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PAKISTAN AFFARIS NOTES

Contents

PART 1- REFORMERS & EDUCATIONAL MOVEMENTS

 EVOLUTION OF MUSLIM MNATIONALISM


 MUSLIM FERORMSERS
 EDUCATIONAL MOVEMENTS
 THE IDEOLOGY OF PAKISTAN: TWO-NATION THEORY

PART 2- PRE PARTITON HISTORY

 DECLINE OF MUGHAL RULE


 SHIMLA DEPUTATION
 MUSLIM LEAGUE
 THE LUCKNOW PACT
 KHILAFAT MOVENMETN
 NEHRU REPORT & QAID’S POINTS
 ALLAMA IQBAL’S PRESEDNETIAL ADDRESS AT ALLAHABAD
 CONGRESS RULE IN THE PROVINCES
 PAKISTAN RESLUTION
 CRIPPS MISSION
 CABINET MISSION

PART 3- POST PARTITION PERIOD

 INITIAL PROBLEMS FACED AFTER THE CREATION OF PAKISTAN


 THE ACHIEVEMETNS OF THE QUID-E-AZAM
 CONSTITUTIONAL ISSUES
 CONSTITUTION MAKING (1947-57)
 POLITICAL DEVELOPMENTS
 TREGEDY OF EAST PAKISTAN
 GEO-STRATEGIC IMPORTANCE OF PAKISTAN
PART 1- REFORMERS & EDUCATIONAL MOVEMENTS

EVOLUTION OF MUSLIM MNATIONALISM

 Arab traders’ honesty


 Kiring Noor, the first Indian national to embrace Islam
 Sarqafi, Governor of Oman under Hazrat Umer (634-644), invaded sea ports near Bombay without his
permission

SINDH DAR UL ISLAM

 Gifts and women from Ceylon


 Pirates attack
 Al Malik bin Abdul Malik as a Umayyad caliph
 Hijaj Bin Yousaf
 Muhammad Bin Qasim – Syrian soldiers – Entered from Makran
 Rafa Dahir killed near Mehran (Indus) in June 712.
 Rani Bai, Raja’s wife, challenged MBQ with 15,000 soldiers and defeated. She burnt herself

MBQ REFORMS

 12 Dirham tax
 No social caste system
 Established Sadru Imam All ajal for Islamic laws interpretation.
 Suluman bin Abdul Malik called MBA back and perished him in 715.

SPREAD OF ISLAM IN OTHER PARTS OF INDIA

 MBQ—712
 Mehmud Ghaznavid- 2nd expediter-17 attacks between 1000 to 1026.
o Ghaznavid period ended in 1185 with death of Khusru Malik.
 Ghuri period (1185- 1192) –expanded to Bengal and Bihar.
 Dehli Sultanate(1192-1526)-Muslim Sufis
 Mughal era (1526—1857) Muslim Sufis.
 Muslim Sufis.

Shaikh Ismail in Ghazanvi period

Ali Makhdom Hajveri came Lahore in 1035, Bahud Din Zakaria, Shaikh Fareed Dud Din, Khawaja Hkhtiar
Kaki, Nazam Ud Din Loia, Mujadid Alaf Sani, Hazrat Shahi Wali Ullah, Muin ud Din Chishty.

IMPACT OF ISLAM

 Cultural Influence.

Caste system.

Urdu and Hindi came into being.


Islamic way of construction.

 Religious Influence

Shankarachariya (Organizer of modern Hinduism) influenced by Islam

Ramananda, Ghuru Nanik and Chaitanya were Hindu prominent leaders influenced by Islam.

HINDU REACTION

1. Bagti Movement.
 Started in 14th century
 Objective to check the popularity of Islam
 No difference between Ram and Raheem, Parn and Quran, Kasshi and Kaaba.
 Bagt Kabir, Ramananda, Guru Nanak and dadu were prominent leaders.

Din-e-Elahi(1582)

 Akbar introduced in desire to win the collaboration of Rajput chiefs


 Marriages wtith Hindu girls.
 Elevation of Hindu to imp positions
 Under Din e Elahi
o Worship of sun
o Jizya and pilgrimage tax abolished
o Akbar as shadow of god on earth
o Cow slaughter and azan prohibited.
o No child named as Muhammad.
 Hazrat Hujadid Alaf Sani opposed Din e Elahi.
 Muslims lost their hegemony.

