mzp vdg;gLk;.
,J ntw;Wik mzpapd; xU gphpthFk;.
rhd;W :
X=;fypil te;J cah;e;njhh; bjhH tps=;fp
V=;bfhypePh; +hyj;(J) ,Usfw;Wk; ? M=;ftw;Ws;
kpd;ndh; jdpahHp bt=;fjpbuhd;(W) VidaJ
jd;ndh; ,yhj jkpH;.
mzpg;bghUj;jk; :
fjputDk;/ jkpH;bkhHpa[k; kiyapy; njhd;Wfpd;wd vd xg;g[ikiaf;Twp/ mtw;Ws;
jkpH;bkhHpf;F epfuhf ntbwe;j bkhHpa[k; ,t;t[yfpy; ,y;iy vd;W ntWgLj;jpf; fhl;oajhy;
,g;ghly; bghUs; ntw;Wikazp MFk;
fjputd; g[w ,Uis mfw;Wk;"
jkpH;bkhHp mf ,Uis mfw;Wk;.
tpsf;fk; :
fjputd;
vg;nghJk; xypj;Jf; bfhz]oUf;Fk; flyhy; NHg;gl;l cyfj;jpd; g[w ,Uis mfw;Wk;
fjputd; cah;e;j kiyfSf;F ,ilna njhd;Wk;.
jkpH;:
Fsph;r;rpg; bghUe;jpa bghjpa kiyapy; njhd;wpa jkpH;bkhHp kf;fspd; mwpahik vd;Dk;
mf ,Uis mfw;Wk; mj;jkpH;bkhHpf;F epfuhf ntbwe;j bkhHpa[k; ,y;iy.
12 G jkpH; G bkhHpgapw;rp ifnaL 11

2. ntw;Wik mzp gapd;W tUk; ,U ghly;fis tpsf;fj;Jld; vGjp tUf.


m=;fz; tpRk;gpd; mfdpyhg; ghwpf;Fk;
jp=;fSk; rhd;nwhUk; xg;gh;kd; ? jp=;fs;
kWthw;Wk; rhd;nwhh; mBjhw;whh; bjUkUj;J
bja;th; xU khRwpd;. ? ehyoahh;
,g;ghlypy;/ jp=;fSf;Fk; rhd;nwhUf;Fk; Kjypy; xg;g[ikf;Twp gpd;dh; ntWgLj;jg;
gl;Ls;sJ.
mzp ,yf;fzk; :
,UbghUl;fSf;F ,ilna xg;g[ikiaf; Twp mtw;Ws; xd;wpypUe;J xd;W cah;e;jjhff;
TWtJ ntw;Wik mzp MFk;.
tpsf;fk;:
jp=;fs; nja[k;/ rhd;nwhd; njahh; (kdepiy khwhh;) vd;gnjahFk;.

3. ntw;Wik mzpia rhd;Wld; tpsf;Ff.


mzp ,yf;fzk; :
,UbghUl;fSf;F ,ilna xg;g[ikiaf; Twp mtw;Ws; xd;wpypUe;J xd;W cah;e;jjhff;
TWtJ ntw;Wik mzp MFk;.
rhd;W :
jPapdhw; Rl;lg[z; cs;shWk; Mwhnj
ehtpdhw; Rl;l tL ? Fwl;gh
bghUj;jk;:
jPapdhy; cz;lhd g[z; cs; MwptpLk;.
ehtpdhy; cz;lhd g[z; cs;sj;jpy; Mwhj tLthf ,Uf;Fk;.

4. `md;g[k; mwDk; cilj;jhapd; ,y;thH;f;if


gz]g[k; gaDk; mJ~ ? ,f;Fwl;ghtpy; gapd;W tUk; mzpia tpsf;Ff.
,f;Fwl;ghtpy; gapd;W tUk; mzp epuy;epiw mzpahFk;.
mzp ,yf;fzk; :
xU bra;a[spd; Kjypy; brhy;iya[k; bghUisa[k; thpirahf (epuyhf) epWj;jp/ mt;thpirg;gona
bghUs;bfhs;Sk; KiwahFk;. mjhtJ rpy brhw;fis Kjypy; xU thpirapy; itj;J/ mr;brhw;fnshL
bjhlh;g[ila brhw;fis mLj;j thpirapy; Kiwkhwhky; brhy;tJ epuy; epiw mzpahFk;.
bghUs; :
,y;thH;f;ifapy; ehk; md;g[k; mwDk; bfhz]L xGfpdhy;/ mJnt ekf;F thH;f;ifapd; gz]
gpida[k; gaida[k; KGikahfj; jUk;.
mzpg;bghUj;jk; :
,f;Fwl;ghtpy; md;g[/ mwd; vd;w brhw;fis Kjypy; xU thpirapy; epWj;jpa jpUts;Sth;
mtw;nwhL bjhlh;g[ila gz]g[/ gad; vd;gtw;iw Kiwna mLj;j thpirapy; ,izj;J bghUs;
bfhs;SkhW mikj;Js;shh;. vdnt/ ,f;jpUf;Fws; `epuy; epiw mzpf;Fg;~ bghUj;jkhapw;W.
md;g[ ? gz]g[ " mwd; ? gad; vd;W epuy;gl cs;sJ.
5. fPH;f;fhQk; Fwspy; Vfnjr cUtf mzp vt;thW gapd;W tUfpwJ vd;gij tpsf;Ff.
rpdk;vd;Dk; nrh;e;jhiuf; bfhy;yp ,dk;vd;Dk;
Vkg; g[iziar; RLk;.
,f;Fwl;ghtpy; Vfnjr cUtf mzp gapd;W tUfpd;wJ.
mzp ,yf;fzk; :
ftp+h; bra;a[spy; ,U bghUs;fisf; Twp mjpy; xd;iw kl;Lk; cUtfg;gLj;jp/ mjw;nfw;g
,izahdbjhU bghUis cUtfk; bra;ahJ tpl;LtpLtJ Vfnjr cUtf mzpahFk;.
12  12 G jkpH; G bkhHpgapw;rp ifnaL

tpsf;fk; :
rpdk; jd;idf; bfhz]ltid kl;Lky;yhky; mtidr; nrh;e;j Rw;wj;jhiua[k; nrh;j;J
mHpe;JtpLk;.jd;idr; nrh;e;jtiua[k; mHpj;JtpLk; bfhy;ypahfpa rpdk;/ ek;ik kl;Lkpy;yhky;
ekf;Fg; ghJfhg;ghf ,Uf;ff;Toa ,dbkd;Dk; bjg;gj;ij mHpj;JtpLk;.
mzpg;bghUj;jk; :
,f;Fwl;ghtpy; ,dk; vd;gijj; bjg;gkhf cUtfg;gLj;jpa[s;s ts;Sth; rpdj;ij
cUtfg;gLj;jhky; tpl;Ls;shh;. vdnt/ ,f;Fwl;ghtpy; Vfnjr cUtf mzp gapd;W te;Js;sJ.
6. mfyhJ mQfhJ jPf;fha;thh; nghy;f
,fy;nte;jh;r; nrh;e;J xGFthh; ? ,f;Fwl;ghtpy; gapd;W tUk; mzpia tpsf;Ff.
mzp tpsf;fk; :
xU bghUspd; bjhHpy; my;yJ bray; fhuzkhf mika[k; ctik bjhHpy; ctik vdg;gLk;.
rhd;W :
mfyhJ mQfhJ jPf;fha;thh; nghy;f
,fy;nte;jh;r; nrh;e;J xGFthh; ? Fwl;gh.
ctik : jPapy; Fsph; fha;gth; nghy.
ctnkak; : muridr; rhh;e;jpUg;gth; tpyfhkYk; beU=;fhkYk; ele;Jbfhs;s ntz]Lk;.
mzpg;bghUj;jk;:
muridr; rhh;e;J ,Ug;gth; Fsph;fha;gth;fisg; nghy jPapypUe;J mfyhJ mQfhJ ,Uj;jy;
ntz;Lk;. ,jpy; mfGjy;/ mQFjy; nghd;w bjhHpy; xg;g[ik vjph;kiwapy; te;Js;sjhy; bjhHpy;
ctik vdg;gLk;.
7. vLj;Jf;fhl;L ctik mzpia tpsf;fpf; fPH;f;fhQk; FwSf;F ,t;tzpiag; bghUj;jp vGJf.
J+;rpdhh; brj;jhhpd; ntWmy;yh; v+;+hd;Wk;
e+;Rcz]ghh; fs;cz] gth;.
mzptpsf;fk; :
ctik xU thf;fpakhft[k; ctnkak; xU thf;fpakhft[k; ctk cUg[ kiwe;J tUtjhy;
vLj;Jf;fhl;L ctik mzp vdg;gLk;.
ctik : J+;rpdhh; brj;jhhpd; ntW
ctnkak; : e+;Rcz]ghh; fs;cz] gth;
cUg[ : kiwe;Js;sJ.
bghUj;jk;:
cw=;fpath;/ ,we;jtiutpl ntWgl;lth; my;yh;. mJnghy fs; cz;gtUk; e+;R cz;gtUf;Fr;
rknk vd;gij tpsf;Ftjhy; ,g;ghly; vLj;Jf;fhl;L ctik mzp MFk;.
8. brhw;bghUs; g3pd;tU epiyazpia rhd;Wld; tpsf;Ff.
mzp tpsf;fk; :
bra;a[spy; Kd;dh; te;jr; brhy; mnjg; bghUspy; gpd;dh; gyKiw tUtJ brhw;bghUs; gpd;tU
epiyazpahFk;.
rhd;W :
vg;bghUs; ahh;ahh;tha;f; nfl;gpDk; mg;bghUs;
bka;bghUs; fhz;gJ mwpt[
tpsf;fk; :
,f;Fwl;ghtpy; bghUs; vd;w brhy; kPz;Lk; kPz;Lk; te;J xnu bghUisj; jUtjhy;
brhy;bghUs; gpd;tUk; epiyazp MFk;. ve;j xU bghUs; gw;wp vth; TwpdhYk; mjid mg;gona
Vw;Wf; bfhs;shky;/ me;jg; bghUspy; cs;s cz;ikia Muha;e;J vLj;Jf; bfhs;tnj mwpt[ilik
MFk;.
12 G jkpH; G bkhHpgapw;rp ifnaL www.nammakalvi.org 13

9. vz;zpa vz;zpah=;F va;Jg vz;zpahw;


jpz;zpau; Mfg; bgwpd;. ? ,g;ghlypy; gapd;W tUk; mzpia tpsf;Ff.
,f;Fwl;ghtpy; brhw;bghUs; gpd;tUk; epiyazp gapd;W te;Js;sJ.
mzp tpsf;fk; :
bra;a[spy; Kd;dh; te;j brhy; mnj bghUspy; gpd;dh; gyKiw tUtJ brhw;bghUs; gpd;tU
epiyazp MFk;.
tpsf;fk; :
,g;ghlypy; `vz;zpa~ vd;wr; brhy; `epidg;gJ~ vd;w bghUspy; gyKiwapy; te;Js;sJ.
vz;zpath; kdt[Wjpa[ilatuhf ,Ue;jhy; vz;zpaij vz;zpathnw milth; vd;W MFk;.
10. ctikazpia rhd;Wld; tpsf;Ff.
mzp ,yf;fzk; :
ctik xU thf;fpakhft[k;/ ctnkak; xU thf;fpakhft[k; cUk cUg[ btspg;gilahft[k;
te;jhy; ctikazp MFk;.
rhd;W :
clk;ghL ,yhjth; thH;f;if Fl=;fUs;
ghk;nghL cld;ciwe; jw;W
ctik : clk;ghL ,yhjth; thH;f;if
ctnkak; : Fl=;fSs; ghk;nghL
cUg[ : mw;W (btspg;gil)
bghUj;jk; :
cs;sj;jpy; cld;ghL ,y;yhjtUld; To thGk; thH;f;if xU Foirapy; ghk;g[ld; thH;tJ
nghd;wjhFk;.

6 jpiz tpsf;fk;
1. thifj; jpiz rhd;Wld; tpsf;Ff.
jpiz tpsf;fk;:
btw;wpbgw;w murDk; mtdJ tPuu;fSk; btw;wpapd; milahskhf thifg; g{itr; No
btw;wpiaf; bfhz;lhLtJ thifj; jpizahFk;.
rhd;W:
itafk; gzpg;g tyndh;g[ tis,g;
bgha;ah thdk; g[Jg;bgay; bghHpe;bjd...
? vd;w beLey;thilg; ghly;.
bghUj;jk;:
thilf; fhyj;jpy; nkfk; kiHia tyg;gf;fkhfr; NH;e;J g{kp FspUk;go kiHg; bga;jJ.
thilf;fhw;wpd; Fsph;r;rp kpFjpahYk; clYf;Fr; Nnlw;w gyUld; nrh;e;J bfhs;sp beUg;gpdhy;
iffSf;Fr; Nnlw;wpdh;. mth;fnshL kd;dDk; ghriwapy; Fsph;fhyj;jpy; btw;wpiaf;
bfhz;lhodhd;.
2. ghlhz] jpiz rhd;Wld; tpsf;Ff.
jpiz tpsf;fk;:
ghL + Mz] + jpiz ? ghlhz] jpiz. ghlg;gLk; Mz] kfdpd; g[fH;/ typik/ bfhil/ mUs;.
fy;tp/ xGf;fk; nghd;w ey;ypay;g[fisr; rpwg;gpj;Jf; TWtjhFk;. Mz] kfdJ xGfyhw;iwf; TWtJ
ghlhz]jpizapd; nehf;fkhFk;.
14  12 G jkpH; G bkhHpgapw;rp ifnaL

rhd;W:
thap nyhna- thap nyhna-
ts;spnahh; brtpKjy; ta=;FbkhHp tj;jpj; jhk; .....
vd;w g[wehD}w;Wg; ghly; mofs;.
bghUj;jk;:
jd;id eho tUnthh;f;F ,y;iy vd;W brhy;yhJ jdJ muz]kid thapiy thapw;fhtyidf;
bfhz]L milf;fhky; ghprpyh;f;F chpa ghprpidg; bgw vg;nghJk; jpwe;jpLk; thapiy cilaJ
mjpakhd; beLkhd; m+;rpapd; muz]kid vd;W TwpajpypUe;J mjpakhd; beLkhd; m+;rpapd;
bfhilj;jd;ik btspg;gLtjhy; ,g;ghly; ghlhz]jpizf;F chpaJ vd;gij mwpayhk;.

3. mfehD}w;Wg; ghlypy; tUk; bea;jy; jpizapd; Kjw;bghUs;/ fUg;bghUs;/ chpg;bghUs; tpsf;Ff.


jpiz ? bea;jy;
bgUk;bghGJ : MW bgUk;bghGJfSk;" rpWbghGJ : vw;ghL
Kjw;bghUs; : flYk; fly; rhh;e;j ,lKk;
fUg;bghUs;:
bja;tk; ? tUzd;
kf;fs; ? gujd;/ guj;jpah;
czt[ ? kPd; cg;g[f;Fg; bgw;wbghUs;
tpy=;F ? Kjiy/ Rwh
g{ ? bea;jy;/ jhiy
kuk; ? g[d;id
gwit ? flw;fhfk;
Ch; ? gl;odk;/ ghf;fk;
giw ? kPd; nfhl;giw
ahH; ? tpshpahH;
gz; ? brt;tHpg;gz;
bjhHpy; ? kPd; gpoj;jy;/ cg;g[ tpisj;jy;

chpg;bghUs; : ,u=;fYk; ,u=;fy; epkpj;jKk;


rhd;W: `bgU=;fly; ntl;lj;Jr; rpWFog; gujth;~ vdj; bjhl=;Fk; mfehD}w;Wg; ghly;.

4. ghlhz; jpizia rhd;Wld; tpsf;Ff.


jpiz tpsf;fk;:
xUtUila g[fH;/ typik/ bfhil/ mUs; nghd;w ey;ypay;g[fisr; rpwg;gpj;Jf; TWtJ ghlhz;
jpizahFk;.
rhd;W:
fha;bey; mWj;Jf; ftdk; bfhspnd"
kdepiwt[ ,y;yJk;/ gy;ehl;F MFk;.~~ vdj; bjhl=;Fk; g[wehD}w;Wg; ghly;.
bghUj;jk;:
rpwpa epyj;jpy; tpise;j bey;iy mWj;J czthf;fpf; ftskhff; bfhLj;jhy; ahidf;Fg;
gy ehl;fs; czthFk;. mwpt[ila murd; thp jpul;Lk; Kiw mwpe;J kf;fsplk; thpjpul;odhy;
ehL nfhof;fzf;fpy; bry;tj;ijg; bgw;Wr; brHpg;gila[k;.
bghpa taypy; ahid g[Fe;J cz;Qkhapd; thapy; g[Fe;j bey;iytplf; fhypy; kpjpg;gl;l
bey;jhd; mst[ mjpfkhFk;. mwptpy;yh murd; Kiw bjhpahky; thp jpul;Lthdhapd; ehL
tpiutpy; bfl;blhHpa[k;/ ahid g[Fe;j epyk; nghy MfptpLk;. murd; jhDk; gad;glkhl;lhd;
ehl;L kf;fSk; Jd;g[Wth;.
12 G jkpH; G bkhHpgapw;rp ifnaL 15

7 Jiw tpsf;fk;
1. `Tjph;g;ghriw~ Jiwiar; rhd;Wld; tpsf;Ff.
Jiw tpsf;fk;:
Tjph;g;ghriw vd;gJ nghh;nkw;bfhz;l murd; Fsph;fhyj;jpy; jh=;Fk; giltPlhFk;.
rhd;W:
itafk; gzpg;g tyndh;g[ tis,g;
bgha;ah thdk; g[Jg;bgay; bghHpe;bjd...
? vd;w beLey;thilg; ghly;.
bghUj;jk;:
thilf; fhyj;jpy; nkfk; kiHia tyg;gf;fkhfr; NH;e;J g{kp FspUk;go kiHg; bga;jJ.
thilf;fhw;wpd; Fsph;r;rp kpFjpahYk; clYf;Fr; Nnlw;w gyUld; nrh;e;J bfhs;sp beUg;gpdhy;
iffSf;Fr; Nnlw;wpdh;. mth;fnshL nghh;nkw; brd;w murd; Fsph;fhyj;jpy; j=;Fk; giltPL
Tjph;g;ghriw.

2. ghprpy; Jiw rhd;Wld; tpsf;Ff.


Jiw tpsf;fk;:
ghpR ntz;o thapypy; epw;gJ ghprpy; JiwahFk;.
rhd;W:
thap nyhna- thap nyhna-
ts;spnahh; brtpKjy; ta=;FbkhHp tj;jpj; jhk; .....
vd;w g[wehD}w;Wg; ghly; mofs;.
bghUj;jk;:
jd;id eho tUnthh;f;F ,y;iy vd;W brhy;yhJ jdJ muz]kid thapiy thapw;fhtyidf;
bfhz]L milf;fhky; ghprpyh;f;F chpa ghprpidg; bgw vg;nghJk; jpwe;jpLk; thapiy cilaJ
mjpakhd; beLkhd; m+;rpapd; muz]kid vd;W TwpajpypUe;J mjpakhd; beLkhd; m+;rpapd;
bfhilj;jd;ikia nehf;fp ghprpyh; muz;kidapd; thapypy; epw;gJ ghprpy; JiwahFk;.

3. brtpawpt[W}c Jiwiar; rhd;Wld; tpsf;F.


Jiwtpsf;fk;:
murd; bra;a ntz;oa flikfis Kiw jtwhky; bra;a[khW mtd; nfl;FkhW mwpt[Wj;jy;
brtpawpt[W}c JiwahFk;.
rhd;W:
fha;bey; mWj;Jf; ftdk; bfhspnd"
kdepiwt[ ,y;yJk;/ gy;ehl;F MFk;.~~ vdj; bjhl=;Fk; g[wehD}w;Wg; ghly;.
bghUj;jk;:
rpwpa epyj;jpy; tpise;j bey;iy mWj;J czthf;fpf; ftskhff; bfhLj;jhy; ahidf;Fg;
gy ehl;fs; czthFk;. mwpt[ila murd; thp jpul;Lk; Kiw mwpe;J kf;fsplk; thpjpul;odhy;
ehL nfhof;fzf;fpy; bry;tj;ijg; bgw;Wr; brHpg;gila[k;.
bghpa taypy; ahid g[Fe;J cz;Qkhapd; thapy; g[Fe;j bey;iytplf; fhypy; kpjpg;gl;l
bey;jhd; mst[ mjpfkhFk;. mwptpy;yh murd; Kiw bjhpahky; thp jpul;Lthdhapd; ehL
tpiutpy; bfl;blhHpa[k;/ ahid g[Fe;j epyk; nghy MfptpLk;. murd; jhDk; gad;glkhl;lhd;
ehl;L kf;fSk; Jd;g[Wth;.
16  www.nammakalvi.org 12 G jkpH; G bkhHpgapw;rp ifnaL

8 jkpHhf;fk; bra;f
,ay; ?1
1. Learning is a treasure that will follow its owner everywhere. (Chinese Proverb).
fw;wtUf;Fr; brd;w ,lbky;yhk; rpwg;g[.
2. A new language is a new life. (Persian Proverb).
g[jpa bkhHp g[jpa thH;f;if.
3. If you want people to understand you, speak their language. (African Proverb).
gpwh; cd;idg; g[hpe;J bfhs;s ntz]Lkhapd; mth; bkhHpapy; ngR.
4. Knowledge of languages is the doorway to wisdom. (Roger Bacon).
bkhHpfspd; mwpt[ +hdj;jpd; tHpj;jlk;.
5. The limits of my language are the limits of my world. (Willgenstin).
vd; bkhHpapd; vy;iy vd; cyfj;jpd; vy;iy.
,ay; ? 2
In 1977, shocked at the environmental 1977?Mk; Mz]oy; jdJ caphpDk; ,dpa bfd;ah
devastation caused by deforestation ehl;oy; fhLfs; mHpf;fg;gl;ljhy; Vw;gl;l nguHpt[
in her beloved Kenya, Wangari Mathai fz]L kdk; btJk;gp t=;fhhp kj;jha; gRik tshf
founded the Green Belt Movement. For ,af;fj;ijj; njhw;Wtpj;jhh;. mijj; bjhlh;e;J Kg;gJ
thirty years, the movement has enabled Mz]Lfs;/ ,e;j ,af;fj;jhy; gy Mg;gphpf;fg; bgz]
many women to plant trees in their regions fs; jkJ gFjpfspy; ku=;fis el;L/ mjd; tHpahfj;
providing them with food, fuel and halting j=;fSf;Fj; njitahd czita[k; vhpbghUisa[k;
soil erosion and desertification. She used jhnk <l;oanjhL epy;yhky; Mg;gphpf;fhtpy; epytpa
the movement to enlighten the people on kz] mhpg;ghy; epyk; ghiytdkhtija[k; jLj;J
the fruits of representative democracy. This epWj;jpdh;. mth; ,e;j ,af;fj;jpd; tHpahf kf;fshl;rpapd;
led Kenya to Kenya’s first fully democratic gad;fis mwpar; bra;jhh;. ,J mj;jiyKiwapdh;
elections in a generation. In the election, midtUf;Fk; Kjy;Kiwahfj; njh;jypy; g=;nfw;Fk;
Mathai was elected to the Parliament and tha;g;ig Vw;gLj;jpf; bfhLj;jJ. ,j;njh;jypy; t=;fhhp
made a Minister of environment. She was kj;jha; ehlhSkd;w cWg;gpduhfj; njh;t[ bra;ag;gl;Lg;
conferred a Nobel Prize in 2004 because gpwF Rw;Wr;NHy; mikr;ruhdhh;. bfd;ag; bgz]fSf;F
of her outstanding success in guiding tHpfhl;o @d;W nfho ku=;fis el;L tsh;j;jjhy;
Kenyan women to plant more than thirty mtuJ jd;dykw;w gzpiag; ghuhl;o/ 2004Mk; Mz]
million trees. She has transformed the lives L t=;fhhp kj;jha;f;F nehgy; ghpR tH=;fg;gl;lJ.
of tens of thousands of women through epiyahd tsh;r;rpia cWjp bra;a[k; r@ff; fhLfs;
sustainable social forestry schemes. tsh;g;g[j; jpl;lj;jpd; @yk; gy;yhapuf;fzf;fhd bgz]
fspd; thH;tpy; kWkyh;r;rpia Vw;gLj;jpdhh;.

,ay; ? 3
In terms of human development objectives, education is an end in itself, not just a means to an end.
Education is a basic human right. It is also the key which opens many economic, social and political doors for
people. It increases access to income and employment opportunities. While economists generally analyse the
importance of education largely as a means for better opportunities in life-and that is the main theme of this
chapter-let it be clearly stated that educating people is a worthy goal in itself, irrespective of the economic rates
of return.
12 G jkpH; G bkhHpgapw;rp ifnaL 17

jkpHhf;fk;:
fy;tp vd;gJ kdpj tsh;r;rp mog;gilapy; xd;W. mJnt ,WjpahdJ. MapDk; mJ KothdJ
md;W. fy;tp vd;gJ kdpjDila mog;gil chpik. ,J kf;fspd; bghUshjhuk; r@fk; kw;Wk;
murpay; rhh;e;j JiwfspDila fjt[fisj; jpwf;f cjt[k; jpwt[nfhy;. ,J ntiytha;g;g[fisa[k;/
tUkhdj;ija[k; cah;j;JfpwJ. kdpjDila thH;ifapy; ey;y tha;g;g[fisg; gw;wp bghUshjhu
ty;Yeh;fs; tphpthf Ma;e;Js;sdh;. kf;fSf;F fy;tpawpt[ tH=;FtJ rpwe;j Fwpf;nfhshFk;. mJ ve;j
tpjkhd bghUs; kjpg;iga[k; jpUg;gp mspf;fhJ.
,ay; ? 4
 The Serious dearth of library facilities in this country is scarcely keeping with India’s status in the international
community of nations or with her educational and social needs. In this matter. India compares unfavourably
not only with other independent Dominions of the commonwealth but even with certain British colonies. She
possesses only one public library on any considerable size, and even this institution is inadequate to serve
the need of the capital city. Only a few towns can boast of possessing any library at all. The rural papulation is
completely neglected; There are no travelling libraries to reach them of kind that are to be found even in some
backward countries.
 The growth of libraries has lagged. Far behind the increase in the number of schools and the rise in the rate
of literacy. The great mass of the people in India do not have the means to buy books or even magazines and
newspapers; in the absence of sufficient public libraries and reading room, most of them cannot attain regular
reading habits.
jkpHhf;fk;:
,e;jpa ehl;oy; E}yf trjpfspd; gw;whf;Fiwahy; fy;tp kw;Wk; r@f njitfspy; ,e;jpahtpd;
epiyg;ghL rh;tnjr mu=;fpy; kw;w ehLfisf; fhl;oYk; Fiwe;nj cs;sJ. ,e;j tp&aj;jpy; ,e;jpah/
rpy bghJt[ilik ehLfs; kw;Wk; M=;fpyf; Fonaw;w ehLfnshL vjph;kiwahf xg;gplg;gLfpwJ.
bghpa mstpy; xnu xU bghJ E}yfj;jij kl;Lnk ,e;jpah itj;jpUf;fpwJ. nkYk;/ mJ
jiyefuj;jpd; njitia epiwt[ bra;a nghJkhdjhf ,y;iy. ,=;F xU rpy efu=;fs; kl;Lnk E}
yfj;jhy; bgUik mila ,aYk;. fpuhkg;g[w kf;fs; Kw;wpYkhf g[wf;fzpf;fg;gLfpwhh;fs;. mth;fis
gadilar; bra;tjw;F rpy gpd; j=;fpa ehLfspy; cs;sijtpl E}yf=;fs; VJk; ,=;F ,y;iy.
 ,e;jpahtpy; E}yf=;fspd; tsh;r;rp jhkjkhfnt cs;sJ. gpd;dhspy; gs;spfspd; vz;zpf;ifapy;
Vw;wk; ,Ue;jhYk;/ vGj;jwptpy; gpd;j=;fpna ,Uf;f nehpLk;. ,e;jpahtpy; bgUkst[ kf;fSf;Fg;
g[j;jf=;fs;/ thu ,jH;fs;/ gj;jphpf;iffs; th=;Ftjw;F tHp ,y;iy kw;Wk; nghJkhd bghJ E}yf=;fs;/
thrpg;g[ miw/ ,y;yhikahy; bgUk;ghyhdth;fSf;F thrpf;Fk; gHf;fnk ,y;yhky; nghfpwJ.
,ay; ? 5
Periyar was not only a great social revolutionary; he was something more than that. He is known as a
great champion of the underprivileged; even in this sphere he was much more than that. His sphere of activity
was very wide and when he took up any issue he went deep into it, understood all the aspects of it and did not
rest until he had found a permanent solution to it. Communal differences in our society were deep-tooted and
appeared to be permanent features of our society until Periyar came on the scene.
jkpHhf;fk;:
bghpahh; r@f rPh;jpUj;jthjp kl;Lky;yhky;/ mija[k; jhz;o mthplk; gy rpwg;g[fs; cs;sd. mth;
gpw;gLj;jg;gl;nlhh;fSf;fhfg; nghuho btw;wp fz;lth;. mJkl;Lky;yhky; mtUila bray;fs;
bjhiynehf;Fg; ghh;it cilaJ. ve;jg; gpur;rpidf;Fk; mth; Tf;Fuy; bfhLj;jhh;. mjid Muha;e;J
g[hpe;j gpd; mjw;fhd epue;ju jPh;ita[k; fz;Lgpoj;J epiwntw;wpdhh;. bghpahh; mth;fspd; tUiff;F
Kd;dh; rhjpfSf;F ,ilna ntw;Wik ek; r@fj;jpy; gutp ,Ue;jJ.
18  12 G jkpH; G bkhHpgapw;rp ifnaL

,ay; ? 6
Popular as the ‘Cultural Capital’ of India, Tamil Nadu is extremely well-known for its marvellous temples
and other architectural gems. The state rose to prominence primarily because of its well-known and outstanding
Tanjore Paintings that flourished at the time of Chola dynasty in ancient Tanjavoor. In this traditional art form,
the paintings showcase the embellished form of the sacred deities of the region. The deities in the paintings are
festooned with glass pieces, pearls, semi-precious stones, and gold and other vibrant colours. In the modern
times, Tanjore paintings look up to human figures, animals, floral motifs and birds as muses.
jkpHhf;fk;:
,e;jpahtpy; jkpHfk; fyhr;rhuj; jiyefukhfj; jpfH;fpwJ. jkpH;ehL gpuk;khz;lkhd
nfhtpy;fSf;Fk; kw;Wk; fl;llf;fiyfSf;Fk; g[fH;bgw;wJ. Fwpg;ghf/ j+;rht{h; Xtpa=;fs; nrhH
tk;rj;jpd; fyhr;rhu=;fisa[k; gz;ila j+;rht{hpd; ghuk;ghpa fiy/ Xtpa=;fs; kw;Wk; g[dpj
bja;t=;fs; Mfpatw;Wf;Fg; bgah; bgw;wJ. bja;t=;fspd; cUt=;fs; fz;zhoj; Jz;Lfs;
Xtpa=;fs;/ Kj;Jf;fs;/ tpiy cah;e;j fw;fs; kw;Wk; j=;fk; Mfpatw;wpy; gy tz;z=;fspy;
bghwpf;fg;gl;Ls;sd. etPd fhyj;jpy; j+;rht{h; Xtpa=;fs; kdpj cUt=;fs;/ tpy=;Ffs;/ jhtu=;fs;
kw;Wk; gwitfs; ? cUt=;fs; bfhz;ljhfg; g[jpa ghpzhkk; bgw;Ws;sd.
,ay; ? 7
A White woman, about 50 years old, was seated next to a black man. Obviously disturbed by this,
she called the airhostess. “Madam, what is the matter?” the hostess asked. “You placed me next to a black
man. Give me an alternative seat”. The hostess replied. “Almost all the places on this flight are taken. I will
go to see if another place is available. The hostess went away and came back a few minutes later. “Madam,
just as I thought, there are no other available seats in the economy class. We still have one place in the first
class”.
Before the woman could say anything, the hostess continued. “It would be scandalous to make someone
sit next to someone so disgusting”. She turned to the black guy and said, “ Sir, a seat awaits you in the first
class”. At the moment, the other passengers who were shocked by what they had just witnessed stood up
and applauded. Take a lesson from the sun who shines his light on everyone. Or the rain that falls on every
single shore. No distinction of our race or the colour of our face. Nature’s gifts are there for all men rich or poor.
(Courtesy: S.S.S. Bal Vikas)
jkpHhf;fk;:
Ik;gJ taJ kjpf;fj;jf;f xU bts;isf;fhu bgz;kzp xU fUg;g[ epw (ePf;nuh) kdpjd; mUnf
mkh;e;jpUe;jhs;. ,jdhy; btWg;g[w;w mts;/ tpkhd gzpg;bgz;iz miHj;J/ jkf;F ntW ,Uf;if
ntz;Lk; vd Kiwapl;lhs;. Vwf;Fiwa vy;yh ,Uf;iffSk; epuk;gptpl;ld. ntW VnjDk;
cs;sdth vd ghh;f;fpnwd; vd;W gzpg;bgz; gjpyspj;jhs;. rw;W J}uk; brd;w gzpg;bgz; xUrpy
tpdhofspy; jpUk;gp te;J ,uz;lhk; tFg;gpy; ,Uf;iffs; ,y;iy. Mdhy; Kjy; tFg;gpy; xU ,lk;
cs;sJ vd;whs;. me;jg; bgz; tha; jpwf;FKd;/ tpkhd gzpg;bgz; bjhlh;e;jhs;.
``gf;fj;jpy; mkh;e;J gazpg;gJ btWg;ghf cs;sJ vd;gij ehDk; btWf;fpnwd;~~ vd;W Twptpl;L
me;jf; fUg;gpd ,is+id nehf;fp/ ``Iah/ c=;fSf;F Kjy; tFg;gpy; xU ,Uf;if fhj;jpUf;fpwJ~~
vd;W mtid miHj;jhs;. ,jidf; fz;l kw;w gazpfs; vGe;J epd;W mtspd; braiyf; fz;L
ifjl;o ghuhl;odhh;fs;. ,jpypUe;J ehk; fw;Wf;bfhs;s ntz;oa ghlk; vd;dbtd;why;/ Nhpad;/
ngjkpd;wp midtHf;Fk; xsp tPRfpwJ. kiH vy;yh ,l=;fspYk; bghHpfpwJ. ,aw;ifna ,t;thW
ngjkpd;wp jdJ bfhilfis tH=;Fk; nghJ/ ,dj;ija[k;/ epwj;ija[k; kw;Wk; Kfj;ija[k; ghh;j;J rf
kdpjid ehk; btWf;fyhkh>
,ay; ? 8
I make sure I have the basic good habits which respecting my elders, greeting people when I meet them,
wishing them well when departing etc. Other than this, observing the law, serving the poor and downtrodden,
helping the sick and needy, giving shelter to the homeless, assisting someone with a physically challenged etc.
12 G jkpH; G bkhHpgapw;rp ifnaL www.nammakalvi.org 19

are also other good habits of mine. To lead on a peaceful life. I develop other good habits, writing, listening to
music, dancing, singing etc. are other such habits which fulfill the needs of my soul.
jkpHhf;fk;:
ehd; bghpath;fis kjpg;gJ/ gpwiur; re;jpf;Fk; nghJ tzf;fk; bjhptpg;gJ/ mth;fs;
g[wg;gLk; rkaj;jpy; ed;wp brYj;JtJ nghd;w ey;y gHf;f=;fs; vd;dplk; ,Ug;gij cWjpahfr;
brhy;ntd;. ,J jtpu/ rl;lj;ijf; ftdpj;jy;/ ViH kw;Wk; moj;jl;L kf;fSf;Fr; nrit g[hpjy;/
nehahspfSf;Fj; njitahd cjtpfisr; bra;jy;/ tPlw;wth;fSf;Fj; j=;Fkplk; mikj;Jj; jUjy;/
khw;Wj;jpwdhspfSf;F ,ad;w cjtp bra;jy; nghd;w kw;w rpy ey;y gHf;f=;fSk; vd;dplk; cs;sJ.
xU mikjpahd thH;f;ifia nkw;bfhs;s ehd; nkYk; rpy ey;y gHf;f=;fis tsh;j;Jf; bfhs;fpnwd;/
ghly; nfl;fpnwd;/ eldk; MLfpnwd;/ vGJfpnwd;/ ,iria urpf;fpnwd;. ,Jnghd;w gHf;f=;fshy;
vd; Md;khtpd; njitfs; g{h;j;jpahfpd;wd.

