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Discovering

Computers 2012
Your Interactive Guide
to the Digital World
Objectives Overview

Differentiate among various Describe the control unit


Identify chips, adapter
styles of system units on and arithmetic logic unit
cards, and other
desktop computers, components of a processor,
components of a
notebook computers, and and explain the four steps in
motherboard
mobile devices a machine cycle

Identify characteristics of
various personal computer Define a bit and describe Explain how program
processors on the market how a series of bits instructions transfer in and
today, and describe the represents data out of memory
ways processors are cooled

See Page 209 Discovering Computers 2012: Chapter 4 2


for Detailed Objectives
Objectives Overview

Differentiate between a port and


Describe the purpose and types
a connector, and explain the
of expansion slots and adapter
Differentiate among the various differences among a USB port,
cards, and differentiate among
types of memory FireWire port, Bluetooth port,
slots for various removable flash
SCSI port, eSATA port, IrDA port,
memory devices
serial port, and MIDI port

Explain the purpose of a power Understand how to clean a


Describe the types of buses in a
supply and describe how it keeps system unit on a computer or
computer
cool mobile device

See Page 209 Discovering Computers 2012: Chapter 4 3


for Detailed Objectives
The System Unit

• The system unit is


a case that
contains
electronic
components of
the computer
used to process
data

Page 210 Discovering Computers 2012: Chapter 4 4


Figure 4-1
The System Unit
• The inside of the system unit on a desktop
personal computer includes:
Drive bay(s)

Power supply

Sound card

Video card

Processor

Memory
Page 211 Discovering Computers 2012: Chapter 4 5
Figure 4-2
Bays

• A bay is an opening
inside the system
unit in which you can
install additional
equipment
– A drive bay typically
holds disk drives

Page 238 Discovering Computers 2012: Chapter 4 6


Figure 4-37
The System Unit

• The motherboard is the main circuit board of the


system unit
– A computer chip contains integrated circuits

Page 212 Discovering Computers 2012: Chapter 4 7


Figure 4-3
Processor

• The processor, also called the central processing


unit (CPU), interprets and carries out the basic
instructions that operate a computer
– Contain a control unit and an arithmetic logic unit
(ALU)

Multi-core Dual-core Quad-core


processor processor processor

Page 213 Discovering Computers 2012: Chapter 4 8


Processor

• The control unit is the component of the


processor that directs and coordinates most of
the operations in the computer
• The arithmetic logic unit (ALU) performs
arithmetic, comparison, and other operations

Page 214 Discovering Computers 2012: Chapter 4 9


Processor Operation

Page 213 Discovering Computers 2012: Chapter 4 10


Figure 4-4
Processor
• For every instruction, a processor repeats a set of four
basic operations, which comprise a machine cycle(FDES)

Page 215 Discovering Computers 2012: Chapter 4 11


Figure 4-5
Processor

• Most current personal


computers support
pipelining
– Processor begins
fetching a second
instruction before it
completes the machine
cycle for the first
instruction

Pages 215 – 216 Discovering Computers 2012: Chapter 4 12


Figure 4-6
Processor

The processor contains registers, that


temporarily hold data and instructions

The system clock controls the timing


of all computer operations
• The clock speed is measured in gigahertz
(GHz)
Page 216 Discovering Computers 2012: Chapter 4 13
Processor

• The leading
manufacturers
of personal
computer
processor
chips are Intel
and AMD

Pages 216 – 217 Discovering Computers 2012: Chapter 4 14


Figure 4-7
Processor

• A processor chip
generates heat that
could cause the chip to
burn up
• Require additional
cooling
– Heat sinks
– Liquid cooling
technology

Pages 219 - 220 Discovering Computers 2012: Chapter 4 15


Figures 4-9 – 4-10
Processor

• Parallel processing uses multiple processors


simultaneously to execute a multiple program or task
– Massively parallel processing involves hundreds or thousands of
processors

Page 220 Discovering Computers 2012: Chapter 4 16


Figure 4-11
Intel Core i3 vs. i5 vs. i7
(Laptop & Mobiles) (Processor Cont…)

Discovering Computers 2012: Chapter 4 17


Hyper-Threading
(Processor Cont…)
• Split each core into 2
separate threads,
• which allow system to
work efficiently

Discovering Computers 2012: Chapter 4 18


Turbo Boost (Processor Cont…)

