Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 87

DISPLACEMENT METHOD OF ANALYSIS:

SLOPE DEFLECTION EQUATIONS


! General Case
! Stiffness Coefficients
! Stiffness Coefficients Derivation
! Fixed-End Moments
! Pin-Supported End Span
! Typical Problems
! Analysis of Beams
! Analysis of Frames: No Sidesway
! Analysis of Frames: Sidesway

1
Slope – Deflection Equations

i P j k
w
Cj

settlement = ∆j

i P j
Mij w Mji

θi

ψ θj

2
Degrees of Freedom

M
θΑ

A B 1 DOF: θΑ
L

P
θΑ
A
B
C
2 DOF: θΑ , θΒ
θΒ

3
Stiffness

kAA 1 kBA

A B
L

4 EI
k AA =
L
2 EI
k BA =
L

4
kAB kBB

A 1 B
L

4 EI
k BB =
L
2 EI
k AB =
L

5
Fixed-End Forces
Fixed-End Moments: Loads
P

PL L/2 L/2 PL
8 8
L

P P
2 2

w
wL2 wL2
12 12
L
wL wL
2 2

6
General Case j k
i P
w
Cj

settlement = ∆j

i P j
Mij w Mji

θi

ψ θj

7
i P j
Mij w
Mji
θi
L settlement = ∆j
ψ θj

4 EI 2 EI 2 EI 4 EI
θi + θj = M Mji = θi + θj
L L ij
L L
θj
θi
+
(MFij)∆ (MFji)∆

settlement = ∆j
+
P
w
(MFij)Load (MFji)Load

4 EI 2 EI 2 EI 4 EI
M ij = ( )θ i + ( )θ j + ( M F ij ) ∆ + ( M F ij ) Load , M ji = ( )θ i + ( )θ j + ( M F ji ) ∆ + ( M F ji ) Load 8
L L L L
Equilibrium Equations

i P j k
w
Cj

Mji Cj M
jk

Mji Mjk

+ ΣM j = 0 : − M ji − M jk + C j = 0

9
Stiffness Coefficients

Mij i j Mji
L
θj
θi

4 EI
kii = 2 EI
L k ji = ×θ i
L
1

+
2 EI
kij = 4 EI
L k jj = ×θ j
L
1

10
Matrix Formulation

4 EI 2 EI
M ij = ( )θ i + ( )θ j + ( M F ij )
L L
2 EI 4 EI
M ji = ( )θ i + ( )θ j + ( M F ji )
L L

 M ij  (4 EI / L) ( 2 EI / L) θ iI   M ij F 
M  =   θ  +  M F 
 ji   ( 2 EI / L ) ( 4 EI / L )   j   ji 

 kii kij 
[k ] = 
k ji k jj 

Stiffness Matrix

11
i P j
Mij w
Mji
θi [ M ] = [ K ][θ ] + [ FEM ]
L
θj ∆j ([ M ] − [ FEM ]) = [ K ][θ ]
ψ
[θ ] = [ K ]−1[ M ] − [ FEM ]
Mij Mji
θj
θi
Fixed-end moment
+ Stiffness matrix matrix
(MFij)∆ (MFji)∆
[D] = [K]-1([Q] - [FEM])
+
P Displacement Force matrix
(MFij)Load w (MFji)Load matrix

12
Stiffness Coefficients Derivation: Fixed-End Support
Mi θi Mj

Real beam
i j
L
Mi + M j Mi + M j
L L
L/3 M jL Mj
2 EI EI
Conjugate beam
Mi
EI MiL
θι 2 EI

MiL L M j L 2L From (1) and (2);


+ ΣM 'i = 0 : − ( )( ) + ( )( ) = 0
2 EI 3 2 EI 3 4 EI
Mi = ( )θ i
M i = 2 M j − − − (1) L
2 EI
MiL M L Mj =( )θ i
+ ↑ ΣFy = 0 : θ i − ( ) + ( j ) = 0 − − − (2) L
2 EI 2 EI 13
Stiffness Coefficients Derivation: Pinned-End Support
Mi
θi
Real beam
i j
θj
L
Mi Mi
L L
2L
3
Conjugate beam
Mi
EI MiL
θi 2 EI θj

M i L 2L MiL ML
+ ΣM ' j = 0 : ( )( ) − θ i L = 0 + ↑ ΣFy = 0 : ( ) − ( i ) +θ j = 0
2 EI 3 3EI 2 EI
ML − MiL
θi = ( i ) θj =( )
3EI 6 EI
MiL 3EI
θi = 1 = ( ) → Mi =
3EI L 14
Fixed end moment : Point Load
P Real beam Conjugate beam
A B

A L B
M M
M EI EI

M
EI ML
M 2 EI

M
ML EI
P 2 EI
PL2 PL PL2
16 EI 4 EI 16 EI

ML ML 2 PL2 PL
+ ↑ ΣFy = 0 : − − + = 0, M =
2 EI 2 EI 16 EI 8 15
P

PL PL
8 L 8
P P
P/2
2 2

P/2
PL/8

-PL/8 -PL/8

-
-PL/8 -PL/16

-
-PL/16
-PL/8
PL/4 − PL − PL PL PL
+ + =
+ 16 16 4 8
16
Uniform load

w Real beam Conjugate beam


A B
A L B
M M
M EI EI

M
EI ML
M 2 EI

M
ML EI
2 EI
wL3 wL2 wL3
w 24 EI 8 EI 24 EI

ML ML 2 wL3 wL2
+ ↑ ΣFy = 0 : − − + = 0, M =
2 EI 2 EI 24 EI 12 17
Settlements
M
Mi = Mj Real beam Mj Conjugate beam EI
L
A B

Mi + M j ∆ ∆
M
L Mi + M j
M EI
L

M
EI ML
ML
2 EI M
2 EI
M EI

ML L ML 2 L
+ ΣM B = 0 : − ∆ − ( )( ) + ( )( ) = 0,
2 EI 3 2 EI 3
6 EI∆
M= 18
L2
Pin-Supported End Span: Simple Case
P w
B
A
L
2 EI 4 EI
4 EI 2 EI θA + θB
θA + θB L L
L L
θA
θB
A + B

