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Engineering Education

& Research Solutions

Structures
Mechanics of Fluids
Aerodynamics & Airflow
Thermodynamics
Steam
Automotive
Environmental & Clean Energies
Applied Mechanics
Process Control Engineering
Marine Hydrodynamics

Issue no. 8
Introduction
Cussons Technology was founded in 1876 and
has specialised in the design and manufacture of
teaching and research equipment for mechanical
engineering and allied subjects for more than a
century. Worldwide our customers are typically
within tertiary educational establishments,
research institutes, government establishments
and the research departments of national and
multinational companies.

In addition to the educational product range a


division producing automotive research
equipment and facilities was created,
complemented by new automotive teaching
products which Cussons continues to develop.
Further expansion saw the company acquire
the rights to the well-respected German
manufacturer Kempf & Remmers’ marine
hydrodynamics research and naval architecture systems and products.

Cussons’ K&R brand continues to grow and today includes a range of compact
educational marine hydrodynamics and maritime studies resources.
The automotive and marine expansions of our core mechanical, fluid and
energy-related range have helped to consolidate Cussons’ position as a leader
in the supply of reliable, well-designed and supported, high quality solutions
for educational and research institutions worldwide.

At the heart of Cussons’ philosophy there has always been an understanding


that student commitment - so critical for success - is most effectively
engendered by interesting, well-designed hands-on experimentation. Our
current equipment offer continues to embrace this principle and incorporates
modern computer technology for data acquisition and control.
The subjects Cussons specialises in are thermodynamics (including heat
transfer, refrigeration, air conditioning and steam engineering), automotive
technology, fluid mechanics, process control and instrumentation, theory of
machines and applied mechanics plus a renewable energy range covering wind,
wave, tidal and solar energy studies.

In addition to supplying individual items of equipment, Cussons also


undertakes complete turnkey projects for the design, supply, installation
and commissioning of entire laboratories, specialising in those for steam,
automotive engineering and marine hydrodynamics . We are fully ISO 9001
compliant.

Full details of all products are available on our website at www.cussons.co.uk

Marine Hydrodynamic Systems


Automotive Research and Development Equipment and Instrumentation
Integrated facilities for R&D projects in Aerospace, Oil, and Military Sectors
Analysis and purification of special gases.

Follow us on:

2
Structures 4

Mechanics of Fluids 8
Fundamental Hydraulic Studies 9
Hydraulic Applied Studies 12

Aerodynamics & Air Flow 14


Air Flow 14
Air Flow Experiments 14
Wind Tunnels 15

Thermodynamics 17
Thermodynamic Principles 17
Heat Transfer & Heat Exchanger 18
Gas Turbine and Compressors 19
Refrigeration & Air Conditioning 20
Properties of Fuels 21

Steam 22
Steam Power Plant 22
Steam Experiments 23
Ancillary Equipment 24

Automotive 25
Engine Test Beds 25
Autotrainers 26
Instrumentation and Accessories 26
Automotive Fuel & Gas Analysers 27

Environmental & Clean Energies 28


Wind Turbine Dynamometer Range 28
Solar & Fuel Cell 29

Applied Mechanics 30
Theory of Machines 30
Strength of Materials 32

Process Control Engineering 33

Marine Hydrodynamics Educational Range 36

Product Index 39

3
NEW STRUCTURES TEACHING
SYSTEM
Cussons’ new structures range (CST100 to CST121) is a modular system optimised for
teaching a broad array of structural engineering concepts to students studying civil,
aeronautical or mechanical engineering courses at certificate, diploma and degree level.

State-of-the-art solution providing meaningful laboratory experiences relevant to real-world scenarios.


Relevant to the design of bridges, wing spars, engine pylons, cranes and a multitude of other constructions.

Secret of the CST system’s cost-effectiveness is its fundamental modularity and modern design ethos.
Broad coverage: beams, cantilevers, arches, struts, davits, weight, reaction, moment, shear force and torsion.

System is based upon a Structures Platform which will accept any of


twenty-one optional experiments.
Structures Platform incorporates a USB interface ‘hub’ which connects
to any modern PC.
Each experiment is supplied with data acquisition software to capture
measurements during practical sessions.
Software for each experiment incorporates teaching elements plus a
simulator - students benefit from being able to predict and
confirm experimental results.
Software can expand investigations beyond hardware limitations -
another great benefit for students.
All of the software has been created using LabVIEW™ but LabVIEW™
licences are not required.

CST100 - STRUCTURES PLATFORM

4
OPTIONAL STRUCTURES EXPERIMENTS:

CST101 Deflection of Beams and Cantilevers CST112 Bending Moments in a Portal Frame
CST102 Bending Moments in a Beam CST113 Pin-Jointed Frameworks
CST103 Shear Force in a Beam CST114 Redundant Frame Truss
CST104 Bending Stress in a Beam CST115 Three-Pinned Arch
CST105 Unsymmetrical Bending and Shear Centre CST116 Two-Pinned Arch
CST106 Equilibrium of a Simply Supported Beam CST117 Fixed Arch
CST107 Continuous and Indeterminate Beams CST118 Simple Suspension Bridge
CST108 Euler Buckling of Struts CST119 Suspended (Gerber) Beam Bridge
CST109 Plastic Deformation of Beams CST120 Deflections of Curved Bars and Davits
CST110 Plastic Deformation of Portals CST121 Torsion of Circular Sections
CST111 Portal Frame Deflections and Reactions

The most frequently specified ‘fundamentals’ experiments for typical teaching laboratories include:

CST101 - DEFLECTION OF BEAMS AND CST104 - BENDING STRESS IN A BEAM


CANTILEVERS

CST102 - BENDING MOMENTS IN A BEAM CST113 - PIN-JOINTED FRAMEWORKS

CST103 - SHEAR FORCE IN A BEAM CST121 - TORSION OF CIRCULAR SECTIONS

5
Other notable experiments particularly relevant to Civil Engineering include three portal frames, three arches and two bridges, for
example:

CST111 - PORTAL FRAME DEFLECTIONS AND REACTIONS

Experiments and topics studied:

• Horizontal reaction and fixing moment due to a varying single point load on
a portal frame.
• Uniform and non-uniform cross-section portal frames.
• Predicting sway direction by consideration of shear forces.
• Deflection (sway) of a portal frame due to loading asymmetry.
• Deflection (sway) of a portal frame due to asymmetry of uprights.
• Plotting bending moment diagrams.

CST115 - THREE-PINNED ARCH

Experiments and topics studied:

• Horizontal reaction due to a varying OR moving single point load on a


statically determinate structure.
• Horizontal reactions due to a uniformly distributed load on a statically
determinate structure.
• Influence lines and superposition.
• Lines of thrust in an arch.
• Graphical construction of a bending moment diagram for point loads.
• Maximum bending moments due to a load on an arch.

