Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 7

Multimedia

Introduction to Multi Media: - Multi Media tSls dh uke ls gh irk pyrk gSaA ;g fdlh
Information dks Represent djus ds fy;s ,d ls vf/kd izdkj ds media dk combination
gSaA ge ,d Multimedia Application Create djus ds y;s Text, Graphic, Sound, Animation
rFkk Voice ds Combine dj ldrs gSaA mijksDr nks ;k vf/kd Media ;k Combination dk
iz;ksx djrs gq, muesa izkIr gksus okys Result dks Screen ij Display dj ldrs gSaA
T.V. ij fn[kkus okys vf/kdrj Advertisement esa Multi Media Effect ns[ks tk ldrs
gSaA Multimedia dk ,d Perfect example ,d Mossion picture toy gSaA tks iwjh rjg ls
Studio ds vUnj gSaA fofHkUu animation rFkk Liver actords dks feydj cuk;h x;h
FkhA blesa Live Picture ds lc Animation dks Merge fd;k x;k Fkk rFkk Animation
dks Sound Hkh fn;s x;sA Multi Animation dks Sound Hkh fn;s x;sA Multimedia dk
mi;ksx vyx&vyx field esa fHkUu&fHkUu rjhdksa ls fd;k tkrk gSaA
(1) Desktop publish rFkk Videos Productors Information rFkk ideas dks bl izdkj
Arrange djrs gSaA ftlesa ubZ rjhds Design rFkk format miyC/k gksrs gSaA
(2) Hobbyist fofHkUu izdkj ds Albums rFkk Family History World Wide Web ij
miyC/k djkrs gSaA
(3) Business esa Word Process document rFkk Spreed Sheet ds lkFk Audio, Video
rFkk Graphic Animation Hkh Merge fd;s tkrs gSaA
(4) Multimedia Public Speaker ds fy;s Hkh mi;ksxh jgrk gSa tks vius ideas rFkk
Information vius Viwers dks nsus ds fy;s cM+s Moniters ;k Project System ij
Animation rFkk Sound ds Combine djrs gSaA
(5) Multimedia dk iz;ksx Information Managers ds }kjk Hkh fd;k tkrk gSa tks
Digital image, Sound Video rFkk Text dks Organized rFkk disturbe djrs gSaA
(6) Multimedia dk mi;ksx Educators rFkk Trainers ds }kjk Hkh fd;k tkrk gSa
tks le>kus ds fy;s Information dks Design djrs gSaA
tc fdlh Hkh Letter dks Mathematical representation ls ,d Recognizable Symbol tks fd
Screen ij Display gksxk ;k Paper ij Print gksxk rks computer dks ;g irk gksuk pkfg,
fd pixel dks Use esa ysdj Letter dks dSls represent fd;k tk,xkA Computer ;g dk;Z
miyC/k H/w rFkk gekjs }kjk pkgs x;s specification ds vuqlkj djrk gSaA High
Resolution monitors rFkk Printers vf/kd attractive rFkk vyx&vyx izdkj ds characters
cuk ldrs gSa D;ksafd mudk dpi (dots per inch) vf/kd gksrk gSaA vktdy miyC/k
softwares dbZ izdkj ds fonts miyC/k djkrs gSa ftlls user dks viuh choice dk font
select djus esa vklkuh jgrh gSaA
HTML Text: - Web ij User esa fy, tkus okys Standard document format dks Hypertext
markup language dgrs gSaA fdlh HTML document esa ge typefaces, sizes, colors rFkk
vU; Properties Use ys ldrs gSaA blds fy, document esa text dks tags esa "marking
up" djuk gksrk gSaA
fdlh document dks marking up djuk dkQh simple gSaA tSls vxj ge text dks bold
fn[kkuk pkgrs gSa rks mls <B> tag ds lkFk surround dj fn;k tkuk pkfg,A
HTML ,d text display tool gSaA fdlh HTML document esa Multimedia interfaces
miyC/k djkus ds fy, dqN Special scripts rFkk plug-ins dk iz;ksx fd;k tkrk gSaA
HTML document esa extended character set tSls special symbol dk iz;ksx djus ds fy,
dqN escape sequence dk iz;ksx fd;k tkrk gSaA ,d character entity ,d number ;k word
ls represent dh tk ldrh gSa ftls start esa ampersand (escape) yxk gksrk gS rFkk last
esa semi colon gksrk gSaA tSls & copyright symbol ds fy, "Copy" name rFkk mldk
No. 169.