P
w
(FEM)AB (FEM)BA

A B
M AB = 0 = (4 EI / L)θ A + (2 EI / L)θ B + ( FEM ) AB − − − (1)

M BA = 0 = (2 EI / L)θ A + (4 EI / L)θ B + ( FEM ) BA − − − ( 2)

2(2) − (1) : 2 M BA = (6 EI / L)θ B + 2( FEM ) BA − ( FEM ) BA

( FEM ) BA
M BA = (3EI / L)θ B + ( FEM ) BA −
2 19
Pin-Supported End Span: With End Couple and Settlement
P w
MA
B
A
L ∆
4 EI 2 EI 2 EI 4 EI
θA + θB θA + θB
L L L L
θA
θB
A P B
w
(MF AB)load (MF BA)load

A B
(MF (MF BA) ∆
AB)∆ B
A

4 EI 2 EI
M AB = M A = θA + θ B + ( M AB
F
) load + ( M AB
F
) ∆ − − − (1)
L L
2 EI 4 EI
M BA = θA + θ B + ( M BA
F
)load + ( M BA
F
) ∆ − − − (2)
L L
2(2) − (1) 3EI 1 1 M
E lim inate θ A by : M BA = θ B + [( M BA
F
)load − ( M AB F
)load ] + ( M BA
F
)∆ + A
2 L 2 2 2 20
Fixed-End Moments
Fixed-End Moments: Loads
P

PL L/2 L/2 PL
8 8

L/2 L/2 PL 1 PL 3PL


+ ( )[−(− )] =
8 2 8 16

wL2 wL2
12 12

wL2 1 wL2 wL2


+ ( )[−( − )] =
12 2 12 8
21
Typical Problem CB P2
P1 w

A C
B
L1 L2

wL2
PL P PL w wL2
12
8 8 12

L L

0
4 EI 2 EI PL
M AB = θA + θB + 0 + 1 1
L1 L1 8
0 EI
2 EI 4 PL
M BA = θA + θB + 0 − 1 1
L1 L1 8
0 2
4 EI 2 EI P2 L2 wL2
M BC = θB + θC + 0 + +
L2 L2 8 12
0 2
2 EI 4 EI − P2 L2 wL2
M CB = θB + θC + 0 + −
L2 L2 8 12
22
CB P2
P1 w

A C
B
L1 L2

MBA CB M
BC

2 EI 4 EI PL
M BA = θA + θB + 0 − 1 1
L1 L1 8
2
4 EI 2 EI P L wL
M BC = θB + θC + 0 + 2 2 + 2
L2 L2 8 12

+ ΣM B = 0 : C B − M BA − M BC = 0 → Solve for θ B

23
CB P2
P1 w
MBA
MAB
A C M
CB
B MBC
L1 L2

Substitute θB in MAB, MBA, MBC, MCB

0
4 EI 2 EI PL
M AB = θA + θB + 0 + 1 1
L1 L1 8
0 EI
2 EI 4 PL
M BA = θA + θB + 0 − 1 1
L1 L1 8
0 2
4 EI 2 EI P2 L2 wL2
M BC = θB + θC + 0 + +
L2 L2 8 12
0 2
2 EI 4 EI − P2 L2 wL2
M CB = θB + θC + 0 + −
L2 L2 8 12

24
CB P2
P1 w
MBA
MAB
MCB
A MBC C
Ay B Cy
L1 L2
By = ByL + ByR

B C
P1 P2
MBA MCB
MAB A B MBC

Ay ByL ByR Cy
L1 L2

25
Example of Beams

26
Example 1

Draw the quantitative shear , bending moment diagrams and qualitative


deflected curve for the beam shown. EI is constant.

10 kN 6 kN/m

A C

4m 4m B 6m

27
10 kN 6 kN/m

A C

4m 4m B 6m
PL P wL2 wL2
8 PL w
8 30 20
FEM
MBA MBC
[M] = [K][Q] + [FEM]

B
0
4 EI 2 EI (10)(8) + ΣM B = 0 : − M BA − M BC = 0
M AB = θA + θB +
8 8 8
0 4 EI 4 EI (6)(6 2 )
2 EI 4 EI (10)(8) ( + )θ B − 10 + =0
M BA = θA + θB − 8 6 30
8 8 8
2.4
0 θB =
4 EI 2 EI (6)(6 2 ) EI
M BC = θB + θC +
6 6 30 Substitute θB in the moment equations:
0 MAB = 10.6 kN•m, MBC = 8.8 kN•m
2 EI 4 EI (6)(6) 2
M CB = θB + θC −
6 6 20 MBA = - 8.8 kN•m, MCB = -10 kN•m 28
10 kN 6 kN/m
8.8 kN•m
10.6 kN•m C
A 10 kN•m
8.8 kN•m
4m 4m B 6m

MAB = 10.6 kN•m, MBC = 8.8 kN•m


MBA = - 8.8 kN•m, MCB= -10 kN•m 2m

10 kN 18 kN
6 kN/m
A B 8.8 kN•m B
10.6 kN•m
10 kN•m
8.8 kN•m
Ay = 5.23 kN ByL = 4.78 kN ByR = 5.8 kN Cy = 12.2 kN

29
10 kN 6 kN/m
10.6 kN•m 10 kN•m
A C

5.23 kN 4m 4m B 6m 12.2 kN

4.78 + 5.8 = 10.58 kN

5.8
5.23
V (kN)
+ + x (m)
-
-
- 4.78

10.3 -12.2
M
(kN•m) + x (m)
- - -
-10.6 -8.8 -10
2.4
θB =
EI
Deflected shape x (m)
30
Example 2

Draw the quantitative shear , bending moment diagrams and qualitative


deflected curve for the beam shown. EI is constant.