CST118 - SIMPLE SUSPENSION BRIDGE

Experiments and topics studied:

• How bridge load affects the tension in a suspension cable.


• Comparing a central point load with a uniformly distributed load.
• Exploring the ratio of bridge ‘deck’ mass and a moving load.
• Comparing simple parabola-based theory with a more realistic
analysis of the model.

Comprehensive user guides - with practical assignments for students to carry out - included with all experiments

CST101 User Guide CST101 User Guide CST101 User Guide CST101 User Guide
Deflections for Uniformly Distributed Loads (UDLs) Experiment 1: Deflection and Stiffness Relationships - Simply Supported Beam Typical Results
Aims Beam Material = E (GPa) = These results are for guidance only. Your results may be slightly different, due to
measurement accuracy and how well you obey the instructions.
Deflection at Centre To use a simply supported beam with a point load to confirm the deflection theory and the 3
relationships between:
L= L = b= d= I=
Experiment 1: Deflection and Stiffness Relationships - Simply Supported Beam
4
5 wL • Load and deflection. Mass (g) Load W (N) Measured Measured
48IL
 Calculated
 = ---------  ---------- Deflection Deflection  Deflection  Procedure A - Aluminium Beam Deflection and Load
384 EI (mm) (m) (m)
• Beam material (E value) and deflection.
0 0
• Beam cross-section (I value) and deflection. Beam Material = Aluminium E (GPa) = 69
100 0.981
• To help show why different applications use beams of different materials and stiffness (EI 200 1.962 L = 0.6 m L3 = 0.215 b = 25.6 mm d = 3.2 mm I = 6.99 x 10-11 m4
Deflection at Centre value).
300 2.943
Procedure A - Aluminium Beam Deflection and Load Mass (g) Load W (N) Measured Measured
48IL
 Calculated
4 400 3.924 Deflection Deflection  Deflection 
1 wL (mm) (m) (m)
 = ---------  ---------- 500 4.905
384 EI
0 0 0 0 0 0
Experiment Setup and Procedures
Experiment Setup and Procedures

Table 12 Blank Results Table 100 0.981 0.91 0.00091 0.92


1.41 x 10-11

1. Create a blank table of results similar to Table 12. 200 1.962 1.83 0.00183 2.84 x 10-11 1.83
Deflection at End

2. Find the aluminium beam (nominal 25.4 mm x 3.2 mm) and use the Vernier Caliper to 300 2.943 2.73 0.00273 4.24 x 10-11 2.75
Typical Results

4 measure its dimensions accurately. Record its dimensions.


1 wL 400 3.924 3.65 0.00365 5.67 x 10-11 3.66
 = ---  ----------
8 EI
Theory

3. Set the supports to the positions shown and set them as simple supports with the Knife
500 4.905 4.61 0.00461 7.16 x 10-11 4.58
Edges.

4. Fit the beam to the supports so that each end of the beam extends equally outside the Table 22 Typical Results
Deflection at Centre supports.
300 mm 300 mm
5. Fit the Dial Indicator Slide to the position shown and adjust the Dial Indicator so that it is Your measured and calculated results should compare well, showing that the theory works
4
1 wL well. Sources of error are likely to be:
 = ---------  ---------- 200 mm 500 mm 800 mm
vertical and has 2 mm upward movement from resting on the beam. Gently pull up on its
192 EI black disc to check this.
• beam dimension measurements, particularly the d value.
6. Fit the Knife Edge Mass Hanger to the beam so its rests centrally around the tip of the
Dial Indicator. • small errors in the masses

+2 mm 7. Set the Dial Indicator display as shown earlier, so it shows positive values as it travels • general measurement errors
down and then set it to read zero (+/- 0.01 mm) as its tip rests on the beam.
Table 10 Deflections for Uniformly Distributed Loads
8. Record the indicated deflection with zero load.

A uniformly distributed load UDL (w) has units of N/m. You calculate this from a simple ratio 9. Add a Mass Hanger with 4 x 20 g masses (total 100 g) to the Knife Edge Hanger.
of the total load (in Newton) over the distance over which it spreads.
10.Record the load and measured deflection.
For example, nine loads of 100 g produces a total load of 9 x 0.981 N = 8.829 N
11.Increase the load in steps of 100 g, recording the deflection at each step.
When spread evenly over a distance of 0.5 m gives 8.829/0.5 = 17.658 N/m.
Analysis

Knife Edge Mass Hanger Calculate the I value for the beam.
Create a chart of deflection in mm or m (vertical axis) against load in Newton. Add your
Figure 18 Experiment Setup results and confirm the relationship between load and deflection.

Page 17 of 82 Page 31 of 82 Page 32 of 82 Page 61 of 82

6
Software is included in the price of each experiment:

In addition to data acquisition the software includes a simulator to extend the range of scenarios and variations students can consider
around each main theme.

For example bending stress in a beam:

• Choice of beam cross sections

• Selectable dimensions/weight/modulus

• Calculated parameters

• Resulting stresses and strains

Similarly for pin-jointed frameworks:

• Choice of truss/girder types

• Selectable dimensions/weight/load angle

• Calculated parameters

• Resulting forces and deflection

(Pointers omitted for clarity).

As well as the software, each of the 21 optional experiments is supplied with all ancillary items (weights, hangers, cables etc.) required
for full use of the apparatus, provided in a convenient storage tray with an easily secured lid.
All that needs to be specified is the quantity of Structures Platforms plus the quantities of each experiment that are required for the
laboratory.

• Cost effective and does not require a separate expensive computer interface

• State of the art utilising LabVIEW™ based software

• Easy to setup with ‘plug and play’ technology to maximise effective use of laboratory time and space

• Ideal for minimally supervised laboratory sessions

• Rugged, bench-mounted, low centre-of-gravity apparatus optimised for use by inexperienced students

• Great resource for mobile trolley-based ‘in-lecture’ demonstrations with software projected for whole auditorium to view

• Enables easy future expansion of teaching facilities with extra experiments and/or Structures Platforms

7
Mechanics of Fluids
Cussons offers a comprehensive range of solutions for teaching fluid mechanics and
hydraulic science to students studying civil or mechanical engineering courses. The
Hydraulics Bench provides all core services for around twenty optional experiments
which can be mounted on or alongside it.