HTML document esa copy right symbol & copy; ;k & # 169 dk iz;ksx djds insert fd;k
tk ldrk gSa rFkk browser }kjk (C) Character generate dj fn;k tk;sxkA
Plain text and formatted Text: - tc ge fdlh Word processor esa dk;Z djrs gSa rks by
default tks text gedks display gksrs gSa os Plain Text gksrs gSaA
fdlh Paragraph dks fy[krs le; Plain text dk gh iz;ksx fd;k tkrk gSaA tc
gesa Matter ds fdlh Part dks vU; ls vyx fn[kkuk gksrk gSa rks ge ml Text ij dqN
formatting option apply dj nsrs gSa tSls Paragraph dh Heading dks bold rFkk
Underline dj nsukA
lkekU;r% izR;sd word Processor text dh Formatting djus ds facility nsrk
gSaaA MS-Word esa text dh Formatting ds fy, Format Menu esa Font option dk
iz;ksx fd;k tkrk gSa mlesa Font dh Size, type, color rFkk vU; dbZ izdkj ds effects
apply djus ds fy, lqfo/kk miyC/k jgrh gSaA
bl izdkj text dks design djus ds fy, mlds display esa tks Hkh changes fd;s
tkrs gSa ftlls og vU; ls vyx fn[ks rks bl izdkj dk Text, Formatted text dgykrk
gSaA
Text Effects: - Viewers dk attention izkIr djus ds fy, text ij fofHkUu izdkj ds effect
Hkh apply fd;s tk ldrs gSaA ;s Text fdlh Speaker ds fy, ,d Porting device dk dke dj
ldrs gSaA Text ij dbZ izdkj effects tSls mUgsa Blink djuk mUgsa Rotate djuk
dissolve djuk etc. dbZ izdkj ds advance softwares gesa 3D text dh facility Hkh
miyC/k djk ldrs gSaA MS-Word esa Text Effect nsus dh Facility font dialog box dh
Third Tab esa nh x;h gksrh gSaA tgka Text ij fofHkUu effects tSls Blinking
Background, lasvegas lights, Marching Black ants, Shimmer spankle text etc miyC/k gksrs
gSaA
Images: - fdlh Hkh multimedia project esa Text, symbols, photo graphs tSls bitmap rFkk
vector images, 3-D images ;k Video gks ldrk gSaA Images dk iz;ksx fdlh Hkh Project
dks vf/kd Attractive rFkk Usefriendly cukus ds fy, rFkk lkFk gh Users dk interest
cuk;s j[kus ds fy, fd;k tkrk gSaA Multimedia Project ds fy, Use esa yh tkus okyh
Images nks izdkj dh gks ldrh gSa% &
(1) Bitmap: - Digital World esa bit ,d lcls NksVk element gSaA vFkkZr~ ,d ,slk
electronic concept gSa tks on ;k off, black ;k white ;k true (1) ;k false (0) gks
ldrk gSa pwafd blesa dsoy nks digits gh mi;ksx gksrs gSaA blfy, mls
binary Hkh dgrs gSaA amp ls vk; bu bits ds two-dimensional matrix ls gSaA
bl izdkj bitmap bu NksVs dots dk ,d Matrix gSa tks ,d image cukrk gSa ftls
Screen ij display ;k print fd;k tk ldrk gSaA
,d me-dimensional matrix monochrome images display djus ds fy, iz;ksx fd;k
tkrk gSaa vFkkZr~ black ;k Write nksuks ea ls ,d Color display fd;k tk ldrk gSaA
D;ksafd blesa dsoy 2 bits gh gksrs gSaA vxj gesa dqN vkSj color shads pkfg,
rks mlds fy, dqN vkSj bits dh vko';drk gksrh gSaA vr% vxj 2 bits use esa fy,
tkrs gSa rks miyc/k zero rFkk one dks 4 izdkj ls combined fd;k tk ldrk gSaA vr%
bl izdkj blls 4 colors display fd;s tk ldrs gSaA
(2) Vector: - vf/kdrj Multi media systems Vector drawn objects tSls lines rectangles,
ovals, polygons, mu Objects ds combination ls cuh complex images rFkk text use
esa ysus dh lqfo/kk miyC/k djkrs gSaA