9 fiyr;brhw;fs;
E}yfk; bjhlh; tz]o epiyak;
Subscription – cWg;gpdh; fl;lzk; Platform – eilnkil
Fiction – g[idt[ Ticket Inspector – gazr;rPl;L Ma;th;
Biography – thH;f;if tuyhW Train Track – ,Ug;g[g;ghij
Archive – Mtzk; Level Crossing – ,Ug;gg [ g; hijiaf; flf;Fkplk;
Manuscript – ifbaGj;Jg;gpujp Railway Signal – bjhlh;tz]o tHpf;Fwp
Bibliography – E}y; epuy; Metro Train – khefuj; bjhlh;tz]o

cztfk; thD}h;jp epiyak;


Lobby – Xa;tiw Arrival – tUif
Tips – rpw;wPif Passport – flt[r;rPl;L
Checkout – btspnaWjy; Departure – g[wg;ghL
Mini meals – rpw;Wzt[ Visa – EiHt[ ,irt[
Coaveyor Belt – Ch;jpg;gl;il
Domestic Flight – cs;ehl;L thD}h;jp
Take off – thD}h;jp fpsk;g[jy;

ejP p kd ;wk ; jpiuj ;Jiw


Affidavit – Miz cWjp Mtzk;; Artist – ftpd; fiy+h;
Jurisdiction – mjpfhu vy;iy Sound-Effect – xyp tpist[
Allegation – rhl;Liu Cinematography – xspg;gjpt[
Plaintiff – thjp Newsreel – bra;jpg;glk;
Animation – ,a=;Fglk;
Conviction – jz;lid
Multiplex complex – xU=;fpize;j jpiuau=;f tshfk;
t= ;fp mYtyfg ; bghUs ;fs ;
Debit Card – gw;W ml;il Stamp pad – ik bghjp
Demand Draft – nfl;g[ tiunthiy Stapler – fk;gp ijg;g[f; fUtp
Withdrawal Slip – jpUk;gg; bgwy; gotk; Folder – kog;g[j;jhs;;
Teller – tpiut[f; fhrhsh; File – nfhg;g[
Mobile Banking – miyngrp tHp t=;fp Rubber Stamp – ,Git Kj;jpiu
Kiw Eraser – mHpg;ghd;
Internet Banking – ,izat=;fp Kiw
20  12 G jkpH; G bkhHpgapw;rp ifnaL

fiyr;brhy; mwpnthk; mYtyf; fiyr;brhy; mwpnthk;


Abstract ? RUf;fk; Acquittance Roll ? rk;gsg;gl;o
Academy ? fiyf;fHfk; Rough Draft ? Kjy;tiut[ / brg;gkw;w tiut[
Accountancy ? fzf;fpay; Route Book ? rhiyr;Rto / tHpr;Rto
Accountant ? fzf;fh; Draft Rule ? tpjp tiut[
Acknowledgement ? xg;g[if Ryots ? Foahdth; / cHth;
Appendix ? gpd; ,izg;g[ Note file ? mYtyff; Fwpg;g[
Applause ? Muthug; ghuhl;L Rural Development ? ehl;Lg;g[w Kd;ndw;wk; / fpuhk
Kd;ndw;wk;
Appliances ? Jizf; fUtpfs; Sales tax ? tpw;gid thp

10 gj;jpiag; goj;J tpdh mikf;f


1. fPH;f;fhQk; gj;jpiag; goj;J Ie;J tpdhf;fis cUthf;Ff :
bkhHp vd;gJ kf;fs; gilj;Jf; fhf;Fk; mhpabjhU fiy. bkhHpna kf;fspd; mwpit tsh;j;J
cah;j;Jk; mhpa fUtpahft[k; cs;sJ. bgw;w jhapd; Kjy; ntl;if jd; FHe;ija[ld; ngRjy;. mts;
Kjypy; mila[k; bghpa kfpH;r;rp/ FHe;ijapd; ngr;irf; nfl;gnj MFk;. FHe;ijapd; kdtsh;r;rpnahL
bjhlh;g[ilaJ bkhHp tsh;r;rpna MFk;. kdk; vd;gJ bgUk;ghYk; bkhHpahy; tsh;e;J mike;jJ.
kdj;jpd; tsh;r;rpf;F Vw;gnt ngRnthhpd; bkhHpa[k; tsh;r;rp bgw;W epw;Fk; kf;fs; midtUk; bkhHpf;F
Mrphpauhft[k; cs;sdh; " khztuhft[k; cs;sdh;. bkhHpia tsh;g;gtUk; kf;fns " bkhHpahy;
tsh;gtUk; kf;fns.
? bkhHp tuyhW (K/ tujuhrdhh;)
tpdhf;fs; :
1. kf;fs; gilj;Jf; fhj;JtUk; mhpa fiy vJ > mJ Mw;Wk; bray; ahJ >
2. jhapd; Kjy; tpUg;gk; vd;d >
3. bkhHp tsh;r;rp vjndhL bjhlh;g[ilaJ >
4. bkhHpia tsh;g;gtUk;/ tsh;gtUk; ahh; >
5. bkhHp tsh;r;rp vjidg; bghWj;jJ >
2. fPH;f;fhQk; gj;jpiag; goj;J Ie;J tpdhf;fis cUthf;Ff :
brd;id efuj;jpy; gHikahd jpUf;nfhapy;fshd jpUbtw;wpa{h;/ jpUthd;kpa{h;/ kapyhg;g{h;/
jpUKy;iythapy; Mfpatw;wpy; cs;s nfhapy;fs; ghly; bgw;w Mapuk; Mz;LfSf;F Kw;gl;l
jy=;fshf cs;sd. gy;yhtuj;jpy; cs;s gy;yth; Filtiu/ Kjyhk; knfe;jputh;kd; fhyj;jpy;
mikf;fg;gl;lJ. ,=;Fs;s fy;btl;ilr; brd;idapy; fpilj;jtw;Ws; gHikahd fy;btl;L
vdyhk;. jpUty;ypf;nfzpapy; fpilf;Fk; ee;jpth;kd; fy;btl;Lk; gy;yth; Ml;rpapy; ,g;gFjp rpwe;J
tps=;fpaijf; fhl;LfpwJ.
nrj;Jg;gl;L (nrw;Wg;gl;L)/ E=;fk;ghf;fk;/ tpahrh;gho/ khjtuk;/ nfhak;ngL/ jhk;guk;
nghd;w gFjpfs; fpHf;fpe;jpa epWtdk; fhy; gjpg;gjw;F 400 Mz;LfSf;F Kd;dnu 12?13Mk; E}
w;whz;Lfspy; g[fH;bgw;w fpuhk=;fshf ,Ue;Js;sd.
1646Mk; Mz;od; fzf;bfLg;gpd;go ,e;efupd; kf;fs;bjhif 19/000 MFk;. ,t;tsh;r;rpapid
mwpe;nj 1688,y; brd;id efuhl;rp cUthf;fg;gl;lJ.
M=;fpnyah; Ml;rp bra;tjw;F trjpahfj; bjd;dpe;jpahtpd; bgUk;ghyh gFjpfis cs;slf;fpr;
brd;id khfhzj;ij cUthf;fpdh;. vyp nay; (Elihu Yale) mjd; Kjy; jiyth;;. mtiuj; bjhlh;e;J
jhk!; gpl; (Thomas Pitt) brd;id khfhzj;jpd; jiytuhdhh;. jhk!; gpl;od; Ml;rpf;fhyj;ijr;
12 G jkpH; G bkhHpgapw;rp ifnaL 21

brd;idapd; bghw;fhyk; vd;gh;. ,th; gy gFjpfisr; brd;ida[ld; ,izj;jhh;. M=;fpnyaupd;


mjpfhu ikakhd ,e;efuk;/ M=;fpnyaiu vjph;j;j tpLjiy ,af;fj;jhUf;Fk; Kjd;ikf; fskhfj;
jpfH;e;jJ.
tpdhf;fs; :
1. brd;id efuj;jpd; gHikahd nfhapy;fs; ,uz;oid vGJf.
2. gy;yhtuj;jpy; cs;s gy;yth; Filtiu ahh; fhyj;jpy; mikf;fg;gl;lJ>
3. jpUty;ypf;nfzpapy; fpilj;j ee;jpth;kd; fy;btl;L vijf; fhl;LfpwJ>
4. nrj;Jg;gl;L/ E=;fk;ghf;fk;/ tpahrh;gho/ khjtuk; nghd;w gFjpfspd; jdpr;rpwg;bgd;d>
5. brd;idapy; cs;s gHikahd fy;btl;L vJ>
3. gj;jpiag; goj;J Ie;J tpdhf;fis cUthf;Ff.
,ay;ghfnt bgUkiHiaj; jh=;ff;Toa Fsk;/ Fl;il/ Vhp/ MW/ tofhy; tha;f;fhy;fs;/
bts;sr; rkbtspfs; nghd;w Vw;ghLfis ,aw;if mikj;jpUf;fpwJ/ ehk; ,e;j mikg;gpy; ,ilaPL
bra;J ePh;epiyfis mHpj;J FoapUg;g[fs;/ bjhHpw;rhiyfs;/ fy;tp epWtd=;fs; nghd;wtw;iw
cUthf;fpf; bfhs;fpnwhk;. befpHp kw;Wk; jplf;fHpt[fisf; bfhl;o ePh;tHpg;ghijfisf; FWf;fp
bts;sr; rkbtspfis ,y;yhky; bra;JtpLfpnwhk;. ,jd; tpisthf bts;sg;bgUf;F Vw;gl;L
caph;/ cilik ,Hg;g[fs; Vw;gLfpd;wd. bgUkiH fhy=;fspy; efu=;fs; bts;sj;jpy; kpjf;fpd;wd.
tpdhf;fs; :
1. bgUkiHiaj; jh=;f ,aw;if je;j mikg;g[fs; ahit >
2. bgUkiHiaj; jh=;f ,aw;if je;j mikg;gpy; ehk; bra;a[k; ,ilaPLfs; ahit >
3. ek;Kila vj;jifa bray;ghLfshy; bts;sr; rkbtspfis ,y;yhky; bra;fpnwhk; ?
4. bts;sr; rkbtspfis mHpg;gjhy; Vw;gLk; ghjpg;g[fs; ahit ?
5. bgUkiHf; fhy=;fspy; efuk; bts;sj;jpy; kpjg;gjw;fhd fhuzj;ij tpsf;Ff.

11 rhd;nwhh; rpj;jpuk;
bfhLf;fg;gl;l gj;jpiag; goj;J tpdhf;fSf;F tpilasp :
1. MWKf ehtyh; (1822 ? 1879);
tHf;F xd;wpy; rhl;rp mspf;f ePjpkd;wj;jpw;Fj; jkJ khzth;fSld;
te;jpUe;jhh; jkpHwp+h; xUth;. mf;fhy M=;fpnya ePjpgjpfSf;F bkhHpbgah;j;Jr;
brhy;y mjpfhhpfs; ,Ug;ghh;fs;. jkpHwp+h;/ rhl;rpaj;ij M=;fpyj;jpnyna brhy;y
Muk;gpf;f/ FWfpa kdk; bfhz]l ePjpgjp mij Vw;Wf;bfhs;s kdk; xg;ghky;
jkpHpy; Twr; brhy;yp cj;jutpl;lhh;. mth; clnd `m+;+hd;W vy;yp vH ehdhHpg;
nghjpd;tha; MHptuk; gidj;nj fhnyw;Wf; fhnyhl;lg; g[f;FHp~ vd;W Jt=;fpdhh;.
bkhHpbgah;g;ghsh; jpzwpg; nghdhh;. nfhgKw;w ePjpgjp M=;fpyj;jpy; ngrf; Twp
cj;jutpl mth; kWj;Jj; jkpHpnyna twpdhh;. mtuJ khzth; kw;wth;fSf;Fg; g[upa[k;go tpsf;fpdhh;.
`Nhpad; njhd;Wtjw;F ehd;F ehHpif Kd;dh; flw;fiu Xuk; fhw;W th=;fr; rpWeilf;Fg;
g[wg;gl;lnghJ~ vd;gJ mth; Twpajw;Fg; bghUs;. ,j;jifa bkhHpj;jpwd; iftug;bgw;wth;jhd;
MWKf ehtyh;.
`trdeil ifte;j ty;yhsh;~ vdg; g[fHg;gLk; MWKf ehtyh; ahH;g;ghzk; ey;Y}hpy; gpwe;jth;.
jkpH;/ tlbkhHp/ M=;fpyk; vDk; Kk;bkhHpg; g[yik bgw;wth;. jkpH;E}y; gjpg;g[/ ciueil Mf;fk;/
ghlrhiy epWt[jy;/ mr;Rf;Tlk; epWt[jy;/ fz]ld E}y;fs; gilj;jy;/ irt rkar; brhw;bghHpt[
vdg; gd;Kf MSik bgw;wth;.
22  www.nammakalvi.org 12 G jkpH; G bkhHpgapw;rp ifnaL

jpUf;Fws; ghpnkyHfh; ciu/ Nlhkzp epfz]L/ ed;D}y;?r=;fu ekr;rpthah; tpUj;jpa[iu vd;W gy


E}y;fisg; gjpg;gpj;jhh;. ,yf;fz E}y;fs;/ g{kp rh!;jpuk; Kjyhd ghl E}y;fs; mtuhy; Mf;fg;gl;ld/
g[uhz E}y;fis trdkhf vGjp mjid midtUk; gof;Fk; vspa totkhf khw;wpdhh;. jkJ
,y;yj;jpy; mr;Rf;Tlk; epWtpg; gy E}y;fis mr;rpl;lhh;. jpUthtLJiw MjPdk; ,tUf;F `ehtyh;~
gl;lk; tH=;fpaJ. bgh;rpty; ghjphpahh; tptpypaj;ijj; jkpHpy; bkhHpbgah;f;ft[k; ,th; cjtpdhh;.
tpdhf;fs;
1) MWKf ehtyh; vt;thW g[fH;g;gl;lhh;>
trd eil ifte;j ty;yhsh; vdg; g[fHg;gl;lth; MWKf ehtyh; Mthh;.
2) MWKf ehtyh; v=;F gpwe;jhh;;>
MWKf ehtyh; ahH;g;ghzk; ? ey;Y}hpy; gpwe;jhh;.
3) ,g;gj;jpapy; ,lk; bgw;Ws;s ,uz;L bjhHpw; bgah;fisf; Fwpg;gpLf.
epWt[jy;/ gilj;jy;
4) fPH;tUk; brhy;iyg; gphpj;J vGJf.
brhw;bghHpt[ ? brhy; + bghHpt[
5) fPH;tUk; brhy;ypd; bghUs; TWf.
vy;yp ? R{hpad;
2. kha{uk; ntjehafk; gps;is (1826 ? 1889);
gj;bjhd;gjhk; E}w;whz]oy; bjd;dpe;jpag; gFjpapy; Vw;gl;l kpff;bfhoa
g+;rj;ijj; jhJ tUlg; g+;rk; (Great Famine 1876-1878) vd;W/ ,d;Wk; epidt[
Th;th;. xU nfho kf;fs; g+;rj;jpd; gpoapy; rpf;fp ,we;jpUf;fyhk; vdg; gjpt[fs;
TWfpd;wd. ,ijf; fz]L kdk; bghWf;fhj jkpHh; xUth; kdKte;J jkJ
brhj;Jf;fs; midj;ija[k; bfhilaspj;jhh;. ,jidg; nghw;Wk; tpjkhff;
nfhghyfpU&;z ghujpahh;/ `ePna g[U& nkU....~ vd;w ghliy ,aw;wp mtiug;
bgUikg;gLj;jpdhh;. mth;jhd;/ ePjpgjp kha{uk; ntjehafk;. mth;/
bkhHpbgah;g;ghsuhft[k; ehtyhrphpauhft[k; bgah; bgw;wth; " jkpHpd; Kjy; ehtyhd gpujhg Kjypahh;
rhpj;jpuj;ij ,aw;wpath;. khatuj;jpd; efh;kd;wj; jiytuhft[k; gzpahw;wpa mth;/ jkJ rkfhyj;
jkpHwp+u;fshd kfhtpj;thd; kPdhl;rp Re;judhh;/ ,uhkyp=;f ts;syhh;/ Rg;gpukzpa njrpfh;
nghd;nwhhplk; el;g[g; ghuhl;o beU=;fpapUe;jhh; " fp.gp. 1805 Kjy; fp.gp. 1861 Mk; Mz]Ltiu
M=;fpyj;jpy; ,Ue;j ePjpkd;wj; jPh;g;g[fis Kjd;Kjypy; jkpHpy; bkhHpbgah;j;J `rpj;jhe;j r=;fpufk;~
vd;w E}yhf btspapl;lhu; " nkYk; bgz]kjp khiy/ jpUtUs; me;jhjp/ ru;t rka rkurf; fPh;j;jid/
RFz Re;jhp Kjypa E}y;fisa[k; gy jdpg;ghly;fisa[k; ,aw;wpa[s;shh;. ,irapYk; tPiz
thrpg;gjpYk; ty;ytuhfj; jpfH;e;j ,th;/ Mapuj;jpw;Fk; nkw;gl;l fPh;j;jidfis ,aw;wpapUf;fpwhh; "
tlbkhHp/ gpbu+;R/ ,yj;jPd; Mfpa bkhHpfisf; fw;wwpe;jpUe;jhh;. mth;/ bgz]fy;tpf;Ff; Fuy;
bfhLj;j kpf Kf;fpa MSikahf mwpag;gLfpwhh;. mtUila bkhHpahl;rpf;Fr; rhd;whf/ gpujhg
Kjypahh; rhpj;jpuj;jpypUe;J xU gj;jp :
``fy;tp tp&aj;ijg; gw;wp cd; ghyd; brhy;tijf; nfs;~~ vd;W vd; gpjh Mf;+hgpj;jhh;. clnd vd;
jhahh; vd; Kfj;ijg; ghh;j;jhs;. ehd; Kd; brhd;dgo vd; ghl;oahhplj;jpny fw;Wf;bfhz]l ghlj;ij
vd; jhahUf;Fr; brhd;ndd;. mijf; nfl;lt[lnd vd; jhahUf;F Kfk; khwptpl;lJ. gpwF rw;W
neuk; bghWj;J/ vd; jhahh; vd;id nehf;fp/ ``vd; fz]kzpna/ eP brhy;tJ vs;sst[+; rhpay;y. fy;tp
vd;fpw gpurf;jpna ,y;yhjth;fshd rhkhdpa ghku $d=;fisg; ghh;. mth;fSila bra;iffSf;Fk;
kpUf=;fSila bra;iffSf;Fk; vd;d ngjkpUf;fpwJ > ekf;F Kff; fz]zpUe;Jk; Nhpag; gpufhrk;
,y;yhtpl;lhy; vd;d gpunah$dk;>~~ vd;whh;.
12 G jkpH; G bkhHpgapw;rp ifnaL 23

tpdhf;fs;
1) kha{uk; ntjehafk; vGjpa Kjy; ehty; vJ>
gpujhg Kjypahh; rhpj;jpuk;
2) kha{uk; ntjehafk; mwpe;j ntW bkhHpfs; ahit>
tlbkhHp/ gpu+;R/ ,yj;jPd;
3) ghlg;gFjpapy; ,lk; bgw;Ws;s vz;Qk;ikapid vLj;J vGJf.
bkhHpg; bgah;g;ghsuhft[k; ehtyhrphpauhft[k; ? vz;Qk;ik
4) ntjehafk; mwpe;jpUe;j ntWfiyfs; ahit>
,ir/ tPiz thrpj;jy;
5) ntjehafk; ahh; ahhplk; el;g[g; ghuhl;odhh;>
,uhkyp=;f ts;syhh;/ Rg;gpukzpa njrpfh; nghd;nwhhplk; ntjehafk; el;g[g; ghuhl;odhh;.
3. rhd;nwhh; rpj;jpuk;
tFg;giwapy; ghlk; elj;jpf; bfhz;oUe;jhh; nguhrphpah;. ghlj;jpy; kdk;
Xl;lhJ ftdkpd;wp ,Ue;j khzth; xUthplk;/ ``ekJ brhw;bghHpitg;
bghUl;gLj;j tpUk;ghj eP ,=;fpUe;J vGtha;/ eP ,=;fpUg;gjhy; cdf;nfh
gpwh;f;nfh gadpiy/ ,=;fpUe;J cd;dhy; bray;gLbghUs; ,y;iy/ Mjyhy;
tFg;gpy; ,Ue;J btspnaWf~~ vd eak;gl ciuj;J btspnaw;wpdhh;. mth;jhd;
`jpuhtpl rh!;jphp~ vd;W rp. it. jhnkhjudhuhy; nghw;wg;gl;l ghpjpkhw; fiy+h;.
mth; je;ijahhplk; tlbkhHpiaa[k; kfhtpj;Jthd; rghgjpahhplk; jkpGk;
gapd;whh;" vg;. V (F. A – First Examination in Arts) njh;tpy; Kjy; khztuhfj; njh;r;rp bgw;W gh!;fu
nrJgjp kd;dhplk; cjtpj;bjhif bgw;whh;. brd;idf; fpwpj;Jtf; fy;Y}hpapy; gp.V gapd;W/ jkpHpYk;
ntjhe;j jj;Jt rhj;jpuj;jpYk; gy;fiyf;fHf mstpy; Kjy; khztuhfj; njh;r;rp bgw;Wj; j=;fg;
gjf;fj;ijg; ghprhfg; bgw;whh;. 1893 Mk; mz;L brd;idf; fpwpj;Jtf; fy;Y}hpapy; cjtpj;
jkpHhrphpauhfg; gzpahw;wj; bjhl=;fp/ gpd;g[ jiyikj; jkpHhrphpauhfg; gjtp cah;t[ bgw;whh;.
qghtjp/ fyhtjp Mfpa ehlf E}y;fisa[k; fstHp ehw;gJ E}iyj; jGtp khd tp$ak; vd;Dk;
E}iya[k; ,aw;wpa[s;shh;. M=;fpy ehlf ,yf;fzj;ij mog;gilahff; bfhz;L ehlftpay; vd;Dk;
ehlf ,yf;fz E}iya[k; ,aw;wpdhh;. ,tuJ jdpg;ghRuj; bjhif vd;Dk; E}y; $p.a[. nghg; mth;fshy;
M=;fpyj;jpy; bkhHpbgah;f;fg;gl;lJ. K.rp. g{h;zyp=;fdhUld; ,ize;J ,th; elj;jpa +hdnghjpdp
mf;fhyj;jpy; Fwpg;gplj; jFe;j mwptpay; ,jHhfj; jpfH;e;jJ. jkpiH cah;jdpr; brk;bkhHp vd;W
jd; ngr;rpd; @yk; Kjd; Kjypy; bka;g;gpj;jth; ,tnu. gpd;dhspy; 2004 Mk; Mz;L eLtz; muR
jkpH;bkhHpia cah;jdpr; brk;bkhHpahf mwptpj;jJ. bgw;nwhh; jdf;F ,l;l bgauhd Nhpaehuhazh;
vd;w tlbkhHpg; bgaiuj; jkpHpy; ghpjpkhw; fiy+h; vd;W bgah; khw;wk; bra;J bfhz;lhh;. jkpH;/
jkpHh; Kd;ndw;wk; gw;wpr; rpe;jpj;Jr; brayhw;Wtijj; jk; thH;ehs; flikahff; bfhz;oUe;j ,th;
jk; 33 MtJ tajpy; ,t;t[yf thH;it ePj;jhh;.
jkpiHr; brk;bkhHpbad;W epWtp/ mth; vGjpa fl;Liuapd; fPH;tUk; rpy thpfs; mtUila
ciueil Mw;wiyj; bjhptpf;Fk;.
cah;jdpr; brk;bkhHp vd;Dk; fl;LiuapypUe;J
``gybkhHpfl;Fj; jiyika[k;/ kpf;f nkjika[k; cila bkhHp/ cah;bkhHp/ jdpj;J ,a=;f ty;y
Mw;wy; rhh;e;jJ jdpbkhHp. jpUe;jpa gz;g[k;/ rPh;j;j ehfhpfKk; bghUe;jpa J}a;bkhHp brk;bkhHp/
Mapd; jkpH; cah; jdpr; brk;bkhHpahk;.
tpdhf;fs;
1) rp. it. jhnkhjudhh; ghpjpkhw;fiy+iu vt;thW nghw;wpdhh;>
jpuhtpl rh!;jphp
24  12 G jkpH; G bkhHpgapw;rp ifnaL

2) ghpjpkhw;fiy+h; vGjpa ehlf E}y;fs; ahit>


qghtjp/ fyhtjp
3) fPH;tUk; brhy;ypd; ,yf;fzj;ija[k;/ g[zh;r;rp tpjpapida[k; vGJf.
brk;bkhHp ? gz;g[j; bjhif
brk; bkhHp ? brk;ik + bkhHp
<Wnghjy; ? brk; + bkhHp ? brk;bkhHp
4) ghpjpkhw;fiy+h; jkpGf;Fj; je;jpl;l bgUikkpF thpfSs; xd;wpid vGJf.
jpUe;jpa gz;g[k;/ rPh;j;j ehfhpfKk; bghUe;jpa J}a;bkhHp brk;bkhHp.
5) R{hpa ehuhazh; ? ,jd; jkpHhf;fk; vd;d>
ghpjpkhw; fiy+h;
4. kiwkiyaofs; (1876 ? 1950)
brd;idf; fpwpjJ ; tf; fy;Y}hpapy;jkpHhrphpah; gzpfF
; neh;fhzYf;Fr; brd;whh; xUth;.
me;jf; fy;Y}hpapd; nguhrphpah; ghpjpkhw;fiy+h;. ``Fw;wpaYfuj;jpw;F vLj;Jf;fhl;Lr;
brhy;Y=;fs;~~ vd;W nfl;lhh;. mth; ``mBJ vdf;Fj; bjhpahJ~~ vd;W gjpyspj;jhh;.
`eP=;fs; njh;t[ bra;ag;gl;Ltpl;Oh;fs;~ vd;whh; ghpjpkhw;fiy+h;. `bjhpahJ~ vd;W
brhd;dtiu/ ``vg;goj; njh;t[ bra;ayhk;>~~ vd;W gpwh; nfl;l nghJ/ `mBJ~ vd;gJ
Ma;jj;bjhlh; Fw;wpaYfuk;/ `vdf;F~ vd;gJ td;bjhlh;f; Fw;wpaYfuk;/ `bjhpahJ~
vd;gJ caph;j;bjhlh; Fw;wpaYfuk; vd;W tpsf;fpdhh; ghpjpkhw;fiy+h;.
,e;epfH;tpy; ghpjpkhw;fiy+iuna tpaf;f itj;jth; kiwkiyaofs;.
ghpjpkhw;fiy+Uldhd mtUldhd el;g[ `jdpj;jkpH;~ kPjhd mofshhpd; gw;iw kpFjpahf;fpaJ.
gpwbkhHpf; fyg;g[ ,d;wp ,dpa/ vspa jkpH;r; brhw;fisf; bfhz;nl ngrt[k; vGjt[k; ,aYk; vd;W
eil Kiwg;gLj;jpdhh;. `Rthkp ntjhryk;~ vDk; jd;bgaiu `kiwkiyaofs;~ vd khw;wpf;
bfhz;lnjhL jk; kf;fspd; bgaiua[k; J}a jkpH;g; bgah;fshf khw;wpdhh;. ,sk; tajpy; gy;ntW
,jH;fspy; fl;Liufs; vGjp te;j mofshh; +hdrhfuk; (1902)/ Oriental Mystic Myna (1908), Ocean
Of Wisdom (1935) Kjyhd ,jH;fis elj;jpr; rpwe;j ,jHhsuhfj; jpfH;e;jhh;. Ky;iyg;ghl;L
Muha;r;rpa[iu/ gl;odg;ghiy Muha;r;rpa[iu/ rhFe;jy ehlfk;/ khzpf;fthrfh; tuyhWk; fhyKk;
Kjyhd gy E}y;fis vGjpa[s;shh;. Kiwahd gs;spf; fy;tpia Koj;jpuhj kiwkiyaofs; Mf;fpa
E}y;fSk; Mw;wpa brhw;bghHpt[fSk; mth; Xh; mwpt[f;fly; vd;gij ekf;F czh;j;Jk;.
tpdhf;fs;
1) xU neh;fhzypy; Fw;wpaYfuj;jpw;F vLj;Jf;fhl;Lj; jUf vd;W nfl;ljw;Fg; gjpyhf kiwkiy
mofs; TwpaJ vd;d>
mBJ vdf;Fj; bjhpahJ
2) Rthkp ntjhryk; vd;gjd; jkpHhf;fk; vd;d>
kiwkiy mofs;
3) kiwkiy mofs; elj;jpa ,jH; vJ>
+hdrhfuk;
4) ,g;ghlg; gFjpapy; ,lk; bgw;Ws;s vz;Qk;ikapid vLj;J vGJf.
tuyhWk; fhyKk;
5) ,g;ghlg;gFjpapd; ,lk;bgw;Ws;s cUtfj;jpid vLj;J vGJf.
mwpt[f;fly;
12 G jkpH; G bkhHpgapw;rp ifnaL www.nammakalvi.org 25

5. nrhkRe;ju ghujp (1879 ? 1959);


xUKiw vl;lag[uk; muz;ikdf;F ahH;g;ghzj;jpypUe;J xU g[yth;
te;jpUe;jhh;. muz;kid mitapy; ele;j g[yth; Tl;lj;jpy; <w;wo xd;iwf;
bfhLj;Jg; ghly; xd;iw ,aw;wpj; jUkhW ntz;odhh;. mf;Tl;lj;jpw;F ,uz;L
ez;gh;fs; brd;wpUe;jdh;. gyUk; ghly; ,aw;wpf; bfhLf;f midj;Jg;
ghly;fspYk; ez;gh;fs; ,Uthpd; ghly;fns rpwe;jbjdj; nje;bjLj;j mg;g[yth;
,UtUf;Fk; `ghujp~ vd;w gl;lj;ija[k; tH=;fpr; rpwg;gpj;jhh;. mt;tpUthpy; xUth;
Rg;gpukzpa ghujpahh;/ kw;bwhUth; nrhkRe;ju ghujpahh;.
ngr;rhsh;/ r@f rPh;jpUj;jthjp/ tpLjiyg; nghuhl;l tPuu;/ ,yf;fpa Ma;thsh; vdg; gd;Kf
MSikbfhz;l ehtyh; nrhkRe;ju ghujpahh;. rpwe;j tHf;fwp+uhft[k; jpfH;e;jhh;. tHf;fwp+h; bjhHpiy
tpl;Ltpl;L t.c.rp.apd; miHg;ig Vw;W q.100 rk;gsj;jpy; Rnjrpf; fg;gy; epWtdj;jpd; eph;thfg;
bghWg;ig Vw;whh;. `vd;dplk; ,uz;L ruf;Ff; fg;gnyhL @d;whtjhf xU jkpH;f; fg;gYk; cs;sJ~
vd;W t.c.rp. bgUkpjj;Jld; ,tiuf; Fwpg;gpLthh;. ,th; jkpH; ,yf;fz/ ,yf;fpa Ma;t[fspy;
<Lgl;lth;" mz;zhkiyg; gy;fiyf;fHfj;jpy; jkpH;j;Jiwj; jiytuhfg; gzpahw;wpa[s;shh;. ,e;jp
vjph;g;g[g; nghuhl;lj;jpy; Kd;dpd;W brayhw;wpath;. jrujd; Fiwa[k; ifnfap epiwa[k;/ jpUts;Sth;/
nruh; jhaKiw/ jkpGk; jkpHUk; Kjypa gy E}y;fis ,th; ,aw;wpa[s;shh;. bjhy;fhg;gpag;
bghUsjpfhu mfj;jpizapay;/ g[wj;jpizapay;/ bka;g;ghl;oay; Mfpatw;Wf;F ciu vGjpa[s;shh;.
,th; r@f rPh;jpUj;j=;fspy; <LghLbfhz;L rl=;Ffs; ,y;yhj jpUkz tpHhf;fis Kd;dpd;W
elj;jpdhh;. t.c.rp. Rg;gpukzpa rpth Mfpnahh; kPjhd tHf;Ffspy; mth;fSf;fhf ,th; thjhoaJ
Fwpg;gplj;jFe;jJ. mtUila jPe;jkpGf;Fr; rhd;W.
``fl;lis my;yJ ey;y jkpH; eilf;F/ vspjpy; bghUs; tps=;Fk; bjspt[ ,d;wpaikahjJ. ,ay;
tHf;fpy;yh mU+;brhw;fSk; bghUs; gy Fwpj;J kUsitf;Fk; bghJr;brhw;fSk; tput[k; eiliar;
bra;a[s; tHf;fpy; xUtUk; tpUk;ghh;. vspika[k; bjspt[k; vGj;jpYk; ngr;rpYk; vk;bkhHp eilf;Fk;
,dpika[k; vHpYk; vd;Wk; cjt[k; vd;gJ vy;yhh;f;Fk; cld;ghL.~~.
(ehtyh; nrhkRe;ju ghujpapd; E}w;bjhFjp 4 ? `ew;wkpH;~ vd;Wk; fl;LiuapypUe;J)
tpdhf;fs;
1) ghujp gl;lk; bgw;w ,Uth; ahh;>
Rg;gpukzpa ghujpahh;/ nrhk Re;ju ghujpahh;
2) fPH;tUk; bjhlUf;F ,yf;fzf;Fwpg;g[ vGJ>
vspika[k; bjspt[k; ? vz;Qk;ik
3) g[zh;r;rp tpjp jUf.
tHf;fwp+h; ? tHf;F + mwp+h;
caph;thpd; cf;Fws; bka;tpl;nlhLk; tHf;f; + mwp+h;
cly; nky; caph; te;J xd;WtJ ,ay;ng ? tHf;fwp+h;.
4) nrhkRe;ju ghujpahh; vGjpa E}y; xd;wpid vGJ.
jrujdd; Fiwa[k; ? ifnfapd; epiwa[k;
5) nrhkRe;ju ghujpahh; <Lgl;l nghuhl;lk; vJ>
,e;jp vjph;g;g[g; nghuhl;lk;
26  12 G jkpH; G bkhHpgapw;rp ifnaL

6. it. K. nfhij ehafp (1901 ? 1960)