Accessories Required
for Experiments

KEY:
Required Accessories
P6104 Variable Head Outlet Tank
P6103 Constant Head Inlet Tank

P6107 Hook Gauge and Scale


Only required if P6106M Digital Manometer
customer does not
have a bench
P6100 Hydraulics Bench

Optional Accessories
P6106 Manometer

P6108 Rotameter
P6105 Feedblock

Experiments

Fundamental Hydraulic Studies


P6211 Cavitation Demonstration Set

P6220 Laminar Flows Apparatus

P6221 Losses in Pipes and Fittings

P6222 Entry/Exit & Cont/Expansion Losses

P6223/4 Orifice Experiments Basic/Advanced

P6225/6 Open Channel Weirs Basic/Advanced

P6227 Venturi Meter

P6228 Orifice Plate Experiment

P6229 Turbine Meter

P6230 Pitot Static Tube

P6231 Bernouilli’s Theorem

P6232 Hydraulic Ram

P6233 Impact of Jets

P6234 Calibration of Pressure Gauge


P6235/6 Metacentric Height

P6237 Centre of Pressure

P6238 Free and Forced Vortex


P6239 Comparison of Flow Measurements
P6240 Pelton Wheel
P6249 Miniature Flow Channel

8 www.cussons.co.uk
Fundamental Hydraulic Studies

P6100 - HYDRAULICS BENCH P6211 - CAVITATION


DEMONSTRATION SET
The Cussons Hydraulics Bench
provides the basic services
for pumping and volumetric
measurement of the water
supply required by various
optional accessories and
experiments. The equipment
is designed to provide a
clear visual appreciation
of hydraulic principles and
applications.

P6100-01 Hydraulics Bench


(fixed speed pump):
This bench is equipped with
a fixed speed electric motor
driving a centrifugal pump. This compact and cost effective unit
provides experimental capabilities to study
P6100-02 Hydraulics bench (variable speed pump & speed display): the cavitation effect including observation
This bench has a variable speed electric motor driving a centrifugal pump and comes of the relationship between cavitation
with a digital speed display. and temperature and observation of the
relationships between discharge, velocity
P6100-03 Hydraulics Bench (2 variable speed pumps & speed displays): and pressure.
This bench is equipped with 2 variable speed electric motors each driving a centrifugal
pump. The bench comes with 2 digital speed displays.

P6212 - FRANCIS TURBINE P6240 - PELTON WHEEL P6213 - KAPLAN TURBINE

These units provide


experiments to study
reaction, impulse & axial
turbines. The P6240 may
be conveniently mounted
on a Hydraulics Bench
whereas the P6212 and
P6213 require the dedicated
P6290 Service Unit. The
experiments are performed
by pumping water through
the turbines with a variable
flow rate and using a drum
brake system with spring
force balance.

P6290 - SERVICE UNIT P6220/21/22 - WATER FLOW IN PIPES AND FITTINGS EXPERIMENTS

The flow of fluids in closed


conduits or pipes is a major topic
in mechanical, civil and chemical
engineering and is of interest in
areas of biology (e.g. blood flow)
and medicine (e.g. drip delivery).
Cussons offers three experiments,
mountable on the Hydraulic Bench:
P6220 - Laminar Flow Apparatus
P6221 - Friction Losses
in Pipes and Fittings
P6222 - Entry Exit &
Expansion Losses

9
P6223/P6224 - ORIFICES STUDIES P6225/P6226 - OPEN CHANNEL WEIRS

Study of liquid flow through In open channels weirs are


an orifice illustrates the need commonly used to either
for a semi-empirical approach. regulate or to measure
Cussons offers two related the volumetric flow rate.
experiments - each with Cussons offers the following
multiple orifices - which may experiments (with multiple
be mounted on the Hydraulic weir plates) which may be
Bench: mounted on the Hydraulic
Bench:
P6223 Basic Orifices
P6225 Basic Weirs
P6224 Advanced Orifices
P6226 Advanced Weirs

P6227 - P6230 - WATER FLOW MEASUREMENT P6231 - BERNOULLI’S EXPERIMENT


RANGE
This experiment
These four different demonstrates
experiments in the principles of
comparative flow conservation of mass
measurement use various and conservation of
techniques operating energy and may also
on the principle of head be used to examine the
loss, impulse or velocity: onset of turbulence in
an accelerating stream
of water.
P6227 Venturi Meter
P6228 Orifice Plate
P6229 Turbine Meter
P6230 Pitot Static Tube

P6232 - HYDRAULIC RAM P6233 - IMPACT OF JETS

A hydraulic ram helps to This apparatus enables


illustrate the principal by which experiments on the reaction
water may be obtained from of a jet of water upon vanes
low lying water sources when of various forms (fixed
no electrical supply is available vane, a cone shape or a
to power a pump. hemispherical) to be carried
out and demonstrates the
relationship between the
forces exerted on the model
and the rate of change of
momentum of the jet stream

P6238 - FREE & FORCED VORTEX APPARATUS P6239 - WATER FLOW MEASUREMENT

The creation of vortices is This apparatus can be used on


a common engineering and the Hydraulic Bench or used
natural phenomenon worthy as free-standing apparatus
of study. This apparatus may in conjunction with a low
be used to plot the shape pressure water supply. The
of free/forced vortices by static head at various points
measurement of surface in the flow path is measured
profile co-ordinates. enabling students to analyse
the behaviour of water flowing
through a sudden enlargement,
transparent venturi meter, an
orifice plate and a rotameter.

10 www.cussons.co.uk
P6234 - P6237 - HYDROSTATICS EXPERIMENTS

Cussons offers three related experiments mountable on


the Hydraulic Bench:
P6234 Calibration of Pressure Gauge
P6235 Metacentric Height Apparatus
P6236 Alternative Hulls
P6237 Centre of Pressure Apparatus
(Hydrostatic pressure)

P6242 - HYDROSTATICS BENCH

As an independent and self-contained unit, the


Hydrostatics Bench enables the students to
understand the fundamental properties of non-
moving fluids. Experimental coverage includes
density and relative density; variation of pressure
with head; Hare’s Tube; Pascal’s Law; viscosity;
capillarity; surface tension; Archimedes Principle; use
of vernier level gauge and the hydraulic press.

P6244 - HYDROSTATICS SET

This compact set of hydrostatics apparatus enables students to investigate the


fundamental properties of non-moving fluids. P6244 is a reduced version of
the apparatus supplied with Cussons’ full size P6242 Hydrostatics Bench.

P6246 - HELE SHAW APPARATUS P6248 - OSBORNE REYNOLDS APPARATUS

This two dimensional potential This Osborne


flow apparatus is based Reynolds
upon the well-known Hele experiment may be
Shaw experimental method. used to investigate
It provides a parallel laminar laminar/streamline
water flow field to allow study flow, turbulent flow
of low Reynolds number flow and the transition
patterns around submerged between these
models representing cylinders, two regimes by
aerofoils, bluff bodies, knife observation of an
edge weirs and through injected dye line. It
passages such as valve bodies may also be used
and nozzles etc. to determine the
upper and lower Critical Velocities and Reynolds Number.

11
Hydraulic Applied Studies

P6135 - SERIES AND PARALLEL PUMP TEST SET P5160 - FRICTION LOSS IN PIPES & FITTINGS

This unit incorporates two pumps which enables investigations This apparatus
of series and parallel operation of identical pumps running at the enables students
same or different speeds. to investigate
flow through
smooth and
roughened pipes
under laminar or
turbulent flow
conditions and
also flow through fittings and valves. Various methods of flow
measurement are covered including the variable area flowmeter
(rotameter), venturi, orifice plate and pitot static tube.