10 kN 6 kN/m

A C

4m 4m B 6m

31
10 kN 6 kN/m

A C

4m 4m B 6m
PL P wL2 wL2
8 PL w
8 30 20
FEM
[M] = [K][Q] + [FEM] 10
0 4 EI 2 EI (10)(8)
M AB = θA + θB + − − − (1)
8 8 8 10
2 EI 4 EI (10)(8)
M BA = θA + θB − − − − (2)
8 8 8
4 EI 2 EI 0 (6)(6 2 )
M BC = θB + θC + − − − (3)
6 6 30
2 EI 4 EI 0 (6)(6) 2
M CB = θB + θC − − − − (4)
6 6 20
6 EI
2(2) − (1) : 2 M BA = θ B − 30
8
3EI
M BA = θ B − 15 − − − (5)
8 32
MBA MBC

B
4 EI (6)(6 2 ) Substitute θA and θB in (5), (3) and (4):
M BC = θB + − − − (3)
6 30
2
MBA = - 12.19 kN•m
2 EI (6)(6)
M CB = θB − − − − (4)
6 20 MBC = 12.19 kN•m
3EI
M BA = θ B − 15 − − − (5) MCB = - 8.30 kN•m
8
+ ΣM B = 0 : − M BA − M BC = 0

3EI 4 EI (6)(6 2 )
( + )θ B − 15 + = 0 − − − (6 )
8 6 30
7.488
θB =
EI
4 EI 2 EI
Substitute θ B in (1) : 0 = θA + θ B − 10
8 8
− 23.74
θA =
EI 33
10 kN 6 kN/m
12.19 kN•m
A C 8.30 kN•m
12.19 kN•m
4m 4m B 6m

MBA = - 12.19 kN•m, MBC = 12.19 kN•m, MCB = - 8.30 kN•m

2m
10 kN 18 kN
6 kN/m
B
A B 12.19 kN•m
C
8.30 kN•m
12.19 kN•m
Ay = 3.48 kN ByL = 6.52 kN ByR = 6.65 kN Cy = 11.35 kN

34
10 kN 6 kN/m

A C

3.48 kN 4m 4m B 6m 11.35 kN

6.52 + 6.65 = 13.17 kN

6.65
V (kN) 3.48
x (m)

- 6.52
-11.35
14
M
(kN•m) x (m)
-8.3
-12.2 7.49
θB =
EI
Deflected shape x (m)
− 23.74
θA = 35
EI
Example 3

Draw the quantitative shear , bending moment diagrams and qualitative


deflected curve for the beam shown. EI is constant.

10 kN 4 kN/m

A C
2EI 3EI
B
4m 4m 6m

36
10 kN 4 kN/m

A C
2EI 3EI
(10)(8)/8 (10)(8)/8 B (4)(62)/12 (4)(62)/12
4m 4m 6m

0 10
4(2 EI ) 2(2 EI ) (10)(8)
M AB = θA + θB + − − − (1)
8 8 8 10
2(2 EI ) 4(2 EI ) (10)(8)
M BA = θA + θB − − − − (2)
8 8 15 8
2(2) − (1) 3(2 EI ) (3 / 2)(10)(8)
: M BA = θB − − − − ( 2a )
2 8 8
12
4(3EI ) (4)(6 2 )
M BC = θB + − − − (3)
6 12

37
10 kN 4 kN/m

A C
2EI 3EI
(3/2)(10)(8)/8 B (4)(62)/12 (4)(62)/12
4m 4m 6m

15
3(2 EI ) (3 / 2)(10)(8)
M BA = θB − − − − ( 2a )
8 8
12
2
4(3EI ) (4)(6 )
M BC = θB + − − − (3)
6 12

− M BA − M BC = 0 : 2.75EIθ B = −12 + 15 = 3
θ B = 1.091 / EI

3(2 EI ) 1.091
M BA = ( ) − 15 = −14.18 kN • m
8 EI
4(3EI ) 1.091
M BC = ( ) − 12 = 14.18 kN • m
6 EI
2(3EI )
M CB = θ B − 12 = −10.91 kN • m
6 38
10 kN 4 kN/m

A C 10.91
2EI 14.18 14.18 3EI
B
4m 4m 6m

MBA = - 14.18 kN•m, MBC = 14.18 kN•m, MCB = -10.91 kN•m

10 kN 24 kN
4 kN/m
A B 14.18 kN•m
140.18 kN•m 10.91 kN•m
C
Ay = 3.23 kN ByL = 6.73 kN ByR = 12.55 kN Cy = 11.46 kN

39
10 kN 4 kN/m

A C 10.91 kN•m
2EI 3EI
3.23 kN B
4m 4m 6m 11.46 kN

6.77 + 12.55 = 19.32 kN


12.55
V (kN) 3.23 2.86
+ + x (m)
- -
-6.73 -11.46
12.91
M 5.53
(kN•m) + + x (m)
- -
-10.91
-14.18
θB = 1.091/EI
Deflected shape x (m)

40
Example 4

Draw the quantitative shear , bending moment diagrams and qualitative


deflected curve for the beam shown. EI is constant.