Ie;jiu tajpy; jpUkzk; bra;J bfhLf;fg;gl;l bgz] xUth;. jd;
FLk;gj;jhhplnk fy;tp fw;whh;. fij TWtjpy; Mh;tk; bfhz]oUe;j mth; jd;
fw;gid Mw;wyhy; njhHpah;fSf;Fg; g[jpa fijfis cUthf;fpf; Twpdhh;.
mijf; fz]l mtuJ fzth; mg;bgz]zpd; gilg;ghw;wiy Cf;Ftpf;fg; gy
ehlf=;fSf;F miHj;Jr; brd;whh;. mg;bgz]Qf;F ehlfk; vGj ntz]Lk; vd;w
Mh;tk; Vw;gl;lJ. Mdhy; Xust[ kl;Lk; vGjj; bjhpe;j jd;dhy; ehlfk; vGj
Koa[k; vd;W mth; tUe;jpa nghJ/ mtuJ njhHp/ ehlfj;ij mth; brhy;yr;
brhy;yj; jhd; vGJtjhff; Twp Cf;fg;gLj;jpdhh;. ,g;goj;jhd; mg;bgz]
jd;Dila Kjy; E}yhd `,e;jpu nkhfdh~ vd;w ehlf E}iy btspapl;lhh;. mth;jhd; `ehty; uhzp~/
`fjh nkhfpdp~/ `Vf murp~ vd;bwy;yhk; jk; rkfhy vGj;jhsh;fshy; miHf;fg;gl;l it.K.nfh.
(`itj;jkhepjp KLk;ig nfhijehafp mk;khs;~) Mthh;.
,th; `$fd; nkhfpdp~ vd;w ,jiH Kg;gj;ije;J Mz]Lfs; bjhlh;e;J elj;jpdhh;. bgz]
vGj;jhsh;fisa[k;/ thrfh; tl;lj;ija[k; cUthf;fpdhh;. fhe;jpaj;jpd; kPJ gw;Wk; cWjpa[k; bfhz]
oUe;j ,th; jk; vGj;Jfshy; kl;Lkd;wp nkilg;ngr;rpd; @yKk; fhe;jpaf; bfhs;iffisg; gug;g[iu
bra;jnjhL tpLjiyg; nghuhl;lj;jpy; g=;nfw;Wr; rpiwf;Fk; brd;whh;. jkpHfg; bgz] tuyhw;wpy;
jdpj;J milahsk; fhl;lg;gl ntz]oa rpwg;g[f;Fhpatuhd it.K.nfh. mth;fs; 115 ehty;fs;
vGjpa[s;shh; vd;gJ Fwpg;gplj;jf;fJ. `FLk;gnk cyfk;~ vd;W bgz]fs; thH;e;j fhyfl;lj;jpy;/
tPl;ow;F btspna cyfk; cz]L vd;gijg; bgz]fSf;Fj; jd; thH;tpd; @yk; ,dk; fhl;oa
bgUikf;F chpath; it.K.nfh. mk;ikahh;.
mtUila vGj;jhw;wYf;bfhU rhd;W :
``vd;d ntof;if- mof;fo ghl;o `cyfhDgtk;... cyfk; gytpjk;... vd;bwy;yhk; brhd;dijf;
nfl;lnghJ vdf;F xz;Qnk g[hpahJ tpHpj;njnd... ghl;o brhy;ypa trd=;fis tplf; foj=;fs;
gytw;iwg; goj;jhy; mJnt kfj;jhd nyhfhDgt=;fis cz]lhf;fptpLk; nghypUf;fpwnj- ghtk;-
ngRtJ nghynt jd;Dila kdj;jpDs;sijf; bfhl;o mse;Jtpl;lhs;... ehd; fpuhkj;ij btWj;Jr;
rz]ilapl;L tPzhf mth; kdij nehtof;fpnwd;. ,ts; gl;lzj;ij btWj;Jj; jd; bfhr;ir
ghi&apy; mjd; cz]ik !;tqgj;ij glk; gpoj;Jf; fhl;o tpl;lhns-... vd;d cyf tprpj;jpuk;-...
vd;W fl;LkPwpa tpag;gpy; rpj;uh @H;fpdhs;.~~
(`jghy; tpndhjk;~ FWehtypy; ,Ue;J)
tpdhf;fs;
1) it. K. nfhijehafpapd; Kjy; E}y; vJ>
,e;jpu nkhfdh
2) bjhlh;e;J cWg;gpyf;fzk; jUf.
bjhlh;e;J ? bjhlh; + j;(e;) + j; + c
bjhlh; ? gFjp
j;(e;) ? re;jp (e; MdJ tpfhuk;)
j; ? ,we;j fhy ,ilepiy
c ? tpidbar;r tpFjp
3) ,g;gFjpapy; ,lk;bgw;Ws;s ctk cUgpid vLj;J vGJf.
nghynt (nghy)
4) gphpj;jwpf.
g=;nfw;W ? g=;F + Vw;W
5) g[zh;r;rp tpjp TWf.
jd;Dila ? jd; + cila
jdpf;Fwpy; Kd; xd;W caph;thpd; fhl;Lk; ? jd;d; + cila
cly; nky; caph;te;J xd;WtJ ,ay;ng ? jd;Dila
12 G jkpH; G bkhHpgapw;rp ifnaL 27

7. ,uhrkhzpf;fdhh; (1907 ? 1967)


,thpd; je;ij muRg; gzpahsh; vd;gjhy; gy Ch;fspy; gzpahw;w
ntz;oapUe;jJ. vdnt jw;nghija Me;jpu khepyk; fh;E}y;/ rpj;J}h; Kjypa
Ch;fspy; ehd;fhk; tFg;g[tiu bjY=;F bkhHpiana gapd;whh;. ,sk;tajpy;
je;ijia ,He;J jikadhuhy; tsh;f;fg;gl;lhh;. gjpide;J taij mile;j
epiyapy; `,dp ,td; v=;nf gof;fg; nghfpwhd;>~ vd;W KobtLj;J xU ikay;
filapy; mtuJ jikadhuhy; ntiyf;Fr; nrh;f;fg;gl;lhh;. ~ehd; gjpide;J ehl;fs;
ntiy fw;Wf;bfhz;nld;" fh$h vLf;ff; fw;Wf;bfhz;nld;. rpwpa igfisj;
ijay; ,ae;jpuj;jpy; ijf;ff; fw;Wf;bfhz;nld;. ehs;njhWk; ,utpy; tPL
jpUk;g[ifapy; fil chpikahsh; vdf;Ff; fhyzh bfhLg;ghh;~ vd;W gpd;dhspy; gjpt[ bra;j mtuhy;
mj;bjhHpypy; bjhlh;e;J <Lgl Koatpy;iy.
j+;rht{h; brapd;l; gPl;lh;!; gs;spj; jiyikahrphpahpd; ngUjtpahy; jdJ gjpide;jhtJ
tajpy; Mwhk; tFg;gpy; nrh;e;J gog;igj; bjhlh;e;jhh;. kpFe;j bghUshjhu beUf;foapy; fy;tp gapd;w
mth; bjhlh;e;J MW Mz;Lfs; gs;spapnyna Kjy; khztuhfj; njh;r;rp bgw;wnjhL kJiuj; jkpH;r;
r=;fj;jhh; elj;jpa gs;sp ,Wjpj; jkpH;j; njh;tpYk; Kjy; khztuhfj; njh;r;rpaile;J midthpd;
ghuhl;ila[k; bgw;whh;. gpd;g[ vGj;jh;/ gs;sp Mrphpah;/ gy;fiyf;fHf Mrphpah; vd tsh;e;jhh;. mth;jhd;
,yf;fpak;/ rkak;/ tuyhW/ fy;btl;L nghd;w Jiwfspy; kpsph;e;j jkpHwp+h; kh.,uhkhzpf;fdhh;.
Ma;t[ bewp KiwfspYk; mQFKiwfspYk; g[jpa rpe;jidfisf; ifahz;l ,th;/ r=;ffhyk;
bjhl=;fpg; gpw;fhyk; tiuapy; Mz;l nrhHh; tuyhw;iw KGikahf Muha;e;jth;" rpe;Jbtsp
ehfhpfk; gw;wpj; jkpHpy; Kjd;Kjypy; `bkhb\+;brh?jnuh my;yJ rpe;Jbtsp ehfhpfk;~ vd;w E}iy
,aw;wpath;. fue;ijj; jkpH;r; r=;fj;jpdh;fshd nt.ckhknfRtud;/ e.K. nt=;flrhkp/ MfpnahuhYk;
c.nt. rhkpehjh; nghd;w jkpHwp+h;fshYk; bewpg;gLj;jg;gl;l ,th; nrhHh; tuyhW/ gy;yth; tuyhW/
bghpag[uhz Muha;r;rp/ jkpH;ehl;L tl vy;iy/ gj;Jg;ghl;L Muha;r;rp nghd;w E}w;Wf;Fk; nkw;gl;l E}
y;fis ,aw;wpa bgUikf;Fhpatuhfj; jpfH;e;jhh;. 2006?2007Mk; Mz;L ,tUila E}y;fs; jkpHf
murhy; ehl;Lilikahf;fg;gl;ld vd;gJ Fwpg;gplj;jf;fJ.
mtUila brhy;yhw;wYf;bfhU rhd;W:
``mLj;j Mz;L g[jpa jkpHfk; cUthfpr; brayhw;wtpUf;Fk; epiyapy; mg;g[jpa jkpHfk; vt;thW
mikf;fg;gl ntz;Lk; vd;W vz;QtJk; g[jpa jkpHfj;jpy; bra;a ntz;Ltd vit vd;gijf;
Twj; jkpHd; tpUk;g[jYk; ,ay;g[jhnd- Kjypy; g[jpa jkpHfk; vjid tl vy;iyahfg; bgw;wpUj;jy;
ntz;Lk; vd;gijf; fha;jy; ctj;jypd;wpf; fhz ntz;Lk;.~~
(kh.,uhrkhzpf;fdhh; vGjpa g[jpa jkpHfk; E}ypypUe;J)
tpdhf;fs;
1) ,uhrkhzpf;fdhhpd; gd;Kfj;jd;ik gw;wpf; TWf.
,yf;fpak;/ rkak;/ tuyhW/ fy;btl;L nghd;wit
2) ,tUila E}y;fs; ve;j Mz;L jkpHf murhy; ehl;Llikahf;fg;gl;ld>
2006 ? 2007 Mk; Mz;L
3) gphpj;jwpf.
ngUjtp ? bgUik + cjtp
4) cWg;gpyf;fzk; jUf.
,He;J ? ,H + j;(e;) + j; + c
,H ? gFjp
j;(e;) ? re;jp (e; MdJ tpfhuk;)
j; ? ,we;j fhyk; fhl;oaJ
c ? tpidbar;r tpFjp
5) ,yf;fzf; Fwpg;g[ tiuf.
fha;jy; ? bjhHpw;bgah;
28  www.nammakalvi.org 12 G jkpH; G bkhHpgapw;rp ifnaL

8. t.R.g. khzpf;fk; (1917 ? 1989) 


gu;khtpy; u=;Td; efhpy; cs;sbthU filapy; mog;igadhfg; (cjtpahs;)
gzpahw;wpdhd; xU rpWtd;. mtdplk;/ fil Kjyhsp xU bgaiuf; Fwpg;gpl;L/
me;j egu; te;J jd;id v=;nf vd;W nfl;lhy;. `Kjyhsp ,y;iy~ vd;W brhy;YkhW
tw;g[Wj;jpdhu;. me;jr; rpWtndh/ ``eP=;fs; btspapypUe;jhy; mt;thW Twyhk;.
,y;yhjnghJ vg;gog; bgha; brhy;tJ> brhy;y khl;nld;~~ vd;W gpothjkhff;
Twpdhh;. mth;/ t.R.g. khzpf;fk;.
jkpHpd; rpwg;g[fisg; gw;wp Ma;t[fs; gy bra;jikahy; `jkpH; ,kak;~ vd;W
jkpH; mwp+h;fshy; nghw;wg;gl;lth; t.Rg.khzpf;fk;. `v=;Fk; jkpH; vjpYk; jkpH;~ vd;w bfhs;ifiag;
giwrhw;Wtjw;fhfj; `jkpH;tHpf; fy;tp ,af;fk;~ vd;w mikg;ig epWtpj; jkpH;r;Rw;Wyh nkw;bfhz;ltu;.
mHfg;gh fy;Y}hpapy; jkpH;g;nguhrphpauhft[k; Kjy;tuhft[k; mz;zhkiyg; gy;fiyf;fHfj;jpy;
jkpH;j;Jiwj; jiytuhft[k; gzpahw;wpdhhu;. kJiu fhkuhru; gy;fiyf;fHfj; Jiznte;juhfr;
rpwg;g[ld; brayhw;wpa nghJ gy;fiyf;fHf eilKiwfs; jkpHpy; ,Uf;f ntz;Lk; vd Miz
gpwg;gpj;jJld; m=;Fj; jkpHha;t[ eilbgwt[k; tHp tFj;jhh;. jpUtde;jg[uj;jpd; jpuhtpl bkhHpapay;
fHfj;jpy; KJnguha;thsuhfg; gzpg[hpe;jnghJ jkpH; ahg;gpay; tuyhWk; tsh;r;rpa[k; vd;w jiyg;gpy;
M=;fpyj;jpy; Ma;t[ nkw;bfhz;lhh;.
r=;fg; ghly;fspd; El;g=;fisf; fl;Liufshf vGJtjpy; Mw;wy; kpf;ftuhd ,th; jkpH;f;fhjy;/
ts;Stk;/ fk;gh;/ r=;fbewp cs;spl;l gy E}y;fis ,aw;wpath;. jkpGf;Fg; g[jpa brhy;yhf;f=;fisa[k;/
ctikfisa[k; cUthf;fpj; jUtjpy; jdp <LghL bfhz;ltuhfj; jpfH;e;jth;. Muha;r;rp/ fl;Liu/
ehlfk;/ ftpij/ ciu/ foj ,yf;fpak;/ gjpg;g[ vdg; gy;Jiw MSikahd mtUf;Fj; jkpHf muR
mtUila kiwtpw;Fg; gpwF/ jpUts;Sth; tpUJ tH=;fpaJld; 2006Mk; Mz;L mtUila E}
y;fis ehl;Llikahf;fpr; rpwg;g[r; bra;jJ.
mtUila jkpH;j;jpwj;Jf;Fk; xU gjk;.
``Ie;J nfhoj; jkpHu; bjhif ,Ue;Jk;/ Mapuk; gofs; tpw;gjw;F khkh=;fk; Mfpd;wJ. th=;fhw;wy;
kf;fsplk; ,y;iy vd;W brhy;Yjw;fpy;iy. vj;Jiznah g[Jf;nfhy=;fl;Fk; nfspf;iffl;Fk;
jiyfhy; bjhpahky; bryt[ bra;J bfhz;Ljhd; ,Uf;fpd;whh;fs;. E}y;fs; th=;Fk; mwpt[g; gHf;fj;ij
kf;fsplk; gug;g ntz;Lk;~~.
tpdhf;fs;
1) jkpHpd; ,jak; vd mwp+h;fshy; nghw;wg;gl;lth; ahh;>
jkpHpd; ,jak; ? t. R. g. khzpf;fk;
2) t.R.g. khzpf;fj;jpd; gzpfs; gw;wpf; TWf.
1. mz;zhkiyg; gy;fiyapd; jkpH;j;Jiwj; jiyth;.
2. mHfg;gh gy;fiyf;fHfj;jpd; jkpH;g; nguhrphpah; kw;Wk; Kjy;th;.
3. kJiu/ fhkuhrh; gy;fiyf;fHfj;jpd; Jiz nte;jh;.
3) t.R.g. khzpf;fj;jpw;F vd;d tpUJ tH=;fg;gl;lJ>
jpUts;Sth; tpUJ
4) gphpj;J vGJf.
nguha;thsh; ? bgUik + Ma;thsh;
5) g[zh;r;rp tpjp jUf.
jkpHha;t[ ? jkpH; + Ma;t[
cly;nky; caph; te;J xd;WtJ ,ay;ng ? jkpHha;t[.
12 G jkpH; G bkhHpgapw;rp ifnaL 29

12 ctik bjhliu brhw;bwhlh;fspy; mikj;jy;


1. ctikj; bjhlh;fisr; brhw;bwhlh;fspy; mikj;J vGJf :
jhkiu ,iy ePh; nghy/ fpzw;Wj; jtis nghy/ vypa[k; g{ida[k; nghy/ mr;rhzp ,y;yhj njh; nghy/
cs;s=;if bey;ypf;fdp nghy.
1. jhkiu ,iy ePh; nghy ? gl;Lk; glhkYk;/ <LghLk; ,y;yhkYk; ,Uj;jy;.
 bgw;nwhUf;F epjpr;Rik mGj;JtJ bjhpe;Jk;/ rpy gps;isfs; jhkiu ,iy ePh; nghyf; fz]L
bfhs;shky; ,Ug;gh;.
2. fpzw;Wj; jtis nghy ? btsp cyfk; bjhpahj epiy
,d;Dk; rpy fpuhk=;fspy; kf;fs; fpzw;Wj; jtis nghy thH;fpd;wdh;.
3. vypa[k; g{ida[k; nghy ? vjphpfshf
uFt[k; utpa[k; vypa[k; g{ida[k; nghyr; rz]ilapl;Lf; bfhz]ldh;.
4. mr;rhzp ,y;yhj njh; nghy ? rhpahd tHpfhl;o.
ehl;il tHp elj;j rhpahd jiytd; ,y;yhjjhy; ehl;L kf;fs; mr;rhzp ,y;yhj njh; nghy rhpth
,a=;fhky; jtpf;fpd;wdh;.
5. cs;s=;if bey;ypf;fdp nghy ? btspg;gilahf/ bjspthf
jkpHhrphpah; fw;gpj;j g[zh;r;rp ,yf;fzk; v=;fSf;F cs;s=;if bey;ypf;fdp ngy bjsptha; tps=;fpaJ.
gapw;rp
1. gRkuj;jhzp nghy ? vspjhf
2. kiljpwe;j bts;sk; nghy ? ntfkhf
3. moaw;w kuk; nghy ? tYtpHe;J
4. fy;nky; vGj;J nghy ? mHpahky;
5. efKk; rija[k; nghy ? ,iz gphpahik
6. mLj;jJ fhl;Lk; gsp=;F nghy ? btspg;gLj;j
7. ,yt[ fhj;j fpsp nghy ? Vkhw;wk;
8. miy Xa;e;j fly; nghy ? mikjp
9. ,+;rp jpd;w Fu=;F nghy ? tpHpj;jy;
10. fapww;w gl;lk; nghy ? jtpj;jy;/ ntjid
2. ctikj; bjhlh;fisr; brhw;bwhlh;fspy; mikj;J vGJf :
1. v=;fs; jkpHhrphpah; ahg;g[ ,yf;fzj;jpy; mir tha;ghLfis elj;jpaJ
gRkuj;jpy; Mzp moj;jJ nghy; gjpe;jJ.
2. bgz;fis tPl;onyna Klf;fp itg;gJ.
fpzw;Wj;jtis nghy cyf elg;g[fs; bjhpahj mwpthyp Mf;fptpLk;.
3. mg;Jy; fyhkpd; kiwt[ ,iz+h;fis
moaw;w kuk;nghy Mf;fptpl;lJ.
4. ,y;yw thH;tpy; fztd; kiztpah;
efKk; rija[k; nghy gpog;g[ld; elj;jy; eyk;.
5. epyt[k; thDk; nghy
thdj;jpy; epyt[ vd;w kidt[ fUe;jhy;jhd; mHF.
30  12 G jkpH; G bkhHpgapw;rp ifnaL

13 ka=;bfhypr; brhw;fs;
1. ka=;bfhypr; brhw;fis xnu bjhlhpy; mikj;J vGJf :
1. jiy/ jis/ jiH
2. fiy/ fis/ fiH
3. miy/ mis/ miH
v.fh : tpiy/ tpis/ tpiH
fhh; gUtj;jpy; ed;whf tpise;jjhy; jhdpa=;fspd; tpiy Fiwahky; ,Uf;f Vw;Wkjp epWtdj;Jld;
xg;ge;jk; bra;Jbfhs;s tpiHtjhf muR mwptpj;jJ.
1. jiy/ jis/ jiH
 Ml;ow;Fj; jiH jpUlg;nghd ,lj;jpy; kuj;jpy; jiy jl;o tpGe;jtidj; njhl;lf;fhud;
jisapl;L Ch;j;jiythplk; miHj;Jr; brd;whd;.
2. fiy/ fis/ fiH
fiH fhl;oy; jPg;gpoj;jjhy; fisfSld; fiykhd;fSk; brj;J koe;jd.
3. miy/ mis/ miH
 flyiyapy; tpisahlr; brd;w KUfd; misapy; ,Ue;j mutk; jPz]l vj;jid Kiw
miHj;Jk; ngr;R @r;rpd;wp ka=;fpf; fple;jhd;.
2. ka=;bfhyp vGj;Jfs; (z e d/ y H s/ u w) mike;j brhw;fisj; jpul;o bghUs; ntWghL mwpe;J
bjhlh; mikf;f.
bghUs; ntWghL mwpjy;
1. muk; ? xU fUtp ? kuj;ij mWf;f cjt[tJ muk;.
mwk; ? fUkk; ? ViHfSf;Fr; bra;ag;gLtJ mwk;.
2. mhp ? btl;L/ jpUkhy; ? vd; jhahh; fha;fwpfis mhpe;jhs; (m)
? mad;/ mhp/ mud; vd;gth; Kg;bgU=;flt[sh; Mth;.
mwp ? bjhpe;Jbfhs; ? ehk; ts;Sth; TWk; fUj;Jf;fis mwpe;J filgpog;nghk;.
3. miu ? ghjp/ khthf;F ? miuf;fpzW jhz]LtJ Mgj;jhd brayhFk;. kht[
miuf;f ,g;nghJ ,ae;jpu=;fs; cjt[fpd;wd.
miw ? miwfs; ? tPl;oy; ehd;F miwfs; cs;sd.
4. ,u=;F ? ,uf;fg;gL ? ViHfsplk; ,u=;F.
,w=;F ? fPnH th ? khoapypUe;J ,w=;F.
5. ,uj;jy; ? ahrpj;jy; ? <bad ,uj;jy; ,Hpe;jd;W.
,wj;jy; ? rhjy; ? Fiwe;j tajpy; ,wj;jiy kUj;Jt tsh;r;rp
fl;LgLj;jpa[s;sJ.
6. ,Uk;g[ ? cnyhfk; ? mhpths; ,Uk;gpdhy; bra;ag;gl;lJ.
,Wk;g[ ? g[jh; ? vd; gs;spapd; ,Wk;gUnf ghk;igf; fz]nld;.
7. ,iu ? jPdp (czt[) ? g[ypf;F khd; ,iuahfp tpl;lJ.
,iw ? flt[s;/ murd; ? ePjp jtwhj kd;dd; kf;fSs; ,iw vd kjpf;fg;gLthd; '
,uhkh; mnahj;jpf;F ,iw Mthh;.
8. cut[ ? typik ? vd; ez]gd; cut[ kpFe;jtd;.
cwt[ ? brhe;jk; ? cwtpdhplk; md;ghfg; gHf ntz]Lk;.
12 G jkpH; G bkhHpgapw;rp ifnaL www.nammakalvi.org 31

9. vhp ? jP ? Foir tPLfs; jPg;gw;wp vhpe;J nghapd.


vwp ? tPR ? cjthg; bghUl;fisj; J}f;fp vwp.
10. xU ? xd;W ? ehd; xU g[jpa E}y; th=;fpndd;.
xW ? jz]o ? jtW bra;j khztid Mrphpah; xWj;jhh;.
11. fiu ? Xuk; ? fhtphpf;F cah;e;j fiu mikj;jhd; fhpfhyd;.
fiw ? mGf;F ? bts;is ntl;oapy; goe;j fiwiag; nghf;FtJ fodk;.
12. Fu=;F ? xU tpy=;F ? Fu=;fpypUe;J gpwe;jtd; kdpjd;.
Fw=;F ? Jil (bjhil) ? FHe;ij jhapd; Fw=;fpd; kPJ cw=;fpaJ.
13. Futh; ? bghpnahh; ? rk;ge;jh;/ eht[ff
; urh;/ Re;juh;/ khzpf;fthrfh; vd;w jiytUk;
irt rkaf; Futh;Mth;.
Fwth; ? Fwth; kf;fs; ? Fwp+;rp epy kf;fs; Fwth;/ Fwj;jpah; Mth;.
14. Thpa ? Th;ikahd ? tPuDf;F btw;wp jUtJ Thpa thnsahFk;.
Twpa ? brhy;ypa ? vd; ez]gd; Twpaijf;nfl;L tpag;gile;njd;.
15. Tiu ? tPl;od; nky; ? ehd; Xiy nta;e;j Tiu tPl;oy; jhd; trpf;fpnwd;.
Tiw ? g[jpa Mil ? kzkf;fs; Tiw ntl;oa[k/; Tiwg; g[lita[k; mzpthh;fs;.
16. nfhuy; ? tpUk;g[jy; ? ViH kf;fs; TiHna rpwe;j czthff; nfhuy; ,ay;ng.
nfhwy; ? bfhy;Yjy; ? fs;tiu murd; nfhwy; rhpahd jz]lidna.
17. rpiu ? kapiu ePf;F ?  Kfj;jpy; tsUk; kapiu ehs; jtwhky; rpiug;gJ rpyh;
tHf;fk;.
rpiw ? rpiwr;rhiy ? vd; mg;gh rpiwr;rhiyapy; Ma;thsuhfg; gzpahw;wp
tUfpwhh;.
18. rPhpa ? nkyhd ? midtUf;Fk; bjhz]L bra;tnj vd; rPhpa gzp.
rPwpa ? nfhgpj;j ? Mrphpahpd; rPwpa Kfk; fz]L khzth; m+;rpdh;.
19. brhhp ? bghHp ? fh;zdpd; Mtp gphpe;jnghJ njth;fs; g{ kyiur; brhhpe;jdh;.
brhwp ? jpdt[ (neha;) ? njhiyj; J}a;ikahf itj;jpuhtpl;lhy; brhwp neha; tUk;.
20. jhp ? mzp ? ehd; tpiy cah;e;j Milfisj; jhpj;Jf; bfhs;ntd;.
jwp ? bert[ bea;a[k; ? gUj;jpiaf; bfhz]L ifj;jwpapy; jahuhd Milfis
fUtp mzpjy; ey;yJ.
jwp ? btl;L ? Kl;g[jh;fis tsutplhky; jwpj;J tpLtJ ey;yJ.
21. jpiu ? miy ? jpiu flnyhoa[k; jputpak; njL vd;wdh;.
? jpiur;rPiy ? jpiuapy; glf;fhl;rp fhl;lg;gLtjhy; mjw;Fj; jpiuau=;F
vd;W bgah;.
jpiw ? fg;gk;/murpiw ? M=;fpy nkah; Ml;rp bra;a[k; nghJ gy rpw;wurh;fs;
M=;fpnyah;fSf;Fj; jpiw brYj;jpdh;.
22. Jut[ ? fpzW ? MW/ Fsk; ,y;yhj Chpy; kf;fs; Jut[ ePiu vLj;jJ;jhd;
Fog;gh;.
Jwt[ ? Jwe;JtpLjy; ? ,sikapy; Jwt[ epiy nkw;bfhz]lhy; btw;wp bgWtJ
fodk;.
23. Jiu ? gpug[ ? bts;isah;fisr; rpyh; Jiu vd;W miHg;gJz]L.
Jiw ? ePh;epiy ,w=;Fkplk; ? Fsj;jpy; kf;fs; ,w=;fp ePh; vLf;Fk; ,lj;jpw;Fj; Jiw
vd;W bgah;.
32  12 G jkpH; G bkhHpgapw;rp ifnaL

24. eiu ? bts;is kaph; ? rpyUf;F ,sikapnyna eiu Vw;gLtJz]L.


eiw ? thrid ? Ky;iy kyhpd; eiw ePz;l J}uk; tPRk;.
25. epiu ? thpir/ gRke;ij
? vWk;g[fs; xd;wd;gpd; xd;whf epiuahfr; bry;Yk;.
epiw ? vil ? rpy filfspy; th=;Fk; bghUs;fspd; epiw rhpahf
,Ug;gjpy;iy.
26. gue;j ? gutpa ? tpisahl;Lj; jply; mikf;f gue;j ,lk; ntz]Lk;.
gwe;j ? gwe;Jtpl;l ? g[whf;fs; Tl;lk; Tl;lkhfg; gwe;J bry;Yk;.
27. guit ? fly; ? fly;ePh; g{kpapy; bgUk;gFjp gutp ,Ue;jjhy; flYf;Fg;
guit vd;w bgaUKz]L.
gwit ? gwg;gwit ? gwf;Fk; caphd=;fSf;Fg; gwit vdg; bgah;.
28. ghp ? Fjpiu ? murh; gilfspy; njh;/ ghp/ ahid/ fhyhs; vd
ehw;gila[Kz]L
gwp ? gpL=;F ? cHtd; fisfisg; gwpj;J vwpe;Jtpl;Lg; gapiu ed;F
tsh;g;ghs;.
29. ghiu ? flg;ghiu ? bfl;oahd kz]gFjpiaj; njhz]l flg;ghiu ntz]Lk;.
ghiw ? fw;ghiw ? flypd; eLnt ghiw cs;sJ.
30. bgU ? bghpa ? rpyh; bry;tj;ijg; bgUkstpy; tpUk;g[tJz]L.
bgW ? mil ? rpwe;j ez]gh;fisg; bgWtJ cz]L.
31. bghhp ? bey; bghhp ? bghhpa[k;/ bty;yKk; nrh;j;Jg; bghhp cUz]iliag;
gpog;gh;.
bghwp ? ,ae;jpuk; ? vypiag; bghwp itj;Jg; gpog;gh;.
32. bghU ? nghh; bra;jy; ? tPkDk;/ JhpnahjdDk; bghUjdh;.
bghW ? bghWj;jy; ? g{kpiag; nghyg; bghWik ntz]Lk; vd;fpwhh; ts;Sth;.
33. kuk; ? jhtu tif ? ntg;g kuj;jpd; fhw;W clYf;F ed;ik jUk;.
kwk; ? tPuk; ? nghh;f;fsj;jpy; kwk; kpf;fth;f;nf btw;wpa[Wjp.
34. myF ? gwit @f;F ? gwit myfhy; ,iuiaf; bfhj;jpj; jpd;Dk;.
msF ? bgz] gwit ? msF kapYf;Fj; njhifapy;iy.
mHF ? tdg;g[ ? kapy; ghh;g;gjw;F kpft[k; mHF bgw;W tps=;FfpwJ.
35. myp ? ngo ? Mzhfnth/ bgz]zhfnth ,y;yhjtiu myp vd;gh;.
msp ? bfhL ? bry;td; ViHf;F czt[ mspj;jhd;.
mHp ? mHpj;jy; ? ,e;jpa ,uhQt tPuh;fs; nghhpy; gifth; gilfis
mHpj;jdh;.
36. My; ? Mykuk; ? Myku ,iyfisj; ijj;J cz]fykhfg; gad;gLj;Jth;.
Ms; ? xU kdpjd; ? ehl;il MSk; murd; bja;tk; Mthd;.
MH; ? @H;F/ mKf;F ? eiffisg; gwpbfhLj;j bgz]kzp Jahpy; MH;e;jhs;.
37. cyt[ ? el ? btl;l btspapy; cyt[jy; clk;g[f;F ey;yJ.
cst[ ? xw;W ? kd;dh; cst[ @yk; bra;jpfis mwpfpwhh;.
cHt[ ? epy cHt[ ? cHt[j; bjhHpny kpf cah;e;j bjhHpy;.
38. fyp ? Jd;gk; ? esd; Njhl;j;jpy; gzj;ij ,He;J fypahy; tUe;jpdhd;.
fsp ? kfpH;r;rp ? fs;Sz]L fspg;gJ btWf;fj;jf;fJ.
fHp ? kpFjp/ nghf;FtJ ? fhyj;ij tPzhff; fHpg;gJ jtW.
12 G jkpH; G bkhHpgapw;rp ifnaL 33

39. Ny; ? fUg;gk; ? fUnkfj;;ijr; Ny; bfhz]l nkfk; vd;gh;.


Ns; ? rgjk; ? njh;t[ bjhl=;Fk; Kd; ehd; mjpf kjpg;bgz] bgWtjhfr;
Ns; ciug;ngd;.
NH; ? jpl;lkpL ? ehk; njh;it vGJk; Kd; ed;whfr; NH;e;J bjhl=;f
ntz]Lk;.
40. mspj;jy; ? <jy; ? ,unthh;f;F mspj;jy; ey;y gz]ghFk;.
mHpj;jy; ? bfLj;jy; ? ehk; fhLfis mHpj;jy;TlhJ.
41. vYk;g[ ? vd;g[ ? fPnH tpGe;jjhy; fhy; vYk;g[ Kwpe;jJ.
vGk;g[ ? vGe;jpU ? mjpfhiyapy; tpHpj;J vGk;g[tJ ed;W.
42. fyk; ? mst[ ? xU ntiy epyj;jpy; Mapuk; fyk; bey; tpise;jJ.
fsk; ? nghh; elf;Fkplk; ? gz]ila fhyj;jpy; tPl;ow;F xU tPuh; ehl;ilf; fhf;fg;
nghh;f;fsk; bry;th;.
43. fy; ? ghiw ? ehd; ghk;igf; fy;yhy; moj;njd;.
fs; ? kJ ? fs; cz]gJ clYf;Ff; nfL.
44. fhiy ? fhiyg; bghGJ ? fhiyg; bghGJ fy;tpf;F Vw;wJ.
fhis ? vUJ ? fhis khL cHtdpd; ez]gdhFk;.
45. Fyk; ? rhjp ? ey;y Fyk; vd;Wk; jPa Fyk; vd;Wk; ngRjy; TlhJ.
Fsk; ? ePh;epiy ? v=;fs; Ch; mUnf xU jhkiuf; Fsk; cs;sJ.
46. bfhy; ? bfhd;W tpL ? neha;f;fpUkpfis kUe;jhy; bfhy;Yf.
bfhs; ? bgW ? bfhs;bsdf; bfhLj;jy; cah;thdJ.
47. nfhy; ? fk;g[ ? nfhy; vLj;jhy; Fu=;F MLk;.
nfhs; ? g[w=;TWjy; ? nfhs; TWjy; Fw;wkhFk;.
48. jhy; ? ehf;F ? jhiy Ml;og; ghLtjhy; jhyhl;L vd;W bgah;.
jhs; ? ghjk; ? ,iwtd; jhs; nrh;e;jhUf;Ff; ftiy ,y;iy.
jhH; ? gzpjy; ? Mrphpah; brhy;iyf; nfl;L jhH;e;J el.
49. jtiy ? ghj;jpuk; ? jz]zPh; vLf;fg; gad;gLtJ jtiy.
jtis ? Xh; caphpdk; ? jz]zPhpy; thH;tJ jtis.
50. ehy; ? ehd;F ? gz]ilj; jkpHf murh;fs; ehy;tifg; gilfis
itj;jpUe;jdh;
ehs; ? fpHik ? thuj;jpd; ehs;fs; VG MFk;.
51. ePyk; ? ePyepwk; ? jpUkhypd; ePynkdp mHFkpf;fJ.
ePsk; ? beLik ? njrpa beL+;rhiyfs; gy fpnyh kPll ; h;fs; ePsKilait.
52. ghy; ? czt[ ? ghy; FHe;ijf;Fk;/ KjpatUf;Fk; Vw;w czt[ MFk;.
ghH; ? tspa ,lk; ? gz]il murh;fs; nghhpy; gifth; ehLfis ghHhf;fpdh;.
53. g[y; ? tpy=;fpd; czt[ ? fhy;eilfSf;Fg; g[y;ny rpwe;j czt[ MFk;.
g[s; ? gwit ? jpUkhy; fUlg; g[s;is Ch;jpahf cilath;.
54. g[yp ? tpy=;F ? tpy=;Ffspy; g[yp Cf;fk; cilaJ.
g[sp ? g[spakuk; ? cg;g[ g[sp kpsfha; tpiy Vwptpl;lJ.
55. bghyp ? tps=;F ? ahidg;gil nghh;f;fsj;jpy; bghype;J njhd;Wk;.
bghsp ? bfhj;J ? fy;jr;rh; mk;kpiag; bghspth;.
bghHp ? Cw;W ? ts;sy;fspd; iffs; nkfk; nghy; bghd;kiH bghHpe;jd.
34  www.nammakalvi.org 12 G jkpH; G bkhHpgapw;rp ifnaL

56. @iy ? KLf;F ? g{idiaf; fz]lt[ld; vyp @iyapy; Xo xspa[k;.