Accessories:

P5160 requires either a P5161 Water Recirculation


Unit or a P6100 Hydraulic Bench fitted with an
auxiliary pump as the source of pumped water.

P6245/P6255 - FLOW CHANNEL

These 2.5m and 5m units provide channels with adjustable slope and
transparent acrylic sides for full visibility of the flow characteristics. Test
models plus an inclinometer and surface profile measuring instrument are
used to investigate the flow of water along an open channel and to verify
the Chézy equation and Mannings friction factor.

Additional experimental equipment provided with the 5m channel includes a


pitot-static
tube, dam spillway, Ogee (i.e. overflow) weir with manometer, Crump weir
and Parshall flume.

P6275/P6410 - ADVANCED FLOW CHANNELS P6249 - MINIATURE FLOW


CHANNEL
Two types of larger flow channel
are offered for flexible semi-custom
experimental configurations. Either
option may be used as a low
speed circulating water channel for
sedimentation work, at higher flow
rates for hydrodynamics work or
with wave and wind attachments
for coastal engineering studies. The
channels come in the following sizes
and are constructed in modular
sections and may be specified to a
maximum length of 20 metres.

P6275 FLOW CHANNEL -


Medium 300 x 450 mm This apparatus can be used to investigate
the flow of water along an open channel
P6410 FLOW CHANNEL -
and to visualise the flow around objects
Large 600 x 500mm
in its path through the injection of ink.
It includes triangular hump section and
an undershot weir and demonstration
of approximate ‘Specific energy/Depth’
relationships.

12 www.cussons.co.uk
P6247 - WATER FLOW VISUALISATION P6515 - PIPE SURGE AND WATER HAMMER
APPARATUS APPARATUS

This is a self-contained This equipment comprises


bench top unit two stainless steel pipes
comprising a high- to study water hammer
walled flow channel and surge which is a
incorporating a common phenomenon.
detachable glass front This apparatus is provided
panel, light source, inlet with software oscilloscope
tank with removable facility for display on user
flow straightener, level supplied PC.
control sluice gate,
outlet tank, electrically
driven circulating
pump, interconnecting
pipework plus flow control and drain valves.

P6520 - PERMEABILITY APPARATUS P6530 - HYDROLOGY APPARATUS

This unit enables This self-contained unit


students to investigate enables students to
the fundamental investigate a range of
concepts of soil hydrological phenomena
permeability within within a compact indoor
a compact indoor laboratory facility. It
laboratory facility to allows the study of
solve problems such basin hydrology cycles;
as the seepage of flood and run off
water under dams, hydrographs; effects on
the abstraction of civil constructions (bridges
water from wells and and dams); interaction of
the hydrostatic forces adjacent wells and elementary fluvial processes such as erosion
exerted on bridge foundations in the real world. on hillsides and river meander.

P6540 - SEDIMENT TRANSPORT APPARATUS P6510 - NETWORK OF PIPES APPARATUS

This relatively compact This apparatus enables


unit enables students students to conduct a range
to investigate the full of experiments on a system
range of forms that of interconnecting series and
arise in a mobile bed parallel pipe networks and
as the flow rate and/or fluid distribution systems.
slope are increased. The The unit enables students to
movement of sediment obtain a full understanding
around structures may of the factors affecting flow
be examined for scouring and blockage etc. distribution and the behaviour
of pipe network systems.

P6360 - MULTI-PUMP TEST RIG

Detailed investigations on both rotodynamic and positive displacement pumps may be


performed on this multipurpose test bench which is designed to be self-contained requiring
only a single phase electrical supply. The following pumps are available as optional extras:

P6361 Gear Pump


P6362 Positive Displacement Piston Pump
P6363 Rotodynamic Centrifugal Pump
P6364 Rotodynamic Axial Pump
P6365 Positive Displacement Vane Pump
P6367 Rotodynamic Channel Impeller Pump

13
Aerodynamics & Air Flow
Cussons offers a range of compact laboratory wind tunnels for teaching aerodynamics
and air flow in pipes plus several fan test packages. Cussons can also design,
manufacture and install large recirculating wind tunnels and multi-component balances
to meet specialist requirements.

Air Flow

P3200 - AIR FLOW BENCH

The Cussons Air Flow Bench with associated experiments provide a


comprehensive facility for detailed experiments in various aspects of air
flow studies, convective heat transfer and subsonic aerodynamics to be
performed.

Air Flow Accessories:

P3202 Multitube Manometer


P3204 Anemometer

Air Flow Experiments


P3203 - FLOW MEASUREMENT APPARATUS P3208 - BERNOULLI’S APPARATUS

To introduce the student to the study of air flow measurement To visually demonstrate the interchange between
using various types of measuring devices based upon static and dynamic pressure as air flows through
the specifications given in BS848 and BS1042. a duct of variable cross sectional area

P3222 - FLOW THROUGH A BEND P3224 - FLOW IN PIPES

To investigate the pressure To gain a practical


distribution along the appreciation of various
inner and outer walls of topics related to air
a bend in ductwork of flow in pipes.
rectangular cross-section.

14 www.cussons.co.uk
P3226 AXIAL & P3228 CENTRIFUGAL FAN DEMONSTRATION UNITS

The units have been developed to study the characteristics of Axial and Centrifugal
fans enabling a wide range of experimentation capabilities related with flow
velocity profile in the pipe aspiration, difference between static pressure, dynamic
and total, characteristic of axial and centrifugal curves or axial and centrifugal fan
spin.

Speed is displayed digitally and a combination of pressure transducers enables the


measurement of working pressure in order to study the fan characteristics in real
time. Pressure taps are sealed to prevent leaks that distort the readings taken.

Wind Tunnel

P3230 - TWO DIMENSIONAL WIND TUNNEL

This is designed for use with either the Cussons Air Flow Bench or P3240 Fan Test Stand and
enables students to investigate pressure distributions around cylinder, aerofoil and other models.
Lift and drag forces acting upon models may also be determined with P3231. Data acquisition is
also available for this equipment.

P3231 - TWO COMPONENT BALANCE P3232 - BOUNDARY LAYER EXPERIMENT

This is a unique system This experiment is used to


employing vertical and determine the thickness of the
horizontal balance beams ‘boundary layer’ where fluid
to provide independent flow meets a stationary surface
measurements of lift and drag and investigate the velocity
forces. profile within this layer.

P3233 - SMOKE GENERATOR P3234 - TURBULENT JET APPARATUS

This equipment produces This apparatus demonstrates


smoke filaments of adequate the general behaviour of
density to enable flow a jet of air emitted from
patterns around various a circular pipe into free
objects to be demonstrated. surroundings and helps to
investigate air jet velocity
at various distances from
the emission point in order
to determine both velocity
and momentum profiles.