• Four Core Processors


working
independently
• Each core speed
represented by dial
shown in the figure

Discovering Computers 2012: Chapter 4 19


Turbo Boost (Processor Cont…)

• Each Core doing his


own working
• Activity of each core
is little bit different

Discovering Computers 2012: Chapter 4 20


Turbo Boost (Processor Cont…)

• If 2 cores are idle


their working
capability is share
by the other cores
to enhanced the
working of that
process

Discovering Computers 2012: Chapter 4 21


Turbo Boost (Processor Cont…)

• Similarly I can
transfer all the
capabilities of
cores into a single
core to perform
that task more
efficiently &
independently .

Discovering Computers 2012: Chapter 4 22


Clock Speed(Processor Cont…)

• The higher the clock Speed the better the over-all


performance and vice-versa

Discovering Computers 2012: Chapter 4 23


Intel Core i3 vs. i5 vs. i7

Discovering Computers 2012: Chapter 4 24


Processor
• Determine how you plan to use a new computer
before selecting a processor

Page 218 Discovering Computers 2012: Chapter 4 25


Figure 4-8
What processor YOU Need ???

• Cheep low-end
Laptops for
Streaming, a
bit of home
and office
work
• Go for U Suffix

Discovering Computers 2012: Chapter 4 26


What processor YOU Need ???

• For
Multimedia
Machines a bit
for light
Gaming and so
on
• Go for HQ
Suffix

Discovering Computers 2012: Chapter 4 27


What processor YOU Need ???

• For HQ
Multimedia
Machines a bit
for 3D Gaming
and so on
• Go for HK
Suffix

Discovering Computers 2012: Chapter 4 28


What processor YOU Need ???

Discovering Computers 2012: Chapter 4 29


Data Representation

Analog signals are continuous and vary in


strength and quality

Digital signals are in one of two states: on


or off
• Most computers are digital
• The binary system uses two unique digits (0 and 1)
• Bits and bytes
Page 221 Discovering Computers 2012: Chapter 4 30
Data Representation
A computer circuit represents Eight bits grouped together as a
the 0 or the 1 electronically by unit are called a byte. A byte
the presence or absence of an represents a single character in
electrical charge the computer

Page 221 Discovering Computers 2012: Chapter 4 31


Figures 4-12 – 4-13
Data Representation

• ASCII (American
Standard Code for
Information
Interchange) is the most
widely used coding
scheme to represent
data

Page 221 Discovering Computers 2012: Chapter 4 32


Figure 4-14
Data Representation

Page 222 Discovering Computers 2012: Chapter 4 33


Figure 4-15
Memory

• Memory consists of electronic components that


store instructions waiting to be executed by the
processor, data needed by those instructions(+,-),
and the results of processing the data
• Stores three basic categories of items:
Data being
The operating
Application processed and the
system and other
programs resulting
system software
information

Page 223 Discovering Computers 2012: Chapter 4 34


Memory

• Each location in memory has an address


• Memory size is measured in kilobytes (KB or K),
megabytes (MB), gigabytes (GB), or terabytes
(TB)

Page 223 Discovering Computers 2012: Chapter 4 35


Figure 4-17
Memory

• The system unit contains two types of memory:

Volatile memory Nonvolatile memory

Loses its contents when Does not lose contents


power is turned off when power is removed

Examples include ROM,


Example includes RAM flash memory, and
CMOS

Pages 223 - 224 Discovering Computers 2012: Chapter 4 36


Memory

Page 224 Discovering Computers 2012: Chapter 4 37


Figure 4-18
Memory

• Three basic types of RAM chips exist:


Dynamic RAM chips must be re-energized constantly
(DRAM) or they lose their contents.

Page 225 Discovering Computers 2012: Chapter 4 38


Figure 4-19
Memory
• Three basic types of RAM chips exist:

Magnetoresistive
Static RAM (SRAM)
RAM (MRAM)
• Static RAM: faster and more reliable than any variation of DRAM
chips. These chips do not have to be re-energized as often as DRAM
chips, thus, the term static.
• Magnetoresisitive RAM: newer type of RAM, stores data using
magnetic charges instead of electrical charges. Manufacturers claim that
MRAM has greater storage capacity, consumes less power, and has faster
access times than electronic RAM.