10 kN 12 kN•m 4 kN/m

A C
2EI 3EI
B
4m 4m 6m

41
10 kN 12 kN•m 4 kN/m

A C
2EI 3EI
1.5PL/8 = 15 B wL /12 = 12 wL2/12 = 12
2

4m 4m 6m

3(2 EI ) 0 -3.273/EI
M BA = θ B − 15 − − − (1) 4(2 EI ) 2(3EI ) (10)(8)
8 M AB = θA + θB +
4(3EI ) 8 8 8
M BC = θ B + 12 − − − (2) 7.21
6 θA = −
EI
2(3EI )
M CB = θ B − 12 − − − (3) 3.273
6 M BA = 0.75 EI ( − ) − 15 = −17.45 kN • m
12 kN•m EI
MBA M BA 3.273
M BC = 2 EI (− ) + 12 = 5.45 kN • m
EI
B MBC MBC 3.273
M CB = EI (− ) − 12 = −15.27 kN • m
EI
Jo int B : − M BA − M BC − 12 = 0

− (0.75 EI − 15) − (2 EIθ B + 12) − 12 = 0

3.273
θB = − 42
EI
3.273
M BA = 0.75EI ( − ) − 15 = −17.45 kN • m
EI
3.273
M BC = 2 EI (− ) + 12 = 5.45 kN • m
EI
3.273
M CB = EI ( − ) − 12 = −15.27 kN • m
EI

10 kN 24 kN
4 kN/m
A B 5.45 kN•m
17.45 kN•m
15.27 kN•m
C
2.82 kN 7.18 kN 10.36 kN 13.64 kN

10 kN 12 kN•m 4 kN/m

A C 15.27 kN•m
B
2.82 kN 13.64 kN
17.54 kN
43
10 kN 12 kN•m 4 kN/m

A C 15.27 kN•m
2EI 3EI
2.82 kN B 7.21
17.54 kN 13.64 kN θ A = −
4m 4m 6m EI
3.273
θB = −
10.36 EI

V (kN) 2.82
+ + 3.41 m x (m)
- -
-7.18
-13.64
11.28 7.98
M
(kN•m) + + x (m)
- -5.45 -
-17.45 -15.27

Deflected shape x (m)


− 7.21 3.273
θA = θB =
EI EI
44
Example 5

Draw the quantitative shear, bending moment diagrams, and qualitative


deflected curve for the beam shown. Support B settles 10 mm, and EI is
constant. Take E = 200 GPa, I = 200x106 mm4.

10 kN 6 kN/m
12 kN•m
B
A C
2EI 3EI
10 mm
4m 4m 6m

45
10 kN 6 kN/m
12 kN•m
B
A C
2EI 3EI
10 mm 6 EI∆
4m 4m 6m
6 EI∆ A L2
L2 6 EI∆ 6 EI∆
∆ L2 L2

[FEM]∆ C
B wL 2 B wL2
PL P PL w
8 8 30 30
[FEM]load
-12
4(2 EI ) 2(2 EI ) 6(2 EI )(0.01) (10)(8)
M AB = θA + θB + + − − − (1)
8 8 82 8
2(2 EI ) 4(2 EI ) 6(2 EI )(0.01) (10)(8)
M BA = θA + θB + − − − − ( 2)
8 8 82 8
0
4(3EI ) 2(3EI ) 6(3EI )(0.01) (6)(6 2 )
M BC = θB + θC − 2
+ − − − (3)
6 6 0 6 30
2(3EI ) 4(3EI ) 6(3EI )(0.01) (6)(6) 2
M CB = θB + θC − 2
− − − − (4)
6 6 6 30 46
10 kN 6 kN/m
12 kN•m
B
A C
2EI 3EI
10 mm
4m 4m 6m

4(2 EI ) 2(2 EI ) 6(2 EI )(0.01) (10)(8)


M AB = θA + θB + + − − − (1)
8 8 82 8
2(2 EI ) 4(2 EI ) 6(2 EI )(0.01) (10)(8)
M BA = θA + θB + − − − − ( 2)
8 8 82 8
Substitute EI = (200x106 kPa)(200x10-6 m4) = 200x200 kN• m2 :

4(2 EI ) 2(2 EI )
M AB = θA + θ B + 75 + 10 − − − (1)
8 8
2(2 EI ) 4(2 EI )
M BA = θA + θ B + 75 − 10 − − − (2)
8 8
16.5
2(2) − (1) 3(2 EI )
: M BA = θ B + 75 − (75 / 2) − 10 − (10 / 2) − 12 / 2 − − − (2a )
2 8
47
10 kN 6 kN/m
12 kN•m
B
A C
2EI 3EI
10 mm
4m 4m 6m

MBA = (3/4)(2EI)θB + 16.5


MBC = (4/6)(3EI)θB - 192.8

+ ΣMB = 0: - MBA - MBC = 0 (3/4 + 2)EIθB + 16.5 - 192.8 = 0

MBA MBC θB = 64.109/ EI


Substitute θB in (1): θA = -129.06/EI
B
Substitute θA and θB in (5), (3), (4):
MBA = 64.58 kN•m,

MBC = -64.58 kN•m

MCB = -146.69 kN•m


48
10 kN 6 kN/m
12 kN•m
B
C 146.69 kN•m
A
64.58 kN•m 64.58 kN•m

4m 4m 6m

MBA = 64.58 kN•m,

MBC = -64.58 kN•m

MCB = -146.69 kN•m 2m

10 kN 18 kN
12 kN•m
64.58 kN•m 6 kN/m
64.58 kN•m
A B 146.69 kN•m
B C

Ay = 11.57 kN ByL = -1.57 kN ByR = -29.21 kN Cy = 47.21 kN

49
10 kN 6 kN/m
12 kN•m

A C 146.69 kN•m
2EI 3EI
11.57 kN B
4m 6m 47.21 kN
4m
θA = -129.06/EI
1.57 + 29.21 = 30.78 kN θB = 64.109/ EI
V (kN) 11.57
1.57
+ x (m)
-
-29.21
-47.21
58.29 64.58
12
M
+ x (m)
(kN•m)
-

-146.69
Deflected shape x (m)
10 mm
θA = -129.06/EI θB = 64.109/ EI 50
Example 6

For the beam shown, support A settles 10 mm downward, use the slope-deflection
method to
(a)Determine all the slopes at supports
(b)Determine all the reactions at supports
(c)Draw its quantitative shear, bending moment diagrams, and qualitative
deflected shape. (3 points)
Take E= 200 GPa, I = 50(106) mm4.

