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Technical seminar report

Presentation on

Submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements

For the award of the Degree of





B. SRUJAN 167R1A03E4
Under the guidance of

G. Mukesh, Asst Professor

Mechanical Department



This is to certify that the technical seminar report entitled “BRAKES” is the
bonafide work carried out and submitted by B. SRUJAN bearing roll number
167R1A03E4. To the department of Mechanical Engineering, CMR TECHNICAL
CAMPUS, Hyderabad, in fulfillment for the award of Bachelor of Technology
(MECHANICAL ENGINEERING) during the academic year 2019-2020.


Dr. D. MANEIAH, M.Tech, PhD,

Professor–Mechanical Department
1. Abstract 5
2. Introduction 6
3. How Brakes Work 7
4. Brake Basic 7
a. Leverage 8
b. Hydraulic 9
c. Friction 9
5. Simple Braking System 10
6. Types Of Brakes 10
a. Disc Brake 11
b. Drum Brakes 11
7. Types Of Disc Brake 11
a. Floating Caliper Disc Brake
b. Fixed Caliper Disc Brake
c. Sliding Caliper Disc Brake
8. Main parts of disc brakes 12
9. Working Of Disc Brake 13
10. Self adjustment of disc brake 15
11. Emergency Brakes 15
12. Brake Fade 16
13. Advantages 18
14. Why are disc brakes more efficient ? 21
15. Why do disc brakes have better braking behavior? 22
16. Why do disk brakes have higher safety reserves? 22
17. Limitations 23
18. Testing Of Disc Brakes 23
19. Conclusion 24
20. References 25

The current tendencies in automotive industry need intensive investigation in problems of

interaction of active safety systems with brake system equipments. At the same time, the
opportunities to decrease the power take-off of single components, disc brake systems. Disc
brakes sometimes spelled as "disk" brakes, use a flat, disk-shaped metal rotor that spins with the
wheel. When the brakes are applied, a caliper squeezes the brake pads against the disc (just as
you would stop a spinning disc by squeezing it between your fingers), slowing the wheel.
The disc brake used in the automobile is divided into two parts: a rotating axis
symmetrical disc, and the stationary pads. The hydraulic brake is an arrangement of braking
mechanism which uses brake fluid, typically containing ethylene glycol, to transfer pressure
from the controlling unit, which is usually near the operator of the vehicle, to the actual brake
mechanism, which is usually at or near the wheel of the vehicle.
The frictional heat, which is generated on the interface of the disc and pads, can cause
high temperature during the braking process. Hence the automobiles generally use disc brakes on
the front wheels and drum brakes on the rear wheels. The disc brakes have good stopping
performance and are usually safer and more efficient than drum brakes.
The four wheel disc brakes are more popular, swapping drums on all but the most basic
vehicles. Many two wheel automobiles design uses a drum brake for the rear wheel. Brake
technology began in the '60s as a serious attempt to provide adequate braking for performance
cars has ended in an industry where brakes range from supremely adequate to downright

One of the first steps taken to improve braking came in the early '70s when
manufacturers, on a widespread scale, switched from drum to disc brakes. Since the majority of a
vehicle's stopping power is contained in the front wheels, only the front brakes were upgraded to
disc during much of this period. Since then, many manufacturers have adopted four-wheel disc
brakes on their high-end and performance models as well as their low-line economy cars.
Occasionally, however, as in the case of the 1999 Mazda Protege's, a manufacturer will revert
from a previous four-wheel disc setup to drum brakes for the rear of the car in order to cut both
production costs and purchase price.


Ever since the invention of the wheel, if there has been "go" there has been a need for
"whoa." As the level of technology of human transportation has increased, the mechanical
devices used to slow down and stop vehicles has also become more complex. In this report I will
discuss the history of vehicular braking technology and possible future developments.

Before there was a "horse-less carriage," wagons, and other animal drawn vehicles relied
on the animal’s power to both accelerate and decelerate the vehicle. Eventually there was the
development of supplemental braking systems consisting of a hand lever to push a wooden
friction pad directly against the metal tread of the wheels. In wet conditions these crude brakes
would lose any effectiveness.