@is ? mwpt[f;Fhpa ,lk; ? Ie;J tajpw;Fs; FHe;ijapd; @is ed;whf tsh;e;JtpLk;.
@iH ? mfg;ig ? fy;ahz kz]lgj;jpy; rikaw;fhuh; nrhw;iw @iHahy;
fpsWth;.
57. typ ? typik ? KUff; flt[s; typkpf;f muf;fh;fisg; nghhpy; btd;whh;.
tsp ? fhw;W ? ,iwtd; thdhf/ kd;dhf/ tspahf ePuhf/ beUg;ghf
v=;Fk; epiwe;Js;shd;.
tHp ? ghij ? Kd;ndhh; fhl;oa tHpapy; ehk; elg;gJ ey;yJ.
58. tpyh ? vYk;g[ ? @d;W taJ FHe;ijiaj; jha; ,Lg;gpy; Rke;J brd;wjhy;
tpyh typg;gjhff; Twpdhs;.
tpsh ? kutif ? tpshk;gHk; Rita[ilajhFk;.
tpHh ? jpUtpHh ? jpUtpHh fhy=;fspy; kf;fs; Tl;lk; miynkhJk;.
59. tpyf;Fjy; ? ePf;Fjy; ? rhd;nwhh; kJita[k; g[spiaa[k; tpyf;Fth;.
tpsf;Fjy; ? tpsf;fkhff; Twy; ? Mrphpah; ,yf;fz tpjpiaj; bjspthf tpsf;fpdhh;.
60. bty;yk; ? ,dpg;g[g; bghUs; ? bty;yk; ,dpg;g[ cilaJ.
bts;sk; ? ePh;g;bgUf;F ? fhh;fhyj;jpy; fhtphpapy; bts;sk; fiu g[uz]L XLk;.
61. ntiy ? bjhHpy; ? ntiy bra;tJ ve;j mst[f;F mtrpankh/ me;j mst[f;F
Xa;t[k; mtrpak;.
ntis ? bghGJ ? @d;W ntiyfspYk; ,iwtHpghL bra;f.
62. nty; ? Xh; Ma[jk; ? KUfdpd; nty; fput[+;r kiyiag; gpse;jJ.
nts; ? kd;kjd; ? rptbgUkhd; fhkntisf; fz] mdyhy; vhpj;jhh;.
63. miy ? ePh; epiy ? fly; ,Ue;jhy; miyfSk; ,Uf;Fk;.
miH ? Tg;gpL ? jpUkzj;jpw;F cwtpdh;fis miHf;fpnwhk;.
mis ? g[w;W/ japh;/ gpir ? fiuahd; misapy; ghk;g[ Fog[Fe;jJ.
64. ,iy ? jiH ? Myku ,iyfisj; ijj;J cz]fykhfg; gad;gLj;Jth;.
,iH ? E}ypiH ? g+;rpypUe;J bky;ypa ,iHfis E}w;whs;.
,is ? bkyp ? vd; cly; tutu ,isj;J tUfpwJ.
65. ciy ? bfhy;yh ciy ? bfhy;yd; ciyapy; jpwikahfg; gzpahw;Wfpwhd;.
ciH ? gf;fk; ? jpLf;fpLk; bra;jp nfl;L murd; ciH ,Ue;j murp m+;rpdhs;.
cis ? gplhpkaph; ? vd; cisiag; gpoj;J ez]gd; cYf;fpdhd;.
66. xyp ? Xir ? thbdhypapy; nfl;fg;gLtJ xyp.
xsp ? btspr;rk; ? Nhpad; ekf;F tH=;FtJ xsp.
xHp ? ePf;F ? r@f tpnuhjr; bray;fis xHpf;f ntz]Lk;.
67. fiy ? Mil/ fy;tp ? fiykfs; bts;isf; fiya[Lj;jp tps=;Ffpwhs;.
fiH ? @=;fpy; ? fiH fhl;oy; jP gpoj;jJ.
fis ? ePf;F/ mHF ? mg;bgz] fUg;ghapDk; fisa[ilats;.
tay; fis vLj;jhy; gaph; ed;F tsUk;.
68. fpyp ? gak; ? njh;t[ vd;whny vdf;Ff; fpyp te;JtpLk;.
fpHp ? fpHpj;jy; ? fpHpe;j Mil fe;ij vdg;gLk;.
fpsp ? gwit ? vd; tPl;oy; fpsp tsh;f;fpnwd;.
69. jiy ? Kjd;ik/ rpuR ? Ik;bghwpfSk; jiyapy; cs;sd.
12 G jkpH; G bkhHpgapw;rp ifnaL 35

jiH ? g[y;/ ,iy ? jiHia tptrhaj;jpy; ,aw;if cukhfg; gad;gLj;jth;.


jis ? fl;Ljy; ? ,yf;fz ahg;gpy; jis xUtif.
70. thy; ? Xh; cWg;g[ ? ,uhtzd; mDkdpd; thypy; jPapl cj;jutpl;lhd;.
ths; ? nghh;ths; ? tPudpd; ths; nghhpy; btw;wp jUtJ.
thH; ? thH; ? ey;nyhh; kjpf;f thH;.
71. thiy ? ,sk;bgz] ? ghujpahh; thiyf; Fkhpao fz]zk;kh vdf; fz]zidg;
nghw;wpg; ghodhh;.
thiH ? kutif ? thiHj;jz]Lk; g{t[k;/ fha[k;/ fdpa[k; ey;y czt[g;
bghUshFk;.
this ? kPd;tif ? kUjj;jpidg; ghly;fspy;/ tay;fspy; thisfs; Js;spd
vd;w bra;jpf; Twg;gl;Ls;sJ.
72. jhyp ? kh=;fy;ak; ? fztd; kidtpf;Ff; fl;LtJ jhyp.
xU bgz]zpw;Fg; ghJfhg;g[j; jhyp.
jhHp ? Flk; ? nfhilf;fhyj;jpy; jz]zPh; bfhz]L tUtjw;Fj; jhHp
thafd;w ghz]lk; gad;gLfpwJ.
jhsp ? xUtifg; gid / ? nrhW toj;Jtpl;nld;. FHk;g[ kl;Lk; jhspf;fntz]Lk;.
FHk;g[ jhspj;jy;
73. tiy ? kPd; gpof;f ? kPdth;fs; tiy tphpj;J kPd;fisg; gpog;ghh;fs;.
gad;gLk; bghUs;
tiH ? xU tifahd kuk; ? tiH vd;gJ kutiffspy; xd;W.
tis ? bghe;J/ tisay; ? vyp jd; tisf;Fs; g[Fe;J bfhz]lJ.
74. muz] ? kjpy;/ ghJfhg;g[ ? gifthplkpUe;J ehl;ilg; ghJfhf;f muiz mikj;jdh;.
nfhl;il
mud; ? rptd; ? irt rkaj;jpd; ,iwtd; mud;.
75. mz]zk; ? nky;tha; ? mz]zj;jpd; thapyhf vGj;Jf;fs; gpwf;Fk;.
md;dk; ? xU gwit ? esDf;fhf md;dk; jkae;jpaplk; J}J brd;wJ.
76. Mzp ? Thpa ,Uk;g[j; Jz]L ? glk; khl;l Mzp moj;jdh;.
Mdp ? xU khjk; ? Mdp khjj;jpy; v=;fs; Vh; jpUtpHh eilbgWk;.
77. Miz /? fl;lis / muR btspapLk; Mizfis mjpfhhpfs; epiwntw;wpdh;.
Mid ? ahid ? fhl;oy; Midfs; Tl;lk; Tl;lkhfj; jphpa[k;.
78. cz]Q ? rhg;gpL ? grpj;j gpwF czit cz]z ntz]Lk;.
cd;D ? epidj;Jg;ghh; ? gpwh; ekf;Fr; bra;a[k; ed;ikfis cd;D.
79. Cz] ? czt[ ? kpF Cz; clYf;F neha; bra;a[k;.
Cd; ? ,iwr;rp ? kfhtPuh; gpwe;j ehs; vd;W Cd; tpw;gid jil
bra;ag;gl;lJ.
80. vz]z ? epidf;f/ ? ey;yijna bra;a ey;yijna vz]Qf.
vz]zpg;ghh;f;f
vd;d ? nfs;tp ? ehk; thH;tjw;Fg; bghUs; vd;d> vd;W ehk; czu
ntz]Lk;.
81. fiz ? mk;g[ ? mh;r;Rdd; fiz va;tjpy; ty;ytd;.
fid ? fidj;jy; ? Fjpiufs; fidf;Fk;.
82. fzk; ?/ Tl;lk; ? xnu tifg; bghUs;fspd; bjhFjpiaf; fzk; vd;W
TWth;.
36  12 G jkpH; G bkhHpgapw;rp ifnaL

fdk; ? gS/ Rik ? fdkhd bghUs; fhypd; nky; tpGe;J vYk;g[ Kwpe;jJ.
83. fhz] ? ghh; ? ,e;j cyfj;jpy; ey;y fhl;rpfis ehk; fhz ntz]Lk;.
fhd; ? fhL ? fhdfj;jpy; tpy=;FfSk; gwitfSk; Rje;jpukhf thGk;.
84. jzp ? ml=;F ? bghpath;fsplk; rpwpath;fs; jzpe;J elj;jy; ntz]Lk;.
jdp ? jdpj;jpUj;jy; ? jdp kuk; njhg;ghfhJ.
85. Jzp ? Mil ? J}a;ikahd Jzpfis cLj;j ntz]Lk;.
Jdp ? Jd;gk;/ nfhgk; ? Jdpiaf; fz]L/ fy=;fhky; ,d;gk; fhz ntz]Lk;.
86. jpid ? jhdpa tif ? jpid kiyepyj;jpy; kpFjpaha;g; gapuhFk; czt[g; bghUs;.
jpiz ? xGf;fk;/ epyk; ? kiyg;gFjpiaf; Fwpg;gJ Fwp+;rpj;jpiz vdg;gLk;.
87. ehz] ? fapW ? k=;fs ehz] mzptJ jkpH;g; bgz]fspd; gz]ghL.
ehd; ? jd;idf; Fwpg;gJ ? ehd; thH;f;ifapy; cah;ntd;.
88. jpz]ik
? typik ? Mlth; jpz]ika[ilath;fshf ,Uj;jy; ntz]Lk;.
jpd;ik
? jPik ? gpwh;f;Fj; jpd;ik bra;ahky; ,Uj;jny ey;yJ.
89. tz]ik ? tsk;/ tH=;Fjy; ? ehL tz]ik bgw ciHg;nghk;.
td;ik ? typik ? xw;Wikna td;ikiaj; jUk;.
90. Mz] ? Mz]kfd; ? MSk; jd;ik Mz]ik vdg;gLk;.
Md; ? gR ? Ky;iy epyj;J Mah; Mdpiu nka;g;gh;.
91. ,iz ? nrh; ? ,uz]L ghijfs; ,iza[k; ,lj;jpy; mk;kd; nfhapy;
,Uf;fpd;wJ.
,id ? tUe;J ? jiytd; gphpthy; jiytp ,ide;J g[yk;gpdhs;.
92. vz] ? epid/ vz]Qjy; ? vz]zpj; Jzpf fUkk;.
vd; ? vd;Dila ? vd; ehL fy;tpapy; rpwe;jJ.
93. fz]zp ? jiykhiy ? klhjpgjpfs; ,d;Wk; fz]zp NLk; ,ay;gpdh;.
fd;dp ? ,sk;bgz] ? fiyfisg; gapy fd;dpg; gUtk; Vw;wJ.
94. fz]zd; ? fpU&;zd; ? fz]zd; cyfk; rpwg;gila fPij mUspdhd;.
fd;dd; ? fh;zd; ? fd;dd; br+;nrhw;Wf;fld; jPh;j;j ts;sy;.
95. fhzk; ? bghd; ? fhzj;jpd; tpiy ehSf;F ehs; Tof;bfhz]nlapUf;fpwJ.
fhdk; ? fhL ? ehL brHpf;ff; fhdk; tsh;g;nghk;.
96. jz] ? Fsph;r;rpahd ? bjd;wy; jz]bzd;W tPrpaJ.
jd; ? jd;Dila ? jd; bgz]L jd; gps;is vd thH;gtd; fLF nghy; cs;sk;
cilatd; vd;W ghujpjhrd; TWfpwhh;.
97. jpz] ? typik ? Mlth; jpz]zpahjy; ntz]Lk;.
jpd; ? cz] ? behW=;fj; jpd;gtd; E}whz]L thH;gtd;.
98. ehzk; ? btl;fk; ? ehzk; ,y;yhjtd; thH;f;if eifg;gpw;F ,lkhFk;.
ehdk; ? g[QF ? ehdk; xU tiff; fhl;Lg; g{id MFk;.
99. gzp ? ntiy ? ehl;Lg;gzpapy; ehl;lk; bfhs;s ntz]Lk;.
gdp ? Fsph;r;rp ? ,kakiy gdp kiyahFk;.
100. kzk; ? thrid ? tPl;Lj; njhl;lj;jpy; g{j;j ky;ypifapd; kzk; tPl;oYk;
tPrpaJ.
kdk; ? be+;rk; ? kdk; mwpa xUth;f;Fk; jP=;F bra;af; TlhJ.
101. fhp ? ahid/ epyf;fhp ? kjfhp nkhjp kuk; tPH;e;jJ.
fwp ? fha;fwp/ kpsF ? fha;fwpfis ntf itj;j rhW clYf;F kpf ey;yJ.
12 G jkpH; G bkhHpgapw;rp ifnaL www.nammakalvi.org 37

14 epWj;jf; FwpaPLfs;
1. gj;jpiag; goj;J njitahd ,l=;fspy; epWj;jw;Fwpfis ,l;L vGJf.
,s=;nfh mofs; rhj;jdhhplk; Kd;bra;j tpid epiwntWk; fhyk; vd;wPh;fns mth;fSila
Ke;ija tpid ahJ mjd; tpist[ vd;d epfH;e;j fhyk; ahJ mij eP=;fs; mwpe;jpUe;jhy; TWf
vdf; nfl;lhh;.
``,s=;nfh mofs; rhj;jdhhplk;~~ Kd;bra;j tpid epiwntWk; fhyk; vd;wPh;fns- mth;fSila
Ke;ija tpid ahJ> mjd; tpist[ vd;d> epfH;e;j fhyk; ahJ> mij eP=;fs; mwpe;jpUe;jhy; TWf
vdf; nfl;lhh;.

2. 
khkiH nghw;WJk; vd;Wk; ePhpd;wp mikahJ cyF vd;Wk; kiHiaf; bfhz;lhoa ehk; ,d;W
g[ay; kiHiag; gw;wpa mwptpg;g[fisf; nfl;lhny xU mr;r epiyf;F Ml;gLfpnwhk; khhpay;yJ
fhhpakpy;iy vd;gJ Kd;ndhh; bkhHp ,d;iwf;nfh bgUkiH bghHpe;jhy; fhhpank ,y;iy.
`khkiH nghw;WJk;~ vd;Wk; ~ePhpd;wp mikahJ cyF~ vd;Wk; kiHiaf; bfhz;lhoa ehk; ,d;W
g[ay;/ kiHiag; gw;wpa mwpt[g;g[fisf; nfl;lhny xU mr;r epiyf;F Ml;gLfpnwhk;. ``khhpay;yJ
fhhpakpy;iy~~ vd;gJ Kd;ndhh; bkhHp. ,d;iwf;nfh bgUkiH bghHe;jhy; fhhpank ,y;iy.
3. r=;f ,yf;fpaj;jpy; Flk;ig FLk;g[ fLk;g[ Mfpa brhw;fs; FLk;g mikg;nghL bjhlh;g[ilait
r=;f ,yf;fpaj;jpy; `Flk;ig`/ `FLk;g[~/ `fLk;g[~ Mfpa brhw;fs; FLk;g mikg;nghL bjhlh;g[ilait.
4. bgw;nwhhplkpUe;J gphpe;J jdpahf thGkplk; jd;kid vdt[k; tH=;fg;bgw;Ws;sd
bgw;nwhhplkpUe;J gphpe;J/ jdpahf thGkplk; `jd;kid~ vdt[k; tH=;fg; bgw;Ws;sd.
5. jd;idna epidj;Jj; jtkpUe;j rthpaplk; ,t;tst[ fhyk; eP Jd;gk; VJkpd;wp eyKld; ,Ue;jha;
my;yth vd;W ghpt[ld; nfl;lhd;
jd;idna epidj;Jj; jtkpUe;j rthpaplk;/ ``,t;tst[ fhyk; eP Jd;gk; VJkpd;wp eyKld; ,Ue;jha;
my;yth> vd;W ghpt[ld; nfl;lhd;.
6. vd; bgha;ahd cyfg;gw;W mHpe;jJ mstw;w fhyk; ehd; nkw;bfhz]oUe;j jtk; gypj;jJ vd; gpwtp
xHpe;jJ vd;W Twpdhs;
``vd; bgha;ahd cyfg;gw;W mHpe;jJ " mstw;w fhyk; ehd; nkw;bfhz]oUe;j jtk; gypj;jJ " vd;
gpwtp xHpe;jJ~~ vd;W Twpdhd;.
7. xt;bthU bjhlhhpYk; vGtha; gadpiy brag;gLbghUs; Mfpait mike;jpUf;Fk;.
xt;bthU bjhlhpYk; vGtha;/ gadpiy/ brag;gLbghUs; Mfpait mike;jpUf;Fk;.
8. ``kiwe;j jp.$hdfpuhkd; epidthf Mz]L njhWk; Tl;lk; eilbgWk;~~.
``kiwe;j jp.$hdfpuhkd; epidthf Mz]LnjhWk; Tl;lk; eilbgWk;.~~
9. xUth; ekf;Fr; bra;j ed;ikia kwg;gJ ey;yjd;W mth; bra;j jPikia mg;bghGnj kwe;J tpLtJ
ey;yJ.
xUth; ekf;Fr; bra;j ed;ikia kwg;gJ ey;yjd;W " mth; bra;j jPikia mg;bghGnj kwe;J
tpLtJ ey;yJ.
10. xUtd; jd;idj;jhd; fhj;Jf;bfhs;s tpUk;gpdhy; rpdk; tuhky; fhj;Jf; bfhs;s ntz]Lk;
fhf;fhtpl;lhy; rpdk; ek;ikna mHpj;JtpLk;
xUtd; jd;idj;jhd; fhj;Jf; bfhs;s tpUk;gpdhy;/ rpdk; thuhky; fhj;Jf; bfhs;s ntz]Lk; "
fhf;fhtpl;lhy;/ rpdk; ek;ikna mHpj;JtpLk;.
38  12 G jkpH; G bkhHpgapw;rp ifnaL

11. ,tw;Ws; ehy; vd;gJ ehyoahiua[k; ,uz]L vd;gJ jpUf;Fwisa[k; Fwpf;Fk;.


,tw;Ws; `ehy;~ vd;gJ ehyoahiua[k; `,uz]L~ vd;gJ jpUf;Fwisa[k; Fwpf;Fk;.
12. c.nt.rh. brd;idg; gy;fiyf;fHfj;jpdhy; lhf;lh; gl;lk; bgw;w bgUikf;Fhpath;.
c.nt.rh. brd;idg; gy;fiyf;fHfj;jpdhy; `lhf;lh;~ gl;lk; bgw;w bgUikf;Fhpath;.
13. fPH;thapyhf;fk; nky;thapyf;fk; FHpkhw;W bey; ,yf;fk; Kjypa tha;ghLfisf; fl;lhak; kdg;ghlk;
bra;a ntz]Lk;.
fPH;thapyhf;fk;/ nky;thapyf;fk;/ FHpkhw;W/ bey; ,yf;fk; Kjypa tha;ghLfisf; fl;lhak;
kdg;ghlk; bra;a ntz]Lk;.
14. c.nt.rh. kfhknfhghj;jpaha jpuhtpl tpj;jpah g{&zk; jh|pzhj;jpa fyhepjp cs;spl;l gl;l=;fisg;
bgw;wth;.
c.nt.rh. `kfhknfhghj;jpaha~/ `jpuhtpl tpj;jpah g{&zk;~/ `jh|pzhj;jpa fyhepjp~ cs;spl;l
gl;l=;fisg; bgw;wth;.
15. ctikf; ftp+h; vd;W rpwg;gpf;fg;gLk; Rujhtpd; ,aw;bgah; ,uhrnfhghyd;.
ctikf; ftp+h; vd;W rpwg;gpf;fg;gLk; `Rujh~tpd; ,aw;bgah; ,uhrnfhghyd;.
16. Rujh jkpHf murpd; fiykhkzp tpUJ ghujpjhrd; tpUJ j+;irj; jkpH;g;gy;fiyf;fHfj;jpd;
,uhruhrd; tpUJ cs;spl;l gy tpUJfisg; bgw;wth;.
Rujh jkpHf murpd; fiykhkzp tpUJ/ ghujpjhrd; tpUJ/ j+;irj; jkpH;gg
; y;fiyf;fHfj;jpd;
,uhruhrd; tpUJ cs;spl;l gy tpUJfisg; bgw;wth;.
17. ftp+h; rp.kzp 1959Mk; Mz]L Kjy; vGj;J ,jHpy; ,tuJ ftpijfs; bjhlh;e;J btspte;jd.
ftp+h; rp.kzp 1959Mk; Mz]L `Kjy; vGj;J~ ,jHpy; ,tuJ ftpijfs; bjhlh;e;J btspte;jd.
18. ftp+h; rp.kzp g[Jf;ftpijapy; m=;fjj;ij kpFjpahfg; gad;gLj;jpath; ,Uj;jypd; btWikiar;
rphpg;g[k; frg;g[khfr; brhd;dth;.
ftp+h; rp.kzp g[Jf;ftpijapy; m=;fjj;ij kpFjpahfg; gad;gLj;jpath; " ,Uj;jypd; btWikiar;
rphpg;g[k; frg;g[khfr; brhd;dth;.
19. tpiue;J XLk; Fjpiuiaf; bfhz]l beLkhd; m+;rp jd;Dila jFjpia mwpahndh
tpiue;J XLk; Fjpiuiaf; bfhz]l beLkhd; m+;rp/ jd;Dila jFjpia mwpahndh >
20. fhtpbdk; fynd RUf;fpbdk; fyg;ig ? ,j;bjhlhpy; fyd; czh;j;Jk; bghUs;
``fhtpbdk; fynd " RUf;fpbdk; fyg;ig~~ ? ,j;bjhlhpy; `fyd;~ czh;j;Jk; bghUs;.
21. goapy; gazk; behoapy; kuzk; vdg; gof;fl;od; nky; vGjpg; nghl;oUg;gJ c=;fSf;Fj; jhd;
`goapy; gazk; behoapy; kuzk;~ vdg; gof;fl;od; nky; vGjpg; nghl;oUg;gJ c=;fSf;Fj;jhd;.
22. mllh ehs;njhWk; ,j;jifa tpgj;Jfs; elg;gJ bgUfpf; bfhz]nl ,Uf;fpd;wJ
mllh - ehs;njhWk; ,j;jifa tpgj;Jfs; elg;gJ bgUfpf; bfhz]nl ,Uf;fpd;wJ.
23. xU bghJthd rhiytpjp ntz]Lk; vd;Dk; cld;gof;if ghhp!; efuj;jpy; 1990?Mk; Mz]L ele;j
Kjy; gd;dhl;Lr; rhiy mikg;g[ khehl;oy; Vw;gl;lJ.
xU bghJthd rhiytpjp ntz]Lk; vd;Dk; cld;gof;if/ ghhp!; efuj;jpy; 1990?Mk; Mz]L ele;j
Kjy; `gd;dhl;Lr; rhiy mikg;g[~ khehl;oy; Vw;gl;lJ.
12 G jkpH; G bkhHpgapw;rp ifnaL 39

15 bjhlh; gpiHfis ePf;fp vGJf


1. bjhlhpy; cs;s gpiHfis ePf;fp vGJf.
v.fh. ek; khdpyk; ,e;j Mz;L tul;rpahy; ghjpf;fg;gl;lJ.
ek; khepyk; ,e;j Mz;L twl;rpahy; ghjpf;fg;gl;lJ.
1. v=;fs; Chpy; E}yff; fl;olk; fl;l mwR epjp xJf;fpaJ.
v=;fs; Chpy; E}yfk; fl;llk; fl;l muR epjp xJf;fpaJ.
2. u=;fd; bt=;fyg; ghj;jpuf;fil itj;jpUf;fpwhh;.
u=;fd; btz;fyg; ghj;jpuf;fil itj;jpUf;fpwhh;.
3. khdk; ghh;j;j g{kpapy; gapW tiffs; gapuplg;gLfpd;wd.
thdk; ghh;j;j g{kpapy; gapW tiffs; gaphplg;gLfpd;wd.
4. Ig;grp milkiHapy; CUdp epiwe;jJ.
Ig;grp mil kiHapy; CUzp epiwe;jJ.
5. ,d;dpf;F rha=;fhyk; fgo nghl;o eilbgWk;.
,d;iwf;Fr; rha[=;fhyk; fgo nghl;o eilbgWk;.
6. jisik Mrphpah; njrpaf;bfhoia Vh;;wp itj;jhh;.
jiyik Mrphpah; njrpaf;bfhoia Vw;wp itj;jhh;.
7. gy;ypapy; ,sf;fpa kz;w tpHh eil bgw;wJ.
gs;spapy; ,yf;fpa kd;w tpHh eilbgw;wJ.
8. 24 kdp neuj;jpy; g[as;; tUk; vd vr;rhpf;if tplg;gl;Ls;sJ.
24 kzp neuj;jpy; g[ay; tUk; vd vr;rhpf;if tplg;gl;Ls;sJ.
9. ,t;thz;L tul;rp fhuzkhf epthudk; tH=;fg;gLk; vd mwR mwptpj;Js;sJ.
,t;thz;L twl;rp fhuzkhf epthuzk; tH=;fg;gLk; vd muR mwptpj;Js;sJ.
10.,d;iua ,ir tpHh epfH;r;rpapy; ehfRwk; thrpf;fg; nghfpwhh;fs;.
,d;iwa ,ir tpHh epfH;r;rpapy; ehfRuk; thrpf;fg; nghfpwhh;fs;.

16 tpilf;nfw;w tpdh mikj;jy;


1. FLk;gk; vd;w brhy; Kjd;Kjypy; jpUf;Fwspy;jhd; ,lk; bgw;Ws;sJ.
FLk;gk; vd;w brhy; Kjd;Kjypy; ve;j E}ypy; ,lk; bgw;Ws;sJ>
2. eLtz; muR 2005 Mk; Mz;L ork;gh; 23 md;W njrpa nghplh; nkyhz;ik Mizaj;ij mikj;jJ.
eLtz; muR ve;j Mz;L njrpa nghplh; nkyhz;ik Mizaj;ij mikj;jJ>
3. rhiyfspy; ,lk; bgw;wpUf;Fk; FwpaPLfs; nghf;Ftuj;jpidr; rPh; bra;at[k; ghJfhg;ghf gazpf;ft[k;
cjt[fpd;wd.
rhiyfspy; nghf;Ftuj;jpidr; rPh; bra;at[k; ghJfhg;ghf gazpf;ft[k; cjt[tJ vJ>
4. 1865y; bjd;dpe;jpahtpd; Kjy; bjhlh;tz;o epiyak; ,uhag[uj;jpy; mikf;fg;gl;lJ.
bjd;dpe;jpahtpy; Kjy; bjhlh;tz;o epiyak; v=;F vg;nghJ mikf;fg;gl;lJ.
40  www.nammakalvi.org 12 G jkpH; G bkhHpgapw;rp ifnaL

5. ``ajhh;j;j epfH;itg; gilg;ghSika[l; btspg;gLj;Jtnj Mtzg;glk;~~ vd;fpwhh; fphpnahh; rd;


Mtzg;glk; vd;W vij rphpnahh;rd; Fwpg;gpLfpwhh;>
6. vJ ve;j neuj;jpy; Kf;fpak; vd;W rhpahd KobtLg;gjpy; jhd; thH;tpd; btw;wp ml=;fpapUf;fpwJ.
thH;tpd; btw;wp vjpy; ml=;fpapUf;fpwJ>
7. tuitj; jhz;o epiwar; bryt[ bra;gtd; mLj;jth;fsplk; ifnae;j ntz;oa mty epiyf;Fj;
js;sg;gLthd;.
tuitj; jhz;o epiwar; bra;gtdpd; epiy vd;dthFk;>
8. kapiy nt=;flrhkp mth;fs; kiyahsk;/ fd;dlk;/ rk!;fpUjk;/ ghyp/ M=;fpyk; Mfpa bkhHpfspy;
gapw;rp cilath;.
kapiy nt=;flrhkp vd;bdd;d bkhHpfspy; gapw;rp cilath;>
9. r=;f ,yf;fpak; mfj;jpiz rhh;e;j bra;jpfisa[k; g[wj;jpiz rhh;e;j bra;jpfisa[k; ghlw; bghUs;fshf
totikj;Js;sJ.
r=;f ,yf;fpak; vt;bttw;iwg; ghlw; bghUs;fshf totikj;Js;sJ>
10. mwpt[/ mHpt[ tuhky; fhf;Fk; fUtpahFk; md;wpa[k; giftuhy; mof;f Koahj ghJfhg;g[ muQk;
mJnt MFk;.
mwpt[ vj;jifa muz;>
11. ,yf;fpaj;ija[k; bkhHpiaa[k; xUnrug; ngRfpd;w ,yf;fzk; bjhy;fhg;gpakhFk;.
,yf;fpaj;ija[k; bkhHpiaa[k; xUnrug; ngRfpd;w ,yf;fz E}y; vJ>
12. kdpjd; jd; nguhir fhuzkhf ,aw;if ts=;fisf; fLikahfr; nrjg;gLj;jpdhd;.
vjd; fhuzkhf kdpjd; ,aw;if ts=;fisr; nrjg;gLj;jpdhd;>
13. FLk;g mikg;g[ Vw;gLtjw;F mog;gil jpUkznk.
FLk;g mikg;g[ Vw;gLtjw;F mog;gilahf miktJ vJ>
14. gs;spbaDk; brhy; i$d kl=;fSf;Fk;/ ghlrhiyfSf;Fk; bghJthd bgah;.
gs;sp vd;Dk; brhy; vtw;wpw;Fg; bghJthd bgauhf ,Ue;jJ>
15. 400 Mz;LfSf;F Kd; t=;ff; flnyhuk; rpW Fg;gkhf ,Ue;j gFjpna ,d;iwa brd;idf;Fj;
bjhlf;fg; g[s;spahf ,Ue;jJ.
,d;iwa brd;idf;Fj; bjhlf;fg; g[s;spahf ,Ue;jJ vJ>
16. r=;fr; r@fk; FLk;gk; vd;w mikg;ig mog;gil myfhff; bfhz]oUe;jJ.
r=;fr; r@fk; ve;j mikg;ig mog;gil myfhff; bfhz]oUe;jJ >
17. Mjpf;Fofsplk; jdpf;FLk;g Kiw Kf;fpakhd FLk;g Kiwahf ,Ue;jJ.
Mjpf;Fofsplk; fhzg;gl;l Kf;fpakhd FLk;g Kiw ahJ > (my;yJ)
jdpf;FLk;gKiw vf;Fofsplk; fhzg;gl;l Kf;fpakhd FLk;gKiwahFk; >
18. tPlzd;/ ,uhkd; ,Uf;Fkplk; te;J milf;fyk; ntz]odhd;.
,uhkdplk; milf;fyk; ntz]oad; ahh; > (my;yJ) tPlzd; ahhplk; te;J milf;fyk;
ntz]odhd;>
19. fjputdpd; kfdhd Rf;hPtDld; mWth; Mndhk;.
fjputdpd; kfd; bgah; vd;d > (my;yJ) fjputdpd; kfdhd Rf;hPtDld; nrh;e;J vj;jid ngh;
Mdhh;fs;>
20. xU thpapd; ,WjpapYs;s brhy;iyg; gphpj;J vGJtjhf ,Ue;jhy; bghUs; bflhjgo gphpf;f
ntz]Lk;.
xU thpapd; ,WjpapYs;s brhy;iyg; gphpj;J vGJtjhf ,Ue;jhy; vg;gog; gphpf;f ntz]Lk; >
12 G jkpH; G bkhHpgapw;rp ifnaL 41

21. ,yf;fz tpjpfis kdj;Js; gjpj;J itg;gJk; ekJ flik.


vtw;iw kdj;Js; gjpj;J itg;gJk; ekJ flik.
22. ve;j mwj;ij mHpj;jth;f;Fk; jg;gpg; gpiHf;f tha;g;gpUf;Fk;.
jg;gpg;gpiHf;Fk; tha;g;g[ ahUf;F ,Uf;Fk; >
23. Kfkyh;r;rpiaa[k; mfkyh;r;rpiaa[k; bfhy;Yfpd;w rpdj;ij tpl ekf;F ntW gif ,y;iy.
Kfkyh;r;rpiaa[k; mfkyh;r;rpiaa[k; bfhs;Sfpd;w gif vJ > (my;yJ)
gif vtw;iwbay;yhk; ek;kplkpUe;J bfhy;Yk; >
24. xUth; bra;j jPikia mg;bghGnj kwe;J tpLtJ ey;yJ >
vjid mg;bghGnj kwe;JtpLtJ ey;yJ >
25. Rtofis itg;gjw;Fk; vLj;Jr; bry;tjw;Fk; cgnahfg;gLk; fUtpf;Fj; J}f;F vd;W bgah;.
Rtofis itg;gjw;Fk; vLj;Jr; bry;tjw;Fk; cgnahfg;gLk; fUtpapd; bgah; vd;d >
26. fzpjj;jpy; fPH;thapyhf;fk;/ nky;thapyhf;fk;/ FHpkhw;W Kjypa gytif tha;ghLfs; ghlkhf
ntz]Lk;.
fzpjj;jpy; vt;tif tha;ghLfs; vy;yhk; ghlkhf ,Uf;f ntz]Lk;>
27. xU gf;fk; thUtjw;Ff; fj;jpa[k; kWgf;fk; vGJtjw;F vGj;jhzpa[k; mike;jijg; ghh;j;nj
ngdhf;fj;jp vd;w bgah; te;jbjd;W njhd;WfpwJ >
ngdhf;fj;jp vd;w bgah; te;jjw;fhd fhuzk; vd;d >
28. Rujh KGf;f KGf;ff; ftpijfisf; bfhz]l fhtpak; vd;w ,jiH elj;jpdhh;.
Rujh KGf;f KGf;ff; ftpijfisf; bfhz]L elj;jpa ,jHpd; bgah; vd;d >
29. Mf;Fk; tiu ehkjid mhprp vd;Wk;
Mf;fpagpd; nrhbwd;Wk; brhy;Yfpd;nwhk;.
mhprpia vg;nghJ ehk; nrhW vd;W brhy;fpd;nwhk; >
30. fw;gpj;jy;/ fw;wy; ,uz]ow;Fkpilna ,ilaPLfs; neh;tJk; cz]L. vjph;ghuhj ey;y tpist[fSk;
fpilg;gJz]L.
fw;gpj;jy;/ fw;wy; ,uz]ow;Fkpilna vitbay;yhk; fpilg;gJz]L >
31. M=;fpyg; nguhrphpauhd ftp+h; rp.kzp `jhnth nj $p=;~ vDk; rPdbka;apay; E}iyj; jkpHpy;
bkhHpbgah;j;Js;shh;.
M=;fpyg; nguhrphpauhd ftp+h; rp.kzp jkpHpy; bkhHp bgah;j;Js;s rPdbka;apay; E}ypd; bgah; vd;d>
(my;yJ) ftp+h; rp.kzp mth;fs; nkw;bfhz]l bkhHpbgah;g;g[g; gzp ahJ >
32. g[wehD}W/ vl;Lj;bjhif E}y;fSs; xd;W.
vl;Lj;bjhif E}y;fs; xd;W vJ >
33. fiyj;bjhHpy; ty;y v=;fSf;Fk; ,t;t[yfpy; vj;jpirapy; brd;whYk; mj;jpirapy; czt[/ jtwhky;
fpl;Lk;.
vj;jpirapy; brd;whYk; mj;jpirapy; czt[ jtwhky; fpilg;gJ ahUf;F > (my;yJ) fiyj;bjhHpy;
ty;yth;f;F ,t;t[yfpy; vj;jpirapy; brd;whYk; mj;jpirapy; jtwhky; fplg;gJ vd;d >
34. g[wehD}W/ g[wk; g[wg;ghl;L vdt[k; miHf;fg;gLfpwJ.
g[wehD}W vt;thbwy;yhk; miHf;fg;gLfpwJ >
35. jtWfisj; jpUj;jpf; bfhs;Sjy;/ tpjpfisg; gpd;gw;Wjy; thapyhf kl;Lnk rhiy tpgj;Jfisj;
jLf;f Koa[k.;
vtw;wpd; thapyhf kl;Lnk rhiy tpgj;Jfisj; jLf;f Koa[k; >
42  12 G jkpH; G bkhHpgapw;rp ifnaL

