Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 5

DAYALBAGH EDUCATIONAL INSTITUTE

DEE 514
ELECTRONIC INSTRUMENTATION

SYLLABUS

UNIT 1
Introduction to Process of Measurement: Sensitivity, Range, Errors; Noise and noise pickup and remedies;
Shielding, Grounding. Difference between accuracy, precision and resolution. Concept of selective wide band
measurement.

UNIT 2
Multi-meter; Electronic multi-meter; Micro voltmeter; AC milli-voltmeter.
Principles of voltage, current and resistance measurements by multi-meter and electronic multi-meter.
Both types of AC milli-voltmeter: amplifier – rectifier and rectifier – amplifier.

UNIT 3
Cathode Ray Oscilloscope; Construction of CRT; Concept of focusing, deflection sensitivity; Phosphor; Time
base and its operations; Synchronization triggered sweep; Oscilloscope front panel controls.
Use of CRO for voltage measurement both AC and DC audio power meter: Block diagram of audio power
meter; Principle of working; Energy meter.

UNIT 4
Impedance Bridges and Q-meters; Block diagram and working principle of laboratory types RLC bridge;
Specification; Digital RLC bridge. Block diagram and working principle of Q-meter, Definition and concept of Q
of a component and circuit.

UNIT 5
Digital Instruments: Comparison of Analog and Digital Instruments; Characteristics of digital instruments.
Principle of Ramp dual-slope and integrating type digital voltmeter; Digital multi-meter. Principle of time
interval measurements; Frequency counter.

QUESTION BANK

UNIT 1

1. What are the aims of measurement? Mention some engineering applications of measurement.

2. Describe the various elements of a Generalized measurement system.

3. Compare and contrast between deflection type and null type of instruments, discuss the advantages,
disadvantages and applications of each of these types.

4. Define: (i) Sensitivity, (ii) Range, (iii) Accuracy, (iv) Precision, and (v) Resolution in the context of
measurement and instrumentation.

5. Distinguish clearly between accuracy and precision with the help of an example. Explicate the two
characteristics of precision: conformity and significant figures.

6. Define error. How is error related to accuracy? What is Static error? What is Drift? How is Zero drift
different from Span drift? What precautions or steps must be taken to minimize error in measurement?

7. Describe some sources of error. Discuss the classification of errors as (i) Gross errors, (ii) Systematic
errors and (iii) Random errors. What are Instrumental errors, Environmental errors and Observational
errors and in which of these categories would you place them?

8. Discuss the following ways of minimizing errors in measurement and instrumentation: (i) Method of
inherent insensitivity, (ii) Method of high gain feedback, (iii) Method of calculated output corrections, (iv)
Method of signal filtering, and (v) Method of opposing inputs.

9. What is noise? How is noise categorized as (i) Generated noise, (ii) Conducted noise, and (iii) Radiated
noise. In which category would you place Johonson noise and Shot noise frequently encountered in
electronic instrumentation.

Page 1 of 5
10. Define: (i) Signal to noise ratio, (ii) Noise factor and (iii) Noise figure. What is the relationship between
noise figure and noise factor?

11. Distinguish between shielding and grounding. What are the benefits of shielding and grounding in
electronic instrumentation? Discuss the various methods used for shielding and grounding in electronic
instrumentation. Illustrate with neat diagrams wherever necessary.

12. The expected value of the voltage across a resistor is 52 V. However, the measured value is 50 V.
Calculate (i) absolute error, (ii) percentage error, (iii) relative accuracy, and (iv) percentage accuracy.

13. What is limiting error? A 0 – 150 V voltmeter has a guaranteed accuracy of 1 per cent full-scale reading.
The voltage measured by this instrument is 83 V. Calculate the percentage limiting error.

14. The following set of 10 measurements were recorded in a laboratory. Calculate the precision of the
second measurement.
Measurement number Measurement value Xn Measurement number Measurement value Xn
1 98 6 98
2 100 7 97
3 101 8 106
4 103 9 101
5 102 10 99

15.
a). A voltmeter having a sensitivity of 1 kΩ/V is connected across an unknown resistance in series with aV is connected across an unknown resistance in series with a
milliammeter reading 80 V on 150 V scale. When the milliammeter reads 10 mA, calculate the (i) apparent
resistance of the unknown resistance, (ii) actual resistance of the unknown resistance, and (iii) error due
to the loading effect of the voltmeter.
b). Refer to the problem in part a) above. If the milliammeter reads 600 mA and the voltmeter reads 30 V on a
150 V scale, calculate the (i) apparent resistance of the unknown resistance, (ii) actual resistance of the
unknown resistance, and (iii) error due to the loading effect of the voltmeter. Comment on the loading
effect due to the voltmeter for both part a) and b). The resistance of the milliammeter may be neglected.