The early years of automotive development were an interesting time for the designing
engineers, "a period of innovation when there was no established practice and virtually all ideas
were new ones and worth trying. Quite rapidly, however, the design of many components
stabilized in concept and so it was with brakes; the majority of vehicles soon adopted drum
brakes, each consisting of two shoes which could be expanded inside a drum."

In this chaotic era is the first record of the disk brake. Dr. F.W. Lanchester patented a
design for a disk brake in 1902 in England. It was incorporated into the Lanchester car produced
between 1906 through 1914. These early disk brakes were not as effective at stopping as the
contemporary drum brakes of that time and were soon forgotten. Another important development
occurred in the 1920’s when drum brakes were used at all four wheels instead of a single brake
to halt only the back axle and wheels such as on the Ford model T. The disk brake was again
utilized during World War II in the landing gear of aircraft. The aircraft disk brake system was
adapted for use in automotive applications, first in racing in 1952, then in production
automobiles in 1956. United States auto manufacturers did not start to incorporate disk brakes in
lower priced non-high-performance cars until the late 1960’s.

We all know that pushing down on the brake pedal slows a car to a stop. But how does
this happen? How does your car transmit the force from your leg to its wheels? How does it
multiply the force so that it is enough to stop something as big as a car?


When you depress your brake pedal, your car transmits the force from your foot to its
brakes through a fluid. Since the actual brakes require a much greater force than you could apply
with your leg, your car must also multiply the force of your foot. It does this in two ways:

 Mechanical advantage (leverage)

 Hydraulic force multiplication

The brakes transmit the force to the tires using friction, and the tires transmit that force to the
road using friction also. Before we begin our discussion on the components of the brake system,
let's cover these three principles:
 Leverage
 Hydraulics
 Friction


The pedal is designed in such a way that it can multiply the force from your leg several
times before any force is even transmitted to the brake fluid.

In the figure above, a force F is being applied to the left end of the lever. The left end of
the lever is twice as long (2X) as the right end (X). Therefore, on the right end of the lever a
force of 2F is available, but it acts through half of the distance (Y) that the left end moves (2Y).
Changing the relative lengths of the left and right ends of the lever changes the multipliers.
The basic idea behind any hydraulic system is very simple: Force applied at one point is
transmitted to another point using an incompressible fluid, almost always an oil of some sort.
Most brake systems also multiply the force in the process

Friction is a measure of how hard it is to slide one object over another. Take a look at the
figure below. Both of the blocks are made from the same material, but one is heavier. I think we
all know which one will be harder for the bulldozer to push.

Friction force versus weight

To understand why this is, let's take a close look at one of the blocks and the table:

Even though the blocks look smooth to the naked eye, they are actually quite rough at the
microscopic level. When you set the block down on the table, the little peaks and valleys get
squished together, and some of them may actually weld together. The weight of the heavier
block causes it to squish together more, so it is even harder to slide.
Different materials have different microscopic structures; for instance, it is harder to slide
rubber against rubber than it is to slide steel against steel.

The type of material determines the coefficient of friction, the ratio of the force required
to slide the block to the block's weight. If the coefficient were 1.0 in our example, then it would
take 100 pounds of force to slide the 100-pound (45 kg) block, or 400 pounds (180 kg) of force
to slide the 400-pound block. If the coefficient were 0.1, then it would take 10 pounds of force to
slide to the 100-pound block or 40 pounds of force to slide the 400-pound block.

So the amount of force it takes to move a given block is proportional to that block's
weight. The more weight, the more force required. This concept applies for devices like brakes
and clutches, where a pad is pressed against a spinning disc. The more force that presses on the
pad, the greater the stopping force.


The distance from the pedal to the pivot is four times the distance from the cylinder to the
pivot, so the force at the pedal will be increased by a factor of four before it is transmitted to the

The diameter of the brake cylinder is three times the diameter of the pedal cylinder. This
further multiplies the force by nine. All together, this system increases the force of your foot by a
factor of 36. If you put 10 pounds of force on the pedal, 360 pounds (162 kg) will be generated at
the wheel squeezing the brake pads.

