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Parts of Speech Table

This is a summary of the 8 parts of speech*. You can find more detail if you click on each part of
speech.

part of
function or "job" example words example sentences
speech

(to) be, have, do, like, EnglishClub.com is a web site. I


Verb action or state
work, sing, can, must like EnglishClub.com.

pen, dog, work, music,


This is my dog. He lives in my
Noun thing or person town, London, teacher,
house. We live in London.
John

a/an, the, 69, some, good,


Adjective describes a noun My dog is big. I like big dogs.
big, red, well, interesting

My dog eats quickly. When he is


describes a verb, quickly, silently, well,
Adverb very hungry, he eats really
adjective or adverb badly, very, really
quickly.

Pronoun replaces a noun I, you, he, she, some Tara is Indian. She is beautiful.

links a noun to
Preposition to, at, after, on, but We went to school on Monday.
another word

I like dogs and I like cats. I like


joins clauses or
Conjunction and, but, when cats and dogs. I like dogs but I
sentences or words
don't like cats.

short exclamation,
Ouch! That hurts! Hi! How are
Interjection sometimes inserted oh!, ouch!, hi!, well
you? Well, I don't know.
into a sentence

* Some grammar sources categorize English into 9 or 10 parts of speech. At EnglishClub.com, we


use the traditional categorization of 8 parts of speech. Examples of other categorizations are:

 Verbs may be treated as two different parts of speech:


o Lexical Verbs (work, like, run)
o Auxiliary Verbs (be, have, must)
 Determiners may be treated as a separate part of speech, instead of being categorized
under Adjective

Parts of Speech Examples

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 Here are some sentences made with different English parts of speech:

verb Noun Verb noun verb verb

Stop! John works. John is working.



pronoun verb noun noun verb adjective noun

She loves animals. Animals like kind people.



noun verb Noun adverb noun verb adjective noun

Tara speaks English well. Tara speaks good English.



pronoun verb preposition adjective noun adverb

She ran To the station quickly.



pron. verb adj. noun conjunction pron. verb pron.

She likes big snakes but I hate them.

 Here is a sentence that contains every part of speech:

interjection pron. conj. adj. noun verb prep. noun adverb

Well, she and young John walk to school slowly.

Words with More than One Job

 verb, noun, adverb, pronoun, preposition and conjuction!

word part of speech Example


Noun My work is easy.
work
Verb I work in London.
Conjunction John came but Mary didn't come.
but
Preposition Everyone came but Mary.
Adjective Are you well?
well Adverb She speaks well.
Interjection Well! That's expensive!
afternoon Noun We ate in the afternoon.

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noun acting as adjective We had afternoon tea.

Simple Present Tense (Nominal Sentence) :

Positive Sentence with Adjective (Kata Sifat) :

I am diligent

He is lazy

She is smart

It is small

They are beautiful

We are hungry

You are handsome

Negative Sentence with Adjective (Kata Sifat) :

I am not diligent

He is not / isn’t Lazy

She is not / isn’t Smart

It Is not / isn’t Small

They are not / aren’t beautiful

We are not / aren’t hungry

You are not / aren’t handsome

I am not = I’m not

Interrogative Sentence with Adjective (Kata Sifat) :

Am I Diligent

Is He Lazy

Is She Smart

Is It Small

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Are They Beautiful

Are We Hungry

Are You handsome

Positive Sentence with Noun (Kata Benda) :

I am a nurse.

He is a student.

She is a housewife.

It is a bag.

They are lecturers.

We are doctors.

You are worker.

Negative Sentence with Noun (Kata Benda) :

I am not a nurse.

He is not / isn’t a student.

She is not / isn’t a housewife.

It Is not / isn’t a bag.

They are not / aren’t lecturers.

We are not / aren’t doctors.

You are not / aren’t worker.

Interrogative Sentence with Noun (Kata Benda) :

Am I a nurse.

Is He a student.

Is She a housewife.

Is It a bag.

Are They lecturers.

Are We doctors.

Are You worker.

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Positive Sentence with Adverb (Kata Keterangan) :

I am from Jakarta

He is very handsome

She is extreamly smart

It is too fast

They are in the class

We are quite angry

You are so nice

Negative Sentence with Adverb (Kata Keterangan) :

I am not from Jakarta

He is not / isn’t very handsome

She is not / isn’t extreamly smart

It Is not / isn’t too fast

They are not / aren’t in the class

We are not / aren’t quite angry

You are not / aren’t so nice

Interrogative Sentence with Adverb (Kata Keterangan) :

Am I from Jakarta?