P3240 - FAN TEST STAND

This has been designed to demonstrate the capability of a


centrifugal fan unit in accordance with BS848. It may also be
used as the base unit for a series of additional experiments
involving air flow in pipes, heat transfer, aerodynamics and
compressible flow studies.

15
P3259 & P3260 - SUBSONIC OPEN CIRCUIT WIND TUNNEL

This is a self-contained facility comprising the tunnel with a three-


component balance system (lift, drag and pitching moment) and
an air speed indicator. The unit enables students to investigate
the pressure distributions around and the forces experienced by
aerofoils, cylinders and other models and also to study boundary
layers.

Optional accessories:

P3264 Aerofoil with Slot & Flap


P3265 Pitot Static Tube
P3266 Yaw Probe
P3267 Drag Models
P3268 Pressure Cylinder
P3269 Aircraft Model
P3270 Car Model

CUSTOM-DESIGNED RECIRCULATING WIND TUNNELS

Cussons offers a complete service for the design, manufacture,


installation and commissioning of custom solutions to meet
clients’ specialist requirements for recirculating wind tunnels
including -

• Horizontal recirculation for wide laboratories with


limited headroom
• Vertical recirculation for narrow laboratories with plenty
of headroom
• Canted recirculation ductwork for laboratories with
inconvenient dimensions
• All designs can be supplied with open or closed working
sections 500-2,000mm square
• Matching high precision multi-component balances and
instrumentation available
• Suitable for multi-purpose advanced teaching & various
research sectors

P3290 - SUPERSONIC WIND TUNNEL

This is an open, continuously operating supersonic wind tunnel


to investigate pressure distribution along a convergent-divergent
nozzle, pressure losses, demonstration of the boundary layers
Schlieren method, observation of flow patterns around the
aerofoils and much more.

16 www.cussons.co.uk
Thermodynamics
Cussons manufactures a broad family of equipment which encompasses fundamental
measurement techniques, equivalence of work and heat, refrigeration and air
conditioning, heat transfer and heat exchangers plus a kerosene fuelled turbojet
module and a propane fuelled two shaft gas turbine.

Thermodynamic Principles

P4810 - TEMPERATURE MEASUREMENT P5631 - MECHANICAL EQUIVALENT OF HEAT


APPARATUS APPARATUS

A self-contained bench top This equipment is a modern


unit which demonstrates version of the Mechanical
common methods of Equivalent of Heat apparatus
temperature measurement, derived from the original
methods of calibration, design by Callendar which aptly
common faults occurring demonstrated the relationship
in thermocouple systems between mechanical energy and
and investigation of basic heat energy. Though extremely
thermocouple laws and their simple in design, the apparatus
applications. will yield results with an
accuracy of 0.5%.

P5700 - MARCET BOILER P4811 - PRESSURE MEASURING APPARATUS

This Marcet Boiler helps the This bench top


students to investigate the unit provides
relationship between the comparisons of
pressure and temperature two methods
of saturated steam, in of measuring
equilibrium with water, pressure and
at all pressures between two methods
atmospheric and 17 bar (250 of measuring
lb/in2). vacuum. It
includes
measurement
of differential
pressure by means
of a manometer, a
digital pressure calibrator and calibration of a pressure transducer.

P5691 - STIRLING CYCLE HOT AIR ENGINE

The Stirling Cycle Hot Air Engine enables students to visualize and study the phenomena of cyclic
compression and expansion of air, study of Hot air engine, effect on performance, use of gases of
different specific heat ratio, regenerative heat exchanger and many others.

17
Heat Transfer & Heat Exchanger

P3210 - HEAT TRANSFER BENCH INCLUDING CROSS FLOW HEAT EXCHANGER

Cussons offers specialised test equipment to illustrate the subject of heat


exchange in fluids. All the experimental units are bench top and specially
designed to enable flexibility in the interconnections between them. The units
are also computer controlled with modern data acquisition facilities.
Accessories:

P3212 Parallel Flow Heat Exchanger

P3213 Mixed Flow Heat Exchanger

P5689 - THERMO-ELECTRIC ENGINE

This unit demonstrates the conversion of heat energy into electricity.  It


comprises a multiple cell thermo-electric generator sandwiched between a hot
source and a cold sink. The current generated by the thermo-electric effect is
used to drive an electric motor which rotates the cooling fan.

P3300 - RADIATION AND CONVECTION P5687 - THERMAL CONDUCTIVITY


APPARATUS APPARATUS

This Thermal Radiation The Thermal Conductivity


and Natural Convection Apparatus is designed for
Heat Transfer Apparatus bench top use allowing students
is a self- contained bench to calculate heat flows and
mounted unit, designed to temperature gradients along
demonstrate the essential various cylindrical specimens of
features of heat transfer relatively high conductivity, such
by radiation and natural as metals, and across thin sections
convection from various of insulating material that may be
heating element shapes under attached to one end of a metal
varying conditions of ambient specimen.
pressure and element surface
temperature.

18 www.cussons.co.uk
P5697 - BOILING HEAT TRANSFER APPARATUS HEAT EXCHANGER RANGE

The apparatus has Cussons offers benchtop


been developed to equipment for teaching heat
permit experiments exchanger technology. This
on heat transfer range is modular and provides
from the solid to flexible interconnexions.
the liquid state The units may be computer
under conditions controlled with data logging
of convection and for advanced experiments.
nucleate boiling to
be carried out and The Exchanger Range
to demonstrate comprises:
the effect of film • P3430 Water Cooling tower
boiling. Heat • P3420 Free and forced
transfer takes place Convection
from a heated • P3400 Heat exchanger unit
horizontal nickel with optional accessories:
filament to the o P3401 Concentric Heat Exchanger
water or other o P3402 Shell and Tube Heat Exchanger
liquid surrounding it. o P3403 Plate Heat Exchanger
o P3404 Jacketed Vessel with coil
o P3405 Tubular Heat Exchanger

Gas Turbine and Compressors


P9005 - TWO SHAFT GAS TURBINE P9010E - TURBOJET ENGINE TEST STAND

This popular unit Cussons has


is a full two shaft developed a turbojet
machine with engine test stand
built in starting to provide a cost
equipment, power effective method
absorption system of testing the
and a data logging performance of an
option (P9008). operational aero jet
It provides the engine. The turbojet
means for carrying test stand is mounted
out an extensive on a wheeled
programme of trolley allowing it
experiments in gas to be moved to an
turbine technology operational area or
using only the stored in a convenient
instrumentation location. The unit is
provided. Particular provided with a mimic
features of the diagram displaying
Two Shaft Gas the temperatures
Turbine Unit are of the gas flow and
its versatility, ease engine pressure
of operation, safety and low noise level. All instrumentation and ratio. The unit can
controls are carried on the panel which displays the flow diagram demonstrates the
with a clear indication of all measurements identified by symbols turbojet principle, performance analysis of a turbojet at varying
and illuminated tell-tales. Measurement of power turbine torque is power and enables the measurement of air flow, fuel flow and
by calibrated electrical dynamometer. rotational speed.