There are a couple of problems with this simple system. What if we have a leak? If it is a
slow leak, eventually there will not be enough fluid left to fill the brake cylinder, and the brakes
will not function. If it is a major leak, then the first time you apply the brakes all of the fluid will
squirt out the leak and you will have complete brake failure.




The drum brake has two brake shoes and a piston. When you hit the brake pedal, the piston
pushes the brake shoes against the drum This is where it gets a little more complicated. as the
brake shoes contact the drum, there is a kind of wedging action, which has the effect of pressing
the shoes into the drum with more force. The extra braking force provided by the wedging action
allows drum brakes to use a smaller piston than disc brakes. But, because of the wedging action,
the shoes must be pulled away from the drum when the brakes are released. This is the reason for
some of the springs. Other springs help hold the brake shoes in place and return the adjuster arm
after it actuates.


The disk brake has a metal disk instead of a drum. It has a flat shoe, or pad, located
on each side of the disk. To slow or stop the car, these two flat shoes are forced tightly against
the rotating disk, or rotor. Fluid pressure from the master cylinder forces the pistons to move in.
This action pushes the friction pads of the shoes tightly against the disk. The friction between the
shoes and the disk slows and stops the disk.


The Three Types of Disk Brakes Are:-





The main components of a disc brake are:

 The brake pads

 The caliper, which contains a piston
 The rotor, which is mounted to the hub





The caliper is the part that holds the break shoes on each side of the disk. In
the floating-caliper brake, two steel guide pins are threaded into the steering-knuckle adapter.
The caliper floats on four rubber bushings which fit on the inner and outer ends of the two guide
pins. The bushings allow the caliper to swing in or out slightly when the brakes are applied

When the brakes are applied, the brake fluid flows to the cylinder in the caliper and
pushes the piston out. The piston then forces the shoe against the disk. At the same time, the
pressure in the cylinder causes the caliper to pivot inward. This movement brings the other shoe
into tight contact with the disk. As a result, the two shoes “pinch” the disk tightly to produce the
braking action


This brake usually has four pistons, two on each side of the disk. The reason for the
name fixed-caliper is that the caliper is bolted solidly to the steering knuckle. When the brakes
are applied, the caliper cannot move. The four pistons are forced out of their caliper bores to
push the inner and outer brake shoes in against the disk. Some brakes of this type have used only
two pistons, one on each side of the disk


The sliding-caliper disk brake is similar to the floating-caliper disk brake. The
difference is that sliding-caliper is suspended from rubber bushings on bolts. This permits the
caliper to slide on the bolts when the brakes are applied.

Proper function of the brake depends on (1) the rotor must be straight and smooth, (2) the
caliper mechanism must be properly aligned with the rotor, (3) the pads must be positioned
correctly, (4) there must be enough "pad" left, and (5) the lever mechanism must push the pads
tightly against the rotor, with "lever" to spare.

Most modern cars have disc brakes on the front wheels, and some have disc brakes on all four
wheels. This is the part of the brake system that does the actual work of stopping the car

The most common type of disc brake on modern cars is the single-piston floating caliper.
In this article, we will learn all about this type of disc brake design

Disk brakes are self adjusting. Each piston has a seal on it to prevent fluid
leakage. When the brakes are applied, the piston moves toward the disk. This distorts the piston
seal. When the brakes are released, the seal relaxes and returns to its original position. This pulls
the piston away from the disk. As the brakes linings wear, the piston over travels and takes a new
position in relation to the seal. This action provides self adjustment of disk brakes.


In cars with disc brakes on all four wheels, an emergency brake has to be actuated by a
separate mechanism than the primary brakes in case of a total primary brake failure. Most cars
use a cable to actuate the emergency brake.

Some cars with four-wheel disc brakes have a separate drum brake integrated into the hub of the
rear wheels. This drum brake is only for the emergency brake system, and it is actuated only by
the cable; it has no hydraulics.


