Journal of Hydrology, 82 (1985) 7791
Elsevier Science Publishers B.V., Amsterdam  Printed in The Netherlands
[1]
77
REGIONALIZATION OF FLOW DURATION CHARACTERISTICS
MARIA MLMIKOU and STELLA KAEMAKI
Division of Water Resources, Hydraulic and Maritime Engineering, Department, Technical University of Athens, Athens (Greece)
Civil Engineering
(Received March 16, 1985; revised and accepted June 18, 1985)
ABSTRACT
Mimikou, M. and Kaemaki, S., 1985. Regionalization of flow duration characteristics. J. Hydrol., 82: 7791.
The flow duration curve is regionalized by using morphoclimatic characteristics of the drainage basin. The monthly flow duration characteristics at eleven major flow measuring sites across the western and northwestern regions of Greece were first para meterized. Using multiple regression techniques, the geographic variation of each para meter of the best fitted flow duration model is explained in terms of the mean annual areal precipitation, the drainage area, the hypsometric fall and the length of the main river course from the divide of the basin to the site of interest. The regionalized regression equations are successfully used to synthesize flow duration curves at other locations within the hydrologically homogeneous regions of western and northwestern Greece. The method is useful in obtaining estimates of water availability for hydropower at ungaged sites (especially for small hydropower plants, for runofriver plants), or for other water resources development (water supply, water quality projects), within the regions studied, where the main governmental interest for water resources development is focused.
INTRODUCTION
One of the main concerns of the governmental policy in developing countries is to ensure energy supplies at the lowest possible cost and the highest possible reliability. The international oil crisis of the last decade has seriously affected both cost and reliability of the imported fossil fuel in Greece, making thus the exploitation of domestic energy sources and especi ally of hydropower sources very challenging. The country has embarked on a wide national program of hydropower development and generally of water resources development. The main governmental interest for water resources development is focused to the western and northwestern regions of Greece where abundant water resources are available and the major rivers of Greece are concentrated. A component of this development is devoted to small hydropower. Water supply and water quality control systems are also
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© 1985 Elsevier Science Publishers B.V.
78
programmed to be built. Usually, the small projects and several large hydro projects as well, are located at ungaged sites and either their scale does not justify or the inaccessibility of their location does not permit a preproject data acquisition at the site. Thus, the hydrologic design of these projects must be based on information spatially transferred from other gaged sites. The majority of the potential water resources development sites of the area studied are remote from existing hydrometeorologic stations so that the transfer of hydrologic information, especially of runoff characteristics, by using regression analysis (rainfallrunoff analysis, etc.) has been proved untenable in most of the cases. The only method which seems to be appro priate in such cases is to attempt the spatial transfer of information through regionalization (Mimikou, 1982, 1984). It is well known that the hydropower potential at a certain site depends on the water availability and on the hydraulic head. Thus, a hydrologic concern in the design is to estimate the flow availability at the site, which is readily expressed by the flow duration curve. Although the latter does not give the sequence of flows, that is provided by the complete hydrograph, it yields a quick indication of the need for a storage reservoir at a certain river site where a given flow is to be maintained and gives information needed for the estimation of the hydropower potential at the site. It is thus a usefull tool in preliminary hydroelectric energy studies. The curve gives hydrologic information needed, as well in water supply studies and in water quality studies. Basic scope of the paper is to develop a simple technique for estimating water availability at ungaged sites or generally at sites where data is scarce. The regionalization of monthly flow duration characteristics in western and northwestern Greece is presented. The technique is successfully applied in estimating synthetic flow duration curves at ungaged sites of the area studied, by using as input information morphoclimatic characteristics of the drainage basins. Conclusions are drawn for the accuracy and the usefulness of the technique, and a comparative reference to other related studies on the same subject (Singh, 1971; Quimpo et al., 1983) is undertaken.
DATA USED
Eleven representative hydrometric stations of the five major rivers (the Aliakmon, Acheloos, Arachtos, Aoos and Kalamas) in western and north western Greece have been used. The monthly flow records for all stations, with which the flow duration curves have been calibrated, belong to the Public Power Corporation. Characteristics of the stations (name, location and the lengths in years of the records studied) are given in Table 1. All stations are equipped with permanent installations for measuring flows with current meters and with staff gage recorders and have accurate and reliable data. The general location of the rivers and of the measuring stations is
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Fig. f. General location of the measuring stations.
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TABLE 1
Characteristics of the measuring stations
River 
Station 
Latitude 