CAD program, architects rFkk engineers ds iz;ksx ds fy, highly complex images
cukus ds fy, Vector drawn object System dk iz;ksx djrs gSaA Graphic artists tks
Images dks paper ij Print ds :i esa ysaxs] Hkh Vector drawn object use esa ysrs gSa
D;ksfd Vector images ftl rjg screen ij fn[kkbZ nsrh gSa oSlh gh paper ij fcuk jagged
gq, print Hkh gksrh gSaA
3-D animations okys Program Hkh Vector drawn graphics dk iz;ksx djrs gSaA
lHkh izdkj dh Vector images mathematical calculations dk iz;ksx djrs gq, cuk;h tkrh
gSaA
Vector ,d line gksrh gS ftls mlds 2 endpoints dh location }kjk describe fd;k
tkrk gSaA mnkgj.k ds fy, ,d Simple Rectangle fuEu izdkj defined fd;k tk ldrk
gSaA
RECT 0, 0, 200, 200
Coordinate System dk iz;ksx djrs gq, gekjk Software rectangle draw dj nsrk
gSa tks gekjh Screen ds upper left corder (0, 0) ls start gksrk gS rFkk right dh rjQ
200 pixels rFkk 200 pixels down word dh rjQ c<+k gqvk gksrk gSaA ;g rectangle ,d
square gksrk gSaA D;ksafd bldh lHkh sides same gSaA

Vector drawn is Bitmap Images: - Vector images dks describe rFkk Screen ij drawn djus
ds fy, mldh definition dks memory esa Store djuk gksrk gSaA tks Vector drawn
colored square memory esa 30 bytes occupy djrk gSa ogh square B/W bit map image
ds :i esa 5000 Bytes Occupy djsxkA
,d 200 pixel square image tks 256 Colors esa cuh gSaA mls bitmap ds form
esa 4000 bytes dh vko';drk gksxhA
bl izdkj Vector images de memory occupy djrh gSaA vr% Web pages ftu ij
Vector images use esa yh x;h gks os fast down load gksrs gSaA
Vector images dk resolution rFkk quality better gksrh gSa rFkk mUgsa fcuk
quality loss fd;s vklkuh ls c<+k;k & ?kVk;k tk ldrk gSaA vFkkZr~ Vector images
tks resize djus ij mudh quality rFkk resolution ij dksbZ effect ugha iM+rk gSa
D;ksafd ;s Memory esa miyC/k information rFkk description ds base ij mlh le;
cuk;h tkrh gSaA bl izdkj images dks resize djus ij image definition esa Hkh changes
dj fn, tkrs gSa rFkk u;h Image dj fn, tkrs gSa rFkk u;h image create dj nh tkrh
gSaA ftlls mldh quality cuh jgrh gSaA
Image File Formats: -
Drawings rFkk bitmaps dks Store djus ds fy, dbZ File Formats use esa fy, tkrs gSaA
Paint rFkk draw applications ds developers us ges'kk ,sls file formats create fd;s gSa
tks muds programs dks quickly rFkk efficiently load rFkk save djus dh facility nsrs
gSaA vf/kdrj applications files dks other common format esa write djus ds fy, Save as
option miyC/k djkrh gSaA ,sls dbZ Translators Hkh available gSa tks Cross platform
files generate dj ldrs gSa tks Macintosh rFkk Windows rFkk vU; platform ij iz;ksx dh
tk ldrh gSaA

Macintosh Formats: -
Macintosh esa izR;sd Image application PICT files dks import rFkk export dj ldrh gSa
PICT, Apple }kjk develop fd;k x;k ,d ,slk Common format gSa tks Macintosh users ds
fy, miyC/k jgrk gSaA fdlh PICT files esa bitmap rFkk Vector drawn nksuks izdkj
ds objects gks ldrs gSaA bu nksuks izdkj dks objects ds fy, application programs
tSls Metacard rFkk canvas editors dh rjg Use esa fy, tkrs gSaA