P9080 - ENERGY BALANCE MOTOR-COMPRESSOR UNIT

This apparatus comprises a single stage compressor coupled to an electric motor


and attached to a spring balance. This apparatus enables students to investigate
the laws of thermodynamics including energy balance, entropy and compressed
volumetric efficiency.

19
Refrigeration & Air Conditioning
P5698 - AIR CONDITIONING UNIT

This self-contained mobile Air Conditioning Unit demonstrates a key application of


the principles of thermodynamics and provides results over a wide range of operating
conditions. The design ensures all readings provided by the instruments relate to a
proper homogeneous air flow. The refrigerant compressor is a single cylinder unit driven
by an AC motor and the instrumentation is conveniently located on panels alongside a
mimic diagram.

P5730 - HEAT PUMP DEMONSTRATION UNIT

The equipment clearly demonstrates the operation of a heat pump air / water. The
system consists of: compressor, circulation pump, flow control valve, accumulator
tank, condenser, filter / drier, expansion valve and evaporator fan, water flow meters,
temperature sensors and pressure display at strategic points of the process.

P5750 - VAPOUR COMPRESSION REFRIGERATOR & HEAT PUMP APPARATUS

Cussons Refrigerator and Heat Pump Apparatus has been developed for the study
of the thermodynamics of the vapour compression cycle operating as either a
refrigerator or heat pump. As a self-contained unit it includes instrumentation to enable
a comprehensive series of experiments to be carried out, including refrigerant cycle
evaluation and thermodynamic energy balances of the condenser, evaporator and
compressor.

P5740 - REFRIGERATION SYSTEM WITH REFRIGERATION CHAMBER

This unit enables students to visualise and study industrial refrigeration. It integrates
all of the essential components for a desktop installation. The unit includes a computer
control system and a troubleshooting simulation module. The system “anti-knock fluid” in
the compressor ensures reliable operation under extreme stress.

20 www.cussons.co.uk
Properties of Fuels
P5615 - BOYS GAS CALORIMETER

This Boys Gas Calorimeter has been developed to provide a simple but accurate method
of ascertaining the calorific values of a wide range of gaseous fuels.

P6310 - CALORIMETER SET FOR CALORIFIC VALUES OF FUELS (BOMB CALORIMETER)

The Cussons’ calorimeter is widely used in teaching establishments for the accurate
determination of the calorific value of liquid and solid hydrocarbons. It meets the
specifications of the Institute of Petroleum Designation IP12/73 Heat of Combustion of
Liquid Hydrocarbon Fuels For Calorimeters.

P5656 - ELECTRIC PENSKY MARTENS FLASH POINT APPARATUS

As the most popular flash point apparatus, the Pensky Martens method is designed to
determine the flash point of petroleum products with flash points up to a maximum
temperature of 370°C and in so doing conforms to a number of ASTM, ISO, UN class and
EN standards. Compatible with bio-fuel testing.

P5657 - 3 CLOSED CUP FLASH POINT APPARATUS

The electrically heated flash point apparatus is designed to determine the flash point of
petroleum products and semi-solids with Flash/No Flash tests in a temperature range of
10 - 130°C. It conforms to the ASTM D3278; ASTM D3828; ASTM E502; IP 303 (obs); IP
523 standards and many more. Compatible with bio-fuel testing.

21
Power of Steam
Cussons’ Steam Power Plants are based upon the use of actual industrial steam
components fully instrumented to meet the requirements of a teaching laboratory.
These allow subjects including Thermal and Plant Efficiencies, Heat Balance and Energy
Utilisation, Performance Tests and Electrical Power Generation Studies to be taught.
There is a range of complete steam power plants available - 1kW, 5kW and 20kW plus a
family of individual Steam Benches each dedicated to a specific experimental subject.

Steam Power Plant


P7669 - MINIATURE STEAM POWER PLANT

The Miniature Steam Power Plant is the smallest in our


comprehensive range of Steam Power Products and has been
designed to allow teaching establishments to give students an
appreciation of steam and its properties, without the larger capital
investment normally required.

There are two versions:

P7669R with Reciprocating Engine


P7669T with a Steam Turbine

P7669T P7669R

STEAM POWER PLANT RANGE

This Cussons Steam Power Plant is designed as a comprehensive self-contained


unit with all relevant items of equipment factory mounted on a common steel
bedplate. This modular construction and assembly greatly reduces space and
installation requirements. The plant can operate as a steam boiler, turbo-generator
or complete power plant. Available tests include: thermal and total efficiency,
consumption, boiler capacity, heat balance, turbine power and specific steam
consumption.

Further optional items such as additional boiler and superheater instrumentation,


flue gas analysers etc. though not strictly essential to the plant operation;
considerably improve the versatility, and hence teaching potential, of the
equipment.

A basic laboratory scheme comprises a boiler and turbine/condenser. In P7690 - 1kW Steam plant
addition the complementary items; “P7692 Cooling Tower”, Separating and
Throttling Calorimeters, Superheater, Tanks, Blowdown Tank, Water Treatment,
Interconnecting Pipework and Lab. Design, Steam Pipework Lagging, and
Installation & Commissioning may be supplied as required.

STEAM POWER PLANT RANGE


P7690 Series: 1KW Steam Power Plant
P7600 Series: 5kW Steam Power Plant
P7620 Series: 10kW Steam Power Plant
P7655 Series: 20kW Steam Power Plant

P7600 - 5kW Steam plant


22 www.cussons.co.uk
Steam Experiments
Cussons steam benches have been designed to allow experiments to be carried out on each piece of equipment by a small group of
students. Experience has shown that this modular form of construction is most versatile and the benches can generally be supplied as
‘standalone’ units or simply interlinked to form a continuous system.

P7670 - STEAM BOILER BENCH P7671 - PRESSURE/TEMPERATURE VESSEL BENCH

The Steam Boiler Bench is a Self-contained Steam Bench


self-contained electric boiler unit allows students to
supplied with all necessary investigate the relationship
facilities to allow it to be between temperature and
used as a service unit to pressure of saturated steam
supply steam to a range of and compare the experimental
Steam Bench Experiments observations with data
- P7671 to P7683. published in recognised steam
tables.

P7672 - SEPARATING & THROTTLING P7673 - LAGGING EFFICIENCY BENCH


CALORIMETER BENCH
With this bench students can
Separating and throttling investigate the efficiency of
calorimeters are used to two types of lagging and
determine the dryness fraction can calculate the lagging
or quality of steam passing efficiency of each type,
through the steam main. compare the energy loss from
lagged tubes with that from
unlagged tubes and calculate
the coefficient of thermal
conductivity of the lagging.