36. Xh; Mz]ow;F Vwf;Fiwa Ie;J,yl;rk; tpgj;Jfs; elf;fpd;wd.


Xh; Mz]ow;F Vwf;Fiwa vj;jid tpgj;Jfs; elf;fpd;wd >
37. mghafukhd Kiwapy; Ch;jpia Xl;odhy; q.5000 jz]lj;bjhif bgwg;gLk;.
mghafukhd Kiwapy; Ch;jpia Xl;odhy; vt;tst[ bjhif jz]lj;bjhifahfg; bgwg;gLk;>
38. ,d;iwa etPd cyfpy; `mtruk;~ vd;fpw neha; vy;nyhiua[k; gPoj;jpUf;fpwJ.
,d;iwa etPd cyfpy; vy;nyhiua[k; gPoj;jpUf;Fk; neha; vJ >

17 ty;ypd bka;fis ,l;Lk; ePf;fpa[k; vGJjy;


ty;ypd bka;fis ,l;Lk; ePf;fpa[k; vGJf.
1. vd;Dila ek;gpf;if KGtJnk g[jpaj; jiyKiw kPJjhd;" mth;fs; vy;yh gpur;rpidfisa[k; xU
rp=;fj;ij nghy vjph;bfhz;Lj; jPh;g;ghh;fs;.
vd;Dila ek;gpf;if KGtJnk g[jpaj; jiyKiw kPJjhd;" mth;fs; vy;yhg; gpur;rpidfisa[k; xU
rp=;fj;ijg; nghy vjph;bfhz;Lj; jPh;g;ghh;fs;.
2. vj;jid Kiw eP kw;wth;fs; Kd;ndwp bry;tjid fz;L xd;Wk; bra;tjwpahJ ek;gpf;ifapd;wp
Jd;g[Wtha;. epiw jd;dk;gpf;if bfhs;.
vj;jid Kiw eP kw;wth;fs; Kd;ndwpr; bry;tjidf; fz;L xd;Wk; bra;tjwpahJ ek;gpf;ifapd;wpj;
Jd;g[Wtha;. epiw jd;dk;gpf;iff; bfhs;.
3. ek; thH;f;ifapd; juk; ekJ ftdj;jpd; juj;ij bghWj;jpUf;fpwJ. g[j;jfk; gof;Fk; bghGJ Th;e;jf;
ftdk; mwpit bgWtjw;Fk; tsh;g;gjw;Fkhd mog;gil njitahFk;.
ek; thH;f;ifapd; juk; ekJ ftdj;jpd; juj;ijg; bghWj;jpUf;fpwJ. g[j;jfk; gof;Fk; bghGJ Th;e;jf;
ftdk; mwpitg; bgWtjw;Fk; tsh;g;gjw;Fkhd mog;gilj; njitahFk;.
4. khzth;fs; bgw;nwhh;fis jkJ ez;gh;fshf ghtpj;J el;g[f; bfhs;s ntz;Lk;. jkJ ,d;g
Jd;g=;fis bgw;nwhh;fSld; gfph;e;Jf; bfhs;s ntz;Lk;.
khzth;fs; bgw;nwhh;fisj; jkJ ez;gh;fshfg; ghtpj;J el;gf [ ; bfhs;s ntz;Lk;. jkJ ,d;g
Jd;g=;fisg; bgw;nwhh;fSld; gfph;e;Jf; bfhs;s ntz;Lk;.
5. MrphpaUf;F fPH;gojy; vd;Dk; Fzk;/ cz;ikahdtw;iw bjhpe;Jf; bfhz;L/ mwpahikapid
mfw;wp gy ey;ydtw;iw fw;W bfhLf;Fk;.
MrphpaUf;Ff; fPH;g;gojy; vd;Dk; Fzk;/ cz;ikahdtw;iwj; bjhpe;Jf; bfhz;L/ mwpahikapid
mfw;wpg; gy ey;ydtw;iwf; fw;W bfhLf;Fk;.
6. Ky;iy ftpapy;/ fhisfspy; gy,d=;fis fhl;Lfpwr; brhw;fs; epuk;gp fplf;fpd;wd. ,d;iwa
,yf;fpaj;jpy; ,g;gojhd; fp. uh$ehuhazd; fpil vDk; FWehtypy; MLfspd; milahs=;fis
gyg; bgah;fs; brhy;yp miHf;fpwhh;.
1) Ky;iyf; ftpay; 2) ,d=;fisf; 3) fhl;Lfpwr; 4) epuk;gpr; 5) ,g;goj; jhd; 6) gyg;;
7. FLk;gk; gyf;fl;l=;fis flf;fpwJ. mjd; thH;f;if RHw;rpapy; gy tot=;fspy; epiykhw;wk;
bgWfpwJ.
gy fl;l=;fisf; flf;fpwJ. mjd; thH;f;ifr; RHw;rpapd; gy tot=;fspy; epiykhw;wk; bgWfpwJ.
8. jdpf;FLk;g tif/ r@f gokyh;r;rpapy; ,Wjpahf Vw;gl;l xd;W.
jdpf;FLk;gtif/ r@fg;gokyh;r;rpapy; ,Wjpahf Vw;gl;l xd;W.
12 G jkpH; G bkhHpgapw;rp ifnaL www.nammakalvi.org 43

9. ,Wjp rl=;Fr; bra;ag;gl;l Toa nkilf;F jd; je;ijahfpa rlha[it bghpaf; iffspy; J}f;fpf;
bfhz]L te;jhd;.
,Wjpr; rl=;F bra;ag;glf; Toa nkilf;Fj; jd; je;ijahfpa rlha[itg; bghpa iffspy; J}f;fpf;
bfhz]L te;jhd;.
10. rPijia njotUk; ,uhk ,yf;Ftiu fz]l mDkd;/ Rf;hPtid miHj;J te;jhd;
rPijiaj; njo tUk; ,uhk ,yf;Ftiuf; fz]l mDkd; Rf;hPtid miHj;J te;jhd;.
11. gz]g[bjhif/ tpidbjhifahf tUk; brhw;fs; xU brhy; vd;Dk; jd;ikf; bfhz]lit.
gz]gj [ ;bjhif/ tpidj;bjhifahf tUk; brhw;fs; xUbrhy; vd;Dk; jd;ik bfhz]lit.
12. ngrpag;gog; gzj;ij bfhLj;jhd;.
ngrpa go gzj;ijf; bfhLj;jhd;.
13. ,ul;il fpstpr; brhw;fis nrh;j;J vGj ntz]Lk;.
,ul;ilf;fpstpr; brhw;fisr; nrh;j;J vGj ntz]Lk;.
14. gwitfs; bey;kzpfis ntfkhf bfhj;jp jpd;wd.
gwitfs; bey;kzpfis ntfkhff; bfhj;jpj; jpd;wd.
15. xUtd; jd;idjhd; fhj;Jbfhs;s tpUk;gpdhy; rpdk; tuhky; fhj;J bfhs;s ntz]Lk;.
jd;idj;jhd; fhj;Jf;bfhs;s tpUk;gpdhy; rpdk; thuhky; fhj;Jf;bfhs;s ntz]Lk;.
16. jpUts;Sthpd; epidit nghw;Wk; tifapy; ntY}hpy; jpUts;Sth; gy;fiyf;fHfk;
mikf;fg;gl;Ls;sJ.
jpUts;Sthpd; epiditg; nghw;Wk; tifapy; ntY}hpy; jpUts;Sth; gy;fiyf;fHfk;
mikf;fg;gl;Ls;sJ.
17. fij ghly;fs; khzth;fSf;F fw;gpj;j E}w;fis gl;oaypLfpd;wd.
fijg;ghly;fs; khzth;fSf;Ff; fw;gpj;j E}w;fisg; gl;oaypLfpd;wd.
18. gs;spTl gps;isfs; jkf;F bjhpe;jg;ghl=;fis mof;for; rpe;jpj;J tUthh;fs;.
gs;spf;Tlg; gps;isfs; jkf;Fj; bjhpe;j ghl=;fis mof;fo rpe;jpj;J tUthh;fs;.
19. cghj;jpahah; beL=;fzf;if brhy;yp bfhLf;f/ khzf;fd; mjid gpd;gw;wpr; brhy;thd;.
cghj;jpahah; beL=;fzf;ifr; brhy;ypf; bfhLf;f/ khztd; mjidg; gpd;gw;wpr; brhy;thd;.
20. c.nt.rh. Fk;gnfhzk; muRf;fiyf;fy;Y}hpapYk; brd;id khepy fy;Y}hpapYk; jkpH; Mrphpauhfg;
gzpahw;wpath;.
c.nt.rh. Fk;gnfhzk; muR fiyf;fy;Y}hpapYk; brd;id khepy fy;Y}hpapYk; jkpH; Mrphpauhfg;
gzpahw;wpath;.
21. Rujh KGf;f KGf;f ftpijfisnaf; bfhz]lf;fhtpak; vd;w ,jiH elj;jpdhh;.
Rujh KGf;f KGf;ff; ftpijfisna bfhz]l fhtpak; vd;w ,jiH elj;jpdhh;.
22. Fjpiu tiua Fjpiuna tuhJ fGija[k; tuyhk;.
Fjpiu tiuaf; Fjpiuna tuhJ fGija[k; tuyhk;.
23. ftp+h; rp.kzp g[Jftpijapy; m=;fjj;ij kpFjpahf gad;gLj;jpath;.
ftp+h; rp.kzp g[Jf;ftpijapy; m=;fjj;ij kpFjpahfg; gad;gLj;jpath;.
24. ftp+h; rp.kzp ,Uj;jypd; btWikia rphpg;g[k; frg;g[khf brhd;dth;.
ftp+h; rp.kzp ,Uj;jypd; btWikiar; rphpg;g[k; frg;g[khfr; brhd;dth;.
25. vk; ahHpid vLj;J bfhz]nlhk; " fUtpigiaa[k; RUf;fpl;L fl;obfhz]nlhk;.
vk; ahHpid vLj;Jf; bfhz]nlhk; " fUtpg;igiaa[k; RUf;fpl;Lf; fl;of;bfhz]nlhk;.
44  12 G jkpH; G bkhHpgapw;rp ifnaL

26. ghprpyh;f;F rpWtUk;/ fy;tpf;F nfhlhpa[k;/ nghFk; jpirf;Fk; fhLk;/ czt[f;F fhl;oy; cs;s ku=;fSk;
ctikfs;.
ghprpyh;f;Fr; rpWtUk;/ fy;tpf;Ff; nfhlhpa[k;/ nghFk; jpirf;Ff; fhLk;/ czt[f;Ff; fhl;oy; cs;s
ku=;fSk; ctikfs;.
27. rhiy ghJfhg;g[ Fwpj;j tpHpg;g[zh;it ekJg; gs;sp khzth;fSf;Ff; bfhLf;f ntz]Lk;.
rhiyg; ghJfhg;gf [ ; Fwpj;j tpHpg;g[zh;it ekJ gs;sp khzth;fSf;Ff; bfhLf;f ntz]Lk;.
28. kdpj jtWfns kpFjpahd tpgj;JfSf;F fhuz=;fshf mikfpd;wd.
kdpjj; jtWfns kpFjpahd tpgj;JfSf;Ff; fhuz=;fshf mikfpd;wd.
29. Ch;jpfSf;F fhg;gPL ,y;yhky; ,af;fpdhy; q.2000 jz]l bjhiff; fl;l ntz]Lk;.
Ch;jpfSf;Ff; fhg;gPL ,y;yhky; ,af;fpdhy; q.2000 jz]lj; bjhif fl;l ntz]Lk;.

18 gHbkhHpfs;

gpd;tUk; gHbkhHpfis thH;f;if epfH;nthL bghUj;jp vGJf.


1. ahidf;Fk; morWf;Fk;
jd;dk;gpf;ifnahL thH;e;j vd; je;ij jdpahh; rPl;Lf; FGkj;jpd; gfl;L tpsk;guj;jhy; gzk; fl;o/
Vkhe;jJ ``ahidf;Fk; morWf;Fk;~~ nghy Mapw;W.
2. jpid tpijj;jtd; jpid mWg;ghd;/ tpid tpijj;jtd; tpid mWg;ghd;
thH;f;ifapy; ehk; gpwUf;F ed;ik bra;J te;njhk; vd;why; ekf;Fk; ed;ikna elf;Fk;.
thH;f;ifapy; ehk; gpwUf;Fj; jPik bra;J te;njhk; vd;why; ekf;Fj; jPikna elf;Fk;
,ijnajhd; jpid tpijj;jtd; jpid mWg;ghd;. tpid tpijj;jtd; tpid mWg;ghd; vd;ghh;fs;.
3. Fw;wk; ghh;f;fpd; Rw;wk; ,y;iy
el;g[ vdf;bfhz;l gpwF Fw;wk; ,Ug;gpd; mijg; bghWf;Fk; Fzk; ntz;Lk;. mij tpLj;J
Fw;wj;ijf; foe;Jiuj;jhy; (Rw;wk;) el;g[ bjhluhJ.
4. vWk;g[ Cuf; fy;Yk; nja[k;
tpsf;fk;:
fy; fodkhdJ ; vWk;g[ cUtj;jpy; rpwpaJ. mt;btWk;g[ bjhlh;e;J Ch;e;J bry;yr; bry;yf;
fodkhd fy;Yk; nja;e;J tHptpLk;. fy; fodkhdJ vd;W vWk;g[ Ch;tij epWj;jtpy;iy.
thH;f;if epfH;t[k; bghUj;jKk; :
vdf;F khypdp vd;Dk; njhHp ,Ue;jhs;. mtSf;F VnjDk; TLjyhf xU fiyiaf; fw;Wj;
njw ntz;Lk; vd;w Mty; ,Ue;jJ. Xtpaf; fiyiaf; fw;Wj; njh;tJ/ mjd; tiffis mwpe;J
mtw;wpYk; njh;r;rp bfhs;tJ/ vd Kot[ bra;J gapw;rpapy; nrh;e;jhs;.
Kjypy; kpft[k; Jd;gg;gl;lhs;. bghWik ,He;jhs; ; rhjpf;f Koatpy;iyna vd kdr;nrhh;t[
mile;jhs;. Mrphpah; Cf;fg;gLj;jp/ Mh;t@l;o/ mwpt[iu Twp ``vWk;g[ Cuf; fy;Yk; nja[k;~~ ? vWk;g[
fy;ypy; tHp fhz;gJ nghy; Kad;whs;. Xtpak; fw;Wj; njh;e;jhs;. Kaw;rpapy; btw;wpa[k; bgw;whs;.
``monky; mo itj;jhy; mk;kpa[k; efUk;~~/ ``rpj;jpuKk; ifg;gHf;fk;~~ vd;gJ nghyf; fodkhdija[k;
,iltplhJ Kad;why; tHpfs; jhnd jpwf;Fk; vd;gijj; jhnd ,g;gHbkhHp czh;j;Jfpd;wJ md;nwh!
5. CHp bgahpDk; jhk; bgauhh;
ew;gz;g[fisf; iftug; bgw;wth;fs; thH;tpy; cah;t[ jhH;t[ te;jnghJk; jd;dpiyapy;
khwkhl;lhh;fs;.
12 G jkpH; G bkhHpgapw;rp ifnaL 45

6. Mlj; bjhpahjtd; bjUf; nfhzy; vd;ghd;.


tpsf;fk;:
xU braiy rhpahfr; bra;a ,ayhjtd; TWk; Tw;whf miktJ ,J. ve;j xU fiyiaa[k;
Kiwahd gapw;rp ,y;yhky; fw;f KoahJ. mJnghy kfpGe;ijr; rhiyapy; Xl;lg; gapw;rp ,y;yhjtd;
,e;jr; rhiy rhpapy;iy vd;W Twpj; jg;gpf;fg; ghh;g;ghd;.
thH;f;if epfH;t[k; bghUj;jKk; :
,e;jpah ? ghfp!;jhd; mzpfSf;F ,ilapyhd kl;il ge;jhl;l nghl;oapy; ,e;jpa mzpapd;
ge;J tPr;irr; rkhspf;f Koahky; Fiwe;j Xl;l=;fspy; Ml;lkpHe;jJ ghfp!;jhd; mzp. ,J Fwpj;Jr;
bra;jpahsh;fsplk; ngrpa mt;tzpapd; jiyth;/ `nkhrkhd MLfsnk Fiwe;j Xl;l=;fspy;
Ml;lkpHf;f f; fhuzk;~~ vd;W Twpdhh;.
,e;epfH;t[ `Mlj;bjhpahjtd; bjUf;nfhzy; vd;ghd;~ vd;w gHbkhHpf;Fg; bghUe;Jtjhf
mikfpwJ.
7. ViHr; brhy; mk;gyk; VwhJ
tpsf;fk;:
bry;thf;F cs;sth;fs; vijr; brhd;dhYk; jiyia Ml;Lk; ,t;t[yfk;/ ViH ey;yijr;
brhd;dhYk; Vw;Wf;bfhs;shJ.
thH;f;if epfH;t[k; bghUj;jKk; :
xU fpuhkj;jpy; gzf;fhud; xUtdplk; ViH xUtd; ntiy bra;J te;jhd;. mg;gzf;fhudpd;
tPl;oypUe;j bghUl;fis me;j ViHjhd; jpUotpl;lhd; vd;W vz;zp mg;gzf;fhuDk; mt;t{uhUk;
moj;Jj; Jitj;Jtpl;ldh;. me;j ViH jhd; jpUltpy;iy vd;W vj;jidnah Kiw bf+;rpanghJk;
mt;t{uhh; mtidf; fhty;Jiwapduplk; xg;gilj;jdh;.
fhty; Jiwapdh; mg;gzf;fhud; tPl;L fz;fhzpf;Fk; glf;fUtpia Ma;e;jnghJ
mg;gzf;fhudpd; kfd;jhd; jpUld; vd;gJ cWjpahdJ. jhd; jpUltpy;iy vd;W fjwpa ViHapd;
brhy; ,t;t{uhuplk; Vw;fg;glntapy;iy vd;gijf; fhl;Lk; ,e;epfH;t[ ViHr; brhy; mk;gyk; VwhJ
vd;Dk; gHbkhHpf;Fr; rhd;whfpwJ.
8. gzk; ge;jpapny ? Fzk; Fg;igapny
tpsf;fk;:
ey;y trjp gilj;jth;f;F xUtpjkhd cgrhpg;g[k; trjp ,y;yhjth;f;F xUtpjkhd cgrhpg;g[k;
bra;fpd;wjhf ,t;t[yfk; tps=;FfpwJ.
thH;f;if epfH;t[k; bghUj;jKk; :
Xh; ,sk; bjhHpyjpgh; tPl;oy; jpUkz tpHh eilbgw;wJ. mj;bjhHpyjpgh; bgUk; gzf;fhuu;fs;
midtiua[k; Kd;thpirapy; mku;j;jp chpa khpahijia tH=;fpdhh;. Mdhy; rpWtajpy; jd;idj;
J}f;fp tsh;j;J Mshf;fpa jha;khkd; Kd;thpirf;F te;jnghJ ``,J bghpa ,lj;ijr; rhh;e;jth;fs;
cl;fhUfpd;w ,lk;. vdnt filrp thpirapy; brd;W mkU=;fs;~~ vd;W Twpdhh;. fhyr;NHyhy; ,d;W
tWikapy; thGk; jha;khDf;F ,Jnghd;w mtkhd=;fs; xd;Wk; g[jpjhdjy;y. gzk; ge;jpapny
Fzk; Fg;igapny vd;W Rk;khthfth Twpdhh;fs;-
9. ``Ie;jpy; tisahjJ Ik;gjpy; tisa[kh>~~
tpsf;fk;:
,sikapy; fy;tp fw;fhjtd; KJikapy; fy;tp fw;gJ vd;gJ Koahj fhhpakhFk;. mJnghy
,sikapy; Kaw;rp bra;ahjtd;/ KJikapy; Kaw;rp bra;a KoahJ vd;gnj ,g;gHbkhHp czh;j;Jk;
bghUshFk;.
46  www.nammakalvi.org 12 G jkpH; G bkhHpgapw;rp ifnaL

thH;f;if epfH;t[k; bghUj;jKk; :


ehDk; vd; njhHp khyjpa[k; ,izgphpahjth;fs;. Mdhy; vd; njhHp Kjy; tFg;gpypUe;nj
ed;whfg; gog;ghs;. Mdhy; ehd; rpWgps;isj;jdkhf tpisahl;oy; Kf;fpaj;Jtk; bfhLj;njd;.
mts;; ed;whfg; goj;J cah;e;j epiyia mile;jhs;. Mdhy; vd;dhy; mtisg;nghy; cah;epiyia
mila Koatpy;iy. gpd;g[ Kjpnahh; fy;tpf;Fr; brd;W/ gof;f Mirg;gl;L goj;J te;njd;.
Mdhy; vd; KJik fhuzkhf vd;dhy; fy;tp fw;f Koatpy;iy. ,jpypUe;J ehd; mwpe;J bfhz;lJ
vd;dbtd;why;/ fw;f ntz;oa fy;tpia/ Kiwahf ,sikapnyna fw;f ntz;Lk; vd;gjhFk;.
``gUtj;nj gaph; bra;~~ vd;gJ nghy/ rpW tajpy; fw;gJ/ ,Wjp tiu ed;ik gaf;Fk; vd;Dk;
fUj;ijj;jhd; ,g;gHbkhHp vLj;Jiuf;fpd;wJ. (``,sikapy; fy;~~)
10.
``rpWJUk;g[k; gy;Fj;j cjt[k;~~
tpsf;fk;;:
rpwpa bghUs; vd;W vjida[k; ,fHf; TlhJ. cyfpy; cs;s xt;bthU bghUSf;Fk; gad;ghL
cz;L.
thH;f;if epfH;t[k; bghUj;jKk; :
v=;fspd; gf;fj;J tPl;Lf;fhuh; jPuhj nehahsp. mth; jpdKk; jdf;Fj; jhnd Crp kUe;J nghl;Lf;
bfhs;thh;. fhypahd Fg;gpfis v=;fs; tPl;od; vy;iyf;Fs; J}f;fpg; nghl;L tpLthh;;. ``c=;f kUe;J
ghl;oy;fisj; jpdKk; ehd; Fg;igahf ms;spg; nghfpnwd;~~ vd;W v=;fs; mg;gh mtUld; rpWrpW
rz;il nghl;Lf; bfhz;oUe;jhh;.
rpy ehl;fSf;Fg; gpwF/ v=;fs; tPl;Lg; gFjpapy; tpGk; rpW Fg;gpfis xU rhf;Fg; igapy;/ ehd;
nrh;j;J itf;fj; bjhl=;fpndd;. mg;ghtpd; rz;ilf;F Kw;Wg;g[s;sp itf;fg;gl;lJ. v=;fs; gs;spapy;
khtl;l=;fSf;F ,ilapyhd fiyg; nghl;o ele;jJ. mjpy; tPzhFk; bghUs;fspy; fiyg; bghUs;
cUthf;Fk; nghl;o ,Ue;jJ. kpFjpahf vd;dplk; ,Ue;j Fg;gpfisf; bfhz;L/ xU mHfpa fl;olk;
cUthf;fpndd;. fz;nlhh; tpae;jdh;. Kjw; ghpRk; vdf;Ff; fpilj;jJ. Mk;! fHpt[g; bghUl;fs;
vd;W vija[nk tPzhf;ff; TlhJ. mJt[k; xU rpy neuj;jpy; gaDs;sjhf khWk; vd;gij ,e;epfH;t[
epqgpj;;Jtpl;lJ.
11.
``nehaw;w thH;nt Fiwtw;w bry;tk;~~
tpsf;fk;
cyfpy; vt;tst[ bry;tk; gilj;jtuhf ,Ue;jhYk;/ nehapUg;gpd; mth;fs; twpath;fs;" VH;ik
epiyapYs;s xUth; nehaw;w thH;t[ bgw;wpUe;jhy; mtnu cyfpy; bry;te;jh; Mthh;.
thH;f;if epfH;t[k; bghUj;jKk; :
vd; ghrj;Jf;Fhpa ez;gh; rpwg;ghff; fy;tp fw;W/ xU gl;ljhhpahdhh;. gpd; gzj;jpd; njitia
czh;eJ ; gy khzth;fSf;Ff; fzpjk; brhy;ypf; bfhLj;J/ gy khzth;fisj; jpwikahd khzth;fshf
cUthf;fpdhh;. mtuJ vspikahd Kiw khzth;fisf; fth;e;jJ. gy gs;spfspypUe;J te;J/
E}w;Wf;fzf;fhd khzth;fs; mthplk; fy;tp gapd;wdh;.
fod ciHg;ghy; rpy kzp neuk; cly;epiy rhpapy;yhky; ,Ug;gJz;L. mijr; rhpahff;
ftdpf;fhky; ,Ue;jhy;/ fhyg;nghf;fpy; mtUf;F cly;epiy fLikahfg; ghjpj;J/ kUj;Jthplk;
brd;wnghJ/ mst[f;F mjpfkhf khj;jpiufis cz;ljhy;/ mtuJ rpWePufk; ghjpj;jJ vd;W lhf;lh;
Twpdhh;. gpwF mth; rk;ghjpj;j gzk; vy;yhk;/ jd; neha;f;Fr; bryt[ bra;jjhy;/ VH;ik epiyf;Fj;
js;sg;gl;lhh;.
ehk; gzj;ijr; rk;ghjpj;Jtplyhk;. Mdhy;/ ek; cly;epiy ghjpf;fg;gl;lhy; kPz;Lk; ey;y
epiyf;Ff; bfhz;Ltu ,ayhJ vd;Wk; fUj;J ,g;gHbkhHpapd; @yk; bgwg;gLfpwJ.
12 G jkpH; G bkhHpgapw;rp ifnaL 47

12.
``cg;gpl;ltiu cs;sst[k; epid~~
tpsf;fk;
rpW tsjpy; ekf;Fg; gpwh; bra;a[k; cjtpia kwf;fhky;/ kw;wtUf;Fr; rpwpnjDk; ek;khy; Koe;j
cjtpiar; bra;a ntz;Lk;.
thH;f;if epfH;t[k; bghUj;jKk; :
mwptHfd; rpW tajpnyna je;ijia ,He;J tpl;lhd;. mtDila gf;fj;J tPl;Lf;fhuuhd
gukrptk; thj;jpahh;/ mtDf;F ntz;oa cjtpfs; bra;J/ mtdJ gog;g[ jilglhky; ghh;j;Jf;
bfhz;lhh;. mwptHfd; ed;F gog;gtd;. fy;Y}hpapy; gukrptj;jpd; cjtpa[ld; nrh;e;J/ gl;lg;gog;g[
bgw;W/ ntiyapy; mkh;e;jhd;. Mz;Lfs; rpy Mapd. gukrptk; thj;jpahh; Xa;t[ bgw;w gpwF
ghhpr tha[ jhf;fp gLj;j gLf;ifahdhh;. ,ijawpe;j mwptHfd; mtUf;Fj; njitahd cjtpfisr;
bra;J/ mtuJ FLk;gj;ijg; ghh;j;Jf;bfhz;lhd;. cg;gpl;ltiu cs;sst[k; epidf;f ntz;Lk;
my;yth>
xUth; bra;j ed;wpia kwj;jy; TlhJ" ``ed;wp kwg;gJ ed;wd;W~~ vd;gJ ts;Sthpd; tha;bkhHp
md;nwh-
13.
``tpisa[k; gaph; Kisapnyna bjhpa[k;~~
tpsf;fk;
xU kdpjdpd; rpwe;j gz;g[fSk; jpwikfSk; mtdJ rpW gps;isg; gUtj;jpnyna btspg;gLk;.
thH;f;if epfH;t[k; bghUj;jKk; :
kJiuapy; mJ xU tWikapy; thH;fpd;w FLk;gk;. me;jf; FLk;gj;jpy; fWg;g[ ituk; nghy
vl;lhtjhf xU Mz; FHe;ij gpwe;jJ. gs;spg; gUtj;jpnyna mf;FHe;ij gy ghpRfisa[k;/
gjf;f=;fisa[k; bgw;wJ. mtUila mk;kh ,utpy; rpW tpsf;fpd; xspapy;/ jdJ gps;is th=;fpa
ghpRfisg; ghh;j;Jf; fz;zPh; toj;jhh;. ``ghpR gzkhf ,Ue;jhy; ,tDf;F ehd; ,d;Dk; ey;y czt[
bfhLg;ngnd~~ vd;W jk; kdjpw;Fs; brhy;ypf; bfhz;lhs;.
mth; tsh;e;J jdJ ngr;rhw;wyhy;/ nguhrphpauhdhh;. gpwF gy;ntW fpuhk=;fspYk;/ efu=;fspYk;/
ahtUk; tpUk;gpf; nfl;Fk;go ciuahw;Wk; gl;okd;w eLtuhdhh;. rpW gps;isg; gUtj;jpy; ,Ue;j
ngr;rhw;wy;/ ,d;W ,tiu cyk; mwpe;j ngr;rhsuhfg; nghw;Wk; epiyf;Ff; bfhz;L te;Js;sJ.
mth;jhd; gl;okd;wj;jpy; g[fH;bgw;w jpU. rhykd; ghg;igah mth;fs;-
mtuJ md;id cs;sk;/ ,d;W ,tiug; ghh;j;J ``tpisa[k; gaph; Kisapny bjhpe;jJ~~ vd;W
vz;zp/ jd; kdjpy; mtiu thH;j;Jk; vd;gJ cs;s=;if bey;ypf;fdpad;nwh-
14.
mDgtnk rpwe;j Mrhd;
tpsf;fk;
VL fw;Wf; bfhLg;gijtpl/ mDgtnk mjpfkhd ghl=;fisf; fw;Wf; bfhLf;fpwJ.
thH;f;if epfH;t[k; bghUj;jKk; :
gyruf;Ff; filf;fhuh; ,uhikah jpdrhp filapy; tNyhd gzj;jpidg; bgl;oapy; g{l;o
itg;ghh;. mtuJ ez;gh;fs; gzj;i t=;fpapy; brYj;jpdhy; ghJfhg;g[ my;yth vdf; Twpdhy;/ t=;fp
eilKiw jkf;F xj;J tuhJ vd;W Twp tpLthh;. xU Kiw mth; filapy; ,y;yhj neuk;/ gzj;ijj;
jpUlh;fs; bfhs;isaoj;Jtpl;ldh;. ,jw;F tUe;jpa ,uhikah/ mjd;gpwF gzj;ij t=;fpapy;
brYj;j Muk;gpj;jhh;.
ekf;F Vw;gLk; mDgtnk/ ehk; thH;f;ifapy; mLj;j jtW bra;ahky; ,Uf;f cjt[fpwbjd;gij
ehk; ,jd; @yk; g[hpe;J bfhs;syhk; my;yth>
48  12 G jkpH; G bkhHpgapw;rp ifnaL

15.
Kaw;rp jpUtpid Mf;Fk; / Kaw;rpa[ilahh; ,fH;r;rp milahh;
tpsf;fk;
ehk; bra;a[k; xt;bthU braypYk; Kaw;rpiaf; iftplhky; bjhlh;e;J bra;jhy;/ thH;tpy; cah;t[
fpilf;Fk;.
thH;f;if epfH;t[k; bghUj;jKk; :
fPjh xd;gjhy; tFg;g[ gof;Fk; khztp. fPjh jkpH; thrpj;jhYk; M=;fpyk; thrpj;jhYk;/ jtwhf
mts; thrpg;gijf; nfl;L tFg;ng rphpf;Fk;. Mdhy; mts; mjw;fhf btl;fg;gltpy;iy. mnj
rkaj;jpy; mts; gs;spapd; njhl;l=;fspYk;/ tay; btspapYk;/ fz;zho Kd;g[k; cuf;f thrpj;Jg;
ngrg; gHfpdhs;. mg;nghJ bgh=;fy; tpHhtpidf; Fwpj;J/ ngr;Rg; nghl;of;F fPjh jd; bgaiuf;
bfhLj;J ,Ue;jhs;. mtisg; ghh;j;J midtUk; nfyp bra;jdh;. ,tsh ngrg; nghfpwhs;. Mdhy;
mts; jd; mg;gh/ mk;kh/ j=;if Kd;dpiyapy; tPl;oy; ngrpg; gHfpdhs;. ele;j ngr;Rg; nghl;oapy;/
rpwg;ghfg; ngrp/ Kjy; ghpirj; jl;or; brd;whs;. Kaw;rp bra;jhy; Koahj fhhpak; xd;Wkpy;iy.
``rpj;jpuKk; ifg;gHf;fk; bre;jkpGk; ehg;gHf;fk;~~ vd;gij czh;e;J/ ehk; nkw;bfhs;Sk;
braypy; tplhKaw;rp bra;jhy;/ ek; thH;tpy; btw;wp milayhk; vd;gij ,g;gHbkhHp @yk; mwpe;J
bfhs;syhk;.
16.
``kpd;Dtbjy;yhk; bghd;dy;y~~
tpsf;fk;
btspg;g[wj; njhw;wk; fz;L vija[k; cz;ik vd epidj;J/ ek;gptplf; TlhJ.
thH;f;if epfH;t[k; bghUj;jKk; :
vd; ez;gh; xUth; ,uz;L khj=;fSf;F Kd; brd;idapypUe;J/ fy;fj;jh efUf;Fg; gazk;
bra;jhh;. mg;nghJ jhk;guj;jpy; xU egh; Vwp/ vd; ez;ghpd; mUfpy; mkh;e;jhh;. mth; ghh;g;gjw;F
kpft[k; ey;ytuhft[k;/ ngz;l;/ rh;l; vd kpLf;fhft[k; njhw;wkspj;jhh;. ifapy; kpfg; bghpa bgl;oa[k;
itj;jpUe;jhh;. mth; vd; ez;ghplk; bkJthfg; ngr Muk;gpj;jhh;. vd; ez;gUk; ngrpdhh;. gpd;/ ,UtUk;
,ut[ czt[ cz;ldh;.
gpd; brd;idiaj; jhz;oa gpwF/ vd; ez;gUf;F mth; gp!;bfl; je;jhh;. vd; ez;gh; mJ kaf;f
gp!;bfl;lhf ,Uf;Fk; vd th=;f kWj;jhh;. gpd; me;j egh; rpwpJ neuj;jpy;/ xU eghplk; bry;nghdpy;
Vnjh bjhlh;g[ bfhz;L ngrpdhh;. gpd; mLj;j ,uapy; epiyak; ,Ue;jJ. mg;nghJ ntW xU egh;
fhgp tpw;whh;. clnd me;j egh;/ vd; ez;ghplk; `fhgp Fof;fhynk~ vdf; Twpdhh;. gpd; ,UtUk; fhgp
Foj;jdh; ; ez;gh; rpwpJ neuj;jpy; ka=;fpdhh;. fhiyapy; fz; tpHpj;Jg; ghh;j;jnghJ/ gzg;igiaf;
fhztpy;iy. clnd fhtyhplk; g[fhh; bra;jhh;. fhtyh; me;j egiur; re;njfj;jpy; mog;gilapy;
gpoj;J itj;jpUe;jdh;. mg;nghJjhd; vd; ez;gUf;F/ me;jf; fhgp tpw;wtUk; ,tuJ ez;gUf;F/
me;jf; fhgp tpw;wtUk; ,tuJ Tl;lhsp vdj; bjhpe;jJ. gpd; fhtyhplk; jd; gzj;ijg; bgw;whh;.
,t;thW ve;j egUk; ghh;g;gjw;F kpLf;fhfj; njhw;wkspg;ghh;fs;. ehk; mJjhd; cz;ikbad;W
ek;gptplf; Tlhbjd;gnj ,g;gHbkhHp czh;j;Jk; fUj;jhFk;.
17.
ty;ytDf;F g[y;Yk; Ma[jk;
tpsf;fk;
xUtd; jpwikahdtdhf ,Ue;jhy;/ mtd; vg;gog;gl;l NH;epiyiaa[k; rkhspj;Jf; bfhs;thd;.
thH;f;if epfH;t[k; bghUj;jKk; :
KUfd; ,ut[ neuk; tPl;ow;Fj; jpUk;gpf; bfhz;oUe;jhd;. mg;nghJ kpd;jil Vw;gl;oUe;jjhy;/
rhiyapy; ,Us; NH;e;jpUe;jJ. me;j neuj;jpy; vjpnu ,U jpUlh;fs; te;J/ KUfid kpul;o
bfhs;isaof;f Kaw;rp bra;jhh;fs;. me;j neuj;jpy;/ rknahrpjkhf KUfd; vjpnu ,Ul;ilg; ghh;j;J
``,d;!;bgf;lh; bfh+;rk; ,=;nf thU=;fs;~~ vd;W fj;jpdhd;. clnd jpUlh;fs; gae;J Xotpl;lhh;fs;.
,t;thW KUfd; NH;epiyiag; g[j;jprhypj;jdkhf rkhspj;jhd;.
12 G jkpH; G bkhHpgapw;rp ifnaL www.nammakalvi.org 49