Windows formats: -
Device independent Bitmap (DIB) windows dk ,d common image file format gSa lkekU;r
% ftls BMP files dh rjg fy[kk tkrk gSaA Windows esa lHkh izdkj ds multi media
development ds fy, RIFF (Resource Interchange file format) ,d preferred file format gSaA
D;ksafd ;g file format dbZ izdkj dh files types tSls Bitmap, MIDI Scores rFkk
formatted text dks support djrk gSaA
Windows esa drawn objects dks manage djus ds fy, dksbZ common format ugha gSa
tSlk fd Macintosh }kjk blds fy, PICT files format miyC/k djkrk gSaA windows
developers ds }kjk bitmap formats ds fy, vf/kdrj DIB, BMP, PCX rFkk TIFF dk
mi;ksx djrs gSaA BMP file windows dh Bitmap file dgykrh gSaA PCS files format
originally MS-DOS ds Z-Soft Paint package ds fy, develop fd;k x;k FkkA PCX files
lHkh izdkj ds MS-DOS Pain softwares ds }kjk Open rFkk Save fd;k tk ldrk gSaA
TIFF Format ,d Universal bitmapped image format gSa rFkk vf/kdrj desktop publishing
packages }kjk iz;ksx fd;k tkrk gSaA vf/kdrj application dbZ vyx&vyx izdkj ds
files formats use esa ysrs gSaA Adobe Photoshop ds fy, PSD file format cukrk gSa
rFkk Alx format, Illwtrator ds fy, cukrk gSaA Core, CDR files, Micrographs Designer
rFkk Picture Publisher DSF rFkk PPF files cukrs gSaA
Cross Platform formats: -
Drawn objects dks vf/kd ls vf/kd platforms ij handling djus ds fy, nks common
formats DXF rFkk IGS use esa fy, tkrs gSaA
DXF, AutoDesk }kjk develop fd;k x;k Fkk tks AutoCAD ds fy, ,d ASCII Based
drawing interchange file gks ;g format vktdy dbZ computer Aided Design applications }
kjk mi;ksx fy;k tkrk gSaA IGS (or IEGS for initial graphics exchange standard) industry
committee }kjk CAD drawings dks transfer djus ds fy, develop fd;k x;k FkkA ;s
Formats 3-D rFkk animation programs esa Hkh mi;ksx fd;s tkrs gSaA
De Babelizer rFkk Image Alchemy dqN ,slh applications gSa tks specialized
image format translators miyC/k djkrh gSaA JPEG rFkk GJF images web ij use esa yh
tkus okyh common bitmap format files gSaA bUgsa cross platform formats dgk tk
ldrk gSa D;ksafd bUgsa lHkh browsers display dj ldrs gSaA

Compression of Images: - dbZ ckj Multimedia files dkQh large gksrh gSa rFkk
mUgsa Handle djus esa dkQh difficulty gksrh gSaA Files ftruh Size esa NksVh
gksrh gSa mruk gh mls vklkuh ls handle fd;k tk ldrk gSa vFkkZr~ files tYnh
open gksrh gSa Save gksrh gSa rFkk web ij download Hkh tYnh gksrh gSaA
,sls dbZ methods gSa ftUgsa vyx&vyx izdkj dh files dh compressing ds fy, iz;ksx
fd;k tkrk gSaA Famous compression technique Coding Method gSaA
bls David Hyffman }kjk develop fd;k x;k FkkA bl technique }kjk generate fd;k
x;k Code Haffman Code dgykrk gSaA
Huffmain procedure nks observation ij based gSa &
(1) fdlh Code esa tks Symbols frequently occur gksrs gSa muds codewords bu
symbol ls NksVs gksrs gSa tks Øe frequently occur gksrs gSaA
(2) fdlh Code esa os nks Symbols tks less frequently occur gksrs gSa mudh
length same gksrh gSaA
mijksDr nksuks observations ls ;g irk pyrk gSa fd first observation correct