Aliakmon 
Ilarion 
40 ° 
06' 
15" 
Siatista 
40 ° 
13' 
30" 

Grevena 
40 ° 
03' 
00" 

Acheloos 
Avlaki 
39 ° 
10' 
40" 
Aracthos 
Plaka 
39 ° 
28 ' 
00" 
Tsimovo 
39 ° 
34' 
50" 

Gogos 
39 ° 
32 ' 
15" 

Aoos 
Konitsa 
40 ° 
01' 
50" 
Vovoussa 
42° 
55' 
40" 

Kalamas 
Vrossina 
39 ° 
38' 
20" 
Soulopoulo 
39 ° 
43' 
20 '~ 

Aoos 
Piges 
39 ° 
49' 
30" 
Kalamas 
Kioteki 
39 ° 
34' 
00" 
TABLE 2 

Morphoclimatic characteristics 

River 
Station 
_{A}_{n}_{n}_{u}_{a}_{l} 
Drainage 

precipita 
area A 

tion P 
(km 2 ) 

(ram) 

Aliakmon 
Ilarion 
815 
5OO5 

Siatista 
811 
2724 

Grevena 
1057 
817 

Acheloos 
Avlaki 
1987 
1349 

Aracthos 
Plaka 
1581 
970 

Tsimovo 
1413 
640 

Gogos 
1780 
204 

Aoos 
Konitsa 
122U 
665 

Vovoussa 
1449 
202 

Kalamas 
Vrossina 
1484 
1035.5 

Soulopoulo 
1421 
661.4 

Aoos 
Piges 
1450 
86.3 

Kalamas 
Kioteki 
1550 
1481.4 
Longitude 
Number of 

yrs of 

record 

21 
° 
48' 
15" 
20 
21 
° 
29' 
45" 
20 
21 
° 
29' 
45" 
20 
21 
° 
22' 
45" 
27 
21 
° 
01' 
45" 
28 
20 
° 
59' 
15" 
28 
21 
° 
04' 
45" 
28 
20 
° 
45' 
45" 
17 
21 
° 
04' 
45" 
15 
20 
° 
30' 
45" 
8 
20 
° 
36' 
25" 
9 
21 
° 
03' 
45" 
7 
20 
° 
20' 
15" 
15 
Hypsometric 
Length 

fall H 
L 

(m) 
(km) 

700 
133 

500 
81 

400 
42 

1000 
65 

600 
50 

600 
40 

1000 
18 

800 
71 

400 
30 

300 
38 

200 
22 

80 
15 

350 
60 
81
shown in Fig. 1. In addition to the monthly flow data of the measuring stations, which have been used in the calibration of the flow duration curve, several morphoclimatic characteristics of the drainage basins at the sites
have been used as well in the regionalization of the parameters of the curve. These characteristics are the following: the mean annual areal precipitation
P (mm), the drainage area A (km ~), the hypsometric fall H (m) and the
length L (km) of the main river course from the divide of the basin to the measuring station. The precipitation and area data are taken from the hydrological records of the Greek Public Power Corporation, whereas the hypsometric fall and the length of the rivers have been calculated from maps. The morphoclimatic characteristics of the 11 drainage basins are given in Table 2. In the last two rows of Tables 1 and 2 the corresponding character istics of two additional drainage basins on the Kalamas and the Aoos rivers, are given. They have been used in verifying the applicability and accuracy of the regional technique presented for estimating synthetic flow duration
curves.
CALIBRATION OF THE FLOW DURATION CURVES
The flow duration curve is a plot of discharge Q versus the percent of time
D during the period of the record in which the particular discharge is equaled
or exceeded. It is a well known and widely used graph and details of the procedure for the development of the curve can be found in introductory hydrology books (Linsley and Franzini, 1972). Because of the numerical procedure followed, the time interval used in the derivation affects the shape
of the curve. In this study monthly flow values have been used for the deri
vation of the duration curves. This is due to the needs of the design of the hydropower and other hydraulic installations of the area. Following the definition of the flow duration curve, it is apparent that the
analytical expression of the curve depends on the serial correlation structure
of the flow time series. For series with statistically insignificant serial correla
tion, the flow duration characteristics could be modelled with a probability
distribution model (gaussian, lognormal, etc.), as it is common practice
when dealing with statistical data (Yevjevich, 1972). Nevertheless, in most of the cases the flow series are autocorrelated (Kashyap and Rao, 1976) and this is why the flow duration curve procedure differs from a probability distribution approach. The serial dependence of the monthly flow series at the 11 sites used in this study has been checked by using the autocorrelation analysis and the Portmanteau check for testing the significance of the first order autocorrelation coefficient (Box and Jenkins, 1970). It was found that
all 
series exhibit a statistically significant firstorder autocorrelation structure 
at 
the 95% confidence level. 
Various mathematical models for the flow duration curve have been used 

