Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 4

A Battery Charge and Discharge Device Using PID

Genetic Algorithm Based on PWM Rectifier

Zhu jun-jie Chen cheng, Xu jin, Yao ye

Computer and Information Engineering College Computer and Information Engineering College
Central South University of Forestry & Technology Central South University of Forestry & Technology
Changsha, China Changsha, China
wenke03@163.com superchencheng@163.com

Abstract—The research on the application of the 3-phase high

power PWM (Pulse Width Modulation) rectifier in the battery
charge and discharge device has been a hotspot in the field of
power electronics and control. As the traditional PID controller is
difficult to achieve the optimum parameters, this paper proposes
a new control method of PWM rectifier based on Genetic
Algorithm (GA). The design of the PWM rectifier bases on
double closed-loop method and SVM (Space Vector Modulation).
The experimental results demonstrate the feasibility of the
proposed control strategy and the superiority of improving the
rectifier transformer efficiency.
Figure 1. The storage battery system architecture diagram
Keywords-PWM, Genetic Algorithm, PID, DSP, Double-closed-
In recent years, high power factor three-phase PWM
A. Mathematical Modal of the Three-phase PWM Rectifier
rectifier has been widely used in power electronic
devices[1][2][3]. Thus, the traditional drawbacks such as Fig.2 shows the topology structure of the three-phase PWM
harmonic pollution, low power factor, low robustness and so rectifier. Each power semiconductor switch consists of an
on, can be effectively overcome by using advanced control IGBT connected in parallel with a diode. Where , and are the
technologies. Some advantages can also be achieved like the phase voltages of three phase balanced voltage source, , and
two-way energy flow, small DC side voltage fluctuations, and are phase currents, cc is the DC output voltage, and mean
unity power factor, which suggest a new solution for the equivalent parameters of the inductor resistance of filter
battery charge and discharge devices. This paper presents an reactor, respectively, C is the output filter capacitor of the
energy-efficient battery charge and discharge device for a real rectifier, and is the DC side load. High-frequency model,
system, which uses a PWM rectifier based on genetic algorithm defined on rectifier switch function, is an accurate
regulated PID controller[4][5]. mathematical model for rectifier which can reflect the rectifier
̉s switching details and high-frequency operation principle.
II. SYSTEM ARCHITECTURE The mathematical model of three-phase VSR (Voltage Source
Rectifier) is given in (1):
The battery charge and discharge device mainly consists of
PWM rectifier, DC/DC converter, TMS320F2812PGFA
control system and other auxiliary units. Two-way energy
transmission between the battery side and the power grid side
can be easily implemented. System architecture diagram is
shown in Fig.1.

This work is supported by the Hunan Provincial Science & Technology

Department Project(2009FJ3127) and Central South University of Forestry
& Technology Youth Foundation Project(101-0037).

978-1-4244-7161-4/10/$26.00 ©2010 IEEE

Figure 2. The main structure diagram of PWM rectifier of U1 and U2, and that zero vector decrease modulation index.
The word “data” is plural, not singular.
­ dudc
°C dt = ia sa + ib sb + ic sc − iL
°L dia + R i = U − u s − u 1 1
° s dt s a a dc a NO