``kpfj;jpwikahd xUtd; vg;gog;gl;l ,Uf;fl;lhd NH;epiyiaa[k;/ rkhspj;J mjpypUe;J


kPz;L te;J tpLthd;~~ vd;W Twpdhy;/ mJ kpifahfhJ md;nwh!
18.
,s=;fd;W gakwpahJ
tpsf;fk;
,sik vd;gJ ntfk; epiwe;jJ ; rthy;fis vjph; bfhs;tjpy; Mh;tk; mjpfk;. ntfj;ijj; jtpu
ve;j rpe;jidfSk; ,Ug;gjpy;iy. gpd; tpist[fisr; rpe;jpg;gJk; ,y;iy.
thH;f;if epfH;t[k; bghUj;jKk; :
xU ehs; v=;fs; cwtpdh; xUth; jk; FLk;gj;Jld; nkl;#h; mizf;Fr; brd;whh;. mth; kfd; gj;jhk;
tFg;g[ Koj;J tpLKiwapy; ,Ue;jhd;. tpLKiwia kfpH;r;rpa[ld; fHpj;Jf; bfhz;oUe;jtDf;F/
nkl;#h; ,d;Dk; kfpH;r;rpiaj; je;jJ. jz;zPiug; ghh;j;jt[ld; g[jpa ntfk; gpwe;jJ. Kd;ghf Xo
jz;zPUf;Fs; tpGe;jhd;. ntfkha; ePe;jpr; brd;w je;ij/ kfidg; gpoj;J ,Gj;J te;jhh;. jhaplk;
Twpdhh;/ ,jd; MHk;/ nghf;F vJt[k; bjhpahJ. Mdhy; ntfkhf tpGe;Jtpl;lhd;. vdnt ehk;jhd;
gps;isfisf; ftdkhfg; ghh;j;Jf; bfhs;s ntz;Lk;.
Vbddpy; ``,s=;fd;W gakwpahJ~~ md;nwh!
ePe;JtJ/ thfdk; Xl;LtJ/ rhiy tpjpfisj; bjhpe;J bfhs;tJ vd mj;jida[k; ehk; ,stajpny
fw;Wf; bfhLj;jhy;/ ,is+h;fs; re;jpf;Fk; tpgj;Jf;fs;/ khzth;fs; ,tw;iwg; bgUk;ghYk;
jtph;j;Jtplyhk;;.
19.
nghJbkd;w kdnd bghd; bra;a[k; kUe;J~~
tpsf;fk;
``nguhir nghpHg;g[~~ kdepiwt[ld; ``nghJk;~~ vd;w kdJld; thHf; fw;Wf; bfhz;lhy;/ vy;yh
ehSk; kfpH;r;rpa[ld; thHyhk;.
thH;f;if epfH;t[k; bghUj;jKk; :
xU ehs; bra;jpj; jhspy; xU bra;jp btspahdJ. rPl;L nrfhpf;Fk; epWtdk; xd;W/ tpsk;guk;
xd;iw btspapl;lJ. ``eP=;fs; brYj;Jk; gzk;/ MW khj=;fspy;/ @d;W kl=;fhf/ c=;fSf;Fj;
jpUg;gpj; jug;gLk;~~ vd;gnj mt;tpsk;guk;. ,jidg; goj;j vd; ez;gh; xUth; 2 ,yl;rkhf (rpWfr;
rpWfr; nrkpj;jJ) gzk; 6 ,yl;rkhf khwptpLk; vd;W nguhira[ld; me;epWtdj;jpy; brYj;jptpl;lhh;.
MW khjk; Koe;jt[ld;/ me;epWtdj;ijr; brd;W ghh;j;jhy;/ m=;F me;epWtdk; bray;gl;ljw;fhd
milahsk; Tl ,y;iy. vd; ez;giug; nghynt gyh; mt;tplj;jpy; ,Ue;jdh;. mg;nghJ m=;fpUe;j
xUth; ``nghJbkd;w kdnk bghd; bra;a[k; kUe;J~~ vd;gij kwe;J/ ,Ue;jija[k; ,He;J tpl;nlhnk
vd;W kpft[k; tUe;jpdhh;.
``nghJk;~~ vd;w kdepiwnt/ Fiwtw;w bry;tk;. Mfnt me;j vz;znk midtiua[k; gjw;wk;/
kd mGj;jkpd;wp/ mikjpahf thH itf;Fk; khkUe;J!
``Mir vd;gnjh Jd;gj;jpd; nth;~~.
20.
gHfg; gHfg; ghYk; g[spf;Fk;
tpsf;fk;
ve;jg; bghUSk; g[jpjhf ,Uf;Fk; tiujhd;/ midtUf;Fk; fth;r;rpia Vw;gLj;Jk;. me;jg;
bghUns ehshf ehshf giHajhfp tpl;lhy;/ mJt[k; btWj;Jg; ngha;tpLk;.
thH;f;if epfH;t[k; bghUj;jKk; :
ehd; rpW FHe;ijahf ,Uf;Fk;nghJ/ v=;fs; tPl;oy; fWg;g[/ bts;is bjhiyf;fhl;rpjhd;
,Ue;jJ. mJ ehshf ehshfg; gGjhdjhy; vd; je;ij/ tz;zj; bjhiyf;fhl;rp xd;iw tPl;ow;F
th=;fp te;jhh;. ,J ehs; tiu fWg;g[/ bts;isg; gl=;fisg; ghh;j;Jf; bfhz;oUe;j v=;fSf;F/
tz;zkakhd bjhiyf;fhl;rpnah/ fz;fSf;Ff; FGikahd tpUe;J mspj;jJ. fhiy Kjy; khiy
tiu bjhiyf;fhl;rpna fjpaha;/ ehDk; vd; j=;ifa[k; ,Ue;njhk;. rhg;gplf; Tlr; bry;yhkypUg;gijg;
ghh;j;J v=;fs; mk;kh/ mg;gh jpl;of; bfhz;nl ,Ug;ghh;fs;.
50  12 G jkpH; G bkhHpgapw;rp ifnaL

Kjy; xU tUlk; v=;fs; thH;f;if tz;zj; bjhiyf;fhl;rpna fjp vd;W XoaJ. gpwF bky;y
bky;y mj;bjhiyf;fhl;rp fth;r;rpapypUe;J tpLgl;nlhk;. ,g;nghbjy;yhk; eh=;fs; gog;gpd;
fhuzkhfj; bjhiyf;fhl;rpia vg;nghnjh xU Kiwjhd; ghh;f;fpnwhk;. tz;zj; bjhiyf;fhl;rpna
fjpaha; ,Ue;j eh=;fs;/ ,d;W me;jg; gf;fnk bry;tjpy;iy.
ve;jbthU/ bghUisa[k;/ bra;jpiaa[k; ghh;j;jhYk;/ nfl;lhYk; fre;J ngha;tpLk; vd;gij ,jd;
@yk; mwpe;J bfhs;syhk;.
21.
To thH;e;jhy; nfho ed;ik / xd;Wgl;lhy; cz;L thH;t[
tpsf;fk;
jdp xUtdhy; rhjpf;f Koahj gy fhhpa=;fisf; Tl;L Kaw;rpapdhy; btw;wp bgwr; bra;a Koa[k.;
thH;f;if epfH;t[k; bghUj;jKk; :
xU Chpy; gy rkaj;jhh;fs; xd;W To thH;e;J te;jdh;. me;j Chpy; ey;yJ/ bfl;lJ vJ ele;jhYk;/
xw;Wika[ld; bray;gLthh;fs;. ,t;thW gy ehl;fs; fHpe;Jtpl;ld. gpwF xUtUf;bfhUth; rpy
fhuzj;Jf;fhf tha;r;rz;il/ ifr; rz;ilahf khwp/ ,Wjpapy; capiug; gwpf;ff;Toa rz;ilahf
khwp tpl;lJ. ,e;jr; braiyg; ghh;j;J/ gf;fj;J Ch;f;fhuh;fSk; ,th;fisj; jhH;thf epidj;jhh;fs;.
filrpapy; xUtUf;bfhUth; gpur;ridapy; khl;of; bfhz;L/ fhty; epiyak;/ ePjpkd;wk; vd;W
ngha;/ jd;dplk; ,Uf;Fk; gzj;ij vy;yhk; tpuak; bra;J/ ,Wjpapy; jd; FLk;gj;ijr; nrhfj;Jf;Fj;
js;sptpl;lhh;fs;. gpwF xt;bthU rkaj;jhUk;/ jd; epiyiaj; bjhpe;J bfhz;L/ ehk; xw;Wika[ld;
,Ue;jhy;jhd;/ thH;f;ifapy; brk;ikia milnthk; vd;W brhy;yp/ xw;Wika[ld; thH;e;jdh;.
``xd;Wgl;lhy; cz;L thH;t[~~
``xw;Wikna typik~~
vd;Wk; gHbkhHpfSf;nfw;g/ njiu ,Gg;gjw;Fg; gy kdpjh;fs; njit. mJnghy xUth; kl;Lk;
njiu ,Gf;f KoahJ vd;gJ nghyf; `To thH;e;jhy; nfho ed;ik~ cz;lhFk; vd;gjpy; vs;sst[k;
Iakpy;iy.
22.
Rlh; tpsf;fhapDk; J}z;L nfhy; ntz;Lk;
tpsf;fk;
tpsf;F jhnd vhpe;J bfhz;nl ,Uf;Fk; vd;W ,Ue;Jtplf; TlhJ. jphp vhpa vhpa xsp k=;Fk;.
mg;nghJ jphpiaj; J}z;otpl;lhy;jhd; xsp gpufhrpf;Fk;. ,J jpwik kpf;fth;fSf;Fk; tHpfhl;Ljy;
ey;y gad; jUk;.
thH;f;if epfH;t[k; bghUj;jKk; :
,e;jpahtpd; Kjy; gpujkh; $tfh;yhy; neU Mthh;. mth; je;ijahh; g[fH; bgw;w tHf;fwp+Uk;/ njr
gf;jUkhd nkhjpyhy; neU mth;fs;/ jd; xnu kfd; $tfiuf; fz;Qk; fUj;Jkhf tsh;j;J te;jhh;.
,aw;ifahfnt Ez;zwpt[ gilj;jth; $tfh;. mth; gps;isfnshL ge;J tpisahof; bfhz;oUf;Fk;
nghJ/ xU rpW FHpf;Fs; ge;J tpGe;Jtpl;lJ. ifia tpl;L vLf;f Koatpy;iy. gps;isfs; jpiff;f/
$tfh; xU thsp jz;zPiuf; FHpapy; Cw;wpdhh;. ge;J nkny te;jJ. ,j;jifa Ez;zwpit mth;
bgw;wpUe;jhh;.
mnj nghy; khzth;fs; vt;tst[ Ez;zwpt[ bgw;wpUe;jhYk;/ mth;fs; tsh;rr ; pf;Fj; J}z;Lnfhyha;
cjtp bra;a Mrphpah; njit vd;gJ ,g;gHbkhHpf;F vLj;Jf;fhl;lhf tps=;Ffpd;wjd;nwh!
23.
gzk; gj;Jk; bra;a[k;
tpsf;fk;
``<l;o vl;Lk; tiu gha[k;~~/ ``gzk; ghjhsk; tiu gha[k;~~/ ``gzbkd;why; gpzKk; thiaj;
jpwf;Fk;~~ vd;gjw;nfw;g gzj;jpw;F kpft[k; Mirg;gl;lhy;/ ,Wjpapy; Mgj;jpy; Koa[k;.
thH;f;if epfH;t[k; bghUj;jKk; :
Kk;igapy; vd; mz;zQk; mtd; ez;gDk; I.o (I.T.) epWtdj;jpy; ntiy ghh;j;J te;jdh;.
mth;fs; ,UtUk; xnu miwapy; j=;fp ,Ue;jdh;. ey;y ntiy ; if epiwa rk;gsk;. kfpH;r;rpahf
12 G jkpH; G bkhHpgapw;rp ifnaL 51

,Ue;jdh;. jpObrd;W mth;fs; j=;fpapUf;Fk; miwf;F rpy egh;fs; te;J ez;gh;fshfpdh;. xU ehs;
miwapy; nghijg; bghUl;fisf; bfhz;L te;J itj;J tpl;ldh;. v=;fsplk;/ c=;fSf;F mjpfg;
gzk; jUfpnwd; vd;wdh;. vd; mz;zd; gae;J ngha;/ jd; ez;gdplk; vt;tst[ vLj;Jf; Twpa[k;
nfl;ftpy;iy. vd; mz;zd; mtidtpl;L tpyfptpl;lhd;. rpwpJ ehl;fSf;Fg; gpd;/ mz;zdpd;
ez;gid/ fhtyh;fs; gpoj;Jr; brd;wdh;. mtDf;F Ma[s; jz;lid vd;W nfs;tpg;gl;L kdk;
tUe;jpndd;.
gzk; mjpfk; ntz;Lk; vd;W Mirg;gl;L/ ehk; ek; thH;f;ifia ,He;Jtplf; TlhJ vd;Dk;
fUj;ij ,g;gHbkhHp czh;j;JfpwJ.

19 ngr;R tHf;if vGj;J tHf;fhf khw;Wjy;


1. ngr;RtHf;if vGj;J tHf;fhf khw;Wf.
,g;g vdf;Fg; g[hp+;R nghr;R. ePa[k; g[hp+;rpf;nfh.
,g;bghGJ vdf;Fg; g[hpe;Jtpl;lJ. ePa[k; g[hpe;Jbfhs;
1. epyj;jf; bfswQk;lh mg;gjhd; tFW epiwa[k;
epyj;ij cGjhy;jhd; tapW epiwa[k;.
2. mz;izf;F mtDf;Fg; gzk; FLj;J xjtpapUf;f ntz;oajhd.
md;W mtDf;Fg; gzk; bfhLj;J cjtpapUf;f ntz;oaJjhd;.
3. t{l;lhz;l btisahz;l bfhae;ijia mg;gh v=;f ,!;JfpD nghdhU.
tPl;Lf;F mUfpy; tpisahof;bfhz;oUe;j FHe;ijia mg;gh v=;F miHj;Jf;bfhz;L nghdhh;.
4. g[s;isf;F clk;g[ rhpapy;iy @Q ehsh rpukg;gLJ
gps;isf;F cly;epiy rhpapy;iy. @d;W ehl;fshf Jd;gg;gLfpwJ.
5. uitf;F rpj;jg;gd fhtYf;Fg; nght brhy;
,ut[ rpj;jg;ghit fhtYf;Fg; nghfr; brhy;.
6. `mnl beyj;j bfswQk;lh ? mg;gj;jhd; tFW bjiwa[k;~
mnla; epyj;ijf; fpsw ntz]Lk;. mg;nghJjhd; tpapW epuk;g[k;.
7. `xdf;Fj; jfg;gd; bkhfk; rhpahj; bjhpa[khlh~
cdf;Fj; je;ijapd; Kfk; rhpahfj; bjhpa[kh >
8. ``,e;j btUrdh f+;rp Cj;J. buz]L klf;F nHtor;rpl;Lj;jhd; jpUk;gQk;~~
,=;nf ghh; tpiuthff; f+;rp Cw;W. ,uz]L kl=;F cHtor;rpJjhd; jpUk;g ntz]Lk;.
9. `mk;g[l;Lj;jhdh ehd; vd;dnkh Vnjhd;D gae;Jl;Ue;njd;~
mt;tst[jhdh > ehd; vd;dnth Vnjh vd;W gae;J bfhz]oUe;njd;.
10. vuE}Wd;Djhd; brhd;dhd;. ek;gpf;ff;bfsutj;Jy gp+;ira vGjpapUf;fhd; nghyj; bjhpapJ.
,UE}Wjhd; brhd;dhd;. ek;gpf;iff; fpuaj;jpy; g[+;iria vGjpapUf;fpwhd; nghyj; bjhpfpwJ.
11. ``md;idf;F mtDf;Fg; gzk; FLj;J xjtpapUf;f ntz]oaJjhd. ,g;gkl;Lk; vd;d g[Jrh mf;fw
te;JUr;R~~
md;iwf;F mtDf;Fg; gzk; bfhLj;J cjtpapUf;f ntz]oaJjhnd. ,g;nghJ kl;Lk; vd;d
g[jpjhf mf;fiw te;jpUf;fpwJ.
12. vGjpdtd; Vl;l bfLj;jhd; ghLdtd; ghl;l bfLj;jhd;.
vGjpatd; Vl;ilf; bfLj;jhd; ghoatd; ghl;ilf; bfLj;jhd;.
52  www.nammakalvi.org 12 G jkpH; G bkhHpgapw;rp ifnaL

13. kiHf;fpf;Tl gs;spbfhlj;jpy xJ=;ftpy;y.


kiHf;Ff;Tl gs;spf;Tlj;jpy; XJ=;ftpy;iy.
14. ,+;nrU Tg;g[lwJ fhJy nff;fypah.
,=;nf ghh; Tg;gpLtJ fhjpy; nfl;ftpy;iyah.
15. ,td; g[or;r KaYf;F KQ fhYd;Dthd;
,td; gpoj;j KaYf;F @d;W fhy; vd;ghd;.
16. MLw khl;l Mof;fwf;fQk; ghLw khl;l ghof; fwf;fQk;
MLfpw khl;il Mof;fwf;f ntz;Lk;/ ghLfpw khl;ilg; ghof;fwf;f ntz;Lk;.
2. ngr;R tHf;Fr; brhw;fSf;F Vw;w vGj;J tHf;Fr; brhw;fis vGJ:
ngr;RtHf;F ? vGj;JtHf;F mdak; ? epiwthdJ
v;brhe;jtd; ? ViH vspatd; fPHj;jhh; ? g[d;bra;apd; xU gFjp
bfuhKQR ? fpuhk eph;thf mYtyh; bfhlth=;fy; ? bfhLf;fy; th=;fy;
jpUiz ? jpz]iz bjf+;rj ? Koe;jij
gp+;ir ? g[d;bra; nuhrp ? cuRjy;
the;jf;fkhf ? ,zf;fkhf btjg;bgl;o ? tpijg;bgl;o
bts;s=;fl;o ? tpoaw;fhiy ntz]lhw ? ntz]lhj
jpUif ? kht[ miuf;Fk; fy; FWf;fk; ? rpwpa epyg;gug;g[
ek;gpf;ff; bfiuak; ? ek;gpf;if tpiy qth ? gzk;
bghz]lhl;of;fhhp ? kidtp jtrk; ? jhdpak; (Tyk;)
fypahzk; ? jpUkzk; gay; ? igad;
bkhfk; ? Kfk; btjg;bgl;o ? tpijg;bgl;o
,d;ndutiuf;F ? ,e;neuk;tiuf;Fk; bfhlth=;fy; ? bfhLf;fy; th=;fy;
t[L ? tpL tpdak; ? t+;rfk;
bjf+;rpj ? bjhpe;jij vGg;g[Ht[ ? Kjd;ik cHt[
ngh=;fhyk; ? nghFk;fhyk;
flfk; ? Xiyg;bgl;o (gid fazpahy; Kilag;gl;l bgl;o)

20 milg;g[f;Ff;Fs; cs;s brhw;fis khw;wp vGJjy;

fPH;f;fhQk; bjhlh;fspy; milg;g[f;Fs; cs;s bgah;r; brhy;iyj; bjhlh;fSf;F Vw;wthW khw;wp vGJ.
fgpyd; jpwikahdth; vd;W _________ (Fkud;) bjhpa[k;.
fgpyd; jpwikahdth; vd;W FkuDf;Fj; bjhpa[k;.
1. new;W Kjy; _________ (miz) ePh;kl;lk; cah;e;J tUfpwJ. tpil: mizapd;
2. c=;fSf;F _________ (ahh;) ed;ik vd epidf;fpwPh;fs;. tpil: ahuhy;
3. KUfd; _________ (ntfk;) brd;Wk; ngUe;ijg; gpof;f ,aytpy;iy. tpil: ntfkhfr;
4. ek;Kila _________ (njit) mst[ Fiwe;jhy; kfpH;r;rp bgUFk;. tpil: njitapd;
5. mdhij _______ (,y;yk;) brd;W ,dpg;g[fs; tH=;fpndd;. tpil: ,y;yj;Jf;Fr;
6. btw;wpbgw;w _______ (khzth;fs;) ghpRfs; tH=;fg;gl;ld. tpil: khzth;fSf;Fg;
7. ngUe;J ntfkhf _______ (Xo) kuj;jpy; nkhjpaJ tpil: Xoajhy;
8. ,d;iwa kl;ilg;ge;J _______ (tpisahl;L) ,e;jpahtpw;Fg; bgUik. tpil: (tpisahl;lhy;)
9. fyhkpd; _______ (,Hg;g[) ,e;jpah;fshy; Vw;f Koatpy;iy. tpil: ,Hg;ig
12 G jkpH; G bkhHpgapw;rp ifnaL 53

21 brhw;fisf; bfhz;L bjhlh; mikj;jy;


fPH;f;fhQk; ehd;F brhw;fisf; bfhz;L bjhlh; vGJf.
(v.fh) thdk; / gw/ epyt[/ bjhL
thdj;jpy; gwg;nghk;
gwe;J epyitj; bjhLnthk;.
1. fpsp/ ngR/ nfs;/ mHF
fpspapd; ngr;irf; nfl;f mHfhf ,Uf;Fk;.
2. cz;ik/ cyF/ rpwg;g[/ kjpg;g[
cz;ik ngRgth;fSf;F cyF vd;Wk; rpwg;g[k; kjpg;g[k; mspf;Fk;.
3. fjputd;/ gdp/ ePh;/ kiw
fjputd; xspapl;L/ gdp ePuhdJ kiwa[k;.
4. rUF/ tpG/ kz]/ miy
fha;e;j ,iyr;rUFfs; kz]zpy; fple;jd.
kz]zpy; fple;j rUFfs; miynghy mire;jd.
5. tpz]kPd;/ xsph;/ vhp/ tpG
tpz]kPd; thdj;jpy; mHfhf xsph;e;jJ.
xsph;e;j tpz]kPd; vhpe;J tpGe;jJ.
6. Fjpiu/ ntfk; XL/ jht[
Fjpiu mjpntfkhf XoaJ.
Xoa Fjpiuiaj; jhtpg;gpof;f ,ayhJ.
7. FHe;ij/ el/ jsph;eil/ tpG
FHe;ij jsph;eil ele;jJ.
ele;j FHe;ij jLkhwp tpGe;jJ.
8. jpiu/ fhz]/ ifjl;ly;/ kf;fs;
jpiu mu=;fpy; jpiu tpyfpaijf; fz]lhh;fs;.
jpiutpyFtijf; fz]l kf;fs; ifjl;odhh;fs;.

22 kug[g; gpiHfis ePf;fp vGJjy;


bjhlupy; ,lk;bgw;Ws;s kug[g; gpiHfis ePf;fp vGJ.
1 gde;njhg;gpy; ehp fj;JfpwJ.
gd=;fhl;oy; ehp CisapLfpwJ.
2. kiH nkfk; fz;l kapy; ,wF tphpj;J MoaJ.
kiH nkfk; fz;l kapy; njhif tphpj;J MoaJ.
3. Xtpah; vGjpa Xtpaj;jpy; tz;zk; jltpdhh;.
Xtpah; g[ide;j Xtpaj;jpy; tz;zk; jPl;odh;.
54  12 G jkpH; G bkhHpgapw;rp ifnaL

4. thiHf;fhl;oy; Fapy;fs; mywpf;bfhz;Lk; fhf=;fs; Ttpf;bfhz;Lk; ,Ue;jd.


thiHj;njhg;gpy; Fapy;fs; Ttpf;bfhz;Lk; fhf=;fs; fiue;J bfhz;Lk; ,Ue;jd.
5. KUfd; nrhW rhg;gpl;Lg; ghy; Foj;jhd;.
KUfd; nrhW cz;L ghy; gUfpdhd;.
6. nfhtpe;jd; FoapUf;f Rth; fl;o Tiu mikj;jhh;.
nfhtpe;jd; FoapUf;f Rth; fl;o Tiu nta;e;jhd;.
7. tdtpy=;Ff; fhg;gfj;jpy; rp=;ff;Fl;oa[k; ahidf;Fl;oa[k; fz;nld;.
tdtpy=;Ff; fhg;gfj;jpy; rp=;ff; FUisa[k;/ ahidf; Fl;oa[k; fz;nld;.
8. Ml;Lj; bjhGtj;ijr; Rw;wpYk; vypfs; bghe;Jfs; mikj;jpUe;jd.
Ml;Lj; bjhGtj;ijr; Rw;wpYk; vypfs; tisfs; mikj;jpUe;jd.
9. gid kl;ilahy; Tiu itj;jpUe;jdh;.
gid Xiyahy; Tiu nta;e;jpUe;jdh;.

xyp kug[

1. Me;ij myWk; 9. tz;L KuYk; 2. Fapy; Tt[k;


2. Fjpiu fidf;Fk; 10. nrty; Tt[k; 15. g{id rPWk;
3. thj;J fj;Jk; 11. rp=;fk; KH=;Fk; 5. eha; Fiuf;Fk;
4. vyp fPr;rpLk; 12. fpsp ngRk; 18. FUtp fPr;rpLk;
5. fhfk; fiua[k; 13. Tif FKWk; 8. ahid gpspWk;
6. nfhHp bfhf;fhpf;Fk; 14. Fu=;F myg;g[k; 21. g[yp cWKk;
7. kapy; mft[k; 15. vUJ vf;fhskpLk; 11. g[wh FDFk;
8. ML fj;Jk; 16. ehp CisapLk; 24. gR fjWk;

bgaUf;nfw;w tpidfs;

1. mg;gk; jpd;whd; 9. ckp fUf;fpdhs; 17. kuk; btl;Ljy;


2. glk; tiue;jhd; 10. Mil bea;jy; 18. re;jdk; g{Rjy;
3. Tiu nta;e;jhd; 11. TilKiljy; 19. Vh; cGjy;
4. KWf;Fj; jpd;whd; 12. ,iy gwpj;jy; 20. nrhW cz;lhd;
5. fjph; mWj;jy; 13. E}y; vGjpdhd; 21. g{g;gwpj;jy;
6. mk;g[ va;jy; 14. ePh; mUe;jpdhd; 22. khj;jpiu tpG=;Fjy;
7. Rth; vGg;g[jy; 15. Xtpak; g[ide;jhd; 23. fha; mhpjy;
8. fy; cilj;jy; 16. bjd;wy; tPRk;

gwit/ tpy=;Ffspd; ,sikg; bgah;fs;

1. vypf;F+;R 7. g{idf;Fl;o 13. gR=;fd;W


2. fpspf;F+;R 8. Ml;Lf;Fl;o 14. khd;fd;W
3. ahidf;fd;W 9. vUikf;fd;W 15. rp=;ff; FUis
4. nfhHpf;F+;R 10. FUtpf;F+;R 16. fGijf;Fl;o
5. Fjpiuf;Fl;o 11. fPhpg;gps;is 17. eha;f;Fl;o
6. g[ypg;gwH; 12. mzpy; gps;is
12 G jkpH; G bkhHpgapw;rp ifnaL www.nammakalvi.org 55

jhtu=;fspd; bjhFg;g[

1. khe;njhg;g[ 6. Ke;jpj;njhg;g[ 11. fk;g=;bfhy;iy


2. nrhsf;bfhy;iy 7. bey;tay; 12. gd=;fhL
3. g[spae;njhg;g[ 8. gyhj;njhg;g[ 13. g{+;nrhiy
4. ,Yg;igj; njhl;lk; 9. bjd;de;njhg;g[ 14. bfha;ahj; njhg;g[
5. btw;wpiyj; njhl;lk; 10. thiHj; njhl;lk;
bghUs;fspd; bjhFg;g[

1. Ml;Lke;ij 6. rpye;jp tiy 11. vWk;g[r;rhiu


2. rhtpf;bfhj;J 7. fw;Ftpay; 12. FUtpf;TL
3. nfhHpf;Tz;L 8. thiHf;Fiy 13. tPuh;gil
4. itf;nfhy; nghh; 9. ez;L tiy 14. ahidf; Tl;lk;
5. jpuhl;irf;Fiy 10. gRepiu
fha;fspd; ,sikg; bgah;fs;

1. mtiug; gp+;R 4. bts;shpg; gp+;R 6. gyh@R


2. khtL 5. fj;jphpg; gp+;R 7. KU=;ifr; ruL
3. thiHf;FUj;J
jhtu=;fspd; cWg;g[ bgah;fs;

1. ntg;ge;jiH 7. Mtu=;Fiy 12. bjd;d=;fPw;W


2. khe;jsph; 8. KU=;iff;fPiu 13. fKFf;Te;jy;
3. thiH ,iy 9. gyh ,iy 14. nrhsj;jl;il
4. jhiH kly; 10. gidnahiy 14. thiHj;jz;L
5. bey; jhs; 11. @=;fpy; ,iy 16. <r;rnthiy
6. jpidj;jhs;

23 bghUs; ntWghlwpe;J bjhlh; mikj;jy;


bghUs; ntWghlwpe;J bjhlh; mikf;f.
(v.fh) fsk; ? fyk;
nghh;f;fsj;jpy; g[z]gl;l tPuh;fSf;Ff; fyj;jpy; ePh; jug;gl;lJ.
tyk;/ tsk;
Mw;wpd; tyg;g[wk; cs;s tay;fs; ePh;tsj;jhy; brHpj;jpUe;jd.
1. g[y; ? g[s;
g[y; jiuapy; g[l;fs; (g[s;fs;) Tl;lk; mkh;e;J tpisahod.
2. ciH ? cis
jdJ Kjyhspf;fhf ciHf;Fk; Fjpiuapd; cis (gplhp kaph;) kpft[k; mHfhf ,Uf;fpwJ.
56  12 G jkpH; G bkhHpgapw;rp ifnaL

3. fhd; ? fhz]
fhdfj;jpy; thGk; tpy=;Ffisf; fhz]gJ kfpH;r;rp juf;ToaJ.
4. Cz] ? Cd;
Cz] (khkprk;) czit cz]L Cid (cliy) tsh;g;gJ ghtk;.
5. jpd;ik ? jpz]ik
jpz]ik (typik) bfhz]l xUtd; vspatUf;F jpd;ik (jPik) bra;jy; kwkhfhJ.

24 btl;oa[k; xl;oa[k; ngRjy;


btl;oa[k; xl;oa[k; ngRjy;
fpuhk=;fs; efukhtJ tsh;r;rpah>
"" fpuhk=;fspy; mHpthy; efu=;fs; tsu;r;rpaile;jd. mJkl;Lky;yhky; etPd cyfpw;F ek;ik
miHj;Jr; bry;yf;Toajhf efu=;fs; mikfpwJ.
"" efu=;fspd; tsh;r;rpahy; fpuhk=;fs; mHpf;fg;gLfpwJ. ,aw;ifg; ghjpg;g[/ bjhHpw;rhiyg;
bgUf;fj;jhy; ePh; khRghL/ kdtsk; Fd;wy;/ (ntshz;ik) tptrhak; ghjpg;g[ Vw;gl;L czt[f;F
ifnae;Jk; epiy Vw;glf;TLk;.

25 fijiag; goj;J ciuahlyhf khw;Wjy;


fijiag; goj;Jg; bghUSzu;e;J epfH;it ciuahlyhf khw;Wf.
``vdf;F rpy;f; rl;il ,Uf;nf- cdf;F ,Uf;fh- vd;W bfl;of;fhuj;jdkhff; nfl;lhd; uhkrhkp.
bry;iyah gjpy; brhy;yj; bjhpahky; tpHpj;Jf; bfhz;oUe;jhd;" jk;igah Mfhaj;ijg; ghh;j;J
nahrid bra;jhd;" k=;fk;khs; @f;fpd;nky; Ms; fhl;o tpuiy itj;Jf; bfhz;Lk; fz;iz
,nyrhf @of; bfhz;Lk; nahrid bra;jhs;. me;j @tUk; uhkrhkpapd; nfs;tpf;F vd;d gjpy;
brhy;yg; nghfpwhh;fs; vd;W MtnyhL vjph;ghh;j;Jf; bfhz;oUe;jhh;fs; kw;w gps;isfs;. md;W
gs;spf;Tlj;jpypUf;Fk;nghJ uhkrhkpf;Fk; bry;iyaht[f;Fk; ,ilna xU nghl;o ele;jJ. uhkrhkp
jd; `Ie;jhk; tFg;gpw;Fhpa ,e;jpanjr rupj;jpu`g; g[j;jfj;ij vLj;J itj;Jf; bfhz;lhd;. bry;iyah
me;j tU&k; ,e;jpanjr rupj;jpuk; th=;ftpy;iy" mjdhy; jd;dplKs;s xU rptpf;!; g[j;jfj;ij
vLj;J itj;Jf; bfhz;lhd;. ,UtUk; `glg;nghl;o~ia Muk;gpj;J tpl;lhh;fs;.
? `uh$h te;jpUf;fpwhu;~/ F. mHfpuprhkp
ciuahly;
ciuahLgth;fs;: uhkrhkp/ bry;iyah/ jk;igah/ k=;fk;khs;.
uhkrhkp : vd;dplk; rpy;f; rl;il ,Uf;nf- cdf;F ,Uf;fh>
bry;iyah : ... tpHpj;jhd;.
uhkrhkp : cd;dplk; ,Uf;fh>
jk;igah : ... Mfhaj;ijg; ghh;j;J nahrid bra;jhd;.
uhkrhkp : cdf;F ,Uf;fh>
k=;fk;khs; : ... @f;fpd; nky; tpuy; itj;jhs;. fz;iz nyrhf @of;bfhz;lhs;.
uhkrhkp : Vd; @d;W ngUk; gjpy; brhy;ytpy;iy vd; nfs;tpf;F>
12 G jkpH; G bkhHpgapw;rp ifnaL 57

@tUk; : .... gjpy; ,y;iy.