in 
the literature. Singh (1971} conducted a research on flow duration curves 
82
in the midwestern United States and developed a model according to which the dimensionless discharge (discharge Q divided by the average discharge of the record) corresponding to a certain precent of time D is a simple power function of the drainage area, whereas the constant and the exponent of the relationship are regionally varying functions of D. This type of approach could not be applied to the data of this study, since the power regressions developed between dimensionless discharge and drainage area for several values of D were found to be very poor. Quimpo et al. (1983), have para meterized daily flow duration curves in the Philippines by using an expo nential and a power form model as follows:
Q 
 
a exp 
( bD) 
(1) 

Q 
= 
a 
D 
b 
(2) 
where Q is the discharge (per unit area of the basin), D is the corresponding time of exceedance and a and b are positive constants. They found that the exponential model of eqn (1) fitted the daily data better compared to the power model of eqn. (2). In the present study, besides the exponential and power models given in eqns. (1) and (2) another three flow duration models have been used. These models are the following:
Q 
 
ablnD 
(3) 

Q 
= 
a 
 
bD 
+ 
cD 2 
(4) 
Q 
= 
abD+cD:dD3 
(5) 
In all eqns. (1)(5) and in order to avoid spurious regressions, discharge Q is
treated in its original units without reducing it per unit area of the basin. The parameters a, b, c and d are positive constants. It has to be mentioned that the flow duration models are presented in eqns. (1)(5) in their final form
as far as the sign of their coefficients is concerned. The models initially
tested had positive signs in the coefficients a, b, c and d in all eqns. (1)(5). Then, the fitted on the real data models came up with negative values for the coefficients b and d for all models and stations studied. In other words,
it appears that the general features of the studied duration curves suggest
that the sign of the coefficients of the odd powers of D (or of its logarithm)
in the fitted models must be negative. The monthly flow data at all 11
stations in Table 1 have been treated according to the standard procedure for a flow duration curve development suggested by the U.S. Geological Survey (1959). A set of paired values of discharge Q, in m 3 s', and the corresponding percent of time D, that Q has been exceeded during the analyzed record, has been estimated for each station. The 4%, 8%, 12% (interval increasing 4% each time up to 100%) values have been then ex tracted by interpolation to yield 25 pairs of (Q, D) values for each station. The models were fitted to each set of 25 pairs by using the leastsquares method. The model with the lesser sum of squares of residuals was selected
200I
150
~00
ILARION
 Calculated
• Real
value
curve
TION
50 
. 

o 

0 
O0 
0 
25 
0 50 
075 
1O0 

DPercent 
of tqme 
O 
is equaled 
or exceeded 

200 
QREVENA 

 Calculated 
curve 

• Real 
~alue 

150 

cl 
CALIBRATION 

100 

50 

o1~ 

000 
025 
050 
075 
100 

D Percent 
of tqme 
O 
is equa~ed 
or exceeded 
Fig.
stations.
2.
Flow
duration curves at the Ilarion,
20[ 

2 

v 

15( 

100 

o 

o.0o 
025 
~.~ 200 I
cl
150
100
50
0
DPercent
O0
025
D Percent
SIATISTA
 Calculated
• Real
va~ue
83
curve
CALIBRATION
050 
075 
100 

of trine 
Q 
~ 
equaled 
or exceeded 

A~LAN I 

Calculated 
CUrve 

• 
Real 
value 

CALIBRATION 

".° 

050 
075 
100 

of 
brae 
O 
15 equaled 
or exceeded 
Siatista,
Grevena and Avlaki measuring
to be the best model to parameterize the flow duration characteristics at each station. It was found that the cubic model in eqn. (5) is the best for all stations. The difference between the previously mentioned best exponential
84
2O0
o 