12 kN•m
6 kN/m
B A
2EI C 1.5EI 10 mm
3m 3m

51
12 kN•m
6 kN/m
B A
2EI C 1.5EI 10 mm
3m 3m
6 kN/m
6(32 )
= 4.5 4.5
12
C MFw A
6(1.5 × 200 × 50)(0.01) C
32
0.01 m
= 100 kN • m 100 kN • m
MF∆
A
4(2 EI )
M CB = θC − − − (1)
3
4(1.5EI ) 2(1.5 EI )
M CA = θC + θ A + 4.5 + 100 − − − (2)
3 3
12
2(1.5EI ) 4(1.5 EI )
M AC = θC + θ A − 4.5 + 100 − − − (3)
3 3
2(2) − (2) 3(1.5EI ) 3(4.5) 100 12
: M CA = θC + + + − − − ( 2a )
2 3 2 2 2 52
12 kN•m
6 kN/m
B
A
2EI C 1.5EI 10 mm
3m 3m

4(2 EI )
M CB = θ C − − − (1)
3
3(1.5 EI ) 3(4.5) 100 12
M CA = θC + + + − − − ( 2a )
3 2 2 2
• Equilibrium equation:
MCB MCA
M CB + M CA = 0
(8 + 4.5) EI 3(4.5) 100 12
C θ C + + + =0
3 2 2 2
− 15.06
θC = = −0.0015 rad
EI
Substitute θC in eq.(3) 2(1.5 EI ) − 15.06 4(1.5 EI )
12 = ( )+ θ A − 4.5 + 100 − − − (3)
3 EI 3
− 34.22
θA = = −0.0034 rad
EI 53
12 kN•m
6 kN/m
B
A
2EI C 1.5EI 10 mm
3m 3m

− 15.06 − 34.22
θC = = −0.0015 rad θ A = = −0.0034 rad
EI EI
2(2 EI ) 2( 2 EI ) − 15.06
M BC = θC = ( ) = −20.08 kN • m
3 3 EI
4(2 EI ) 4(2 EI ) − 15.06
M CB = θC = ( ) = −40.16 kN • m
3 3 EI
20.08 kN•m 40.16 kN•m
B C
40.16 + 20.08
20.08 kN = 20.08 kN
3
18 kN
12 kN•m
6 kN/m
40.16 kN•m
C A
26.39 kN 8.39 kN
54
12 kN•m
6 kN/m
θ C = −0.0015 rad B
A
C 1.5EI 10 mm
θ A = −0.0034 rad 2EI
3m 3m
20.08 kN•m 40.16 kN•m
B C
20.08 kN 20.08 kN 12 kN•m
6 kN/m
40.16 kN•m
C A
26.39 kN 8.39 kN
V (kN) 26.39
+ 8.39
x (m)
-

M (kN•m) -20.08
20.08 12
x (m)

-40.16
Deflected shape θ C = 0.0015 rad
x (m)
θ A = 0.0034 rad 55
Example 7

For the beam shown, support A settles 10 mm downward, use the


slope-deflection method to
(a)Determine all the slopes at supports
(b)Determine all the reactions at supports
(c)Draw its quantitative shear, bending moment diagrams, and qualitative
deflected shape.
Take E= 200 GPa, I = 50(106) mm4.

12 kN•m
6 kN/m
B
A
2EI C 1.5EI 10 mm
3m 3m

56
12 kN•m
6 kN/m
B
A
2EI C 1.5EI 10 mm
3m 3m
C EI∆ C C
B ∆C ∆C 6(1.5 EI ) ∆ C
4 EI∆ C = EI∆ C
2
3 6 kN/m A 3
6( 2 EI )∆ C 4 EI∆ C
= 6(32 )
3 2
3 4.5 = 4.5
C A 12
100 C
2(2 EI ) 4 EI 6(1.5 × 200 × 50)(0.01)
M BC = θC − ∆C − − − (1) 0.01 m
3 3 32
4(2 EI ) 4 EI A = 100 kN • m
M CB = θC − ∆C − − − (2)
3 3
4(1.5 EI ) 2(1.5EI )
M CA = θC + θ A + EI∆ C + 4.5 + 100 − −(3)
3 3
12
2(1.5 EI ) 4(1.5 EI )
M AC = θC + θ A + EI∆ C − 4.5 + 100 − −(4)
3 3
2(3) − (4) 3(1.5 EI ) EI 3(4.5) 100 12
: M CA = θ C + ∆C + + + − − − (3a) 57
2 3 2 2 2 2
12 kN•m
6 kN/m
B
A
2EI C 1.5EI 10 mm
3m 3m
• Equilibrium equation: 18 kN
12 kN•m
6 kN/m
MBC MCB MCA
B C C A
Ay
By M BC + M CB M + 12 + 18(1.5) M CA + 39
(C y ) CB = −( ) (C y ) CA = CA =
3 3 3
MCB MCA
ΣM C = 0 : M CB + M CA = 0 − − − (1*)
ΣC y = 0 : (C y ) CB + (C y ) CA = 0 − − − (2*)
C
(Cy)CB (Cy)CA

Substitute in (1*) 4.167 EIθ C − 0.8333EI∆ C = −62.15 − − − (5)


Substitute in ( 2*) − 2.5 EIθ C + 3.167 EI∆ C = −101.75 − − − (6)
From (5) and (6) θ C = −25.51 / EI = −0.00255 rad ∆ C = −52.27 / EI = −5.227 mm 58
12 kN•m
6 kN/m
B
A
2EI C 1.5EI 10 mm
3m 3m
• Solve equation
− 25.51 Substitute θC and ∆C in (1), (2) and (3a)
θC = = −0.00255 rad
EI
− 52.27 M BC = 35.68 kN • m
∆C = = −5.227 mm
EI M CB = 1.67 kN • m
Substitute θC and ∆C in (4) M CA = −1.67 kN • m
− 2.86
θA = = −0.000286 rad
EI
12 kN•m
6 kN/m
35.68 kN•m B
A
2EI C 1.5EI 18(4.5) − 12 − 35.68
B y = 18 − 5.55 Ay =
3m 3m 6
= 12.45 kN = 5.55 kN
59
12 kN•m
6 kN/m
35.68 kN•m B
A
2EI C 1.5EI 10 mm
12.45 kN 5.55 kN
3m 3m

V (kN) 12.45 0.925 m


θ C = −0.00255 rad +
x (m)
∆ C = −5.227 mm
-5.55
θ A = −0.000286 rad
M (kN•m) 14.57 12
1.67 +
x (m)
-

-35.68
Deflected shape ∆ C = 5.227 mm
x (m)
θ C = 0.00255 rad
θ A = 0.000286 rad
60
Example of Frame: No Sidesway

61
Example 6

For the frame shown, use the slope-deflection method to


(a) Determine the end moments of each member and reactions at supports
(b) Draw the quantitative bending moment diagram, and also draw the
qualitative deflected shape of the entire frame.