Vehicle braking system fade, or brake fade, is the reduction in stopping power that can
occur after repeated or sustained application of the brakes, especially in high load or high speed
conditions. Brake fade can be a factor in any vehicle that utilizes a friction braking system
including automobiles, trucks, motorcycles, airplanes, and even bicycles.

Brake fade is caused by a buildup of heat in the braking surfaces and the subsequent changes and
reactions in the brake system components and can be experienced with both drum brakes and
disc brakes. Loss of stopping power, or fade, can be caused by friction fade, mechanical fade, or
fluid fade. Brake fade can be significantly reduced by appropriate equipment and materials
design and selection, as well as good cooling.

Brake fade occurs most often during high performance driving or when going down a long, steep
hill. Owing to their configuration fade is more prevalent in drum brakes. Disc brakes are much
more resistant to brake fade and have come to be a standard feature in front brakes for most


High performance brake components provide enhanced stopping power by improving friction
while reducing brake fade. Improved friction is provided by lining materials that have a higher
coefficient of friction than standard brake pads, while brake fade is reduced through the use of
more expensive binding resins with a higher melting point, along with slotted, drilled, or dimpled
discs/rotors that reduce the gaseous boundary layer, in addition to providing enhanced heat
dissipation. Heat buildup in brakes can be further addressed by body modifications that direct
cold air to the brakes.

The "gaseous boundary layer" is a hot rod mechanics explanation for failing self servo effect of
drum brakes because it felt like a brick under the brake pedal when it occurred. To counter this
effect, brake shoes were drilled and slotted to vent gas. In spite of that, drum brakes were
abandoned for their self-servo effect. Disks do not have that because application force is applied
at right angles to the resulting braking force. There is no interaction.

Drum brake fade can be reduced and overall performance enhanced somewhat by an old "hot
rodder" technique of drum drilling. A carefully chosen pattern of holes is drilled through the
drum working section; drum rotation centrifugally pumps a small amount air through the shoe to
drum gap, removing heat; fade caused by water-wet brakes is reduced since the water is
centrifugally driven out; and some brake-material dust exits the holes. Brake drum drilling
requires careful detailed knowledge of brake drum physics and is an advanced technique
probably best left to professionals. There are performance-brake shops that will make the
necessary modifications safely.


A moving car has a certain amount of kinetic energy, and the brakes have to remove this energy
from the car in order to stop it. How do the brakes do this? Each time you stop your car, your
brakes convert the kinetic energy to heat generated by the friction between the pads and the disc.
Most car disc brakes are vented.

Brake fade caused by overheating brake fluid (often called Pedal Fade) can also be reduced
through the use of thermal barriers that are placed between the brake pad and the brake caliper
piston, these reduce the transfer of heat from the pad to the caliper and in turn hydraulic brake
fluid. Some high-performance racing calipers already include such brake heat shields made from
titanium or ceramic materials. However, it is also possible to purchase aftermarket titanium
brake heat shields [6] that will fit your existing brake system to provide protection from brake
heat. These inserts are precision cut to cover as much of the pad as possible. These Titanium
Brake shims are an easy to install, low cost solution that are popular with racers and track day

Another technique employed to prevent brake fade is the incorporation of fade stop brake
coolers. Like titanium heat shields the brake coolers are designed to slide between the brake pad
backing plate and the caliper piston. They are constructed from a high thermal conductivity, high
yield strength metal composite which conducts the heat from the interface to a heat sink which is
external to the caliper and in the airflow. They have been shown to decrease caliper piston
temperatures by over twenty percent and to also significantly decrease the time needed to cool
down.[7] Unlike titanium heat shields, however, the brake coolers actually transfer the heat to the
surrounding environment and thus keep the pads cooler.


As with almost any artifact of technology, drum brakes and disk brakes both have
advantages and disadvantages. Drum brakes still have the edge in cheaper cost and lower
complexity. This is why most cars built today use disk brakes in front but drum brakes in the
back wheels, four wheel disks being an extra cost option or shouted as a high performance
feature. Since the weight shift of a decelerating car puts most of the load on the front wheels, the
usage of disk brakes on only the front wheels is accepted manufacturing practice.