gSaA vFkkZr~ ,d code ftlus mu symbols dks longer codewords fn, gks tks more
frequently occur gksrs gSa rks og code optimal ugha ekuk tkrk gSaA
Macintosh rFkk PC Platforms ds fy, images, audio rFkk video dks compress djds
deliver fd;k tkrk gSa blds fy, fofHkUu izdkj dh compression algorithms use esa yh
tkrh gSaA Compression ds fcuk Macintosh rFkk PC ij ,d ubZ Screen image tks ,d
second ds 30 osa Hkkx (1/30 of a second) esa cukus ds fy, cM+h ek=k esas data
transfer djuk easy ugha gksrk gSaA Compression dks le>us ds fy, three baric
concepts dks le>kuk vko';d gSaA
(1) Compression Ratio: - ;g original image dh size dks comprised image ds
dividation ls represent fd;k tkrk gSaA Compression schemes }kjk compression
ratio D;k j[kk tk,xk ;g image controls ij fuHkZj djrk gSaA ,d ,slh Image
ftlesa dbZ colors gks mudk compression ratio, small gksrk gSa rFkk ,d
image tSls blue ocean ;k sky dk compression very high gksrk gSaA
(2) Image Quality: - Compression ;k rks lossy ;k lossless gks ldrk gSaA Lossy
Schemes esa Compression ds le; dqN Picture information lot gks ldrh gSa
vFkkZr~ decompression djus ds ckn Hkh image display ugha gksrh gSaA bl
izdkj compression ds le; tSls&2 information remove gksrh jgrh gSaA Image
quality decrease gksrh tkrh gSaA Lossless schemes ges'kk original data dks
preserve j[krh gSaA bl rjg dh Schemes generally medical field esa mi;ksx esa
yh tkrh gSaA tc images data dk lost ugha gksuk pkfg,A
(3) Compression/Decompression Speed: - izR;sd Project developer ges'kk fast
compression time dks prefer djrk gSaA tcfd user display performance c<+kus
ds fy, fast decompression time dks prefer djrk gSaA

Various Attributes of images: - fdlh Hkh image ds dbZ attributes gks ldrs gSa ftuls
feydj og curh gSaA dksbZ Hkh Image, Pixels, Color, Size format etc. ls curh gSaA
Pixel monitor screen dk lcls NksVk element gSaA dksbZ Hkh image bl pixels
ls feydj gh curh gSaA fdlh image dk resolution pixel per inch esa ukik tkrk gSaA
Screen ij izR;sd pixel dks bit dh rjg ekurs gq, mUgsa on rFkk off fd;k tkrk gSaA
izR;ssd Pixel vyx&vyx color information display dj ldrk gSaA Monitor dk resolution
Hkh Pixel per inch esa ukik tkrk gSaA
Color fdlh Hkh image dk lcls mi;ksx component gSaA vkt dh ubZ technology
ds iz;ksx ls ge fdlh image ds fy, yk[kks jaxks dk iz;ksx dj ldrs gSaA Color,
electromagnetic spectrum esa Light wave dh og frequency gSaA ftls gekjh vka[ks
respond dj ldrh gSaA gekjh blls Red Green rFkk blue Color ds izfr Sensitive gksrh
gSa bUgsa Primary colors dgk tkrk gSa vr% bu colors ds chp ds rFkk muds
combustions ls cuus okys lHkh colors dks ge igpku ldrs gSaA tc Monitor dh
Screen ij electron beam Vdjkrh gSa rks blls pixel dks red, green rFkk blue dots glow
gks tkrs gSaA rFkk ge muds combition ls cuus okys colors dks specify djus ds
fy, dqN Methodology use esa yh tkrh gSaA tSls RGB, HSB, HSL, CMYK, CIE etc. 24
Bit RGB Mode dks mi;ksx esa ysrs gq, ge izR;sd dyj dh 256 choices dks set dj
ldrs gSaA 256 possible colors dks display djus ds fy, 8 bit memory dh vko';drk