P7674 - EJECTOR BENCH P7675 - CONDENSER BENCH

On this apparatus students This apparatus enables


are able to investigate the students to demonstrate
efficiency of an ejector the operation of the
as a water pump and to condenser, to investigate
measure the heat transfer the heat transfer coefficient
of steam to cooling water. of condenser tubes and to
demonstrate the vacuum
produced by the condensing
steam in a closed system.

23
P7676R - RECIPROCATING STEAM ENGINE BENCH P7677 - WATER TREATMENT STUDIES BENCH

On this bench students Dual purpose bench


can test a single cylinder designed to demonstrate
steam engine and measure the basic principles
brake horse power, steam of water treatment by
consumption and various filtration and chemical
efficiencies. means or to supply
treated water to a Steam
Boiler Bench P7670.
The bench includes five
interchangeable clear
PVC filter columns each
of which can be filled with
either filter sand or one of
three ion exchange media.

P7678 - STEAM PROCESS PLANT BENCH P7681 - NOZZLE RIG BENCH

The steam heating circuit With four different nozzles on


on this bench supplies this bench, the students can
steam to a process fluid experiment with the variation
circuit designed so that the of pressure along a nozzle
various processes can be profile, the effect of back
clearly observed, visually pressure on the mass flow
demonstrating the use of rate, determine the critical
steam in a natural circulation pressure ratio and much more.
(thermosyphon) reboiler for
the heating of other fluids
and the distillation process.

P7683 - DOUBLE EFFECT EVAPORATOR BENCH P7660 - SEPARATING & THROTTLING


CALORIMETER
Self-contained Steam Bench
allows students to determine the
This compact unit is an optional
performance of a double effect
economic separating & throttling
evaporator and compares the
calorimeter with a simpler more
relative efficiencies of single effect
cost-effective frame design. The
and double effect evaporators.
unit is used to determine the
dryness fraction of the steam
supplied to steam systems.

Ancillary Equipment

P8385 - COMBUSTION AND FLUE GAS EMISSIONS ANALYSER

This compact and portable unit measures the gas temperature at inlet and in
stack providing high accuracy and enabling calculation of nett temperature.

24 www.cussons.co.uk
Automotive
For eighty years Cussons Technology has designed and manufactured engine test beds
for universities and industry. Our design and engineering team integrates engines of
different types and sizes within dynamometer-equipped test beds to suit a multitude of
educational and research requirements.

Engine Test Beds

P8250 - AUTOMOTIVE 1 ENGINE TEST BED – P8160 - SINGLE CYLINDER ENGINE TEST BED -
PETROL & DIESEL ENGINE OPTIONS ENGINE OPTIONS UP TO 7KW

A bench top unit A self-contained unit with an


offered with P8251 air cooled 7kW/4,000 RPM
Petrol and P8252 Diesel eddy current
four stroke, air cooled dynamometer. A wide range
engine options. Engines of engines may be used
can accept a cylinder and Cussons offers models
pressure transducer covering two/four stroke, air/
and crank angle water
encoder (See P8005 PV cooling and spark/
system). Experimental compression ignition. These
capabilities include engines can accept a cylinder
determination of: pressure transducer and
crank angle encoder. (See
1. Engine performance curves at full and part load P8005 PV system). Extensive
2. Efficiency and variation of specific fuel consumption with experimental capabilities include determination of:
speed and load
3. Effect of mixture strength on performance and fuel 1. Engine performance curves at full and part load
consumption 2. Volumetric efficiency
4. Gasoline engine includes AFR meter 3. Fuel consumption mixture loops
4. Air/Fuel ratio
5. Frictional power losses
6. Heat and energy balances

P8001/P8002 - MULTI-CYLINDER ENGINE TEST BEDS

Self-contained spark and compression ignition units are offered


with integrated data acquisition. Both include modern, multi-
cylinder, four stroke, water cooled, fuel injected engines which
can accept a cylinder pressure transducer and crank angle
encoder. (See P8005 PV system). Extensive experimental
capabilities include determination of:

1. Four stroke engine performance curves at full and part load


2. Engine efficiency and variation of specific fuel consumption
with speed and load
3. Brake Mean Effective Pressure
4. Exhaust, water, oil and air temperatures
5. Heat and energy balances

25
P8750 - MULTICYLINDER ENGINE TEST BED - MULTIPLE ENGINE OPTIONS

An advanced engine test bed with integrated data acquisition


optimised for academic studies and offering significant
scope for research. The unit is compatible with a range of
engines and utilises an eddy current dynamometer. The test
bed is offered with a spark or compression ignition four
stroke multi-cylinder engine but both may be supplied and
interchanged on-site. Standard engines accept a cylinder
pressure transducer and crank angle encoder. (See P8005 PV
system). A compact external cooling tower (P8751) is available
to reduce reliance on mains water for energy dissipation.
Provides very extensive experimental capabilities.

Engine options:
P8615 4-Stroke Water Cooled Petrol Engine
P8616 4-Stroke Water Cooled Diesel Engine
P8617 4-Stroke Water Cooled Petrol Engine converted to
CNG Engine

Autotrainers

P8952/P8962 - AUTOTRAINER TEST STANDS

Engine test stands for vocational training fitted with fuel injected
four stroke four cylinder liquid cooled engines. Petrol (P8952)
and diesel (P8962) versions are offered both supplied complete
with starter motor, alternator, water pump, fuel pump, flywheel,
flywheel guard and throttle assembly ready for running.

Instrumentation and Accessories

P7190 - P7217 - LAMINAR FLOW METER RANGE P7300/P7302 - IMPULSE SWIRL METER RANGE

A selection of laminar flow Two units are offered


meters (LFMs) for measuring the to measure ‘swirl’ in
pulsating air flows in IC engine the air drawn into an
air intakes. Eleven models are engine cylinder. Both
offered suitable for measuring are equally effective
airflows across a wide range. An with blow or suction
airflow measurement and data induced flow in
acquisition system (P7032) is also either the upward or
offered for use with these LFMs. downward direction.
Cussons also designs
and manufactures
custom research
equipment such as
complete port flow
rigs for light duty ports
(including parts for
tumble) and for heavy
duty ports etc.

26 www.cussons.co.uk
P8005 - PV SYSTEM FOR ENGINE TEST BEDS
A factory-fitted option for almost all
engines offered for use on Cussons’
range of test beds. A low cost pressure-
vs-volume system with high speed data
acquisition and graphical display on a
host PC.

Automotive & Gas Analysers

Cussons offers high quality gas analysers enabling students to test and monitor exhaust gases and emissions in the area of automotive
technology. All analysers are compatible with our engine test beds and meet the international standards and accreditations for exhaust
gas analysers.