150 

100 

50 

000 
025 
050 

D~ Percent of t,me 

2oo 

o 

~Z 

v 

15C 
~3
100
PLA•A

•
Calculated
Real
value
curve
CALI BRAT I,qN
075
O ,s equaled
100
or exceeded
GOGOS
 Calculated
•
Real
value
curve
CALIBRATION
50 

o 

ooo 
025 
050 
075 
100 
D Percent of t~me Q ps equaled
or exceeded
Fig.
stations.
3.
Flow
duration
curves
at
the
Plaka,
TSInOUO
 Calculated
curve
2001 
• Real 
value 

g 
~ 

150 

u 
CALIBRATION 

0 
l 

; ,ool 

o.00 
025 
050 
075 
100 

DPercent 
of time 
O ,S equaled 
or exceeded 
^{2}^{0}^{C}^{,}^{~} I
^{g} L
~
150
KONITSA
 Calculated curve • Real value
CALIBRATION
100 

o 

0o0 
025 
050 
075 
100 
D Percent of t,me 0 is equaled or exceeded
Tsimovo,
Gogos
and
Konitsa
measuring
daily flow duration model (Quimpo et al., 1983) and the monthly one esti mated herein cannot be safely justified because of the differences due to the incorporation into the former of the drainage area as an additional implicit
A
~
'~
200
15C
10C
5O
0.00
0.25
DPercent
200
15C
100
of
0
time
50
O
5o!
VOVOUSSA 

 Calculated 
curve 
20O 

• 
Real 
value 

15( 

CALIBRATION 

cl 

100 

50 
VROSSINA
 Calculated
• Real
value
curve
CALIBRATION
0.75
1.00
15 equaled or
exceeded
50ULOPOLILO
Calculated
• Real
value
curve
CALIBRATION
0.00 
0.25 
050 
075 
100 

DPercent 
of 
t~me 
Q 15 equaled or exceeded 
85
0.00
0.25
0 50
0.75
IO0
DPercent of t~me Q m5 equaled or exceeded
Fig.
stations.
4.
Flow
duration curves at the
Vovoussa,
Vrossina and Soulopoulo
measuring
term, to the different time scales of the analyses and to the different cli matic regimes. The calibrated flow duration curves for all stations are shown in Figs. 24.
86
THE REGIONAL MODEL
As has been previously mentioned, the development of a regionalization technique for transferring hydrologic information  in this case the flow duration characteristics  from one flowmeasuring site to another remote ungaged site of the area studied, has been found to be necessary, since other methods, like rainfallrunoff analysis, have been proved unreliable. This is due to the fact that the rainfallrunoff response at a certain site is an ex tremely spacetime dependent process, and its transfer reliability to other remote sites is seriously affected by the distances between the sites. The hydrologic regionalization is done either by plotting contours of equal values of some numerical measure of the hydrologic characteristic whose
transfer from site to site is of interest (Quimpo et al., 1983), or by explain ing analytically the spatial variation of some parameters of the hydrologic characteristic, which is previously parameterized at various measuring sites. Because of the anomalous mountainous morphology and the relative sparse ness of the available key stations of the western and northwestern regions
of Greece, the latter regionalization approach has been followed.
The spatial variation of the four parameters a, b, c and d of the cubic model in eqn. (5) from station to station has been attempted to be explained through the regression analysis and by using as inputindependent variables one climatic (P) and three morphological characteristics of the drainage basins (A, H, L) which have been already defined and are given in Table 2.
Four regression equations have been tested in order to model the variability
of each of the four parameters. These are the following:
V= 
b0 
+ blP 
+ b2A 
+ b3L 
+ b4H 
(6) 

V 
~ 
bo Pb' (A/L)b2H b3 
(7) 

V 
= 
bo Pb'A b2(H/L)% 
(8) 

V 
= 
boPb'Ab:Hb~Lb4 
(9) 
where V is the dependent variable representing the parameters a, b, c, d and b0, bl, b2, b3, b4 are constants. The multiple regression analysis was per formed aceording to standard statistical texts (Haan, 1977; Middlebrooks,
1979). The model in eqn. (9) has been proved to be the one with the lesser sum of squares of residuals for all parameters. Therefore, it has been selected to be the best regional model to explain the spatial variation of the para meters of the flow durations curve. The regional models for all parameters,
and their correlation
fitted on the parameter values as given in Table 3, coefficients r are the following:
a 0.011pO'S26A°6OSHO'OOTLOaS3
=
=
r 
= 
0, 87 
(10) 
r 
= 
0, 87 
(11) 
r 
= 
0, 84 
(12) 
b 0.053 P°'S11A°'684H°'lSlL °'27s
c = 0.010 P°'7°SA°'952H°'31SL°'°73
87
TABLE 3
Parameters and correlation coefficients of the regression equations
Stations 
Parameters and rvalues 