Drum brakes had another advantage compared to early disk brake systems. The geometry
of the brake shoes inside the drums can be designed for a mechanical self-boosting action. The
rotation of the brake drum will push a leading shoe brake pad into pressing harder against the
drum. Early disk brake systems required an outside mechanical brake booster such as a vacuum
assist or hydraulic pump to generate the pressure for primitive friction materials to apply the
necessary braking force.
All friction braking technology uses the process of converting the kinetic energy of a
vehicle’s forward motion into thermal energy: heat. The enemy of all braking systems is
excessive heat. Drums are inferior to disks in dissipating excessive heat:
"The common automotive drum brake consists essentially of two shoes which may be expanded
against the inner cylindrical surface of a drum.

The greater part of heat generated when a brake is applied has to pass through the drum
to its outer surface in order to be dissipated to atmosphere, and at the same time (the drum is)
subject to quite severe stresses due to the distortion induced by the opposed shoes acting inside
the open ended drum.

The conventional disk brake, on the other hand, consists essentially of a flat disk on
either side of which are friction pads; equal and opposite forces may be applied to these pads to
press their working surfaces into contact with the braking path of the disks. The heat produced
by the conversion of energy is dissipated directly from the surfaces at which it is generated and
the deflection of the braking path of the disk is very small so that the stressing of the material is
not so severe as with the drum."

The result of overheated brakes is brake fade...the same amount of force at the pedal no
longer provides the same amount of stopping power. The high heat decreases the relative
coefficient of friction between the friction material and the drum or disk. Drum brakes also suffer
another setback when overheating: The inside radii of the drum expands, the brake shoe outside
radii no longer matches, and the actual contact surface is decreased.

Another advantage of disk brakes over drum brakes is that of weight. There are two
different areas where minimizing weight is important. The first is unsprung weight. This is the
total amount of weight of all the moving components of a car between the road and the
suspension mounting points on the car’s frame.

Auto designs have gone to such lengths to reduce unsprung weight that some, such as the
E-type Jaguar, moved the rear brakes inboard, next to the differential, connected to the drive
shafts instead of on the rear wheel hubs. The second "weighty" factor is more of an issue on
motorcycles: gyroscopic weight. The heavier the wheel unit, the more gyroscopic resistance to
changing direction. Thus the bike’s steering would be higher effort with heavier drum brakes
than with lighter disks. Modern race car disk brakes have hollow internal vents, cross drilling
and other weight saving and cooling features.

Most early brake drums and disks were made out of cast iron. Current OEM motorcycle
disk brakes are usually stainless steel for corrosion resistance, but after-market racing component
brake disks are still made from cast iron for the improved friction qualities. Other exotic
materials have been used in racing applications. Carbon fiber composite disks gripped by carbon
fiber pads were common in formula one motorcycles and cars in the early 1990’s, but were
outlawed by the respective racing sanctioning organizations due to sometimes spectacular
failure. The carbon/carbon brakes also only worked properly at the very high temperatures of
racing conditions and would not get hot enough to work in street applications.

A recent Ducati concept show bike uses brake disks of selenium, developed by the
Russian aerospace industry(3), which claim to have the friction coefficient of cast iron with the
light weight of carbon fiber.

Another area of development of the disk brake is the architecture of the brake caliper.
Early designs had a rigidly mounted caliper gripping with opposed hydraulic pistons pushing the
brake pads against a disk mounted securely to the wheel hub. Later developments included a
single piston caliper floating on slider pins. This system had improved, more even pad wear.
Most modern automobiles and my 1982 Kawasaki motorcycle uses this type caliper. Current
design paradigm for motorcycle brakes have up to six pistons, opposed to grip both sides of a
thin, large radius disk that is "floating" on pins to provide a small amount of lateral movement;
two disks per front wheel.