Page 225 Discovering Computers 2012: Chapter 4 39


Figure 4-19
Memory

• RAM chips usually reside on a memory module


and are inserted into memory slots

Page 225 Discovering Computers 2012: Chapter 4 40


Figure 4-20
Memory

• The amount of RAM necessary in a computer


often depends on the types of software you plan
to use

Page 226 Discovering Computers 2012: Chapter 4 41


Figure 4-21
Memory

• Memory cache speeds the processes of the computer


because it stores frequently used instructions and data

Page 227 Discovering Computers 2012: Chapter 4 42


Figure 4-22
Memory

Read-only memory (ROM) refers to memory chips


storing permanent data and instructions

A EEPROM (programmable read-only memory) chip


is a blank ROM chip that can be written to
permanently or erasable also

Page 228 Discovering Computers 2012: Chapter 4 43


Memory
• Flash memory can be erased electronically and
rewritten
– CMOS technology provides high speeds and consumes
little power

Pages 228 – 229 Discovering Computers 2012: Chapter 4 44


Figure 4-23
Memory

• Access time is the amount of time it takes the


processor to read from memory
– Measured in nanoseconds

Page 229 Discovering Computers 2012: Chapter 4 45


Figures 4-24 – 4-25
Expansion Slots and Adapter Cards

• An adapter card enhances


functions of the system unit
and provides connections to
peripherals
– mouse, keyboard, TV Tuner

• An expansion slot/PCI is a
socket on the motherboard
that can hold an adapter
card
– Sound card and video card

Page 230 Discovering Computers 2012: Chapter 4 46


Figure 4-26
Expansion Slots and Adapter Cards

• With Plug and Play, the computer automatically


can configure adapter cards and other peripherals

Pages 230 – 231 Discovering Computers 2012: Chapter 4 47


Figure 4-27
Ports and Connectors

A port is the point at which a peripheral attaches to or


communicates with a system unit (sometimes referred
to as a jack)

A connector joins a cable to a port

Page 232 Discovering Computers 2012: Chapter 4 48


Ports and Connectors

Page 232 Discovering Computers 2012: Chapter 4 49


Figure 4-29
Ports and Connectors

• On a notebook computer, the ports are on the


back, front, and/or sides

Pages 232 - 233 Discovering Computers 2012: Chapter 4 50


Figure 4-30
Ports and Connectors

Page 233 Discovering Computers 2012: Chapter 4 51


Figure 4-31
Ports and Connectors
• A USB port can connect up to 127 different peripherals
together with a single connector
– You can attach multiple peripherals using a single USB port with
a USB hub

Page 234 Discovering Computers 2012: Chapter 4 52


Figure 4-32
Ports and Connectors
A Bluetooth wireless port A smart phone might
adapter converts a USB port into communicate with a notebook
a Bluetooth port computer using an IrDA port

Page 235 Discovering Computers 2012: Chapter 4 53


Figures 4-33 – 4-34
Power Supply

The power supply converts the wall


outlet AC power into DC power

Some external peripherals have an AC


adapter, which is an external power
supply
Page 239 Discovering Computers 2012: Chapter 4 54
Putting It All Together

Home Small Office/ Mobile


Intel Core i5 or Home Office Intel Core i7 Extreme or
Intel Core 2 i3 or Intel Core i7 or Intel Core i7 or
AMD Athlon II or Intel Core i7 Extreme or AMD Phenom II or
AMD Sempron AMD Phenom II or AMD Turion II
AMD Athlon II
Minimum RAM: 2 GB Minimum RAM: 2 GB
Minimum RAM: 4 GB

Page 239 Discovering Computers 2012: Chapter 4 55


Figure 4-38
Putting It All Together

Power Enterprise
Intel Xeon or Intel Core i7 or
Intel Itanium or Intel Core i7 Extreme
AMD Opteron or AMD Phenom II or
Minimum RAM: 8 GB AMD Athlon II

Minimum RAM: 4 GB

Page 239 Discovering Computers 2012: Chapter 4 56


Figure 4-38
Summary

How memory stores


Components of the
data, instructions, and
system unit
information

Sequence of Comparison of various


operations that occur personal computer
when a computer processors on the
executes an instruction market today

Page 241 Discovering Computers 2012: Chapter 4 57


Discovering
Computers 2012
Your Interactive Guide
to the Digital World
Chapter 4 Complete