MUSLIM PREFORMERS

HAZRAT HUJADID ALAF SANI (June 1564—Dec 1626)

 Sheikh Ahmed Sirhindi.


 Father name – Sheikh Abdul Ahad.
 Went to Delhi at age of 36.
 Disciple of Khawaja Baqi Billah.

Social Conditions during his time.

 Populace belief in Kara mat.


 Ulema refer to Jurisprudence rather than Quran.
 Akbar’s anti Islamic look
 Hindu cultural domination
 Bakhti Movement
 Wahdat al Wajood theory

Mujadid’s efforts
1. Jhead against Din-i-Elahi
2. Theory of Wahdat –ul – Sahood
a. Countering Wahdat-ul-Wajood
3. Refusal to prostate – society purification
a. Jahangir imprisoned him in Gwalior fo three years
4. Preaching in fort of Gawaliar
5. Preparation of Disciples
6. Maktaba-e-Rabbani
A. Letters to important nobles and leaders
B. Abdur Rahim, Khan e Azam Mirza Aziz, Mufti Sardar Jhan
7. Books
A. Isbat ul Nabuwwat
B. Risla 3 Nabuwwat

i. Need & importance of Prophethood

C. Maktubat e Imam e Rabbai


D. Toheed e Shaheedi
i. Islamic philosophy
8. Two nation theory
a. First stone of two nation theory—first founder of Pakistan
9. Influence over Jahangir --- Khutba; cow slaughter;

Shaikh imprisoned

 Asaf Jah, Jahangir’s Pm – Shaikh summoned – No prostration –jailed


 After 3 years of imprisonment, Jahangir released him giving him 1000 rupees
 He stayed 3 years in Jahangir courts

“When seen in the perspective of history, whether accepted by Sufis or not, it is in the rejection of monism that
Sheikh’s claim for being the Muja dad of his age.” IH Qureshi

“Sheikh Ahmed, an individual from sir hind, rich in knowledge and vigorous in action. I associated him for few
days found marvelous things in his spiritual life. He will turn into a light which will illuminate the world.”
Khawaja Bakhtaran Kaki quoted by S M Ihram

HAZRAT SHAH WALI ULLAH MOHADITH DELVI (1703 DELHI – 1762)

 FATHE OF MODERN Muslim India


 Real name Qutbuddin
 Born at Delhi--- son of Shah Abdur Rahim (Fatwa e Alamgeeri) – scholar of Fiqa and Islamic jurisprudence
 Got knowledge of Fiqah, Ahadith, Tarsi and Hikmat __ completed study in 15 year of age
 Went to Arabia of higher education and came back in July 1732
 He taught at Madras a Rahimia for 12 years
 Aim --- Revive the past glory of Muslims and purify the society inwardly

Conditions
 Incapable successor of Aurangzeb
 Un-Islamic trends,
 Muslim life honour property not secured,
 Shia-Shuni conflicts
 Marhats and Sikhs challengers

SHAH’S EFFORTS

1. Religious work
a) Translation of Holy Quran in Persian – 1738
b) Commentary on Hadith collection of Imam Murtha in Arabic and Persian
c) Urged Muslims to follow Holy prophet & abandon un-Islamic trends
d) Trained students in different Islamic knowledge
e) Recommended application of Pithead
f) Initiated Tatiq --- liberal element
g) Balance b/w four schools-
h) Removed misunderstanding b/w shai & Sunni- Khilafat-al-Khulafa
2. Political work
a. Mrathas were Son’s efforts

Strongly opposed intergration of Islamic culture in subcontinent Quranic translation in


Urdu by Rafiuddin and
Cncept of reorientation of Muslim society Abdul Qadir

Basic social justice Shah abdul aziz


wagedjehad
Removing social inequalities

Concept of economy

Production of wealth

Consumption of wealth

Distribution of wealth

Exchange of wealth

Literary work

Izalat-al-Akifa

Khalifa-al-Khulafa

Al-insf-fi-Bayan-sababa-al-Ikhtilaf

Master piece of literature 1738

Commentary on Hadith Imam Muttah

Quranic translation in Perisan


Alfauz-ul- Qabir Fi-Usool-e-Tafseer

Hujjat-ul-Balagha – about decay, Ijtehad, Mujjad and Ruler

“I was informed through Ilham that I would have to undertake this responsibility. The time has come when evey
injuctio of the Sharia and instruction of Islam should be presented to the world in a rational manner.” Quoted by
SM Ikram.