10 kN 12 kN/m

C
B 2EI
3m
3EI
40 kN

3m
A

1m 6m

62
10 kN 36/2 = 18 12 kN/m
• Equilibrium equations
C
10
B 36 2EI 2
3m PL/8 = 30 (wL /12 ) =36 MBC
3EI
40 kN MBA
3m
A PL/8 = 30 10 − M BA − M BC = 0 − − − (1*)

1m 6m Substitute (2) and (3) in (1*)

10 − 3EIθ B + 30 − 54 = 0
• Slope-Deflection Equations
− 14 − 4.667
2(3EI ) θB = =
M AB = θ B + 30 − − − (1) (3EI ) EI
6
− 4.667
4(3EI ) Substitute θ B = in (1) to (3)
M BA = θ B − 30 − − − (2) EI
6
M AB = 25.33 kN • m
3( 2 EI )
M BC = θ B + 36 + 18 − − − (3) M BA = −39.33 kN • m
6
M BC = 49.33 kN • m
63
10 kN 12 kN/m 20.58
C
10 -39.3
B 49.33 2EI -49.33
3m 39.33
3EI MAB = 25.33 kN•m 27.7
40 kN

3m MBA = -39.33 kN•m


A 25.33 -25.33
MBC = 49.33 kN•m
1m 6m Bending moment diagram
12 kN/m
θB
B C
49.33
θB = -4.667/EI
θB
B 39.33 27.78 kN

40 kN

A 17.67 kN
Deflected curve
25.33 64
Example 7

Draw the quantitative shear, bending moment diagrams and qualitative


deflected curve for the frame shown. E = 200 GPa.

25 kN
5 kN/m
B E
240(106) mm4 C 180(106)

5m
120(106) mm4 60(106) mm4

A D
3m 3m 4m

65
25 kN
5 kN/m
PL/8 = 18.75 18.75
B E
240(106) mm4 C 180(106)
6.667+ 3.333 (wL2/12 ) = 6.667
5m
120(106) mm4 60(106) mm4

A D
3m 3m 4m
0
4(2 EI ) 2(2 EI )
M AB = θA + θB
5 5 M BA + M BC = 0
0
2(2 EI ) 4(2 EI )
M BA = θA + θB 8 16 8
5 5 ( + ) EIθ B + ( ) EIθ C = −18.75 − − − (1)
5 6 6
4( 4 EI ) 2(4 EI )
M BC = θB + θ C + 18.75
6 6 M CB + M CD + M CE = 0
2(4 EI ) 4(4 EI ) 8 16 3 9
M CB = θB + θ C − 18.75 ( ) EIθ B + ( + + ) EIθ C = 8.75 − − − (2)
6 6 6 6 5 4
3( EI )
M CD = θC − 5.29 2.86
5 From (1) and (2) : θ B = θC =
EI EI
3(3EI )
M CE = θ C + 10 66
4
Substitute θB = -1.11/EI, θc = -20.59/EI below

4(2 EI ) 0 2(2 EI ) MAB = −4.23 kN•m


M AB = θA + θB
5 5
0
2(2 EI ) 4(2 EI ) MBA = −8.46 kN•m
M BA = θA + θB
5 5
4( 4 EI ) 2(4 EI ) MBC = 8.46 kN•m
M BC = θB + θ C + 18.75
6 6
2(4 EI ) 4(4 EI ) MCB = −18.18 kN•m
M CB = θB + θ C − 18.75
6 6
3( EI ) MCD = 1.72 kN•m
M CD = θC
5
3(3EI ) MCE = 16.44 kN•m
M CE = θ C + 10
4

67
MAB = -4.23 kN•m, MBA = -8.46 kN•m, MBC = 8.46 kN•m, MCB = -18.18 kN•m,
MCD = 1.72 kN•m, MCE = 16.44 kN•m
20 kN
25 kN
16.44 kN•m
2.54 kN B 3m 3m C 2.54 kN 2.54-0.34 C E 2.2 kN

8.46 kN•m =2.2 kN


18.18 kN•m
(25(3)+8.46-18.18)/6 14.12 kN (20(2)+16.44)/4 5.89 kN
= 10.88 kN = 14.11 kN

10.88 kN 14.12+14.11=28.23 kN
8.46 kN•m 1.72 kN•m
B B (1.72)/5 = 0.34 kN
(8.46 + 4.23)/5
= 2.54 kN
5m 5m

A 2.54 kN A 0.34 kN
4.23 kN•m
10.88 kN 28.23 kN
68
24.18
14.11 1.29 m 2.33 m
10.88
1.18 m +
+ 0.78 m 3.46
+
1.72 +
-2.54 -
2.82 m -8.46 -
- -
-5.89 -8.46 - 1.18 m
- -14.12 -16.44
+
-18.18

1.67m
-2.54 0.34 + Moment diagram
4.23

Shear diagram
1.29 m 2.33 m
0.78 m

θB = −5.29/EI 1.18 m

θC = 2.86/EI
1.67m

Deflected curve 69
Example of Frames: Sidesway

70
Example 8

Determine the moments at each joint of the frame and draw the quantitative
bending moment diagrams and qualitative deflected curve . The joints at A and
D are fixed and joint C is assumed pin-connected. EI is constant for each member