a 
b 
c 
d 
r 

Ilarion 
169.286 
421.259 
362.827 
106.842 
0.999 
Siatista 
81.398 
214.954 
201.046 
65.472 
0.999 
Grevena 
59.182 
136.447 
97.779 
19.554 
0.999 
Avlaki 
143.452 
1"t1.288 
200.344 
86.604 
0.996 
Plaka 
110.061 
282.~45 
310.443 
134.794 
0.994 
Tsimovo 
70.572 
209.574 
243.804 
105.883 
0.994 
Gogos 
26.370 
47.957 
33.007 
10.472 
0.999 
Konitsa 
72.432 
161.581 
126.904 
35.255 
0.993 
Vovoussa 
29.087 
62.830 
39.148 
4.788 
0.998 
Vrossina 
107.631 
313.080 
346.657 
133.380 
0.999 
Soulopoulo 
63.675 
171.288 
200.344 
86.604 
0.999 
d
In order to test the significance of the contribution of each independent variable in explaining the variation in the dependent variable in eqns. (10) (13), a Ftest was used (Middlebrooks, 1979) for checking the equivalent hypothesis that the regression coefficient of each independent variable is significantly different from zero. The test statistic F is given by the ratio of the sum of squares explained by the regression  more specifically the incremental sum of squares due to each tested independent variable  to the residual sum of squares, multiplied by (n p); n is the number of obser vations (equal here to 11) and p is the number of independent variables, increased by one in order to account for the constant of the regression equation. The results are given in Table 4. In this table one can see the con fidence levels at which the above mentioned statistical hypothesis is accepted for each specific independent variable, shown in the first column of the table, in explaining the variation of each of the parameters shown in the upper row of the table. The contributions provided by the drainage area in the first place and secondly by the annual precipitation appear to be the most significant for all parameters. This is expected, since both variables play significant role in the runoff process and its time distribution. A possible explanation for the relatively low contribution provided by the climatic factor is the difference in the time scales between the annual precipitation and the modelled monthly runoff process. It is noteworthy to mention that the comparative significance of the contributions provided by the length and hypsometric fall of the river differs from parameter to parameter. The variation in the parameters a and d is better explained by the river length, whereas the hypsometric fall explains better the variation in the parameters
b and c. This reversal in the roles of the two variables may be due to the
=
4.215 × lO6pl'lSTAI'637H°'°53L 0"687
r

0,
83
(13)
88
TABLE 4 Ftest  confidence levels
Independent variables
Conf. levels (%) for the parameters
a 
b 
c 
d 

A 
92.6 
92.0 
93.7 
96.4 
P 
65.5 
57.7 
59.6 
66.1 
H 
1.8 
36.7 
46.7 
6.0 
L 
36.1 
34.3 
7.1 
44.0 
TABLE 5 Coefficients of determination r2 

