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Introduction to Information Technology: Your Digital World

Using Information Technology, 10e


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Introduction to Information Technology: Your Digital World

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Using Information Technology, 10e © 2013 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
Introduction to Information Technology: Your Digital World

• Priced from $1 million to over


$1 billion
• High-capacity machines with thousands
of processors
• Multi-user systems
• Used for U.S. Census, weather forecasting,
designing aircraft, scientific projects, etc.

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Introduction to Information Technology: Your Digital World

• Priced from $5,000 to $5 million


• Water-cooled or air-cooled
• Used by banks, airlines, colleges, and the like for
millions of transactions

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Introduction to Information Technology: Your Digital World

• Introduced in early 1980s


• Expensive, powerful personal computers
• Required for scientific, mathematical,
engineering, computer-aided design (CAD),
computer-aided manufacturing (CAM)
• Used for designing cars, drugs, movie special
effects

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Introduction to Information Technology: Your Digital World

• Personal computers that cost $500 to $5,000


• Used either stand-alone or in a network
• Types include: desktop, tower, notebooks
(laptops), netbooks, tablets, mobile internet
devices (MIDs), personal digital assistants
(PDAs), e-readers

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Introduction to Information Technology: Your Digital World

• Also called embedded computers


• Tiny, specialized microprocessors inside
appliances & automobiles
• They are in microwaves, programmable ovens,
blood-pressure monitors, air bag sensors,
vibration sensors, MP3 players, digital cameras,
keyboards, car systems, etc.

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Introduction to Information Technology: Your Digital World

• The word server describes the way a


computer—whether mainframe, workstation,
or PC—is used.
• A central computer connected (wired or
wirelessly) to other computers & peripheral
devices on a client/server network
• Purpose: Hold data and programs for clients to
access and to supply services for clients
• Clients are other computers, such as PCs or
workstations, on which users run applications

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Using Information Technology, 10e © 2013 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
Introduction to Information Technology: Your Digital World

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Using Information Technology, 10e © 2013 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
Introduction to Information Technology: Your Digital World

• 1. Purpose of a computer
• Turn data into information
• Data: the raw facts and figures
• Information: data that has been summarized and
manipulated for use in decision making
• 2. Hardware vs. software
• Hardware = the machinery and equipment in the
computer
• Software (programs) = the electronic instructions
that tell the computer how to perform a task

(continued)
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Using Information Technology, 10e © 2013 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
Introduction to Information Technology: Your Digital World

• 3. The basic operations


• Input: What goes in to the computer system
• Processing: The manipulation a computer does to
transform data into information
• Storage:
• Primary storage, or memory, is temporary storage.
• Secondary storage is permanent storage: media such
as DVDs and CDs
• Output: What comes out
• Numbers or pictures on the screen, printouts, sounds
• Communications: Sending and receiving data

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Introduction to Information Technology: Your Digital World

Panel 1.8
Page 30

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Introduction to Information Technology: Your Digital World

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Using Information Technology, 10e © 2013 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
Introduction to Information Technology: Your Digital World

• Vacuum Tubes
• Vacuum tubes were the original logic gates of computers; they
controlled the flow of electricity in circuits.
• A circuit is a closed path that can be flowed by electric current.
• Transistors Replaced Vacuum Tubes
• A transistor is a tiny electronic switch that can be turned “on”
or “off” millions of times per second.
• The original transistors were 1/100th the size of vacuum tubes
(less power used, faster, more reliable).
• Transistors form part of an integrated circuit: all the parts of
an electronic circuit embedded on a single silicon chip.
• Integrated circuits are solid state (no moving parts).

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Using Information Technology, 10e © 2013 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
Introduction to Information Technology: Your Digital World

• Silicon & Semiconductors


• Silicon: A semiconductor made of clay and sand
• Semiconductor: A material whose electrical properties are
intermediate between a good conductor and a nonconductor
of electricity
• Perfect underlayer for highly conductive,
complex circuits
• Microchips (Microprocessors) are made
from semiconductors
• Chip: A tiny piece of silicon that contains
millions of microminiature integrated
Chip
electronic circuits
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Using Information Technology, 10e © 2013 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
Introduction to Information Technology: Your Digital World

• Miniaturization Miracles
• Microchips
• Store and process data in electronic devices
• Microprocessors
• The miniaturized circuitry of an entire computer processor
(“brain”) on a single chip
• Contains the central processing unit (CPU), which
processes data into information
• The development of microchips and processors has
enabled the development of small, mobile
electronic devices.
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Introduction to Information Technology: Your Digital World

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Using Information Technology, 10e © 2013 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
Introduction to Information Technology: Your Digital World

Binary System: the basic


data-representation
method for computers
uses just two numbers: 0
and 1, representing the
off/on states of electricity
or light pulses.