3m
B C
1m
10 kN

3m

A D

71
• Overview
C • Unknowns
B
1m
10 kN θB and ∆

• Boundary Conditions
3m
MDC θA = θD = 0
MAB
A Ax D D
x • Equilibrium Conditions
3m
- Joint B
Ay Dy
B

MBA MBC

ΣM B = 0 : M BA + M BC = 0 − − − (1*)

- Entire Frame
+
→ ΣFx = 0 : 10 − Ax − Dx = 0 − − − (2*)
72
∆ ∆ MAB
(0.375EI∆)∆
B C
1m B C
10 kN (0.375EI∆)∆ 10 kN
(5.625)load
4m 4m
3m
(1.875)load (1/2)(0.375EI∆)∆
(0.375EI∆)∆ A D
A D Ax Dx
(0.375EI∆)∆
3m

• Slope-Deflection Equations MBA MDC


5.625 0.375EI∆
2( EI ) 10(3)(1 ) 6 EI∆
2
+ ΣM B = 0 :
M AB = θB + + 2 − − − (1)
4 42 4 ( M AB + M BA )
5.625 0.375EI∆ Ax =
4( EI ) 10(3 )(1) 6 EI∆
2 4
M BA = θB − + 2 − − − (2) Ax = 0.375EIθ B + 0.1875EI∆ + 1.563 − − − (5)
4 42 4
3( EI )
M BC = θB − − − (3)
3 + ΣM C = 0 :
1 M DC
M DC = 0.375EI∆ − 0.375EI∆ = 0.1875EI∆ − − − (4) Dx = = 0.0468EI∆ − − − (6)
2 4 73
Equilibrium Conditions: • Solve equation

M BA + M BC = 0 − − − (1*) Substitute (2) and (3) in (1*)


10 − Ax − Dx = 0 − − − (2*)
2EI θB + 0.375EI ∆ = 5.625 ----(7)
Slope-Deflection Equations: Substitute (5) and (6) in (2*)
2( EI )
M AB = θ B + 5.625 + 0.375EI∆ − − − (1) − 0.375EIθ B − 0.235EI∆ = −8.437 − − − (8)
4
4( EI )
M BA = θ B − 5.625 + 0.375EI∆ − − − (2) From (7) and (8) can solve;
4
3( EI ) − 5.6 44.8
M BC = θ B − − − (3) θ B = ∆ =
3 EI EI

M DC = 0.1875EI∆ − − − (4) − 5.6 44.8


Substituteθ B = and ∆ = in (1)to (6)
EI EI

Horizontal reaction at supports: MAB = 15.88 kN•m


Ax = 0.375EIθ B + 0.1875EI∆ + 1.563 − − − (5) MBA = 5.6 kN•m
MBC = -5.6 kN•m
Dx = 0.0468EI∆ − − − (6) MDC = 8.42 kN•m
Ax = 7.9 kN
Dx = 2.1 kN
74
B C
1m MAB = 15.88 kN•m, MBA = 5.6 kN•m,
10 kN
5.6 MBC = -5.6 kN•m, MDC = 8.42 kN•m,
Ax = 7.9 kN, Dx = 2.1 kN,
3m
15.88 8.42
A 7.9 kN D 2.1 kN
3m

5.6 ∆ = 44.8/EI ∆ = 44.8/EI


5.6 C C
B B
7.8 θB = -5.6/EI

A 15.88 D A D
8.42
Bending moment diagram Deflected curve 75
Example 9

From the frame shown use the slope-deflection method to:


(a) Determine the end moments of each member and reactions at supports
(b) Draw the quantitative bending moment diagram, and also draw the
qualitative deflected shape of the entire frame.

B C pin
2 EI
10 kN
EI 2.5 EI 4m
2m
A D
4m 3m

76
• Overview

B ∆ 2EI ∆ CD • Unknowns
∆BC
B´ C ∆ θB and ∆
10 kN
EI 2.5EI 4m • Boundary Conditions
2m MDC
MAB
A Ax Dx θA = θD = 0
D
Ay Dy
4m 3m • Equilibrium Conditions
- Joint B
B

MBA MBC

ΣM B = 0 : M BA + M BC = 0 − − − (1*)

- Entire Frame
+
→ ΣFx = 0 : 10 − Ax − Dx = 0 − − − (2*)
77
• Slope-Deflection Equation

B ∆ ∆ CD = ∆ / cos 36.87° = 1.25 ∆
5 ∆BC

B´ 2EI C ∆ ∆CD
10 kN 36.87° ∆BC = ∆ tan 36.87° = 0.75 ∆
EI 2.5EI 4m 36.87°
2m C ∆
PL/8 = 5 D
A
4m 3m 2( EI )
M AB = θ B + 0.375EI∆ + 5 − − − (1)
0.375EI∆ 4
(6)(2.5EI)(1.25∆)/(5)2 = 0.75EI∆
4( EI )
B C´ M BA = θ B + 0.375EI∆ − 5 − − − (2)
4
∆´ ∆CD= 1.25 ∆
B´ C 3(2 EI )
M BC = θ B − 0.2813EI∆ − − − (3)
4
M DC = 0.375EI∆ − − − (4)
A
D
0.75EI∆ (1/2) 0.75EI∆
6EI∆/(4) 2= 0.375EI∆
C´ (6)(2EI)(0.75∆)/(4) 2 = 0.5625EI∆
0.5625EI∆
B ∆BC= 0.75 ∆
B´ C
(1/2) 0.5625EI∆
78
• Horizontal reactions
B 2 EI pin
C
10 kN
EI 2.5 EI 4m
2m
A D
4m 3m

MBC B C
MBA
MBC
B
MBC 4
10 kN
4
C
A Ax = (MBA+ MAB-20)/4 -----(5)
MAB Dx= (MDC-(3/4)MBC)/4 ---(6)
D
MDC
MBC/4 79
Equilibrium Conditions: • Solve equations