Is He Very handsome?

Is She extreamly smart?

Is It too fast?

Are They in the class?

Are We quite angry?

Are You so nice?

Adverb :

What is the difference between adverb and adjective?

1. Adjective is only to modify noun and pronoun.


Example :

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a. He is strong, nice and kind
b. She is pretty, but has bad manner.
c. The blue big umbrella is mine.
d. He buys a European new big red car

The order to say adjective :

Number Quality Size Shape Age Color Origin Noun

Some expensive Old oriental carpets

Five different small round Gold rings

One beautiful New green Italian suit

2. Adverb is to modify verb, adjectives or another adverb or all sentences.


a. Adverb as a modifier of a verb  He walks very quickly
 She is doing well in her job  She runs too fast
 He runs fast d. Adverb as a modifier of an entire
b. Adverb as a modifier of an adjective sentence
 She is very pretty  Fortunately, I can pass the exam
 I am quite angry with him  Obviously, he falls in love with
c. Adverb as a modifier of an adverb her

Using Articles

Summary: This handout discusses the differences between indefinite articles (a/an) and definite
articles (the).

What is an article? Basically, an article is an adjective. Like adjectives, articles modify nouns.

English has two articles: the and a/an. The is used to refer to specific or particular nouns; a/an is used
to modify non-specific or non-particular nouns. We call the the definite article and a/an the indefinite
article.

the = definite article

a/an = indefinite article

For example, if I say, "Let's read the book," I mean a specific book. If I say, "Let's read a book," I
mean any book rather than a specific book.

Here's another way to explain it: The is used to refer to a specific or particular member of a group.
For example, "I just saw the most popular movie of the year." There are many movies, but only one
particular movie is the most popular. Therefore, we use the.

"A/an" is used to refer to a non-specific or non-particular member of the group. For example, "I
would like to go see a movie." Here, we're not talking about a specific movie. We're talking about
any movie. There are many movies, and I want to see any movie. I don't have a specific one in mind.

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Let's look at each kind of article a little more closely.

Indefinite Articles: a and an

"A" and "an" signal that the noun modified is indefinite, referring to any member of a group. For
example:

 "My daughter really wants a dog for Christmas." This refers to any dog. We don't know
which dog because we haven't found the dog yet.
 "Somebody call a policeman!" This refers to any policeman. We don't need a specific
policeman; we need any policeman who is available.
 "When I was at the zoo, I saw an elephant!" Here, we're talking about a single, non-specific
thing, in this case an elephant. There are probably several elephants at the zoo, but there's
only one we're talking about here.

Remember, using a or an depends on the sound that begins the next word. So...

 a + singular noun beginning with a consonant: a boy; a car; a bike; a zoo; a dog
 an + singular noun beginning with a vowel: an elephant; an egg; an apple; an idiot; an
orphan
 a + singular noun beginning with a consonant sound: a user (sounds like 'yoo-zer,' i.e. begins
with a consonant 'y' sound, so 'a' is used); a university; a unicycle
 an + nouns starting with silent "h": an hour
 a + nouns starting with a pronounced "h": a horse
o In some cases where "h" is pronounced, such as "historical," you can use an.
However, a is more commonly used and preferred.

A historical event is worth recording.

Remember that these rules also apply when you use acronyms:

Introductory Composition at Purdue (ICaP) handles first-year writing at the University. Therefore,
an ICaP memo generally discusses issues concerning English 106 instructors.

Another case where this rule applies is when acronyms start with consonant letters but have vowel
sounds:

An MSDS (material safety data sheet) was used to record the data. An SPCC plan (Spill Prevention
Control and Countermeasures plan) will help us prepare for the worst.

If the noun is modified by an adjective, the choice between a and an depends on the initial sound of
the adjective that immediately follows the article:

 a broken egg
 an unusual problem
 a European country (sounds like 'yer-o-pi-an,' i.e. begins with consonant 'y' sound)

Remember, too, that in English, the indefinite articles are used to indicate membership in a group:

 I am a teacher. (I am a member of a large group known as teachers.)


 Brian is an Irishman. (Brian is a member of the people known as Irish.)
 Seiko is a practicing Buddhist. (Seiko is a member of the group of people known as
Buddhists.)

Definite Article: the

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The definite article is used before singular and plural nouns when the noun is specific or particular.
The signals that the noun is definite, that it refers to a particular member of a group. For example:

"The dog that bit me ran away." Here, we're talking about a specific dog, the dog that bit me.