gksrh gSa vr% 24 bit memory dk iz;ksx djrs gq, Øe million of colors cuk ldrs
gSaA

(256 x 256 x 256) = 16777216


CMYK color model multimedia production esa de mi;ksx fd;k tkrk gSaA ml model
dk vf/kd mi;ksx printing dk;ksZa esa fd;k tkrk gSaA tgka color separations ds fy,
cyan, magenta, yellow rFkk Black colors use fy, tkrs gSaA
Color Palettes: - Taste palettes ,slh mathematical gksrh gSa tks Screen ij display gksus
okys Pixel ds color dks define djrh gSaA Macintosh esa bu tastes dks Color lookup
tables (CLUTs) dgk tkrk gSaA Windows esa blds fy, Palette word use esa fy;k tkrk
gSaA lcls common palettes 1, 4, 8, 16 rFkk 24 bits deep gSaA table P-145 (Tay vaushan)
paint program ,d palette tool provide djkrk gSa tks miyC/k colors display djrk gSaA
256 color, 8 bit VCA system ds fy, computer ,d lookup table ;k palette dk iz;ksx ;g
determine djus ds fy, djrk gSa fd fdlh ,d le; millions of possible colors esa ls
dkSuls 256 colors display djus gSaA vf/kdrj color pickers rFkk selectors fdlh palette
color dks Numerically specify djus dk mechanism Hkh miyC/k djkrs gSaA
Size: - fdlh Hkh image dh size Hkh mldk egRoiw.kZ attribute gksrk gSaA fdlh
Hkh image dh size bl ckr ij fuHkZj djrh gsa fd geus dkSulk image format iz;ksx
fy;k gSaA Bitmap image formal ges'kk cM+h Size dh file create djrk gSaA image dh
size, image file dh processing ij izHkko Mkyrh gSa vFkkZr~ large file dks Open rFkk
save djus esa dkQh Time yxrk gSaA Web ij ges'kk images dks ges'kk small size
esa j[kk tkrk gSaA blds fy, images dks compress dj fn;k tkrk gSaA

Image Processing Software Tools: -


Image editing applications fdlh igys ls cuh gqbZ images dks modify djus mUgsa
attractive cukus rFk mUgsa vPNk look nsus ds fy, Powerful tool dh rjg dk;Z djrs
gSaA bl izdkj dh applications ubZ Images cuk ldus ds features rFkk tools Hkh
miyC/k djkrh gSaA blds vfrfjDr bl rjg ds Software images dks Scanner, video-
grabber, digital camera, clipart rFkk vU; fdlh painting rFkk drawing tool esa cukbZ x;h
Image rFkk izkIr dh x;h Image ij Hkh Processing dh facility nsrs gSaA
Painting software tSls Photoshop, fireworks rFkk painter bitmap images cukus ds fy,
iz;ksx gksrs gSaA blh izdkj coral draw, freehand, Illustrator, Designer rFkk camas tSls
Drawing software, vector based images cukrs gSaA
fdlh Hkh image processing application esa fuEu izdkj ds dqN eq[; features gksus
pkfg, &
(1) Multiple window ftlls ,d le; ,d ls vf/kd images display gks ldsA
(2) Major image data types rFkk industry standard formats esa conversion dh facility
(3) Scanner rFkk Video sources ls direct input dh lqfo/kk
(4) large memory okyh images ds fy, virtual memory dks Use esa ys ldus dh
{kerk
(5) Bitmap ds ,d portion dks select dj ldus ds fy, fofHkUu selection tools tSls
rectangle, lasso rFkk Image words.
(6) Brightness, contrast rFkk color balance controls.
(7) Multiple undo and Restore features.
(8) Sharpening rFkk smoothing controls.
(9) Geometric transformation tSls flip, skew, rotate etc.