UNIT 2

16. Describe how a PMMC galvanometer can be used as a DC ammeter by using a shunt resistance.

17. Draw the schematic and calculate the values of resistances, for a simple multi-range ammeter using a
d’Arsonval meter movement having a full scale deflection of 1 mA and an internal resistance of 500 Ω to
cover the current ranges of 10, 50, 250 and 1000 mA.

18. Draw the schematic and calculate the values of resistances, for an Ayrton (Universal) shunt for a
d’Arsonval meter movement having a full scale deflection of 1 mA and an internal resistance of 500 Ω to
cover the current ranges of 10, 50, 250 and 1000 mA.

19. What advantage does the Ayrton (Universal) shunt offer over a simple multirange ammeter? What is the
disadvantage of using an Ayrton (Universal) shunt? List some precautions that must be observed when
using an ammeter for measurement.

20. Describe how the basic d’Arsonval movement can be used as a DC voltmeter by using a series resistor.

21. A basic d’Arsonval movement with internal resistance, R m = 100 Ω , and full scale current, I fsd = 1 mA, is to
be converted into a multi-range DC voltmeter with voltage ranges of 0 – 10 V, 0 – 50 V, 0 – 250 V, and 0 –
1000 V using four simple multipliers. Draw the schematic and determine the values of the series resistors.

22. A basic d’Arsonval movement with internal resistance, R m = 100 Ω , and full scale current, I fsd = 1 mA, is to
be converted into a multi-range DC voltmeter with voltage ranges of 0 – 10 V, 0 – 50 V, 0 – 250 V, and 0 –
1000 V using four multipliers connected in a series string. Draw the schematic and determine the values
of the resistors.

23. What is voltmeter sensitivity? It is desired to measure the voltage across a 50 kΩ resistor that is
connected in series with a 150 V DC supply and another 100 kΩ resistor. Two voltmeters are available for
this measurement: the first voltmeter with a sensitivity of 1000 Ω/V is connected across an unknown resistance in series with aV and the second voltmeter with a

Page 2 of 5
sensitivity of 20, 000 Ω/V is connected across an unknown resistance in series with aV. Both meters are used on their 50 V range. Calculate (i) the reading of each
meter, and (ii) the error in each reading, expressed as a percentage of the true value.

24. Explain the principle any three voltmeters that measure AC voltages.

25. What is meant by a waveform error? Which AC meters are most likely to be affected by this kind of error?

26. Describe, with the help of a neat diagram, the principle and working of an AC milli-voltmeter. Discuss the
advantages and disadvantages of using the amplifier – rectifier configuration versus the rectifier –
amplifier configuration.

27. Discuss, with the help of a neat block diagram, the construction and working of a chopper type DC
amplifier voltmeter. What is the purpose of the chopper modulator and demodulator? How is the chopper
realized in practice?

28. Describe how the basic d’Arsonval movement can be converted into a series-type ohmmeter. State the
specific purpose of the two resistances used in the circuit.

29. A series-type ohmmeter uses a 50 Ω basic d’Arsonval movement requiring a full-scale current of 1 mA.
The internal battery voltage is 3 V. The desired scale marking for half-scale deflection is 2, 000 Ω.
Calculate: (i) the values of the resistances required, (ii) the value of the zero adjust resistor to compensate
for a 10% drop in the battery voltage, and (iii) the scale error at the half scale mark (2, 000 Ω) when the
zero adjust resistor is set as in (ii) above.

30. A series-type ohmmeter uses a 50 Ω basic d’Arsonval movement requiring a full-scale current of 1 mA.
The internal battery voltage is 3 V. What is the maximum possible value for the half-scale deflection
resistance? What is the disadvantage of using this value as the scale marking for half-scale deflection?

31. Describe how the basic d’Arsonval movement can be converted into a shunt-type ohmmeter.

32. A shunt-type ohmmeter uses a 50 Ω basic d’Arsonval movement requiring a full-scale current of 1 mA.
The internal battery voltage is 3 V. What should be the value of the current limiting resistor? What will the
value of the half-scale deflection resistance?

33. Describe the construction and working of a Multi-meter, stating clearly how it can be used to measure
various electrical parameters in different ranges.

34. What are the various elements of an electronic multimeter? Illustrate the construction of an electronic
multimeter with the help of a neat diagram and explain the purpose of the various elements.

UNIT 3

35. What are the major building blocks of a cathode ray oscilloscope? Describe the function of each of these
blocks.

36. Describe the construction of a Cathode Ray T ube and explain the principle of its working with the help of
a neat diagram.

37. Write short notes on any two of the following with reference to the Cathode Ray Tube: (i) Concept of
focusing, (ii) Deflection sensitivity, and (iii) Phosphor.

38. Write short notes on any two of the following with reference to the Cathode Ray Oscilloscope: (i) Time
base and its operations, (ii) Synchronization triggered sweep, and (iii) Oscilloscope front panel controls.