(kw;w gps;isfs; uhkrhkpapd; nfs;tpf;F @tUk; vd;d gjpy; brhy;yg; nghfpwhh;fs; vd;W
vjph;ghh;j;jdh;. md;W gs;spf;Tlj;jpy; ,Uf;Fk;nghnj uhkrhkpf;Fk; bry;iyaht[f;Fk;
xU nghl;o te;jJ.)
uhkrhkp : vd;dplk; ,e;jpa njrpa rhpj;jpug; g[j;jfk; cs;sJ/ cd;dplk; cs;sjh>
bry;iyah : vd;dplk; rptpf;!; g[j;jfk; cs;sJ.
uhkrhkp : rhp guthapy;iy/ nghl;oia Muk;gpf;fyhkh>
bry;iyah : rhp
(,UtUk; xt;bthU gf;fkhfg; g[ul;Lfpwhh;fs;. ,ilapilna tiuglk; cs;sjh/
glk; cs;sjh vd;w nghl;o tpiuthf ele;jJ. MSf;F xU gf;fk; gf;fkhfg; g[ul;l
nghl;oj; bjhlh;e;jJ)
uhkrhkp : filrpg; gf;fj;ijg; g[ul;og; ghh;j;J cd;dplk; ,d;Dk; vj;jidg; gf;fk; ,Uf;fpwJ
vd;whd;.
bry;iyah : ,d;Dk; ,uz;L gf;f=;fs; ,Uf;fpwJ. cd;dplk; vj;jidg; gf;fk; cs;sJ>
uhkrhkp : ,Jjhd; vdJ filrpg; gf;fk;.
bry;iyah : X... mg;g ehd;jhd; b$apr;nrd;...

26 ciu vGJjy;
ciu vGJnthk;
c=;fs; gs;spapy; gapd;w Kd;dhs; khzth; jw;bghGJ khtl;l Ml;rpauhfg; gzpahw;Wfpwhh;.
eilbgw ,Uf;Fk; gs;sp Mz;L tpHhtpy; rpwg;g[ tpUe;jpduhf tu ,Uf;Fk; mtiug; gs;spapd; rhh;ghf
tuntw;Fk; tpjkhf xU gf;f mstpy; tuntw;g[iu xd;iw vGJf.
tuntw;g[iu
ekJ gs;spapd; Mz;L tpHhtpw;F tUif g[hpe;jpUf;Fk; ekJ khtl;l Ml;rpah; mth;fis
,Ufuk;Tg;gp kdkfpH;nthL tuntw;fpnwd;.
Kaw;rp bra;J btw;wp fpilj;jhy; tplhKaw;rp vd;W ghuhl;Lthh;fs;. Kaw;rp bra;J btw;wp
fpilf;fhtpl;lhy; tPz;Kaw;rp vd;ghh;fs;. ,Jjhd; cyfk;.
Mdhy;/ ekJ miHg;gpw;F ,irt[ je;J ek; Kd;nd xU btw;wpf;F vLj;Jf;fhl;lhf mkh;e;jpUf;Fk;
Ml;rpahsh; xU mwpthsh;. Fwpf;nfhs; ,y;yhj thH;f;if JLg;gpy;yhj glfpy; rthhp bra;tJ nghyhFk;.
xt;bthU khztUk; VnjDk; xd;iwr; rhjpj;nj jPu ntz;Lk; vd;w Fwpf;nfhnshLjhd; gof;f
ntz;Lk;.
ekJ khtl;l Ml;rpaUk; gs;spapny gapYfpd;wnghJ jhd; vjph;fhyj;jpy; Ml;rpauhf Mf
ntz;Lk; vd;W cWjpnahoUe;jth;.
Kaw;rp jpUtpidahf;Fk; vd;gjw;fpz=;f mtUila Kaw;rp gypj;Jtpl;lJ.
,d;iwa yl;rpak; ehisa khw;wk;/ ,d;iwa myl;rpak; ehisa Vkhw;Wk; vd;ghh;fs;. yl;rpaj;ij
myl;rpag;gLj;jf;TlhJ.
new;W bra;jpj;jhspny ekJ khtl;l Ml;rpah; ngl;of; bfhLj;jpUe;jhh;. mjpny jhd; goj;j
gs;spapy; eilbgWk; Mz;L tpHhtpw;Fg; nghtjhff; TwpapUe;jhh;. <d;w bghGjpd; bghpJtf;Fk;
jhbad ekJ gs;spna kfpHe;J nghdJ.
btw;wp bgWtjw;FKd; cyif eP mwptha;/ btw;wp bgw;wgpwF cyfk; cd;id mwpa[k; vd;gJ
nghy/ ekJ Ml;rpaUk; cyfk; mwpe;j cah;e;j kdpjuhff; fhzg;gLfpwhh;.
58  www.nammakalvi.org 12 G jkpH; G bkhHpgapw;rp ifnaL

jhd; goj;j gs;spf;F tUif g[hpe;Jk;/ gs;spahy; jdf;Fg; bgUik vd;W TWk; Ml;rpaUila
ngr;Rk; ek;ikbay;yhk; kfpH;r;rp bts;sj;jpy; @H;fplr; bra;fpwJ.
+hyk; fUjpDk; ifTLk; ? vd;Dk; ts;Stdpd; thf;fpw;F ,yf;fzkhd ekJ khtl;l Ml;rpah;
mth;fis kPz;Lk; kPz;Lk; tUf tUf vd tuntw;W kfpH;fpnwd;.

27 gj;jpiag; goj;J RUf;fp vGJjy;


fPH;f;fhQk; gj;jpfisg; goj;J @d;wpy; xU g=;fhfr; RUf;Ff.
 ,d;iwa thH;f;ifr; NHypy; Xa;tpd;ik/ fhyk; jtwpa czt[/ czt[g; gHf;ftHf;f khw;wk;
cs;spl;litna gy;ntW cly; eyg; ghjpg;g[fSf;F @y fhuzkhfpd;wd. kUj;Jtk; rhh;e;j
njitfSf;bfd;W Fwpg;gpl;l bjhifia xJf;Fk; mstpw;F cly;epiyiaf; ftdj;jpy;
bfhs;shky;/ Xh; ,ae;jpu thH;f;ifia thH;e;J bfhz;oUf;fpnwhk;.
 cznt kUe;J kUe;nj czt[ vd;W thH;e;jth;fs; ek; Kd;ndhh;fs;. xUth; cl;bfhs;Sk;
cztpy; g[ujk;/ bfhGg;g[/ khr;rj;J/ fdpk=;fs;/ Ez;Q}l;lr; rj;Jfs; nrh;e;jnj rkr;rPh; czt[. vdnt
mstwpe;J cz;z ntz;oaJ mtrpakhFk;.
 Urpf;fhf/ rhg;gplf;Tlhj bghUs;fisr; rhg;gpLtJk;/ grpf;fhf mst[f;F kPwpr; rhg;gpLtJk;
jhd; gpzpfSf;Ff; fhuzk;. rhjhuzkhf cz;l czt[ brhpkhdkhtjw;F 4 kzp neuk; MfpwJ.
bghJthfnt czit ed;whf bkd;W tpG=;f ntz;Lk;. ,jdhy; kht[g;bghUs; brhpkhdkhjw;F
ckpH;ePh; Rue;J czt[ld; cl;bry;Yk;.
 czt[g; bghUl;fspy; ml=;fpa[s;s rj;Jfs;/ mtw;wpd; gad;fs; Mfpatw;iwg; gw;wpa bjspe;j
mwpt[/ Mnuhf;fpa cztpidj; njh;t[ bra;a kpft[k; cjtpaha; ,Uf;Fk;.
 ekJ vil kw;Wk; cauj;jpid mt;tg;nghJ nrhjpj;J epidtpy; itj;Jf; bfhs;s ntz;Lk;.
,J kpft[k; Kf;fpakhdJ. gpwF j=;fsJ vil kw;Wk; cauj;jpidg; bghWj;J Mnuhf;fpakhd czt[
Kiwiaj; njh;e;bjLf;ft[k; clw;gapw;rp bra;at[k; KobtLf;f ntz;Lk;.
 xt;bthU kdpjUf;Fk; mtuJ taJ/ ghypdk;/ cly; ciHg;g[/ cly;epiy/ thGk; ,lk;/ gUt
epiy Mfpatw;wpd; mog;gilapy; Cl;lr;rj;Jf;fspd; njit khWgLk;.
 njitahd jhdpa=;fSld; gUg;g[ kw;Wk; gaW tiffisr; nrh;j;J/ mjpf fha;fwpfSlDk;
gH=;fSlDk; Toa czt[ Kiwna ek; Mnuhf;fpaj;jpw;fhd rhpahd jPh;t[.
@d;wpy; xU g=;fhfr; RUf;Ff.
kyh;e;jit ? 162
162
bjhLj;jit ? = 54
3
gj;jpapd; RUf;fk;
 ,d;iwa R{Hypy;/ Xa;tpd;ik/ fhyk; jtwpa czt[/ cztpy; khw;wk; Kjyhdit cly; eyg;
ghjpg;g[f;Ff; fhuzk;.
kUj;Jtj;jpw;bfd bjhif xJf;Fk; mst[f;F ,ae;jukhfptpl;nlhk;.
 cznt kUe;jhf cz;L kfpH;e;jdh; Kd;ndhh;. xt;bthUtUk; rkr;rPh; czt[ cl;bfhs;tJ
fl;lhakhfptpl;lJ.
czt[g; bghUspy; ml=;fpa[s;s rj;J gw;wp mwptJ ekJ flik.
 Urpf;fhf md;wp grpf;fhf kpFjpahfr; rhg;gpLtJ gpzpf;Ff;Ff; fhuzkhapw;W. ekJ vil kw;Wk;
cauj;ijg; bghWj;nj czt[ Kiwa[k; clw; gapw;rpa[k; mikjy; ntz;Lk;.
 taJ/ ghypdk; kw;Wk; clYiHg;g[d; mog;gilapy; Cl;lr;rj;J njitg;gLk;. fha;fwp/ jhdpak;/
gapW ,tw;Wld; Toa czt[ Kiwna rhpahd jPh;g;g[.
12 G jkpH; G bkhHpgapw;rp ifnaL 59

28 fl;Liu vGJjy;
vz]zj;ij btspapLtjw;Fk;/ rpe;jidahw;wy; bgUFtjw;Fk; jha; bkhHpna Jiz epw;Fk; ?
,jid typa[Wj;jp gpd;tUk; Fwpg;g[fisf; bfhz]L fl;Liu vGJf.
jha;bkhHpf; fy;tpapd; njit ? jha;bkhHpr; rpe;jid ? mwp+h;fspd; ghh;it ? fw;Fk; jpwd; ? gad; ?
,d;iwa epiy.
jha;bkhHptHpf; fy;tpapd; rpwg;g[fs;.
Kd;Diu :
``jha;bkhHp fz] nghd;wJ
gpwbkhHp fz]zho nghd;wJ~~
ekJ vz]z=;fisg; gpwUf;F btspg;gLj;j cjt[tJ bkhHpna. bkhHp xU fUtp. kdpjd; bkhHp
bfhz]Ljhd; thH;fpd;whd;. bkhHpahy;jhd; fUj;Jg; ghpkhw;wKk; bra;fpd;whd;. jdJ vz]zj;ij
btspapLtjw;Fk; rpe;jidahw;wiyg; bgUf;ft[k; Jizahf ,Uf;Fk; jha;bkhHp tHpf; fy;tpapd;
rpwg;g[fs; gw;wp ,f;fl;Liuapy; fhz]nghk;.
jha;bkhHpf; fy;tpapd; njit :
kdpjdpd; milahsk; mtdJ jha;bkhHpjhd;. fy;tp vd;gJ jha;bkhHp tHpahf kl;Lnk fw;gpf;f
gl ntz]Lk;. kdpjdpd; rpe;jida[k; fw;gida[k; jha;bkhHpapy;jhd; cUthfpd;wd. vdnt/ kdpjdpd;
rpe;jid tsh;r;rpf;Fj; jha;bkhHpf; fy;tpna rpwe;jJ. rpe;jpf;fpd;w bkhHpapny gapw;Wtpf;fg;gLfpd;w
fy;tp rpe;jidiaf; Tl;Lfpd;wJ. EQf;f=;fisa[k; mwptpay; gilg;g[fisa[k; cUthf;f
kdpjh;fisj; jahh;gLj;Jfpd;wJ.
jha;bkhHpr; rpe;jid :
jha;bkhHpjhd; rpe;jpf;Fk; jpwdpd; jpwt[nfhyhf ,Uf;fpd;wJ. vj;jid bkhHpfs; fw;whYk; ve;j
bkhHpiaf; fw;whYk; xUtdpd; rpe;jid cUbtLg;gJ jha;bkhHpapy;jhd;. jha;bkhHpahy; rpe;jid
bgUFk;. kdpjh;fspd; kdbtGr;rp thH;tpw;F mog;gil. mj;jifa kdtsh;r;rpiaj; jha;bkhHpahy;
kl;Lnk bfhLf;f ,aYk;. jha;bkhHpapy; rpe;jpg;gjhy; cah;e;j fUj;Jf;fisr; rpwe;j brhw;fisf;
bfhz]L czh;j;j Koa[k;.
mwp+h;fs; ghh;it :
cyfpy; thH;e;j gy mwp+h;fs; jha;bkhHpf; fy;tpapd; mtrpaj;ijf; TwpapUf;fpd;whh;fs;.
fhe;jpaofs; TWk; nghJ b$fjP&; re;jpu ngh!;/ gp.rp. ,uha; Kjypnahhpd; rhjidfisf; fz]L ehk;
kfpH;r;rpailfpnwhk;. Mdhy;/ jha;bkhHp @yk; ekf;Ff; fy;tp mspf;fg;gl;oUe;jhy; ek;kpilna gy
ngh!;fSk;/ ,uha;fSk; njhd;wpapUg;ghh;fs; vd;fpwhh;. rhfpj; \%ird; (1938?Mk; Mz]L) FG
jha;bkhHpapy; fw;Wf;bfhLj;jiy typa[Wj;JfpwJ/ o.v!]. nfhj;jhhp FGt[k; (1964) njrpaf;fy;tpf;
bfhs;ifapy; jha;bkhHp fy;tpia typa[Wj;jpaJ.
fw;Fk; jpwd; :
jha;bkhHpiag; nghw;wp tPH;e;j ehLk; ,y;iy. jha;bkhHpiag; g[wf;fzpj;J thH;e;j ehLk; ,y;iy.
jha;bkhHp @ykhfnt xUth; jhd; Tw tpUk;g[k; fUj;ijj; bjspthft[k; KGikahft[k; MHkhft[k;
bjhptpf;f Koa[k;. fw;Fk; jpwd; mjpfhpg;gJ jha;bkhHp tHpahfnt/ jha;bkhHp tHpahff; fw;Fk; nghJ
rpe;jidj;jpwd; mjpfkhFk;.
jha;bkhHpf; fy;tpapd; gad; :
``fUtpy; cs;s FHe;ij VG khjj;jpnyna @is Kjph;r;rpg; bgw;W xypfisf; nfl;fpwJ~~
vd;fpd;wdh;. kUj;Jt mwp+h;fs;/ FHe;ij tsUk; NHy; bkhHpj;jhf;fj;jpw;F mog;gilahf
mikfpwJ. mf;FHe;ijfs; jha;bkhHp tHpahff; fw;Fk; NHy; Vw;gl;lhy; kpfr; rpwe;j mwp+h;fshf/
nkijfshf mf;FHe;ijfs; tsUk;. FHe;ijfs; jha;bkhHp tHpahff; fy;tpf; fw;why; jukhd fy;tpiag;
bgWthh;fs;.
60  12 G jkpH; G bkhHpgapw;rp ifnaL

,d;iwa epiy :
,d;W jha;bkhHp tHpapy; fy;tpr; fw;gijf; bfsutf; Fiwr;ryhft[k;/ nftykhft[k;
epidf;fpd;wdh;. jha;bkhHpapy; fy;tpf; fw;wth;fisj; juk; Fiwe;jth;fshfg; ghh;g;gJ
r@fj;jpy; epytp tUk; mty=;fSs; xd;whFk;. jha;bkhHpapy; fy;tpf; fw;nghUf;F muRg; gzpfspy;
Kd;Dhpik tH=;Fjy; ntz]Lk;.
Kot[iu :
bkhHp vd;gJ xU jfty; bjhlh;g[ rhjdk; kl;Lkd;W. xU gz]ghl;od;/ xU ,dj;jpd; milahsk;
vd;gij ahtUk; czh;e;jhny jha;bkhHpia mHptpypUe;J fhf;fyhk;

29 ftpijia goj;J ciu vGJjy;


ftpijiag; goj;jgpd;/ mf;ftpij fpsh;j;Jk; czh;t[fs; Fwpj;J tpHpg;g[zh;t[ ciu xd;iw vGJf.
v=;fSf;Fk; Xh; MWz;L fhfnkh FUtpnah
btWkzy; gug;gha; tphpe;Jfplf;f epHy; xJ=;f
Xzhd;fs; Kl;ilapl Mbw=;Fk; Ks;kuKz;L
fs;spfs; gpiHj;jpUf;f v=;fSf;Fk; Xh; MWz;L
gps;isfs; tpisahl Mw;Wf;nfhh; CUz;L
gd;wpfs; nka;e;jpUf;f CUf;nfhh; rdKz;L
thdj;jpy; nkfKz;L thH;itg;nghy; xd;Wz;L
Nhpadpy; kiHa[z;L ,s=;nfh fpU&;zd;
tpHpg;g[zh;t[ ciu:
"" ,aw;ifapd; bfhilahk; kiHePiu ehk; nrfhpf;fhky; tpLfpnwhk;. kiH ePh; nrfhpg;g[g; gFjpfspy;
gs;sp/ fy;Y}hp/ bjhHpw;rhiyfs; vd vj;jidnah fl;ol=;fs; fl;lg;gl;Ls;sd. tpz;zpypUe;J
g[wg;gl;L kz;zpy; j=;fyhk; vd te;j kiH tPzhff; flypy; fyf;fpwJ.
"" Mw;W ePiur; nrfhpf;f kwe;njhk;. Mdhy; Mw;W kziyf; bfhs;isaof;f Jzpe;njhk;. kuk;
tsh;f;f kwe;njhk;. kuk; btl;lj; Jzpe;njhk;. fhf;if FUtp v=;fs; $hjp vd;whd; ghujp. Mdhy;
,d;W kiHa[k; kuKk; ,y;yhjjhy; Vjpypaha; fhf;if FUtpfs; v=;nfh nghapd>

30 ftpijfs; vGJjy;

gs;sp Kaw;rp
gŸË v‹w fiy¡Tl« - e« K£lhkš vJî« Kis¡fhJ j«ã!
thœit¢ áw¥ã¡F« m‹whl«. j£lhj cËÆ‹¿¢ áiynaJ brhšthŒ
áiyahŒ e«ik¢ brJ¡F« - ešy g£lhil beŒtj‰F« gh£lhË nkÅ
fiyahŒ e«ik M¡F«. brh£lhj Éa®itfŸ brh£oLnk j«ã!
nfŸÉ nf£F« Phd« - m§F¥ fuÄšyh¥ gwitfŸ myfhš TLf£L«.
gâiy¡ bfhL¡f¤ njh‹W«. Ä‹rhu« ïšyhkš Ä‹ÄÅ xËfh£L«.
nt‰Wik mf‰W« gªj« - e« R«kh ïU¥gt®¡F¢ Rf§fŸ nruhnj.
x‰Wik x‹nw brhªj« m«ghŒ Ka‹¿£lhš mÇait ïÅnaJ?
12 G jkpH; G bkhHpgapw;rp ifnaL www.nammakalvi.org 61

el;g[ kiH
Cnuh! cwnth! fhzhJ k©Âš thG« òijaiy mŸs
cŸs§fŸ ïiz¡F« e£ng! É©nz¿ åG« Ú®¤JË¡ fu§fns!
ahnuh? vtnuh x‹wh» v©Âa ahî« ï«k©Âš c‹dhny
cwthŒ¥ gil¡F« e£ng! e©Âa fiyfŸ ehbsyh« kyuyh«.
ngnuh, bgUiknah f©lhY« á‹dŠ áWkyU« broÆš ïsªjËU«
bghwhik fhzhj e£ng! ò¤jhil f£oajhŒ¡ T¤jho k»Hyh«.
Mnzh? bg©nzh? âUkfnsh? gUtkiH 圪â£lhš g©òfŸ
m‹ig ÉÇ¡Fnk e£ò. vGªâLnk!

fhh;nkfk; ,aw;if
¶œOˆ FK»‹ «ñè«ñ! î£ù£è àF‚°‹ ÅKò¡
ɶ ªê¡ø «ñè«ñ! î£ù£èŠ Ì‚°‹ Ì
ðF«ô¶‹ ªê£™ô£ñ™ î£ù£èŠ ªðŒ»‹ ñ¬ö
⃰ ªê¡ø£Œ î£ù£è i²‹ 裟Á
â¡ù ªê£¡ù£¡ â‡íõ¡? î£ù£è åO¼‹ ê‰Fó¡
ªê£™ô£ñ™ ã¡ è¬ôAø£Œ... î£ù£è Iƒ°‹ ï†êˆFó‹
å¡Á ô ñ¬öò£Œ õ‰¶ î£ù£è æ´‹ ïF
ªê£™L M´... ií£è„ ªêŒõ¶ ñ.
Üõ¡ èó‹ «ð£™
⡬ù ܬöˆ¶M´
裘«ñè«ñ!
à¡ ñ¬öˆ¶OJ™
⡬ù ܬ툶M´...

thdk; fly;
ã ......... õ£ù«ñ àôAQ™ ªðKòõœ c«ò
ÜF裬ôŠ ªð£¿F½‹ àí¾ àŠ¹‚°‹ c«ò 
܉Fñ£¬ôŠ ªð£¿F½‹ àù‚°œ«÷ õ£›‰F´‹ àJ˜èœ ðô
CõŠð¶ ã«ù£? à¡ù£«ô ªêNˆîù àôA™ Cô
ê£FJ¡ ªðòó£™ à‡í e¡î‰¶ ðCò£ŸPù£Œ c
à¡ ñ‚èœ ê£õ¬î‚ 致 áN ܬôò£Œ õ‰¶ ã¡ Ü„²ÁˆFù£Œ?
¶®ˆFìˆ î£«ù£? àõ†ì£î ªê™õƒèœ à¡Q™ à‡´
àJ˜Š«ð£´ ÜOˆF´õ£Œ âù‚° Þ¡Á.

FHe;ij
fUtiwÆš cUth» ïšy¤â‹ âUth»
cyÉL« bjŒtnk! Cu¿í« brštnk!
e‹kHiy¢ brhšK‹nd br«bkhÊ njh‰Fnk!
eWky®¢ nrtoÆš br«k©Q« áÈ®¡Fnk!
FHªijia¡ fh©gj‰F¢ brh®¡fnk ïw§Fnj!
nfhòu¡ fyrkhŒ¥ bgUikfŸ caUnj!
cŸs¤â‹ öŒikahš eh« FHªij M»Lnth«
C®thG« bjŒtbkyh« ïja¤âš MoLnk!
62  12 G jkpH; G bkhHpgapw;rp ifnaL

31 brhy;Yk; bghUSk;
brhy; bghUs; brhy; bghUs;
g[Jg;bgay; ? g[JkiH Mh;fyp ? bts;sk;
bfhL=;nfhy; ? tise;j nfhy; g[yk;g[ ? jdpik
fz;zp ? jiyapy; NLk; khiy ft[s; ? fd;dk;/
kh ? tpy=;F mkyd; ? ,uhkd;
,sty; ? jk;gp esph;fly; ? Fsph;e;j fly;
Jd;g[ ? Jd;gk; cd;ndy; ? vz;zhnj
mdfd; ? ,uhkd; cth ? mkhthir
cLgjp ? re;jpud; brw;whh; ? gifth;
fpis ? cwtpdh; mdak; ? epiwthdJ
vr;brse;jtd; ? ViH/ vspatd; fPHj;jhh; ? g[d;bra;apd; xU gFjp
bfuhKDR ? fpuhk eph;thf mYtyh; bfhlth=;fy; ? bfhLf;fy; th=;fs;
jpUiz ? jpz;iz bjf+;rj ? Koe;jij
gp+;ir ? g[d;bra; nuhrp ? cuRjy;
the;jf;fkhf ? ,zf;fkhf btjg;bgl;o ? tpoaw;fhiy
ntz;lhw ? ntz;lhj jpUif ? kht[ miuf;Fk; fy;
FWf;fk; ? rpwpa epyg;gug;g[ flfk; ? Xiyg;bgl;o
btFsp ? rpdk; g[iz ? bjg;gk;
Vkk; ? ghJfhg;g[ jU ? bry;tk;
tpj;jpahuk;gk; ? fy;tpj; bjhlf;fk; tpj;jpahg;gpahrk; ? fy;tpg; gapw;rp
cghj;jpahah; ? Mrphpah; m|uhg;gpahrk; ? vGj;Jg; gapw;rp
fPH;thapyf;fk; ? gpd;d vz;zpd; fPHj
; b
; jhif nky;thapyf;fk; ? gpd;d vz;zpd; nky;bjhif
FHpkhw;W ? bgUf;fy; tha;ghL rPjhs gj;jpuk; ? jhiH fly;
etj;tPgk; ? t=;fhyj;jpy; cs;s Xh; Ch; thapnyhna ? thapy; fhg;nghnd
ts;spnahh; ? ts;sy;fs; ta=;FbkhHp ? tps=;Fk; brhw;fs;
tpj;jp ? tpijj;J cs;spaJ ? epidj;jJ
cud; ? typik tWe;jiy ? btWikahd ,lk;
fhtpbdk; ? fl;of; bfhs;Sjy; fyd; ? ahH;/ fyg;ig fUtpfis
itf;Fk; ig
kG ? nfhlhp kley;yhh; ? ,sik bghUe;jpa bgz;fs;
kyptpHh ? tpHhf;fs; epiwe;j fyptpHh ? vGr;rp jUk; tpHh
12 G jkpH; G bkhHpgapw;rp ifnaL 63

gyptpHh ? jpirnjhWk; g{irapLk; xyptpHh ? Muthu tpHh


cj;jpu tpHh
ntl;ly; ? kPd; gpoj;jy; fHp ? cg;g=;fHp
brW ? tay; bfhs;is ? tpiy
vd;W}H; ? R{hpadpd; btg;gk; tplh; ? kiybtog;g[
fjH;t[ ? tpiut[ ckzh; ? cg;g[ tzpfh;
bjsph;g;g ? xypg;g tpspmwp ? Fuy;nfl;l
+kyp ? eha; bthP,a ? m+;rpa
kjh;fay; ? mHfpa kPd; g[dty; ? fhdtd;
ms;sy; ? nrW gfL ? vUJ
fiH ? @=;fpy; fz; ? fQ
tpuy; ? Mlth; ifg; bgUtpuy; cj;jug; gyif ? nky; ,Lk; gyif
g{jh; ? Ik;g{j=;fs; Xtpa tpjhdk; ? Xtpak; jPl;lg;gl;l ge;jy;
epj;jpyk; ? Kj;J tpUe;J ? g[Jik
kz;zpa ? fGtpa ehtyk;bghyk; ? rhk;g{ejk; vd;Dk; cah;e;j
tifg; bghd;
jiyf;nfhy; ? ehlff; fzpifah; bgWk; Xil ? Kf glhk;
gl;lk;
muR cth ? gl;lj;J ahit gurpdh; ? thH;j;jpdh;
gy;,ay; ? ,d;dpirf; fUtp FapYt khf;fs; ? ,irf; fUtpfs; thrpg;nghh;
njhhpa kfsph; ? Mlypy; njh;e;j bgz;fs; thuk; ? bja;tg;ghly;
Mke;jphpif ? ,lf;if thj;jpak; ,iyg;g{=;nfhij ? murd; mzpe;Js;s gr;ir
khiy
fH+;R ? xU tif vil mst[ eif ? rphpg;g[
,sptuy; ? rpWik kUl;if ? tpag;g[
bgUkpjk; ? bgUik ctif ? kfpH;r;rp
fha; bey; ? tpise;j bey; kh ? xUepy mst[ (Xh; Vf;fhpy;
@d;wpy; xU g=;F)
brW ? tay; jkpj;J ? jdpj;J
g[f;F ? g[Fe;J ahj;J ? nrh;j;J
ee;Jk; ? jiHf;fk; thpir ? Kiwia
fy; ? xypf;Fwpg;g[ ghpt[ ? md;g[
jg ? bfl gpz;lk; ? thp
er;rpd; ? tpUk;gpdhy; cd;dyph; ? vz;zhjPh;fs;
gpzpj;jik ? fl;oaik ePr ? ,Hpe;j
nerk; ? md;g[ ty;ypaij ? cWjpia
64  www.nammakalvi.org 12 G jkpH; G bkhHpgapw;rp ifnaL

Xh;kpd; ? Muha;e;J ghU=;fs; ghjfh; ? bfhoath;


FGkp ? xd;W To gHpg;g[iu ? ,fH;r;rpa[iu
Vjkpy; ? Fw;wkpy;yhj Cd;w ? mGe;j
khw;wk; ? brhy; Etd;wpyh; ? Twtpy;iy.

32 miHg;gpjiHg; gj;jpahf khw;Wjy;


1. fPH;f;fhQk; miHg;gpjiHg; gj;jpahf khw;Wf.

nghplh; nkyhz]ikf; fUj;ju=;fk;


ehs; : mf;nlhgh; 2 neuk; : fhiy 10 kzp
,lk; : fiythzh; mu=;fk;/ brd;id.
epfH;r;rp epuy;
jkpH;j;jha; thH;j;J
tuntw;g[iu : jpUkjp/ murp/ br+;rpYitr; r=;f xU=;fpizg;ghsh;
Kd;dpiy : jpU. mKjd;/ ,aw;if ntshz; cHth;
jiyika[iu : jpU. ,katuk;gd;/ nghplh; nkyhz]ik ,af;Feh;
fUj;ju=;fj; jiyg;g[fs;
"" ,aw;ifr; rPw;w=;fSk; ? gUtfhy khw;w=;fSk; ? Kidth; br=;Fl;Ltd;
"" nghplh;fis vjph;bfhs;SjYk; jPh;t[fSk; ? jpU. Kfpyd;
"" ePh;tHpg;ghijfisg; ghJfhj;jy; ? jpUkjp. ghj;jpkh
"" nghplh;f; fhy=;fspy; bra;af;ToaJk; bra;af; TlhjJk; ? jpU. tpd;brd;l;
ed;wpa[iu : gh;tPd;/ gRikg;gil khzth; jiyth;
ehl;Lg;gz]

mf;nlhgh; khjk; 2?Mk; ehs; fhiy 10 kzpf;F/ brd;id fiythzh; mu=;fpy; nghplh; nkyhz]
ikf; fUj;ju=;fk; eilbgw cs;sJ. ,f;fUj;ju=;fpw;F ,aw;if ntshz; cHth; jpU/ mKjd;
Kd;dpiy tfpf;fpwhh;. ,f;fUj;ju=;fpy; Kidth; br=;Fl;Ltd; mth;fs; ,aw;ifr; rPw;w=;fSk;
gUtfhy khw;w=;fSk; vd;w jiyg;gpYk;/ jpU. Kfpyd; mth;fs; nghplh;fis vjph;bfhs;SjYk;
jPh;t[fSk; vd;w jiyg;gpYk;/ jpUkjp. ghj;jpkh mth;fs; ePh;tHpg; ghijfisg; ghJfhj;jy; vd;w
jiyg;gpYk;/ jpU. tpd;brd;l; mth;fs; nghplh;f; fhy=;fspy; bra;af;ToaJk; bra;af; TlhjJk; vd;w
jiyg;gpYk; fUj;Jfisj; ju cs;sdh;.
fUj;ju=;fpd; epiwthf/ nghplh; nkyhz]ik ,af;Feh;/ jpU. ,katuk;gd; mth;fs; jiyika[iu
Mw;Wthh;fs;. epfH;r;rpf;F tUfpd;wth;fisr; br+;rpYitr; r=;f xU=;fpizg;ghsh; jpUkjp. murp
mth;fs; tuntw;f cs;shh;. gRikg;gil khzth; jiyth; $kPyh mth;fs; ed;wpa[iu Mw;wpl
cs;shh;. bjhlf;fj;jpy; jkpH;j;jha; thH;j;JlDk;/ fUj;ju=;f epiwtpy; ehl;Lg;gz]QlDk;
epfH;r;rp epiwtila[k;. midtUk; fye;J bfhz]L gad;bgw c=;fs; midtiua[k; md;g[ld;
miHf;fpd;nwhk;.
12 G jkpH; G bkhHpgapw;rp ifnaL 65

2. fPH;f;fhQk; gFjpiag; goj;J mwptpg;g[g; gyiff;fhd bra;jpia cUthf;Ff.


nth;fis tpGJfs; re;jpf;Fk; tpHh/ nk ? 5/ 2019
jpUr;rpuhg;gs;sp
ntiy fhuzkhf btspehLfspy; gphpe;J thGk; cwtpdh;fs; ,Ugj;ije;J Mz;LfSf;Fg;
gpwF re;jpf;Fk; epfH;t[ eilbgw cs;sJ.
jpUr;rp ciwa{h; md;g[ efhpy; trpf;Fk; j=;fnty; ? bghd;dk;khs; ,izahpd; @d;W jiyKiw
tHpj; njhd;wy;fs; re;jpf;Fk; epfH;t[ nk ? 5 Mk; njjp ,dpnj eilbgw cs;sJ.
cwtpdh; Tl;lj;jpy; j=;fnty; ? bghd;dk;khs; mth;fspd; kfd;fs;/ kfs;fs;/ ngud;fs;/
ngj;jpfs;/ bfhs;Sg; ngud;fs;/ bfhs;Sg; ngj;jpfs; re;jpj;Jg; bghpnahh;fsplk; thH;j;Jg;
bgWfpwhh;fs;. ,e;epfH;r;rpiaj; j=;fnty; mth;fspd; bfhs;Sg; ngj;jp bry;tp fz;kzp mth;fs;
xU=;fpizf;fpwhh;.

nth;fis tpGJfs; re;jpf;Fk; tpHh


``,ize;j cwt[k;~~ ``frpe;j fz;zpUk;~~
ehs; : 05.05.2019
,lk; : jpUr;rp ? ciwa{h; j=;fnty; bghd;dk;khs; ,y;yk;
epfH;t[ : @d;W jiy Kiw tHpj; njhd;wy;fs; re;jpf;Fk; epfH;t[
g=;nfw;g[ : j=;fnty; ? bghd;dk;khs;/ kfd;fs;/ kfs;fs;/ ngud;fs;/ ngj;jpfs;/
bfhs;Sg; ngj;jpfs; bfhs;Sg; ngud;fs;
epfH;tpd; mtrpak; : j=;fnty; ? bghd;dk;khs; ,izahplk; thH;j;Jg; bgWjy;
epfH;rr; p xU=;fpizg;ghsh; : bfhs;Sg;ngj;jp fz;kzp
tpiHt[ : cw;whh;/ cwtpdh;/ ez;gh;fs; midtUk; tUf.
``cUFJ be+;rk; bgUFJ fz;zPh;~~

3. fPH;f;fhQk; tpsk;guj;ijg; goj;J ehspjH;r; bra;jpahf khw;Wf.


g[j;jff; fz;fhl;rp
? kJ rpwg;g[ epUgh; ?
42MtJ brd;idg; g[j;jff; fhl;rp ee;jdk; xa;vk;rpV clw;fy;tpapay;
fy;Y}hp tshfj;jpy; 2019 $dthp 4 Kjy; eilbgw cs;sJ. midj;J
tajpdUk; bfhz;lhLk; Mde;jj; jpUtpHh. 800 mu=;Ffs;/ 20/00/000.
thrfh;fs;. 30/00/000/ ghh;itahsh;fs; g=;FbgWk; mwptpj;jpUtpHh.
EiHt[f; fl;lzk; qgha; 10'? kl;Lnk. eP=;fs; th=;Fk; g[j;jfj;jpw;F
10% fHpt[ cz;L. thU=;fs; g[j;jf=;fis thrpg;nghk;- thH;f;ifia
nerpg;nghk;...
tpHh Vw;ghL bjd;dpe;jpa g[j;jf tpw;gidahsh;fs; kw;Wk; gjpg;ghsh;fs;
r=;fk;.
66  12 G jkpH; G bkhHpgapw;rp ifnaL

33 Md;nwhh; bkhHpfs; (ghlg;gFjpapypUe;J)


1 MQk; bgz;Qk; XUaphpd; ,uz;L jiyfs; vd;bwGJ ? ghujpahh;
2. bgz;ikj; jhH;ik bra;njhd; fz;izf; Fj;jpf; bfhz;lhd; vd;bdGJ ? ghujpahh;
3. g[tp btg;gkiljy; kdpjd; cUthf;fpf;bfhz;l rpf;fny ? nltpl; fp=;
4. vd;idg; nghy; rpth$p eog;ghh;. Mdhy; vd;dhy;jhd; rpth$pnghy; eof;f KoahJ ? khh;yd; gpuhd;nlh
(n\hypt[l; eofh;)
5. gy ehlf=;fspy; mjpf ntiya[s;s bgUk; ghj;jpu=;fis Vw;W ehd; eoj;jpUf;fpnwd;. MdhYk;/ ,e;j
fl;lbghk;kdpy; vdf;F ,aw;ifahf vGk; czh;r;rp ehlf Kotpy; vj;jifa fisg;ig/ rpukj;ij
cz;lhf;Ffpd;wJ vd;gij epidf;f vdf;Fg; gakhfnth ,Uf;fpwJ vd;whYk; vdJ FGtpdh;fnshL
ehlf jhd;fspy; xd;Wgl;Lr; bray;gLtjpy; fhQk; ,d;gKk;/ kf;fspd; ghuhl;Ljiy neUf;Fneh;
bgWk; tha;g;g[k;/ vdf;F vjpYk; bgw Koahj xU jdp kfpH;r;rpiaj; jUfpwbjd;w cz;ik xd;nw
vdf;Ff; fpilf;Fk; bgUk; MWjyhFk;. ? eofh; jpyfk; rpth$pfnzrd;.
6. ,uz;L Kiw xUtd; xnu ejpapy; ,w=;f KoahJ ? \puhf;spl!;
7. xt;bthU ehSk; Nhpad; g[jpJ ? \puhf;spl!;
8. ts;Sts; jd;id cyfpDf;nf je;J thd;g[fH; bfhz;l jkpH;ehL ? ghujpahh;
9. ts;Stidg; bgw;wjhy; bgw;wnj g[fH; itafnk ? ghujpjhrd;.