° R + sL sC
° dib
®Ls + Rs ib = U b − udc sb − u NO
° dt −ωL
° dic
°Ls dt + Rs ic = U c − u dc sc − u NO
° −ωL
°u = − 1 u (s + s + s )
°¯ No 3
dc a b c
(1) 1
R + sL
B. Design of PWM Rectifier Based on Double-closed-loop
At present, the most popular control strategy used in
practical PWM rectifier devices is double-closed-loop cascade
control, which uses an inner current feedback loop and an outer Figure 3. Block diagram of voltage source PWM rectifier in synchronous d-
voltage feedback loop [6][7][8]. The merits of double-closed- q coordinate
loop cascade control include clear mechanism, simple
structure, and good control performance. Another merit to be
noted is that, due to the inner current feedback loop, we can let
the rectifier work on constant current state by applying
amplitude limiter to current command signals, thus, which can
implement overload protection of the device.
Using PARK transformation, the rectifier model (1) can be
transformed to two-phase synchronous rotating d-q coordinate,
and d-axis is orientated in grid voltage space vector. We
obtained corresponding rectifier model in matrix form as (2)
(3) (4):
L = u Ld - id R + ωLiq - u rd (1)
di q
L = u Lq - i q R + ωLi d - u rq
dt (2)
du u
C dc = - dc + (sd i d + s q i q ) (3) Figure 4. Space vector representation of three-phase converter
dt RL
Where u rd = s d u dc , u rq = s q u dc , u rd , u rq and sd , sq are
input voltage of rectifier and switch function in synchronous BASED ON GA [11][12]
rotating d-q coordinate, respectively. u d , u q and id , iq are
Double-closed-loop was established with the outer DC
voltage and current in synchronous rotating d-p coordinate voltage control loop and inner AC current control loop. The
respectively. ω is angular frequency. A block diagram of d-p output of the outer loop, id , is generated by the genetic
model is presented in Fig3.
algorithm regulated PID controller. By multiplying id with
sinusoidal signals have the same phase as the three-phase input
voltages respectively, we obtained their AC current sinusoidal
The SVM strategy, based on space vector representation
command signals ia* , ib* , ic* . As required AC current command
(Fig. 4), becomes very popular due to its simplicity [9][10]. A
three-phase two-level converter, made up of six active and two signals for rectifier operation, ia* , ib* , ic* have the same phases
zero switching states, provides eight possible switching states. as their corresponding supply voltages, and their amplitudes
Active vectors divide plane for six sectors, where a reference
are proportional to the DC current id , which reflects the load
vector U * is obtained by switching on (for proper time) two current. After compared the command signals with the actual
adjacent vectors. It can be seen that vector U * (Fig.4) is AC currents, the actual AC input currents can be made to track
possible implemented by the different switch on/off sequences the command signal values through switching the IGBT with
hysteresis controllers.
A. PID Parameters Tuning Based on Real Coding Genetic
Algorithm[13][14]-Determine the Cost Function
Sampling time is 1 ms, input command is a step signal. To
obtain good dynamic characteristics of the transition process,

Voltage sensor
we use the time integration of the absolute error as the
minimum objective function for parameters tuning. We also
add the square of the input into the objective function to
prevent over excessive control energy. Optimization indicator
is chosen as (5):

J= ³ ( w1 e(t ) + w2u 2 (t ))dt + w3 ⋅ tu (5)

Where e(t ) is the system error, u (t ) is the rectifier output, Figure 5. The hardware circuit diagram of the control system
t u is the rising time, w1 , w2 , w3 are corresponding weights.
Taking into account the case of overshoot, we employ the
punish function. When overshoot occurs, the optimization
indicator would be changed to add the overshoot component,

e(t) < 0 J = (w1e(t) +w2u2(t) +w4 e(t) )dt+w3 ⋅tu
³ (6)

Where w4 >> w1 .

B. Determine the Algorithm Parameters

For the genetic algorithm, we choose sample number as
100, the crossover probability and mutation probability
as Pc = 0.9 , Pm = 0.033 . k p ranges from 0 to 20,
k i and k d from 0 to 1.Set w1 = 0.999 , w2 = 0.001 , w3 = 2.0 .In
real coding mode, after 100 generations of evolution, we got
the following optimization parameters: Figure 6. The hardware resource allocation and interface of the control
k p = 18 .5460 kd = 0.2417 k i = 0 .1304
, , , J = 24 . 31 . system

We use DSP-TMS320F2812PGFA produced by TI
Company as the core. The functions have been implemented A. Simulation Results
include the processing of feedback signal, A/D conversion, From Fig.8, we can find that current has the same phase as
DC/DC conversion, generation of PWM regulation control voltage, in which x axis represents time and the y axis
pulse, monitoring and control of the system, fault protection represents the amplitude of input voltage and current. The
and storage, RS485 communication and so on. The hardware power factor approximately equals to 1.
circuit diagram of the control system is shown in Fig.4 and the
hardware resource allocation is shown in Fig.6. B. Experimental Results
As shown in Fig.7, for the control system, we use In our experiment test, we block the DC-DC link and then
TMS320F2812PGFA as the core, and adopt external extended observe if the middle DC voltage could reach the desired value.
CPLD, SRAM, dual-port RAM, four-channel 14-bit A/D Instruments for our experiment are listed below: one
converter, four-channel 12-bit D/A converter, real-time clock, oscilloscopes, two 2500v high voltage probe, one 100A current
EEPROM and so on. We use CPLD to realize 16 digital input probe, two DC voltage meter, one AC voltage meter, one
channels and 16 digital output channels. The system also has multimeter, one PZ400. Input voltages are 3-phase AC380v,
16 PWM output channels, eight-way inputs and analog signal 300v middle direct voltage. In the experiment, we have
processing circuit. Its external serial interfaces include RS-232 obtained waveforms as shown in Fig.9 and Fig.10. In Fig.9, the
serial data interface, isolated RS-485 serial data interface, in x axis represents time and the y axis represents voltage values.
line with the CAN2.0A/B separation agreements CAN bus Starting from unload case, the middle direct voltage rises from
interface, USB1.1 agreement in line with the USB bus 236v to 300v and the voltage waveform is smooth in un-load
interface, SPI synchronous serial and McBSP multichannel starting process. In Fig.10, x axis represents time and y axis
buffered serial port. represents voltage and current values. CH1 indicates the
middle DC voltage, CH3 and CH4 indicate a-phase and b- VIII. CONCLUSION
phase currents in the network side respectively. The research of three-phase high power factor PWM
rectifier has lead to a revolution of rectifier technology. The
improvements of three-phase high power factor PWM rectifier
depend on the new topology, and the new control strategy for
improving the circuit performance. This paper presents an
energy-efficient battery charge and discharge device using
genetic algorithms based three-phase PWM rectifier.
Experimental results have verified the effectiveness of the
proposed control strategy and the improvements in
transformation efficiency of the rectifier.

