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UNDERSTANDING THE SELF

Outline
• Stages of life
• Genetic and environmental factors to the physical
development of the self
• Factors that affect body image;
• Impact of culture on body image and self
• Positive body image
At the end of the chapter, you should be able to:

• Identify the stages of life and explain the physical


changes that occur during each stage;
• Recognize the contributions of genetic and
environmental factors to the physical development of the
self;
• Describe the factors that affect body image;
• Examine the impact of culture on body image and self;
and
• Develop a positive body image
Physical self
Body
Both physical extremities and internal organs work
together for the body to perform many of its
functions such as breathing, walking, eating, and
sleeping

The body’s ability to perform its functions gradually


changes through an individual’s aging.
0 Body performs least during infancy and old age

0 Physical efficiency generally peaks in early adulthood


between the ages of twenty and thirty, and then slowly
declines into the middle age

0 Physical development and growth during childhood


continue at a slower rate compared to the rapid rate of
growth in babyhood
Life Span
(Elizabeth Hurlock)
0 Development from conception to death.
Prenatal 10 or 12 Puberty
fertilizati
to 14
on to
years
birth
Infancy old Adolescence
birth to 2
weeks of 14-18
life years old
Babyhood Early Adulthood
2 weeks
18 to 40
of life to
years old
2nd year
Early Childhood Middle Adulthood
40 to 60
2-6 years years old
old Late Adulthood or
Late Childhood
Senescence
6-10 or 60 to
12 years death
old
Prenatal
fertilizati
on to
birth

Zygote = refers to the


fertilized ovum or single-
celled organism that
represents the start of human
life.

Embryo = 2nd week to the 2nd


month; life support systems
like the heart, nervous
system, stomach, esophagus
and gonads are developed.
0 Fetus = starts 2 months after
conception and lasts for 7 months.

0 The fetus gets nourishment from the


placenta.

0 Three blood vessels of the umbilical


cord connect the placenta and the fetus.
One blood vessel sends nutrients and
oxygen to the fetus while the two others
filter out the wastes.

0 The fetus is immersed in a fluid-filled


amniotic sac that cushions it against
sudden movements or physical blows to
the mother.
Infancy A newborn’s eyesight is
birth to 2 estimated to be 20/300, but
weeks of by 6 to 12 months, visual
life acuity improves to about
20/20.
Newborns can hear soft
voices and turn their heads
toward sounds at the age of
2 or 3 days old.
Infants prefer looking at
human faces and patterned
materials.
Infants prefer the smells of
flowers and the taste of
sweet drinks.
True foundation of development
Babyhood Independence and individuality
2 weeks • Social relationship
of life to • Creativity
2nd year • Sex-role typing

Object permanence
• The ability to perceive things to continue existing
Early Childhood Preschool years
Engagement in Physical Activities
2-6 years
old
Adolescence
14-18
years old
Late Childhood
6-10 or
12 years No single growth phase similar to all The adolescent period
old Signs of puberty appears covers the years
approximately ages 12 to
20.

Girls begin their growth


spurt by the age of 10 ½
10 or 12 to Puberty and are taller than their
14 years
male peers by the age of 12.
old
Boys begin their growth
Made up of clear sequence spurt by the age of 12 ½
Period of biological maturation but usually grow faster and
Increase in height of 2 inches for a longer period of time
6.5 pounds gain a year than girls.
Adulthood
The stage of adulthood is divided into three substages:
Early adulthood (20 to 40 years old)
physical growth continues - height, shoulder width and chest size
increase
Middle adulthood (40 to 65 years old)
loss of sensory acuity (vision and hearing impairment)
risk of certain diseases increases and fertility declines
menopause in women
Late adulthood (65 onwards)
men shrink about an inch and women about 2 inches
body systems gradually slow down and become less efficient
brain shrinks and the blood flow to the brain slows down
Physical Growth And
HEREDITY Development
ENVIRONMENT

BIOLOGICAL LEARNING &


PROCESS EXPERIENCE

Inheritance of traits from Diet, nutrition, and


parents to offspring diseases
Theories of Physical Self

Theory of Physiognomy

• Facial features and expression and body structures


• Related to person’s character or personality

Theory based on the prominent of body fluids

• Suggest that excess of or deficiency in any of the 4 bodily


fluids in a person influence their personality, temperament
and well being.