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Introduction to Information Technology: Your Digital World

Measuring Capacity
• All data and program instructions in the computer are
represented as binary
• Bit: each 0 or 1 is a bit
• Byte: a group of 8 bits = 1 character, digit, or other value
• Kilobyte (KB): 1,000 (1,024) bytes
• Megabyte (MB): 1 million (1,048,576) bytes
• Gigabyte (GB): 1 billion (1,073,741,824) bytes
• Terabyte (TB): 1 trillion (1,009,511,627,776) bytes
• Petabyte (PB): 1 quadrillion bytes
• Exabyte (EB): 1 quintillion bytes
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Introduction to Information Technology: Your Digital World

• Binary coding schemes assign a unique binary code


to each character.
• ASCII
• Requires 7 or 8 bits per character, depending on the version
• 8-bit Extended ASCII provides 256 characters
• Commonly used for microcomputers
• Unicode
• Requires 16 bits per character
• Handles 65,536 characters—used for
Chinese and Japanese
• EBCDIC
• Requires 8 bits per character
• Used for IBM mainframes
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Introduction to Information Technology: Your Digital World

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Introduction to Information Technology: Your Digital World

• Machine Language
• A binary-type programming language (0s and 1s)
built into the CPU that is run directly by the
computer
• Each CPU type has its own machine language
• Language Translators: The computer’s system
software converts higher-level language instructions
and data into machine language so that the
processor can “understand” what to do.

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Introduction to Information Technology: Your Digital World

Names Definitions

Bay Opening in the computer cabinet used for the installation of


electrical equipment.
Power Supply This converts AC to DC to run the computer.

Surge Protector Protects the computer from being damaged by power spikes.
Plug your computer into one.
UPS Uninterruptible Power Supply. Battery-operated device that
provides power for a limited time when there is a blackout.
Motherboard Main system board of the computer (also systemboard).
Microprocessor Miniaturized circuitry of a computer processor.
Chipset Groups of interconnected chips on the motherboard that
control information flow between the microprocessor and
other system components connected to the motherboard

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Introduction to Information Technology: Your Digital World

One View of a
Motherboard

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Introduction to Information Technology: Your Digital World

Another View of a
Motherboard

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Using Information Technology, 10e © 2013 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
Introduction to Information Technology: Your Digital World

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Using Information Technology, 10e © 2013 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
Introduction to Information Technology: Your Digital World

• Traditional microcomputer microprocessors are Intel and


AMD.
• Multicore processors have more than one
processor “core” on a silicon chip, which
allows computers to run faster
• A graphics processing unit (GPU) is a specialized processor
used to manipulate three-dimensional (3-D) computer
graphics.

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Introduction to Information Technology: Your Digital World

• Processing Speeds
• Every microprocessor contains a system clock, which
controls how fast all the operations within a
computer take place (the chip’s processing speed).
• Older CPU processing speeds are in megahertz
• 1 MHz = 1 million cycles per second
• Current CPU processing speeds are in gigahertz
• 1 GHz = 1 billion cycles per second
• The faster a CPU runs, the more power it consumes,
and the more heat it generates

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Introduction to Information Technology: Your Digital World

• Processing Speeds (continued)


• Workstation and mainframe speeds are measured in
MIPS
• MIPS stands for millions of instructions per second
• Workstations perform at 100 MIPS or more
• Mainframes perform as fast as 981,024 MIPS
• Supercomputer processing speed is measured in
flops
• Flops stands for floating-point operations per second

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Introduction to Information Technology: Your Digital World

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Using Information Technology, 10e © 2013 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
Introduction to Information Technology: Your Digital World