"I was happy to see the policeman who saved my cat!" Here, we're talking about a particular
policeman. Even if we don't know the policeman's name, it's still a particular policeman because it
is the one who saved the cat.

"I saw the elephant at the zoo." Here, we're talking about a specific noun. Probably there is only one
elephant at the zoo.

Count and Noncount Nouns

The can be used with noncount nouns, or the article can be omitted entirely.

 "I love to sail over the water" (some specific body of water) or "I love to sail over water"
(any water).
 "He spilled the milk all over the floor" (some specific milk, perhaps the milk you bought
earlier that day) or "He spilled milk all over the floor" (any milk).

"A/an" can be used only with count nouns.

 "I need a bottle of water."


 "I need a new glass of milk."

Most of the time, you can't say, "She wants a water," unless you're implying, say, a bottle of water.

Geographical use of the

There are some specific rules for using the with geographical nouns.

Do not use the before:

 names of most countries/territories: Italy, Mexico, Bolivia; however, the Netherlands, the
Dominican Republic, the Philippines, the United States
 names of cities, towns, or states: Seoul, Manitoba, Miami
 names of streets: Washington Blvd., Main St.
 names of lakes and bays: Lake Titicaca, Lake Erie except with a group of lakes like the
Great Lakes
 names of mountains: Mount Everest, Mount Fuji except with ranges of mountains like the
Andes or the Rockies or unusual names like the Matterhorn
 names of continents (Asia, Europe)
 names of islands (Easter Island, Maui, Key West) except with island chains like the
Aleutians, the Hebrides, or the Canary Islands

Do use the before:

 names of rivers, oceans and seas: the Nile, the Pacific


 points on the globe: the Equator, the North Pole
 geographical areas: the Middle East, the West
 deserts, forests, gulfs, and peninsulas: the Sahara, the Persian Gulf, the Black Forest, the
Iberian Peninsula

Omission of Articles

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Some common types of nouns that don't take an article are:

 Names of languages and nationalities: Chinese, English, Spanish, Russian (unless you are
referring to the population of the nation: "The Spanish are known for their warm
hospitality.")
 Names of sports: volleyball, hockey, baseball
 Names of academic subjects: mathematics, biology, history, computer science

Simple Present Tense (Verbal menggunakan Kata Kerja)

Verb :

Menunjukkan tindakan atau action dari subyek, oleh karena itu posisinya sesudah subyek.

4. Berdasarkan fungsinya
a. Full Verb (Kata Kerja Penuh)
The kinds of verb : He plays basket ball
1. Berdasarkan bentuknya b. Linking Verb (Kata Kerja
a. Finite Verb (Kata Kerja Terbatas) Penghubung)
1) Present Form He feels headache
The boy studies English
c. Auxiliary Verb (Kata Kerja Bantu)
2) Past Form 1) Primary Auxiliary Verb (Kata
Anggi took her bag Kerja Bantu Utama)
a) To Be
b. Non Finite Verb (Kata Kerja Tak I am Rossa
Terbatas)
1) Infinitives b) Do
I look at a beautiful girl I do not go to the office
2) Participles c) Have
There is a swimming pool I have to buy some food
3) Gerunds 2) Modal Auxiliary Verb
Speaking is my hobby We must go to the market

2. Berdasarkan obyeknya
a. Transitive Verbs (Kata Kerja
Transitif) What is the use of simple present tense?
I write a letter to my father
1. For habits
b. Intransitive Verbs (Kata Kerja He drinks tea at breakfast.
Intransitif) She only eats fish.
The baby cry at night They watch television regularly.
3. Berdasarkan perubahan waktu
2. For repeated actions or events
a. Regular Verb (Kata Kerja Beraturan)
We catch the bus every morning.
I pushed the door
It rains every afternoon in the hot
b. Irregular Verb (Kata Kerja Tidak season.
Beraturan) They drive to Monaco every
He goes to the school summer.

3. For general truths


Water freezes at zero degrees.

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The Earth revolves around the Sun. 5. For fixed arrangements
Her mother is Peruvian. His mother arrives tomorrow.
Our holiday starts on the 26th March
4. For instructions or directions
Open the packet and pour the 6. With future constructions
contents into hot water. She'll see you before she leaves.
You take the No.6 bus to Watney We'll give it to her when she arrives.
and then the No.10 to Bedford.