39. Explain how a cathode ray oscilloscope can be used for measuring AC and DC voltages.

40. The frequency and voltage of a sinusoidal waveform are being measured using a CRO. The amplitude of
the waveform is seen to be 1.5 divisions above and below the time axis and the waveform repeats itself
after every 4 divisions along the time axis. If the vertical attenuation is set to 0.5 V/V is connected across an unknown resistance in series with adiv and the time/V is connected across an unknown resistance in series with adiv
control is set to 2 Ks/V is connected across an unknown resistance in series with adiv, determine: (i) the peak to peak amplitude of the signal, (ii) the root mean square
voltage of the signal, and (iii) the frequency of the signal.

41. Describe the principle of working of an audio power meter with the help of a neat block diagram.

Page 3 of 5
42. Describe the principle of working of an energy meter (watt-hour meter) and explain its construction with
the help of a neat diagram. How many joules is one unit of electrical power (one watt-hour)?

UNIT 4

Figure 1: AC Bridge

43. An AC bridge is shown in Figure 1 above. Derive the relationship between the impedances Z 1, Z2, Z3 and
Z4 for the bridge to be balanced.

44. What is a digital RLC bridge? What are the benefits of using microprocessor controlled bridges with
digital readout?

45. Draw the circuit diagram for Maxwell bridge and derive the expressions for determining the unknown
inductance, resistance and Q of a coil in terms of the known parameters.

46. The constants of a Maxwell bridge at balance are: C 1 = 0.01 KF in parallel with R1 = 470 kΩ, R2 = 5.1 kΩ
and R3 = 100 kΩ. Find the series equivalent of the unknown impedance Z 4 (refer to Figure 1).

47. When is Hay bridge preferred over Maxwell bridge? Draw the circuit diagram for Hay bridge and derive
the expressions for determining the unknown inductance and resistance of a coil in terms of the known
parameters.

48. A network causes an opposite angle (Hay bridge) to null with the following bridge arms: ω = 3000 rad/V is connected across an unknown resistance in series with as,
C1 = 1 KF in series with R1 = 2 kΩ, R2 = 10 kΩ and R3 = 1 kΩ. Find the series equivalent inductance and
resistance of impedance Z4 (refer to Figure 1).

49. Draw the circuit diagram for Schering bridge and derive the expressions for determining the unknown
capacitance, resistance and dissipation factor in terms of the known parameters.

50. The constants of a Schering bridge at balance are: C 1 = 0.5 KF in parallel with R 1 = 1 kΩ, R2 = 2 kΩ and
C3 = 0.5 KF. The fourth arm has unknown capacitor C 4 and unknown resistance R4 in series. The
frequency is 1 kHz. Determine the unknown capacitance C 4 and the dissipation factor for the arm Z 4 (refer
to Figure 1).

51. Draw the circuit diagram for Wien bridge and derive the expression for determining the frequency in terms
of the known parameters.

52. A Wien bridge has the following constants: C 1 = 0.636 KF in series with an unknown resistance R 1, R2 =
500 Ω, C3 = 0.159 KF in parallel with R 3 = 1000 Ω, R4 = 1000 Ω. Find the frequency for which this bridge is
in balance and determine the value of the unknown resistance R 1 (refer to Figure 1) to produce this
balance.

53. What do you understand by ‘Q’ of a circuit? Describe the working principle of a Q-meter with the help of a
block diagram.

54. A basic Q-meter circuit is used to measure the Q of an inductive coil. When the circuit attains resonance,
it is observed that the voltage across the capacitor is 7.5 V when the applied voltage is 1.5 V. What is the
value of Q for the coil? If the resonance is obtained when ω = 1000 rad/V is connected across an unknown resistance in series with as and the capacitance C = 1 KF,
what is the series equivalent inductance and resistance of the coil?

Page 4 of 5
UNIT 5

55. Compare analog and digital instruments. What are the benefits and drawbacks of each one of these?

56. What are the characteristics of digital instruments?

57. Explain the principle of ramp dual-slope type digital voltmeter (voltage to time conversion) with the help of
a block diagram.

58. Explain the principle of integrating type digital voltmeter (voltage to frequency conversion) with the help of
a block diagram.

59. An integrator contains a 100 kΩ resistance and a 1 KF capacitance. If the voltage applied to the integrator
input is 1 V, what will be the voltage present at the output of the integrator after 1 second? If a reference
voltage 5 V in amplitude is applied to this integrator during charging time t 1, what is the discharging time
interval t2?

60. What are the various elements of a digital multimeter? Illustrate the construction of a digital multimeter
with the help of a neat diagram and explain the purpose of the various elements.

61. Explain the working of a simple frequency counter with the help of a block diagram.

62. Discuss the principle of time interval measurements. Describe the circuit arrangement for making period
measurements with the help of a block diagram.

Page 5 of 5