M BA + M BC = 0 − − − (1*) Substitute (2) and (3) in (1*)


10 − Ax − Dx = 0 − − − (2*)
2.5EIθ B + 0.0938 EI∆ − 5 = 0 − − − (7)

Slope-Deflection Equation: Substitute (5) and (6) in (2*)


2( EI ) 6 EI∆ 0.0938EIθ B + 0.334EI∆ − 5 = 0 − − − (8)
M AB = θB + 5 + 2 − − − (1)
4 4
4( EI ) 6 EI∆ From (7) and (8) can solve;
M BA = θB −5 + 2 − − − (2)
4 4 1.45 − 14.56
3(2 EI ) 3(2 EI )(0.75∆) θ B = ∆ =
M BC = θB − − − − (3) EI EI
2
4 4
1.45 − 14.56
3(2.5EI )(1.25∆) Substituteθ B = and ∆ = in (1)to (6)
M DC = − − − ( 4) EI EI
52
Horizontal reactions at supports: MAB = 15.88 kN•m
( M BA + M AB − 20) MBA = 5.6 kN•m
Ax = − − − (5) MBC = -5.6 kN•m
4
MDC = 8.42 kN•m
3
M DC − M BC Ax = 7.9 kN
Dx = 4 − − − (6) Dx = 2.1 kN
4 80
1.91 MAB = 11.19 kN•m
B 2 EI pin MBA = 1.91 kN•m
1.91
C MBC = -1.91 kN•m
10 kN
4m MDC = 5.46 kN•m
EI 2.5 EI
2m 5.46 Ax = 8.28 kN•m
11.19 kN•m
A 8.27 kN 1.73 Dx = 1.72 kN•m
D
0.478 kN 0.478 kN
4m 3m
∆ ∆
1.91 θB=1.45/EI
B B
1.91 C C

5.35 θB=1.45/EI
5.46
A 11.19 A
D D

Bending-moment diagram Deflected shape

81
Example 10

From the frame shown use the moment distribution method to:
(a) Determine all the reactions at supports, and also
(b) Draw its quantitative shear and bending moment diagrams, and
qualitative deflected curve.

20 kN/m 3m
B pin
C
3EI

3m 2EI
4EI 4m

A
D

82
• Overview
∆ ∆ • Unknowns
B
θB and ∆
20 kN/m C
3EI
• Boundary Conditions
3m 2EI 4EI θA = θD = 0
4m
• Equilibrium Conditions

A - Joint B
[FEM]load D B
3m
MBA MBC

ΣM B = 0 : M BA + M BC = 0 − − − (1*)

- Entire Frame
+
→ ΣFx = 0 : 60 − Ax − Dx = 0 − − − (2*)
83
• Slope-Deflection Equation
3m ∆ ∆
B B C
20 kN/m C 6(2EI∆)/(3)
2

3EI = 1.333EI∆ 1.5EI∆


wL2/12 = 15
3m 2EI 4EI
4m
wL2/12 = 15 6(2EI∆)/(3) 2
= 1.333EI∆ 6(4EI∆)/(4) 2
A A = 1.5EI∆
[FEM]load D (1/2)(1.5EI∆)
[FEM]∆
0 D
4(2 EI ) 2(2 EI )
M AB = θA + θ B + 15 + 1.333EI∆ = 1.333EIθ B + 15 + 1.333EI∆ ----------(1)
3 3
0
2( 2 EI ) 4(2 EI )
M BA = θA + θ B − 15 + 1.333EI∆ = 2.667 EIθ B − 15 + 1.333EI∆ ----------(2)
3 3
3(3EI )
M BC = θ B = 3EIθ B ----------(3)
3
0
3( 4 EI )
M DC = θ D + 0.75 EI∆ = 0.75 EI∆ ----------(4)
4
84
• Horizontal reactions

MAB

C
B + ΣM B = 0 :
1.5 m M BA + M AB + 60(1.5)
60 kN Ax =
4m 3
Ax = 1.333EIθ B + 0.889 EI∆ + 30 − − − (5)
1.5 m
A
Ax D Dx + ΣMC = 0:
MDC M DC
MBA Dx = = 0.188EI∆ − − − (6)
4

85
Equilibrium Conditions • Solve equation

M BA + M BC = 0 − − − (1*) Substitute (2) and (3) in (1*)


60 − Ax − Dx = 0 − − − (2*)
5.667 EIθ B + 1.333EI∆ = 15 − − − (7)

Equation of moment Substitute (5) and (6) in (2*)

M AB = 1.333EIθ B + 15 + 1.333EI∆ − − − (1) − 1.333EIθ B − 1.077 EI∆ = −30 − − − (8)

M BA = 2.667 EIθ B − 15 + 1.333EI∆ − − − (2)


From (7) and (8), solve equations;
− 5.51 34.67
M BC = 3EIθ B − − − (3) θB = ∆=
EI EI
M DC = 0.75 EI∆ − − − ( 4) − 5.51 34.67
Substituteθ B = and ∆ = in (1)to (6)
EI EI
Horizontal reaction at support M AB = 53.87 kN • m
M BA = 16.52 kN • m
Ax = 1.333EIθ B + 0.889 EI∆ + 30 − − − (5) M BC = −16.52 kN • m
M DC = 26.0 kN • m
Dx = 0.188EI∆ − − − (6)
Ax = 53.48 kN
Dx = 6.52 kN 86
B 3m
C
M AB = 53.87 kN • m
20 kN/m 16.52 kN•m
M BA = 16.52 kN • m
3m M BC = −16.52 kN • m
53.87 kN•m 4m M DC = 26.0 kN • m

53.48 kN Ax = 53.48 kN
A 26 kN•m Dx = 6.52 kN
5.55 kN D
6.52 kN
5.55 kN
16.52 ∆ ∆
16.52 C
B C B

53.87
A A
26. Deflected shape
Moment diagram 87
D D