Frequency adverb

Positive Negative
Always Seldom
Almost always Rarely
Usually Hardly ever
Often Almost never
Frequently Not ever
Generally Never
Sometimes
Occasionally

Subject + Frequency Adverb + verb

Contoh :

I sometimes get up at 6:30

Sometimes I get up at 6:30

I get up at 6:30 sometimes.

Simple present, third person singular


Note:

1. he, she, it: in the third person singular 3. Verbs ending in -y : the third person
the verb always ends in -s: changes the -y to -ies:
he wants, she needs, he gives, she thinks. fly →flies, cry →cries

Ani wants, Budi needs, Amir gives, Exception: if there is a vowel before
Yuli thinks the -y:
play →plays, pray →prays
2. Negative and question forms use DOES
(=the third person of the auxiliary'DO') 4. Add -es to verbs ending in:-ss, -x, -sh, -
+ the infinitive of the verb. ch:
He wants. Does he want? He does not he passes, she catches, he fixes, it
want. pushes

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Positive Sentence

S + Verb + O

He works in the office everyday

She Cooks in the kitchen every morning

It Plays in the garden every morning

I Go to the class

We Pay the bills

You Speak English fluently

They Watch Television

Negative Sentence

S + do not /don’t / does not / doesn’t + Verb + O

He does not work in the office everyday

She does not cook in the kitchen every morning

It does not play in the garden every morning

I do not go to the class

We do not pay the bills

You do not speak English fluently

They do not watch Television

Does not = doesn’t

Do not = don’t

Interrogative Sentence

Do / Does + S + Verb + O?

Does he Work in the office everyday

Does she Cook in the kitchen every morning

Does it Play in the garden every morning

Do you Pay the bills

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Do we Speak English fluently

Do they Watch Television

PRONOUN

POSSESSIVE POSSESSIVE REFLEXIVE


SUBJECT OBJECT ADJECTIVE
PRONOUN PRONOUN

1 2 3 4 5

I Me My Mine Myself

We Us Our Ours Ourselves

You (Singular) You Your Yours Yourself

They Them Their Theirs Themselves

He Him His His Himself

She Her Her Hers Herself

It It Its - Itself

You (Plural) You Your Yours Yourselves

 Posisi subyek berada di awal kalimat Hans’ computer is very modern.


Contoh : I am 25 years old.
Alex’ car is very expensive.
 Posisi object berada setelah predicate (be
atau verb)  Possessive pronoun menggantikan
Contoh : She likes me. kepemilikan dengan catatan bahwa benda
yang dimaksud oleh pembicara pertama
 Posisi Possessive Adjective selalu sudah diketahui oleh pembicara kedua.
mendahului kata benda yang berarti Contoh : This is Paula’s car and that one
menunjukkan kepemilikan. is mine. (my car)
Contoh : It is my bag.
 Seperti halnya pada possessive adjective
 Bentuk kepemilikan lain adalah dengan ‘s juga dapat dipakai tetapi benda yang
memakai ‘s disebut apostrophe s dimaksud tidak perlu lagi disertakan.
dibelakang kata benda. Contoh :
Contoh : Linda’s hair is black.
Eddie is dividing a bar of chocolate with
Apabila nama seseorang diakhiri dengan Anita
huruf ‘s’atau ‘x’ maka tidak perlu lagi
menambahkan ‘s di akhir kata tersebut. Eddie : “Anita, the red is mine, the blue is
yours and the yellow is your brother’s.”
Contoh :

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 Reflexive Pronoun dapat diartikan kita tidak tahu,kita tidak perlu
…sendiri. menuliskannya.
Contoh : I do my homework by myself.
Contoh :
Apabila ada pelakunya dapat
ditambahkan kata ‘by’. Akan tetapi, bila
1. I am a teacher. (Subject) 10. She does her homework by herself.
2. You can give him some money. (Object) (Reflexive Pronoun)
3. This is my book. (Possessive Adjective) 11. You do your homework by yourselves.
4. The book is mine. (Possessive Pronoun) (Reflexive Pronoun)
5. I do my homework by myself. (Reflexive We can find ourselves
Pronoun)
Ourselves was travelling go to Bali yesterday (salah)
6. We do our homework by ourselves. We ourselves travel to Bali (benar)
(Reflexive Pronoun) I can make itself (salah)
7. You do your homework by yourself. I can make it myself (benar)
You will never love herself (salah)
(Reflexive Pronoun) I myself do the homework (benar)
8. They do their homework by themselves.
(Reflexive Pronoun)
9. He does his homework by himself.
(Reflexive Pronoun)

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