Independent variables in the regression 
r2values for the parameters 

a 
d 
b 
c 

H 
0.009 
0.012 

L, H 
0.524 
0.254 

P, L, H 
0.567 
0.311 

A, P, L, H 
0.757 
0.687 

L 
0.506 
0.337 

H, L 
0.531 
0.439 

P, H, L 
0.563 
0.478 

A, P, H, L 
0.748 
0.712 
differences between the parameters themselves; the parameters b and c represent the influence of the main time components in eqn. (5), and they should be more sensitive in morphological characteristics, like the hypso metric fall, which primarily affect the time distribution of flow. The increase of the prediction accuracy with the progressive addition of independent variables, which are added arrayed in increasing order of significance for each specific parameter, as it is expressed by the corresponding increase of the coefficient of determination r 2 of the regression, is shown in Table 5. Even though the contribution provided in some cases by some of the variables is considerably insignificant as shown in Tables 4 and 5, for example the hypsometric fall could be deleted from eqns. (10) and (13) without signifi cant sacrifice of accuracy, the regional equations have been developed by using all the variables, as given in eqns. (10)(13), in order to keep uniform ity and completeness in the expression. It is apparent that the overall prediction efficiency of the regional method is strongly affected by the accuracy of prediction of the parameters of the flow duration model. Thus, the goodness of fit of the latter, previously tested during the calibration, is not alone reliably indicative of the accuracy
89
of prediction. In order to test further the selection of the cubic model of eqn. (5) as the best among the other competing ones in eqns. (1)(4), the predictability of the parameters of the rest models have been checked as well by repeating the regionalization procedure previously described. In all cases, the r2values of the developed regional regression equations for each para meter were less than the corresponding r2values for the cubic model para meters as given in Table 5.
APPLICATION  VERIFICATION
The regional models in eqns. (10)(13) can be used to estimate the flow duration characteristics a, b, c and d and therefore, to construct a synthetic flow duration curve of the cubic form of eqn. (5) for any other remote ungaged site for hydropower or any other water resources development site within the hydrologically homogeneous region of western and northwestern Greece. The flow duration curve doesn't give information on the sequence of flows, a fact that limits its usefulness in the design. Nevertheless, it readily expresses the water availability and gives information needed for the esti mation of the hydropower potential (the latter being proportional to the product of the discharge and the hydraulic head) at a certain site. It is thus useful in preliminary hydroelectric energy studies, especially for small hydro power plants, where due to the small scale of the design, the requirements of the study can be met by the type of flow information provided by the duration curve, until sufficient data become available to warrant more sophisticated techniques of analysis. It is also useful in assessing energy production at run ofriver plants. It has also application in water supply and water quality studies, where the duration of flows is basic hydrologic information for the design. For example, the duration of low flows is strongly affecting the solution of various pollution problems. In order to verify the developed regional technique and to estimate the accuracy for constructing synthetic flow duration curves at other locations of the area, two other sites, which have not been used in the calibration procedure, the Piges and the Kioteki stations on the Aoos and the Kalamas rivers respectively, have been used. The characteristics of the stations and the morphoclimatic characteristics of their drainage basins are given in Tables 1 and 2. The latter characteristics have been used in eqns. (10)(13) and the parameters a, b, c and d of the synthetic flow duration curves at both sites have been estimated. Then eqn. (5) has been used to construct the curves as shown in Fig. 5. Each of the two synthetic curves (dotted line) is given along with the corresponding real curve (solid line) which is eyefitted and connects the points obtained from 25 pairs of discharge Q versus the time of exceedance D. The (Q, D) pairs have been estimated from the available monthly records at both sites by following the procedure previously descri bed. The fitting of the synthetic curves to the real ones appears to be very good, especially at the Piges site.
90
A measure of accuracy has been defined to be the mean square error e as
follows:
i=1
Qi
(%)
(14)
where Qi is the real discharge, ~)i is the estimated one at the time D = i
of the abscissa and i ranges from 1 to N. The discharge values finally used in eqn. (14) are the ones corresponding to the N = 25 pairs previously
5. The estimated accuracy is satisfactory and
equal to: e = 3% for the Piges station and e = 10% for the Kioteki station.
selected and plotted in Fig.
CONCLUSIONS
The conclusions drawn from this research are the following:
(1) The best monthly flow duration model, selected among other com peting ones for all stations studied, is a cubic model, i.e. the discharge Q is expressed in terms of a thirdorder polynomial of the percent of time D during the period analyzed in which the particular discharge is equaled or exceeded; the odd powers of D in the polynomial have negative coefficients. (2) The mean annual areal precipitation, the drainage area, the hypso metric fall and the length of the main river course from the divide of a drainage basin to a certain site explain significantly the geographic variation of the flow duration characteristics at the site.
91
(3) The developed regional technique can be easily and successfully used in estimating synthetic flow duration curves at ungaged sites within the hydrologically homogeneous region of the study in western and north western Greece. It is usefull in estimating water availability for hydropower at ungaged sites (especially for small hydropower plants, for runofriver plants), or for other water resources development (water supply, water quality projects).
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
The authors wish to thank the Public Power Corporation of Greece for providing the data used in the study.
REFERENCES
Box, G.P. and Jenkins, G.M., 1970. Time Series Analysis  Forecasting and Control. HoldenDay, San Francisco, Calif., 553 pp. Haan, T.C., 1977. Statistical Methods in Hydrology. Iowa State University Press, Ames, Iowa, 378 pp. Kashyap, K.L. and Rao, A.R., 1976. Dynamic Stochastic Models from Empirical Data.
Press, New York, N.Y.,
(Mathematics
334 pp.
in
Science and
Engineering,
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