Name Definition
Word size The number of bits the processor can
process at any one time
CPU The central processing unit (chip) has
two parts; the control unit and the ALU
Control unit The part of the CPU that deciphers
instructions and carries them out
Arithmetic Logic Unit (ALU) The part of the CPU that performs
mathematical and logical operations
Registers High-speed storage areas that
temporarily store data during processing
Buses Electrical data roadways used to
transmit bits within the CPU and
between CPU and other motherboard
components
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Introduction to Information Technology: Your Digital World

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Using Information Technology, 10e © 2013 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
Introduction to Information Technology: Your Digital World

• Memory
• Two type of storage: primary and secondary
• Primary storage = “memory,” “main memory,”
“RAM”; this type of memory is temporary and
volatile
• Secondary storage = “storage” disks and flash
memory units; this type of memory is relatively
permanent and nonvolatile

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Introduction to Information Technology: Your Digital World

Primary Memory Chips Explanation


RAM Random Access Memory chips are volatile and hold:
a. Software instructions
b. Data before & after the CPU processes it
ROM Read Only Memory
a. Cannot be written on or erased without special
equipment
b. Are loaded at factory with fixed (permanent) start-up
instructions (BIOS), that tell the computer how to load
the operating system

CMOS Complementary Metal Oxide Semiconductor


a. Powered by a battery
b. Contains time, date, calendar, boot password

Flash Nonvolatile memory that can be erased and reprogrammed


more than once
a. Doesn’t require a battery
b. Used in newer PCs for BIOS instructions
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Introduction to Information Technology: Your Digital World

Explanation
RAM Chip Types
1. Dynamic RAM must be constantly refreshed by the
DRAM CPU or it loses its contents
2. Synchronous Dynamic RAM is synchronized by the
SDRAM system clock and is much faster than DRAM
3. Static RAM is faster than DRAM and retains its
SRAM contents without having to be refreshed by CPU
4. Double-data rate synchronous dynamic RAM; type
DDR-SDRAM used most commonly in microcomputers
5. Single Inline Memory Module has RAM chips on
SIMM only one side; insert in expansion slot to increase
RAM
6. Dual Inline Memory Module has chips on both
DIMM sides; insert in expansion slot to increase RAM

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Introduction to Information Technology: Your Digital World

• Speeding up Processing: Cache


• The CPU works much faster than RAM, so it often
must wait for information
• Cache temporarily stores instructions and data that
the processor uses frequently to speed up
processing
• Level 1 cache is part of the microprocessor
• Holds 8 to 256 KB
• Faster than Level 2 cache
• Level 2 cache is external cache
• Holds 64 kb to 2 MB
• Level 3 cache is on the motherboard
• Comes on very high-end computers
• Holds 2 to 8 MB
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Introduction to Information Technology: Your Digital World

• Virtual Memory—also used to speed up


processing
• This type of memory is unused hard disk or optical
(CD) space that the processor uses to extend the
capacity of RAM
• The processor goes first to L1 cache, then L2 cache,
then RAM, then virtual memory
• Each type of memory is slower than its predecessor

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Introduction to Information Technology: Your Digital World

• Additional Methods of Speeding up Processing


• Interleaving
• Bursting
• Pipelining
• Superscalar architecture and hyperthreading

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Introduction to Information Technology: Your Digital World

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Introduction to Information Technology: Your Digital World

• Hard Disks
• Thin, rigid metal, glass, or ceramic platters covered
with a substance that allows data to be held in the
form of magnetized spots
• The more platters there are, the higher the drive capacity
• Store data in tracks, sectors, and clusters
• Formatting creates a file allocation table that maps files to
clusters.
• Drive heads ride on .000001” cushion of air, and can
crash!
• Important data should always be backed up!

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Introduction to Information Technology: Your Digital World

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Introduction to Information Technology: Your Digital World

• Hard Disks (continued)


• Hard Disk Types:
• Nonremovable hard disk – Also known as a fixed disk; is
housed in the microcomputer system unit and is used to
store nearly all programs and most data files. Usually
consists of several metallic or glass platters, from 1 to 5.25
inches (most commonly 3.5 inches) in diameter, stacked on
a spindle, with data stored on both sides. Read/write heads,
one for each side of each platter, are mounted on an access
arm that moves back and forth to the right location on the
platter.
• External hard disk – a freestanding disk drive (portable)
• Removable hard disk – inserted into a bay or a cartridge
drive built into the computer’s system unit

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