Improvements in control have been made available with the application of Anti-Lock
Brake technology. Wheel sensors convey rotation speed of each wheel to a computer that senses
when any of them are locked up or in a skid, and modulates individual wheel brake hydraulic
pressure to avoid wheel skidding and loss of vehicular control.
The use of exotic materials for additional weight savings would be likely for the future of
motor vehicle braking. Disks mounted to the wheel’s rim gripped by an internally located caliper
is not necessarily a new design (Porsche, 1963) (4) but could be a futuristic looking option for
motorcycle wheels. Electric vehicles of the future will likely utilize regenerative braking, the
electric motors become generators to convert kinetic energy back to electricity to recharge the
batteries. As production vehicles become increasingly quicker, the need for "whoa" will always
accompany the "go."

Why are disk brakes more efficient?

 Flat brake disk (axial brake) under high pressure versus round brake drum (radial brake)
during braking
 Full friction surface of the brake pad on the plane brake disk .
 No loss of brake power due to overheating or partial contact from brake drum parts
expansion .
 Disk brakes can withstand higher loads and its efficiency is maintained considerably
longer even under the highest stresses
 Higher residual brake force after repeating braking
 Brake disks can withstand extremely high temperatures
 Full contact of brake pads achieve maximum effect
 No verification of brake pads. Dangerous fading or slipping is almost completely

Why do disk brakes have a better braking behavior?

 Driver friendly braking behavior. Sensitive braking in all situations and better
 Sensitive brake application and better brake feeling
 Uniform braking from small fluctuations in brake forces
 Retardation values retained even under heavy stresses
 Minimal "pulling to one side" due to uneven brake forces
 Disk brake axial arrangement permits a simple and compact design
 Linear characteristics lead to an even progression of brake force
 Basic design principle makes for higher efficiency
 Low hysteresis is particularly suitable to ABS control cycles

Why do disk brakes have higher safety reserves?

 Minimal braking effect from high temperatures and extreme driving requirements
Minimal heat fading
 No brake disk distortion from extreme heat due to internal ventilation with
directional stability and large power reserve under high stress
 The decisive safety aspects of the disk brake design are shorter braking distances
 High power and safety reserves for emergencies
 Constant braking power under high stresses
 Shortened braking distance under emergency braking with considerably improved
directional stability




The individual components are subjected to extensive test on the test bed. The optimum
arrangement of components on the axle beam, operational reliability and convincing
performance are requirements that must be met prior series production.

Today, all MAN city, inter-city buses and coaches utilize the MAN disk brake system on
all wheels with ABS. The disk brake system is used with and without retarders

Brake performance is tested on the test track and in racing to ensure their practice. Only
after these extensive tests can the disk brake be cleared for production .

The brake disks are subjected to the highest stresses from contact pressure. The broad
brake disks with radial cavities made of heat resistant special gray cast iron, are still operational
in temperatures in excess of 1380 degrees F


Many trucks and buses are equipped with air actuated sliding caliper disk brakes
The high contact forces are transmitted mechanically via needle mounted actuating device
Depending on size the actuating pressure is transmitted evenly to the brake pads via one or two

The easy action, fully sealed guides between the axially moving sliding caliper and fixed
brake anchor plate are maintenance free. Integrated automatic adjustment with wear display.
There are no brake shafts, external levers or cylinder brackets, as the brake cylinders are directly

The high efficiency of 95% is achieved by only a few moving parts and low friction
bearings Asbestos free brake pads 19 to 23 mm thick, depending on version extremely heat
resistant brake disks (34 to 45 mm) made of special gray cast iron with internal ventilation

The brake disks are 330 to 432 mm in diameter and permissible wear of 6 to 10 mm
allowed; depending on version .The service and parking brakes use the same actuating unit and
differ only in the shape of the brake cylinder.

 Tech Center By Karl Brauer, Editor in Chief, Edmunds.com

 http://cars.about.com/od/thingsyouneedtoknow/ig/Disc-brakes

 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Disc_brake

 http://www.kobelt.com/pdf/brochure_brake.pdf
 http://auto.howstuffworks.com/auto-parts/brakes/brake-types/disc-brake.htm

 http://www.sae.org/search?searchfield=brake%20system

 http://www.hinduonnet.com/thehindu/2000/05/25/ceramic brake disc

 Automotive Engineering International Online Global Viewpoints, Nov_ 1999