Body type theory

• Based on physical characteristics


Theory based on the Prominence of Body Fluids
(Hippocrates)

Sanguine • Prominence of red bile


type • Impulsive, cheerful, happy, optimistic

Melancholic • Prominence of black bile


• Depressed and pessimistic
type
Choleric • Prominence of yellow bile
type • Easily angry, jumpy, temperamental

• Has excess phlegm


Phlegmatic type • Sluggish, dull, slow
Theory based on the Prominence of Body Fluids
(Hippocrates)

 Very poor at tolerating


boredom and will seek
variety and entertainment
 Needless to say, this trait
may sometimes negatively
affect their romantic
relationships because this
temperament is prone to
pleasure-seeking behaviors,
many people with sanguine
personality are likely to
struggle with addictions.
 Their constant cravings
may lead to overeating and
weight problems.
Theory based on the Prominence of Body Fluids
(Hippocrates)

 love traditions

 Women cook for men; men


open doors for women.

 They love their families


and friends and, unlike
sanguine temperament, do
not look for novelty and
adventure. In fact, they
avoid it at all costs.
Theory based on the  Someone with pure choleric
Prominence of Body Fluids temperament is usually a goal-
(Hippocrates) oriented person.
 Very savvy, analytical, and
logical
 Extremely practical and
straightforward, choleric people
aren’t necessary very good
companions or particularly
social.
 They dislike small talk and
enjoy deep and meaningful
conversations. They would
rather be alone than in
company of shallow, superficial
people.
 Ideally, they want to spend time
with people who have similar
professional interests.
Theory based on the Prominence of Body Fluids
(Hippocrates)
 People person
 They seek interpersonal
harmony and close
relationships
 Loyal spouses and loving
parents. They preserve
their relationships with old
friends, distant family
members, and neighbors.
 Avoid conflicts and always
try to mediate between
others to restore peace and
harmony.
The Wisdom of your Face
(Jean Haner)

Perfectionist, Friendly, Witty, Patient, Detail


Hospitable
tend to be kindhearted, Analytical, Intuitive by oriented, like
&Tactful
Aggressive selfless Great leaders to be in
Body type theory
(William Sheldon)
Body type theory
(William Sheldon)
Body type theory
(William Sheldon)
Body type theory
(William Sheldon)
Body Image

Body Image
refers to how individuals perceive, think and feel about their body and
physical appearance

Appearance
refers to everything about a person that can be observe such as height,
weight, skin color, clothes and hairstyle.

Self-Esteem
Person’s overall evaluation of his or her own worth
Victoria Secret Model
Which is the perfect size?
EATING DISORDER
ANOREXIA
is an eating disorder in which the person refuses
to eat for fear of gaining weight which can result in severe
starvation and death.

BULIMIA NERVOSA
disorder in which the person induces
purging after binging on large quantities of food.
Body Modification

Body piercing

Tattooing Bravery, strength, and social status


Body Modification

Cosmetic Surgery
Lip enhancement
Breast enhancement
Nose lift
Liposuction
Botox

Makeup
(permanent tattoo)
“BEAUTIFUL NOW, DIE LATER-- SOONER”

Body Swelling
Internal bleeding
Death
BEAUTY
0 Whether beauty is …is in the eye of the beholder
biologically programed
or culturally
constructed, it remains
important in all
societies.
0 Attractive people have a More opportunities in finding jobs
Getting promotions
lot of advantages in life. Having higher income

Happier Less attractive


Smarter
Better people Less liked
Less assisted
FILIPINAS ARE AMONG THE WOMEN WHO ARE PERCEIVED TO BE
MOST BEAUTIFUL IN THE WORKD
REMEMBER…..
0 Attractiveness is NOT the
key ingredient for social
skills. You should accept
yourself, like yourself
and be comfortable with
yourself.

0 Remember attractiveness
is whatever the people of
any given time and place
find attractive.
Ways in improving your body image and
inner self
0 Smile a lot 0 Avoid temptation
0 Take good care of your 0 Respect individuality
health 0 Make friends
0 Live a well-balanced life 0 Face your fears
0 Dress well and be neat 0 Be independent
0 Spend some time alone to 0 Accept things as they are
reflect 0 Ask and listen
0 Be creative and do
0 Think positive
something new all the time
0 Pray
0 Develop a wholesome
attitude toward sex 0 Count your blessings
0 Be thankful
#BALANCE
-END-

Questions/ Clarification/ Concerns:

Email address: donnapsombrea@gmail.com


Consultation Time: MWF 11:00-12:00PM / Room PSYCHOLOGY DEPARTMENT

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