[1] Veas D R, Dixon J W, Ooi B T. A novel load current control method for
leading power factor voltage source PWM rectifier[J]. IEEE Trans. on
Power Electronics, 1994, 9 (2): 153-159.
Figure 7. The input voltage and current waveform [2] H. Van der Broeck. Analysis and realisation of Pulse Width Modulator
based on voltage space vectors. IEEE Trans. on Ind. Application, vol.
24, no.1, pp. 142-150, 1988.
[3] Liu Yongchao, Wang Huaiyin, Chen Ming. PWM rectifier based on the
genetic algorithm[J]. power Electron, Feb. 2002, 36(1): 44-50.
[4] Blasko Vladimir, Kaura Vikram. A new mathematical model and control
of a three-phase ac-dc voltage source converter[J]. IEEE Trans. On
power Electron, 7997, 12 (1): 116-122.
[5] Green A W, Boys J T, Gates G F. Hystersis current forced three phase
voltage source reversible rectifier[J]. IEE, 7989, 136 pt B(3): 362-370.
[6] Liu Jinkun. Advanced PID controller and MATLAB Simulation,
Publision electronics industry, 2003.
[7] Dioxn J W, Ooi BT. Indirect current control of a unity power factor
sinusoidal current boost type three-phase rectifier[J]. IEEE Trans on
indelcctron, 1998, 35(4): 508-515.
[8] Habetler T G. A space vector-based rectifier regulator for AC-DC-AC
converter[J]. IEEE Trans. on Power Electroncis, 1993, 8 (1): 30-36.
[9] Ooi B. T. et al. A 3-phase Controlled Current Converter with Leading
Power Factor[J]. IA 1987, 23 (1): 78-84.
Figure 8. The middle direct voltage wave of unload starting [10] Draou A, Sato Y, Kataoka T. A new state feedback based transient
control of PWM AC to DC voltage type converters[J].IEEE Trans. on
Power Electron, 1998,10(6): 716-724.
[11] Weifeng Zhang, Yuehui Yu, Zhiqiang Chen. TMS320F2812 DSP
Driving System based on Power Electronics Integration Technology [J].
Signal Processing, The 8th International Conference, 2006, 4: 145-148.
[12] Kolar J.W, DrofenikU, Minibock J. A new concept for minimizing high-
frequency common-mode EMI of three-phase PWM rectifier systems
keeping high utilization of the output voltage[J]. Applied Power
Electronics Conference and Exposition, 2000, 1: 519-527.
[13] Dae-Woong Chung, Seung-Ki Sul. Minimum-loss strategy for three-
phase PWM rectifier[J].Industrial Electronics, IEEE Transactions , 1999,
46(3): 517-526.
[14] Lee D. C. Advanced nonlinear control of three-phase PWM rectifiers [J].
Electric Power Applications, IEEE Proceedings, 2000, 147(5): 361-366.
[15] Malinowsk. M, Kamierkowski. M. P. DSP implementation of direct
power control with constant switching frequency for three-phase PWM
rectifiers[J]. IECON 02 [Industrial Electronics Society, IEEE 2002 28th
Annual Conference of the].
Figure 9. The middle direct voltage and two-phase current wave [16] Malinowsk M, Kazmierkowski, M.P. Direct power control of three-
phase PWM rectifier using space vector modulation-simulation study[J].
Industrial Electronics, 2002, 4:1114-1118.