34 nth;r;brhw;fis vr;rkhft[k; Kw;whft[k; khw;Wjy;

1. fPH;f;fhQk; tpidKw;Wr; brhw;fSf;Fhpa nth;r;brhy;iy vGjp mjd; bgabur;rk;/ tpidbar;rk;/


tpidahyiza[k; bgah;fis vGJf.
bfhz]lhd;/ bgw;wdh;/ bra;jhd;/ brd;whd;/ cz]lhd;/ fz]lhd;/ goj;jhd;/ gwpj;jhd;/ itj;jhd;/
nfl;lhd;/ njodhd;/ te;jhd;/ bfhd;whd;/ thH;thd;.

t. tpidKw;W nth;r;brhy; bgabur;rk; tpidbar;rk; tpidahyiza[k;


vz]. bgah;
1. bfhz]lhd; bfhs; bfhz]l bfhz]L bfhz]ltd;
2. bgw;wdh; bgW bgw;w bgw;W bgw;wtd;
3. bra;jhd; bra; bra;j bra;J bra;jtd;
4. brd;whh; bry; brd;w brd;W brd;wth;
5. cz]lhh; cz] cz]l cz]L cz]lth;
6. fz]lhh; fhz] fz]l fz]L fz]lth;
7. goj;jhs; go goj;j goj;J goj;jts;
8. gwpj;jhd; gwp gwpf;f gwpj;J gwpj;jth;
9. itj;jhd; it itj;j itj;J itj;jtd;
10. nfl;lhd; nfs; nfl;l nfl;L nfl;ltd;
11. njodhd; njL njoa njo njodtd;
12. te;jhd; th te;j te;J te;jtd;
13. bfhd;whh; bfhy; bfhd;w bfhd;W bfhd;wth;
14. ele;jhd; el ele;j ele;J ele;jth;
12 G jkpH; G bkhHpgapw;rp ifnaL www.nammakalvi.org 67

15. czh;e;jhd; czh; czh;e;j czh;e;J czh;e;jtd;


16. vjpj;jhs; vjph; vjph;j;j vjph;j;J vjph;j;jts;
17. mwpe;jhs; mwp mwpe;j mwpe;J mwpe;jts;
18. ijj;jhd; ij ijj;j ijj;J ijj;jtd;
19. Modhd; ML Moa Mo Moatd;
20. bfhLj;jhd; bfhL bfhLj;j bfhLj;J bfhLj;jtd;

M=;fpyg; gHbkhHpf;F ,izahd


35 jkpH;g; gHbkhHpia vGJf.
1. All is for the best. â™ô£‹ ñ‚«è.
2. A friend in need is a friend indeed. àŸø è£ôˆF™ àî¾ðõ«ù à‡¬ñ ï‡ð¡.
3. Art is long and life is short. è™M è¬óJô; èŸðõ˜  Cô.
4. All that glitters is not gold. I¡Âõù â™ô£‹ ªð£¡ù™ô.
5. A penny saved is a penny gained. CÁ¶O ªð¼ªõœ÷‹.
6. All his geese are swans. 裂¬è‚°‹ î¡ °…² ªð£¡ °…².
7. A smooth tongue and an evil heart. àœª÷£¡Á ¬õˆ¶Š ¹ø‹ å¡Á «ð꣫î.
8. As is the King, so are his subjects. ñ¡ù¡ âšõN, ñ‚èœ ÜšõN.
9. A contented mind is a continual feast. «ð£¶‹ â¡ø ñù«ñ ªð£¡ ªêŒ»‹ ñ¼‰¶.
10. A crying child will get milk. Ü¿Aø Hœ¬÷ 𣙠°®‚°‹.
11. A guilty conscience needs no accuser. °Ÿøºœ÷ ªï…² °Á°Á‚°‹.
12. A hasty man never wants woe. ݈Fó‚è£ó‚°Š ¹ˆF ñ†´.
13. A hog is an armour but still hog. àòó àòóŠ ðø‰î£½‹ ᘂ°¼M 𼉶 Ý裶.
14. A honey tongue, a heart of gall. ð®Šð¶ Þó£ñ£òí‹, Þ®Šð¶ ªð¼ñ£œ «è£M™.
15. A little stream will drive a light mill. CÁ ¶¼‹¹‹ ð™ °ˆî à.
16. A low hedge is easily leaped over. ã¬ö â¡ø£™ «ñ£¬ö»‹ 𣻋.
17. A man of courage never wants weapons. õ™ôõ‚°Š ¹™½‹ Ý»î‹.
18. A young calf knows not fear. Þ÷ƒè¡Á ðò‹ ÜPò£¶.
19. Add fuel to the fire. âKA¡ø ªè£œOJ™ â‡ªíŒ áŸPò¶ «ð£ô.
20. After death, the doctor. 自è†ìH¡ ÅKò ïñvè£ó‹.
21. All are not saints that go to church. ªõÀˆî¬õ â™ô£‹ 𣙠ݰñ£?
22. An artist lives every where. 蟫ø£¼‚°„ ªê¡ø Þì‹ â™ô£‹ CøŠ¹.
23. As you sow, so shall you reap. F¬ù M¬îˆîõ¡ F¬ù ÜÁŠð£¡; M¬ù
M¬îˆîõ¡ M¬ù ÜÁŠð£¡.
24. Barking dogs seldom bite. °¬ó‚A¡ø  讂裶.
68  12 G jkpH; G bkhHpgapw;rp ifnaL

25. Bare words buy no barley. ªõÁƒ¬è ºö‹ «ð£´ñ£?


26. Be first at a feast and the last to slander. (or) First ð‰F‚° º‰¶; ð¬ì‚°Š H‰¶.
come first served.
27. Birds of the same feather flock together. Þù‹ Þùˆ«î£´ «ê¼‹.
28. Blessed are the meek; for they shall inherit the ªð£Áˆî£˜ ÌI Ýœõ£˜.
earth.
29. Blood is thicker than water.  Ýì£M†ì£½‹ î¡ î¬ê Ý´‹.
30. Calm before the storm. ¹ò½‚°Š º¡ ܬñF.
31. Calm after the storm. ¹ò½‚°Š H¡ ܬñF.
32. Casting pearls before Swine. 迬î ÜP»«ñ£ èŸÌó õ£ê¬ù ?
33. Charity begins at home. îù‚° I…C«ò î£ùº‹ î¼ñº‹.
34. Coming events cast their shadow before. ò£¬ù õ¼‹ H¡«ù; ñE æ¬ê õ¼‹ º¡«ù.
35. Constant dropping wears the stone. âÁ‹¹ áó‚ 虽‹ «î»‹.
36. Covet all, lose all. «ðó£¬ê «ðKöŠ¹.
37. Custom in infancy becomes nature in old age. ªî£†®™ ðö‚è‹ ²´è£´ ñ†´‹. (Ü™ô¶)
(or) What is learned in the cradle is carried to the ä‰F™ õ¬÷ò£î¶ ä‹ðF™ õ¬÷»ñ£?
grave.
38. Death keeps no calender. ÝP½‹ ꣾ ËP½‹ ꣾ.
39. Difficulties give way to diligence. è¬óŠð£˜ è¬óˆî£™ 虽‹ è¬ó»‹.
40. Distance lends enchantment to the view. Þ‚è¬ó‚° Ü‚è¬ó ð„¬ê.
41. Do as Romans do when you are inRome. àô舫 å†ì å¿°.
42. Do not rob Peter to pay Paul. è¬ìˆ «îƒè£¬ò â´ˆ¶ õNŠ Hœ¬÷ò£¼‚°
à¬ì‚裫î.
43. Do not add fuel to the fire. âKA¡ø ªï¼ŠH™ â‡ªíŒ áŸø£«î.
44. Drawn wells are seldom dry. Þ¬ø‚A¡ø AíÁ ²ó‚°‹.
45. Do well what you have to do. ªêŒõù F¼‰î„ ªêŒ.
46. East or West, home is the best. âL õ¬÷ò£ù£½‹ îQ õ¬÷ «õ‡´‹.
47. Every tide has its ebb. ãŸø‹ Þ¼‰î£™ Þø‚躋 Þ¼‚°‹.
48. Empty vessels make most noise. °¬ø°ì‹ îÀ‹¹‹. (Ü) °¬ø °ì‹ È‹.
49. Early ripe, early rotten. H…C™ ð¿ˆî£™ ªõ‹HŠ «ð£°‹.
50. Even a demon will pity a woman. ªð‡ â¡ø£™ «ð»‹ Þóƒ°‹.
51. Every man hath his hood. ò£¬ù‚° å¼ è£ô‹ õ‰î£™ ̬ù‚°‹ å¼ è£ô‹
õ¼‹.
52. Every tide has its ebb. ꣇ ãPù£™ ºö‹ êÁ‚°‹. (Ü™ô¶) ò£¬ù‚ªè£¼
è£ô‹ ̬ù‚ªè£¼ è£ô‹.
53. Evil begets evil. ªè´õ£¡ «è´ G¬ùŠð£¡.
54. Experience is the mother of wisdom. ÜÂðõ«ñ ÜPM¡ HøŠHì‹.
55. Face is the index of the mind. ÜèˆF¡ Üö° ºèˆF™ ªîK»‹.
12 G jkpH; G bkhHpgapw;rp ifnaL 69

56. Failure is the stepping stone to success. «î£™M«ò ªõŸP‚°Š ð®‚è™.


57. Fair words butter no parsnips. ㆴ„ ²¬ó‚裌 èP‚° àîõ£¶. (Ü™ô¶) ꘂè¬ó
â¡Á ªê£¡ù£™ FˆF‚°ñ£?
58. Familiarity breeds contempt. ðöèŠ ðöèŠ ð£½‹ ¹O‚°‹.
59. First deserve then desire. ºìõ¡ ªè£‹¹ˆ «î‚° ݬêŠðìô£ñ£?
60. Even Homer sometimes nods. ò£¬ù‚°‹ Ü® êÁ‚°‹.
61. Good coral needs no colouring. ªð£¡ °ìˆ¶‚°Š ªð£†®ì «õ‡´ñ£?
62. Health is wealth. «ï£òŸø õ£›«õ °¬øõŸø ªê™õ‹.
63. Haste makes waste. ðîPò è£Kò‹ CîÁ‹.
64. Honesty is the best policy. «ï˜¬ñ«ò Cø‰î ªè£œ¬è.
65. Hunger breaks through stone walls. ðCõ‰FìŠ ðˆ¶‹ ðø‰¶ «ð£°‹.
66. If a crab gets fat it will not stay in its hole.  ªè£¿ˆî£™ õ¬÷J™ îƒè£¶.
67. Jack of all trade is master of none. ðôñó‹ è‡ì î„ê¡ å¼ ñóº‹ ªõ†ìñ£†ì£¡.
68. Knowledge is power. ¹ˆFñ£«ù ðôõ£¡ Ýõ£¡. (Ü) ÜP¾ ÝŸø™ õ£Œ‰î¶.
69. Kindness cannot be bought. Ü¡¬ð M¬ô‚° õ£ƒè º®ò£¶.
70. Lamb at home and lion at the chase. 𣘈 ð²; 𣌉 ¹L. (Ü)
i†®™ âL; ªõOJ™ ¹L.
71. Let every man praise the bridge he goes over. àŠH†ìõ¬ó àœ÷÷¾‹ G¬ù.
72. Little brooks make great rivers. ï£ô£Á «ê˜‰î£™ ð£ô£Á Ý°‹. (Ü)
CÁ¶O ªð¼ªõœ÷‹.
73. Little strokes fell great oaks. Ü®«ñ™ Ü® Ü®ˆî£™ Ü‹I»‹ ï輋.
74. Live and let live. õ£¿; õ£öM´.
75. Look before you leap. Ýö‹ ªîKò£ñ™ 裬ô M죫î.
76. Love is God. Ü¡«ð è쾜.
77. Misfortunes never come single. ¶¡ðƒèœ îQˆ¶ õ¼õF™¬ô. (Ü) ð†ì è£L«ô
ð´‹; ªè†ì °®«ò ªè´‹.
78. Money makes many things. ðí‹ ðˆ¶‹ ªêŒ»‹. (Ü) ðí‹ â¬î»‹ ê£F‚°‹.
79. Man proposes, God disposes.  å¡Á G¬ù‚èˆ ªîŒõ‹ å¡Á G¬ù‚°‹.
80. Make hay while the sun shines. 裟Áœ÷«ð£«î ÉŸP‚ªè£œ.
81. Make the best of a bad jole. âKAø i†®™ H´ƒAò¶ õ¬ó Þô£ð‹.
82. Man without money is a bow without an arrow. ðíI™ô£îõ¡ ï¬ìHí‹.
83. Many a slip between the cup and the lip. ¬è‚° ↮ò¶ õ£Œ‚° â†ìM™¬ô.
84. Necessity is the mother of invention. «î¬õ«ò 致H®ŠH¡ .
85. Never look a gift horse in the mouth. î£ù‹ ªè£´ˆî ñ£†¬ìŠ ð™¬ôŠ H®ˆ¶Š 𣘂裫î.
86. Nip in the bud. ºœ¬÷ º¬÷J«ô«ò AœÀ.
87. No pain no gain. à¬öŠH¡P áFò‹ Þ™¬ô.
70  www.nammakalvi.org 12 G jkpH; G bkhHpgapw;rp ifnaL

88. No rains no grains. ñ£K Þ™ô£¶ è£Kò‹ Þ™¬ô.


89. No smoke without fire. ªï¼Š¹ Þ™ô£ñ™ ¹¬è Þ™¬ô.
90. No flower makes no garland. (or) îQñó‹ «î£Š¹ Ý裶.
One flower makes no garland.
91. Our life has a limit, but knowledge is without limit. è™M è¬óJô; èŸðõ˜  Cô.
92. Perseverance prevails. ºòŸC F¼M¬ù Ý‚°‹.
93. Poor men’s words have little weight. ã¬ö ªê£™ Ü‹ðô‹ ãø£¶.
94. Practice makes one perfection. CˆFóº‹ ¬èŠðö‚è‹.
95. Prevention is better than cure. õ¼º¡ 裈î«ô ï¡Á. (Ü™ô¶)
ªõœ÷‹ õ¼º¡ ܬí«ð£´.
96. Self help is the best help. î¡ ¬è«ò îù‚° àîM.
97. Sadness and gladness succeed each other. õÁ¬ñ å¼ è£ô‹, õ÷¬ñ å¼ è£ô‹. (Ü™ô¶)
ޡ𺋠¶¡ðº‹ Þó¾‹ ð轋.
98. Something is better than nothing. ñù‹ «ð£™ õ£›¾.
99. Spare the rod and spoil the child. Ü®ò£î ñ£´ ð®ò£¶. (Ü™ô¶)
Ü® àî¾õ¶«ð£™ ܇í¡, î‹H àîõ£˜.
100. Strike the rod while it is hot. 裟Áœ÷ «ð£«î ÉŸP‚ªè£œ.
101. Strike while the iron is hot. ð¼õˆ«î ðJ˜ ªêŒ.
102. Success has many friends. ªõŸP‚° ï‡ð˜ ðô˜.
103. Take the time by the forelook. õ£ŒŠ¬ð ï¿õM죫î.
104. The Kick of the dow hurts not the colt. «è£N IFˆ¶‚ °…² ºì‹ Ý裶.
105. Law - makers should not be a law-breakers. «õL«ò ðJ¬ó «ñŒ‰î£™ M¬÷¾ â¡ù Ý°‹?
(Ü™ô¶) ê†ì‹ ÞòŸÁ«õ£˜ ê†ìˆ¬î eø‚Ã죶.
106. The Mills of God grind slow but sure. Üóê¡ Ü¡Á ªè£™õ£¡; ªîŒõ‹ G¡Á ªè£™½‹.
107. The noisy floer Catcheth no birds. ¶œÀA¡ø ñ£´ ªð£F ²ñ‚裶.
108. Think every body alike. ùŠ«ð£™ Hø¬ó»‹ G¬ù.
109. Think first and fight afterwards. â‡Eˆ ¶Eè è¼ñ‹.
110. Time and tide waits for none. è£ôº‹ ܬô»‹ âõ¼‚°‹ 裈Fó£. (Ü™ô¶)
äò˜ õ¼‹ õ¬ó Üñ£õ£¬ê 裈F¼‚裶.
111. Time once lost can never be regained. Þö‰î è£ôˆ¬î â¡Á‹ ªðø Þòô£¶.
112. Time once lost; is lost for ever. èì‰î è£ô‹ â¡Á‹ e÷£¶.
113. Tit for tat. ðN‚°Š ðN.
114. To carry coals to new castle. ªè£™ô¡ ð†ì¬øJ™ áC MŸèô£ñ£?
115. To err is human; to forgive is divine. îõÁ ªêŒõ¶ ñQî Þò™¹; ñ¡QŠð¶ ªîŒõ Þò™¹.
116. To the good people world appears good. ï™ôõ˜èÀ‚° àôè‹ ï™ôî£è«õ ªîK»‹.
117. To throw pearls before swine. 迬ˆ ªîK»ñ£ èŸÌó õ£ê¬ù?
118. Too much of anything is good for nothing. Ü÷¾‚° I…Cù£™ ܺ ï…².
12 G jkpH; G bkhHpgapw;rp ifnaL 71

119. Union is strength. åŸÁ¬ñ«ò õL¬ñ (Ü) å¡Áð†ì£™ à‡´ õ£›¾.


120. United we stand, divided we fall. å¡Áð†ì£™ à‡´ õ£›¾; åŸÁ¬ñ cƒA®™,
ܬùõ¼‚°‹ ¾.
121. Walls have ears. ð‚è‹ ð£˜ˆ¶Š «ð².
122. Wealth is best known by want. GöL¡ ܼ¬ñ ªõJL™ ªîK»‹.
123. Weight and measure take away strike. ÝŸP™ «ð£†ì£½‹ Ü÷‰¶ «ð£´.
124. Where there is a will there is a way. ñù‹ Þ¼‰î£™ ñ£˜‚è‹ à‡´.
125. While in Rome, be a Roman. á¼ì¡ 制 õ£›. (Ü™ô¶) àô舫 å†ì å¿°.
126. We are here today and gone tomorrow. Þ¡P¼Š«ð£˜ ÷ Þ™¬ô.
127. With out wisdom, wealth is worthless. M«õè‹ Þ™ô£„ ªêò™ i«í.
128. Work more, talk less. «ð„¬ê‚ °¬ø, à¬öŠ¬ðŠ ªð¼‚°.
129. Youth and age will never agree. Þ÷¬ñ»‹ º¶¬ñ»‹ â¡Á‹ 制Š«ð£õF™¬ô.
130. You will never have a friend if you must have one °Ÿø‹ 𣘂A™ ²Ÿø‹ Þ™¬ô.
without fault.
131. Time is gold. è£ô‹ ªð£¡ «ð£¡ø¶.
132. Drops of water makes an ocean. CÁ¶O ªð¼ ªõœ÷‹.
133. A sound mind a sound body. Ý«ó£‚Aòñ£ù àìL™ Ý«ó£‚Aòñ£ù ñù‹ Þ¼‚°‹.
134. Might is right. õ™ô£¡ õ°ˆî«î ê†ì‹. (Ü™ô¶) ðô«ñ êKò£ù õN.
135. The pen is mighter than the sword. «ðù£ º¬ù èˆF º¬ù¬ò Mì õ½õ£ù¶.
136. It is no use crying over split milk. ïì‰î¬î G¬ùˆ¶Š ¹ô‹ð£«î. (Ü™ô¶) èø‰î 𣙠ñ®
¹°ñ£?
137. Youth comes but once in a lifetime. õ£›M™ Þ÷¬ñ 强¬ø õ¼‹.
138. Youth is life’s seed time. õ£›M¡ M¬îŠ ð¼õ‹ õ£Lð«ñ.
139. Zest without knowledge is fire without light. ÜPM™ô£ ÜŸð à현C; ²ìK™ô£î b.
140. Zeal without prudence is frenzy. M«õè‹ Þ™ô£î ݘõ‹ ªõPJ™ º®»‹.

36 gpwbkhHpr; brhy; ePf;Fjy;


tlbkhHpr; brhw;fs;
1. m=;fj;jpdh; ? cWg;gpdh; 27. Fk;ghgpn&fk; ? FlKHf;F
2. mjpfhhp ? mYtyh; 28. rk!;jhdk; ? ehL
3. mjpgh; ? jiyth; 29. rKj;jpuk; ? fly;
4. me;epah; ? mayhh; 30. f=;fjp ? bra;jp
5. mgpn&fk; ? ePuhl;L 31. rhtp ? jpwt[nfhy;
6. mg{h;tk; ? g[Jik 32. Rfnghfk; ? ey;ypd;gk;
7. my=;fhuk; ? xg;gid 33. Rgjpdk; ? ey;y ehs;
8. mDkjp ? ,irt[ 34. brsfh;ak; ? trjp
72  12 G jkpH; G bkhHpgapw;rp ifnaL

9. mDgtk; ? gl;lwpt[ 35. j!;jhnt$; ? Mtzk;


10. Muhjid ? tHpghL 36. Jh;g;ghf;fpak; ? ey;tpidaw;w
11. Mrph;thjk; ? thH;j;J 37. njfk; ? clk;g[
12. Mgj;J ? ,lh; 38. ghPl;ir ? njh;t[
13. M!;jhdk; ? murit 39. ge;jak; ? gzak;
14. M!;jp ? bry;tk; 40. Fkh!;jh ? vGj;jh;
15. ,y+;rk; ? ifa{l;L 41. ghf;fp ? epYit
16. ,yl;rzk; ? mHF 42. bgsjPfk; ? ,aw;gpay;
17. ,yl;rpak; ? Fwpf;nfhs; 43. nahf;fpahgj;jpuk; ? ew;rhd;wpjH;
18. ,yhf ? Jiw 44. uj;J ? ePf;Ff
19. ,yhgk; ? tUtha; 45. tp+;+hdk; ? mwptpay;
20. cj;jpnahfk; ? gzp 46. tp&ak; ? bra;jp
21. cj;jpnahf!;jh; ? mYtyh; 47. kfhuhrh ? nguurh;
22. cgfhuk; ? cjtp 48. ek!;fhuk; ? tzf;fk;
23. cgnahfk; ? gad; 49. e&;lk; ? ,Hg;g[
24. fyhr;rhuk; ? gz;ghL 50. eh&;lh ? rpw;Wz;o
25. f$hdh ? fUt{yk; 51. epg[zh; ? ty;Yeh;
26. fhhpajh;rp ? brayhsh; 52. kj;jpahdk; ? ez;gfy;
53. fpukk; ? xG=;F 57. ikjhdk; ? jply;
54. fpuhkk; ? rpw;W}h; 58. $ddk; ? gpwg;g[
55. Fkhud; ? kfd; 59. $hkPd; ? gpiz
56. ge;Jkpj;jpuh; ? cwtpdUk; ez;gh;fSk;
M=;fpyr; brhw;fs;

1. M!;gpl;ly; ? kUj;Jtkid 9. gphpz;o=; gpu!; ? mr;rfk;


2. ,z;lh;bel; ? ,izak; 10. g!;!lhz;l; ? ngUe;J epiyak;
3. ,bkapy; ? kpd; m+;ry; 11. ngf;!; ? bjhiyefy;
4. Vh;nghh;l; ? tpkhd epiyak; 12. ngh!;l; MgP!; ? m+;ryfk;
5. fk;bgdp ? FGkk; 13. bug;hp$pnul;lh; ? Fsph;rhjdg;bgl;o
6. fhgp ? Fsk;gp 14. bkof;fy; &hg; ? kUe;jfk;
7. fphpkpdy; ? Fw;wthsp 15. b$uhf;!; ? efy; mr;R
8. O !;lhy; ? njePh;f;fil

37 ctikfSf;nfw;w bghUs;
1. mj;jpg;g{j;jhw; nghy; ? mhpabray;
2. moaw;w kuk; nghy; ? monahL iftplg;gLjy;
3. Miyapy; mfg;gl;l JUk;g[ nghy ? Jd;gk;
4. mdypw;gl;l bkGF nghy ? Jd;gk; fz;L JtSjy;
5. mr;rpy; thh;j;jhw; nghy ? xw;Wik
12 G jkpH; G bkhHpgapw;rp ifnaL www.nammakalvi.org 73

6. Ml;giwe;j kuk; ? cWjp


7. MHkwpahky; fhiy tpl;lJ nghy ? jpl;lkplhik
8. ,yt[fhj;j fpspnghy ? Vkhw;wk;
9. ,onahir nfl;l ehfk; nghy ? gak;
10. ,otpGe;j kuk; nghy ? ntjid
11. ,iykiw fha; nghy ? bfh+;rk; bjhpjy;
12. cs;s=;if bey;ypf;fdp nghy ? bjspt[
13. flypy; fiue;j fhak; nghy ? gadw;W nghjy;
14. efKk; rija[k; nghy ? ,izgphpahjpUj;jy;
15. ntypia gapiu nka;;e;jJ nghy ? eat+;rf bray;
16. ,Ujiyf; bfhs;sp vWk;g[ nghy ? jtpg;g[
17. gRkuj;jhzp nghy ? vspjhf gjpjy;
18. gHk; eGtpg; ghypy; tpGe;jJ nghy ? kfpH;r;rp
19. cr;re;jiyapy; Mzp moj;jhw; nghy ? cWjp
20. Rk;kh fple;j r=;if Cjpf; bfLj;jy; nghy ? ntz;lhjij bra;jy;
21. rptg{i$apy; fuo g[Fe;jJ nghy ? njitaw;w tUif
22. rh;f;fiug;ge;jypy; njd;khhp bkhHpe;jhw; nghy ? kpFjpahd ,d;gk;
23. gRe;njhy; nghh;j;jpa g[yp nghy ? eat+;rfk;
24. ehd; mwpe;jJ nghy ? gadw;Wg; nghjy;
25. kyUk; kdKk; nghy ? xw;Wik

38 kqcr; brhw;fs;
g[j;jfg; gFjp

1. Ch;g;bgah;fspd; kqcit vGJf.


g[Jf;nfhl;il ? g[Jif jpUr;rpuhg;gs;sp ? jpUr;rp
cjfkz;lyk; ? cjif nfhak;g[j;J}u; ? nfhit
ehfg;gl;odk; ? ehif g[Jr;nrhp ? g[Jit
Fk;gnfhzk; ? Fle;ij jpUbey;ntyp ? bey;iy
kd;dhh;Fo ? kd;id kapyhg;g{h; ? kapiy
irjhg;ngl;il ? irij.

TLjy; gFjp .
1. kqcr; brhw;fs;
tPunfusk; g[J}h; ? tP.nf.g[J}h; rp=;fhey;Y}h; ? rp=;if
ghg;gehaf;fd;ghisak; ? gp.vd;. ghisak; cLkiyg;ngl;il ? cLkiy
tpf;fpukrp=;fg[uk; ? tp.nf.g[uk; mk;ghrKj;jpuk; ? mk;ig
tPutey;Y}h; ? tPiu fhptyk;te;jey;Y}h; ? fhptyk;
,uhkehjg[uk; ? ,u6hk;ehL g[Jr;nrhp ? g[Jit
tz;zj;Jf;fhud;ngl;il ? tz;zhug;ngl;ilrpd;djwpngl;il ? rpe;jhjphpngl;il
74  12 G jkpH; G bkhHpgapw;rp ifnaL

39 ,izr; brhw;fs;?brhw;bwhlh; mikj;jy;

1. fhLfiu ? Mw;wpy; bts;sk; te;jhy; fhLfiubay;yhk; ntshz]ik bgUFk;.


2. tPLthry; ? thzpfk; bra;jjpy; vd; mz]zd; ,Hg;g[f;F Mshfp tPLthry; midj;ija[k;
tpw;Wtpl;lhh;.
3. njhg;g[Jut[ ? rpw;W}h;fspy; v=;F nehf;fpdhYk; mHfhd njhg;g[Jut[fs; ek;ikf; ftUk;.
4. khL kid ? vd; khkdhh; khLkid epiwag;bgw;w bgU+;bry;tuha; thH;e;jhh;.
5. e+;ir g[+;ir ? kPdhl;rp mk;kd; nfhtpYf;F e+;irg[+;ir gy Mapuk; Vf;fh; cs;sJ.
6. mojo ? Tl;lj;jpy; FHg;gk; tpistpj;jth;fs; fhtyhpd; mojof;F Mshdhh;fs;.
7. js;Sky;Y ? ehlfk; Koe;jJk; FWfpa thrypy; EiHe;j bghJkf;fs; js;Sky;Yf;F Mshapdh;.

40 fij khe;jh;fs; (Jizg;ghlk;)

,ay; 1: jk;gp bey;iyag;gUf;F


ghujp ? fojk; vGJgth;
guyp bey;iyag;gh; ? fojk; bgWgth;
,ay; 2: Kjy;fy; ? cj;jknrhHd;
kUjd; ? Typntiy bra;gtd;
my;yp ? kUjdpd; kidtp
khhpKj;J ? kPd;gpof;Fk; bjhHpy; bra;gtd;
Ky;iyak;kh ? kpuhR fhspag;gdpd; kidtp
fhspag;gd; ? Ch; kpuhR/ Ky;iyak;khtpd; fztd;
gpnuk;Fkhh; ? Chpd; Kjy; gl;ljhhp
tz;of;fhud; ? Chpy; bra;jpiaf; Twpatd;
,ay; 3: chpikj;jhfk; ? g{kzp
Kj;ijad; ? mz;zd;/ ViH tptrhap/ bts;isr;rhkpapd; mz;zd;.
@f;fk;kh ? Kj;ijad; kidtp/ bts;isr;rhkpapd; mz;zp
g=;fhUrhkp ? bts;isr;rhkpf;F q. 200 gzk; bfhLj;jth;.
Chpd; bgah; ? nkY}h;
,ay; 4: ghJfhg;gha; xU gazk;
Xl;Leh;
khzth;fs;
gazpfs;
jiyik Mrphpah;
gfytd;
t.ngh. mYtyh;
,ay; 5: jiyf;Fsk; ? njhg;gpy; KfkJ kPuhd;
cg;gh ? jhj;jh
mg;gh ? @j;jkfd;
hpilah;L $l;$; ? tPL th=;f te;jth;
12 G jkpH; G bkhHpgapw;rp ifnaL 75

,ay; 6: eofh; jpyfk; ? ghyr;re;jpud; Rs;spf;fhL


rpth$p fnzrd;
tp.gp.bf. nkdd; ? glj;jahhpg;ghsh;
nkhfd;yhy; ? kiyahs eofh;
uh$pt; ehj; ? kiyahsg;glf; fjhrphpah;
$hd;ghy; ? rpdpkhf; fiy+h;
fkyh mk;kh ? rpth$papd; kidtp
ghyr;re;jpud; ? kiyahsf; ftp+h;/eofh;
,ay; 7: r=;ffhyf; fy;btl;Lk; vd; epidt[fSk;
Iuhtjk; kfhnjtd; fy;btl;Lfisg; gobaLf;Fk; Mrphpah; ? ifj;jwpj;Jiw ,af;Feh;
ez;gh;fs;
jpU. ePyfz;l rh!;jphp ? tuyhw;Wg; nguhrphpah;
nf.tp. Rg;gpukzpadhh; ? gpuhk;kpf; fy;btl;Lfspd; Muha;r;rpf;F tpj;jpl;lth;.
,ay; 8: nfhil kiH ? rhe;jhjj;
MWKfk; ? jhj;jh
ngj;jp
lhf;lh;
brtpypah;
ghg[ ? kUe;Jf; filf;fhuu;
fztd; kidtp ? MWKfj;jpd; ngj;jpiar; RtPfhuk; vLf;f te;jth;fs;

yu^h^h^uy

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