(10) Images dks resample rFkk resize dj ldus dh ability
(11) Images dks scratch, lines, rectangle, square, circle, ellipse, polygon, airbrush,
airbrush, pencil rFkk eraser tool dk iz;ksx djds cuk ldus dh ability.
(12) Special effects nsus ds fy, fofHkUu izdkj ds filters.
(13) third party special effect plug-ins dks support dj ldus dh {kerkA
(14) Image dks layers esa design dj ldus rFkk mUgsa combined hidden rFkk
reorder dj ldus dh ability.
Unit – II (Sound)
Sound multimedia dk ,d lcls egRoiw.kZ rRo gSaA fdlh Hkh Language esa cksyk
x;k character ;k sentence, sound dgykrk gSaA ;fn fdlh Multimedia presentation esa
sound dk use fd;k x;k gSa rks og presentation ,d normal presentation ls vf/kd effective
cu tkrk gSaA
tc Hkh air esa dqN vibrate gksrs gSa rks blls ,d fo'ks"k izdkj dh pressure – waves
dk fuekZ.k gksrk gSa tks environment esa ,d LFkku ls nwljs LFkku rd igqaprh
gSa vkSj tc os gekjs eardrums rd igqaprh gSa rks gesa fofHkUu izdkj ds
pressure ;k vibration dk vglkl gksrk gSa tks sound ds :i esa gksrk gSaA
sound waves esa sound pressure level (Amplitude) rFkk frequency ;k pitch ds dkj.k
cnyko vkrk jgrk gSaA Sound waves 750 miles per hour ;k mach 1 dh speed ls
propagate gksrh gSaA vyx&vyx izdkj dh sound waves vkil esa feydj dkQh
mRd`"V ifj.kke iznku djrh gSaA tSls Music esa vyx&vyx instruments dh sound
waves mix gksrh gSaA
Physics esa foKku dh ,d fo'ks"k branch gksrh gSa ftlesa sound ij study dh tkrh
gSa bls acoustics dgrs gSaA sound ds pressure level vFkkZr~ loudness ;k volume
dks decibels (db) esa measure fd;k tkrk gSaA
Sound okLro esa ,d energy gksrh gSa blfy, cgqr rst volume gekjs eardrum ds ihNs
miyC/k receiving mechanism esa permanently damage dj ldrk gSaA lkekU;r% ,d
euq"; 6KHz range dh sound lqu ldrk gSaA
;fn gekjs vkl&ikl sound level 90 db gS rks ge viuk dk;Z dkQh eqf'dy ls dj ik,axs
rFkk fd;s x;s dk;Z esa vusd xyfr;ka gksxhA ;fn gekjs ikl sound level 80 db gSa
rks ge telephone dk mi;ksx ugha dj ldrs gSaA
Multimedia esa vkokt dk izk;sx djus ds fy, ;g t:jh ugha gSa fd gesa sound
science dk iwjk Kku gksA cfYd gesa dsoy fuEu rF;ksa dks tkuus dh vko';drk
gksxhA
(1) Sound dks dSls create fd;k tk,
(2) Computer esa sound dks dSls record fd;k tk,
(3) Record dh x;h sound dks dSls edit fd;k tk,A
(4) Multimedia project esa dSls tksM+k tk,A
Digital Sound: - Digital audio dk fuekZ.k rc gksrk gSa tc ge sound wave dks
numbers esa cny nsrs gSa ml izfØ;k dks digitizing dgrs gSaA ge sound dks
microphone, synthesizer, tape recordings ;k CD }kjk digitize dj ldrs gSaA
Digitized sound, sampled sound gksrh gSaA Second dks izR;sd fraction ,d sound
sample fy;k tkrk gSa rFkk mls bits rFkk bytes dk iz;ksx djrs gq, digital information
ds :i esa stored dj ldrs gSaA
Digital recording dh quality bl ckr ij fuHkZj djrh gSa fd sound dk sample rate D;k
gSa rFkk ,d sample dks represent djus ds fy, fdrus Number dk iz;ksx fd;k x;k
gSaA Sampling rate ;k thousands of samples per second frequency, kilohertz esa Measure
fd;k tkrk gSaA