P8227 - VOLUMETRIC FUEL FLOW MEASUREMENT SYSTEM

A self-contained unit for the supply and measurement of fuel use at controlled pressure for both petrol or diesel engines.

· Continuous Flow Measurement · Digital display of flow rate


· Designed for high fuel recirculating rate · Totaliser with reset facility
· Pelton wheel design transducer · Pressure controlled fuel delivery
· Analogue output proportional to flow rate · Suitable for both diesel and gasoline fuels

P8260 – P8265 - EXHAUST GAS CALORIMETER P8360 - P8373 - BLOWBY METER RANGE
RANGE
A selection of
A selection of exhaust digital blowby
gas calorimeters with meters to measure
instrumentation to the gas flow from
enable the heat energy crankcases which
content of exhaust may be easily
gases to be accurately incorporated into
determined. engine ventilation
systems. Each
meter includes a
flow transducer
and a digital
display module.

P8390-P8393 - EXHAUST GAS ANALYSERS

This benchtop exhaust gas analyser provides a cost effective solution for determining
the concentrations of pollutants and oxygen in the exhaust gases from spark or
compression ignition IC engines optimised for all current and envisaged future
requirements. It provides gas detection with high measurement accuracy and long term
stability. The gases which may be detected are CO, CO2, O2, HC, SO2 and NOx.

27
Environmental & Clean Energies
Cussons offers a broad range of packages for teaching ‘green’ or renewable energy
technologies. These include wind turbine dynamometers and wind energy systems,
photovoltaic, solar thermal and solar distillation systems plus a proton exchange
membrane fuel cell.

Wind Turbine Dynamometer Range


Cussons’ family of wind turbines and dynamometers provides a powerful laboratory scale solution for the study of wind renewable
energy. The complete system comprises a wind generator with base plate, a control panel, a dynamometer plus turbine and a laptop
computer with pre-installed software.

P3130A - WIND GENERATOR SET

The airflow produced by a compact wind generator passes through a


honeycomb straightener (to reduce ‘swirl’) to the turbine under test. The flow
rate is measured with a pitot static tube and differential pressure transducer.
This signal is used in a closed loop algorithm to control the airflow by means of
the inverter-driven wind generator fan. Maximum airflow reaching the turbine
is 10m/s.

WIND TURBINE DYNAMOMETER RANGE

Each of the dynamometer options enables students to investigate energy


extraction, compare power coefficients with theoretical Betz limits and produce
power curves for stall/pitch regulated turbines up to 450mm in diameter. The
turbine dynamometer is mounted on a vertical tower supported by the base
plate and its axis may be yawed up to ±20° from the airflow axis. The tower
is mounted in bearings and a load cell is used to measure the overturning
moment due to thrust on the turbine and dynamometer nacelle. Dynamometer
options are:

P3131A Basic version (no measurement of blade root bending moments)


P3132A Instrumented hub (slip rings) for blade root bending moments
measured in two orthogonal directions
P3133A Instrumented hub (telemetry) for blade root bending moments
measured in two orthogonal directions

Hubs with two strain gauged blade roots to measure bending moments in and
perpendicular to the plane of turbine rotation (set of blades included) for use
with P3132A or P3133A:

P3134A 2/4 blade


P3136A 3 blade

Non-instrumented hubs (set of blades included) for use with P3131A:

P3137A 2/4 blade


P3138A 3 blade
For all hub options the blade pitch may be measured using a protractor tool provided with the equipment and adjusted as required.

28 www.cussons.co.uk
P3150 - WIND TURBINE TRAINER UNIT

The equipment is designed to provide a comprehensive understanding


of a wind turbine plant and its whole operation. The layout is very visual
and intuitive for teaching purposes. This is achieved by the provision of
equipment in schematic and plugging panels. In addition, the unit has a full
computer control system.

Solar & Fuel Cell

P7140 - SOLAR ENERGY DEMONSTRATION P7130/P7135 - SOLAR DISTILLATION APPARATUS –


BASIN AND THIN FILM TYPE
The P7140 Solar Energy
Demonstration unit The Solar Distillation Apparatus
allows students to gain an enables students to measure
appreciation of the total output and efficiency against
heat capture of a solar solar energy input, amount of
thermal energy panel and an base insulation and brine depth.
understanding of their relative The effects of different absorbent
efficiency. Students are able to surfaces, inclination, ambient
vary the water flow rate and temperature, wind velocity and
angle of incidence of the unit the effect of cooling the glass
to measure the change in energy collection performance. cover may also be investigated

P9065 - SOLAR ENERGY MANAGEMENT UNIT

The equipment reproduces a full scale solar photovoltaic installation. The system offers a
wide variety of energy tests, observation and analysis of the performance of PV panels:

- PV Panel as independent system, series and parallel.


- Simulations with batteries in series or in parallel.
- Direct access to DC converter and DC to AC.
- PV system as isolated system or connected to the network.

P9060 - PHOTOVOLTAIC SOLAR POWER P9040 - FUEL CELL DEMONSTRATION UNIT


UNIT
The P9040 Fuel Cell
This unit provides Demonstration Unit
students the means of provides a working desk
collecting and storing top proton exchange
solar power, measuring membrane fuel cell as
the energy available the basis for student
from it and investigating investigations including
the performance of a measurement of
photovoltaic unit. The efficiency
package enables both
electrical and mechanical
power to be obtained
yet it does not require
the use of complicated
reflecting systems in order to concentrate the solar energy.
29
Applied Mechanics
The important subjects of dynamics, balancing, vibrations, whirling and other
basic principles of applied mechanics are covered with this range of products. The
equipment has evolved from designs originating within academic institutions to fulfil
the requirements of a modern mechanical engineering curriculum. Introductory studies
through to advanced investigations are possible and each piece of equipment is
supplied with comprehensive user manuals as with all Cussons equipment.

Theory of Machines

P1150 - STATIC & DYNAMIC BALANCING MACHINE P1901 - TORSIONAL VIBRATIONS APPARATUS

This experiment has been developed to provide a means for This experiment enables students to understand dynamically
accurate experimental work in the balancing of rigid rotors. The induced stresses arising in mechanically resonant systems such as
design of the machine adheres to industrial practice and it may transmission shafts and engine crank shafts.
be used to balance real rotors in addition to the five-disc rotor
provided.

P5226 - ANGULAR ACCELERATION APPARATUS P2072 - FLETCHER TROLLEY APPARATUS

This apparatus enables students to investigate the angular The Fletcher Trolley Apparatus is the classic equipment for both
acceleration of a solid cylindrical body caused by the action of linear and angular motion investigations. Measurement of velocity
a falling mass. It provides a number of interesting experiments and acceleration, experiments on momentum and angular
relating to the kinematics and dynamics of rotating systems. acceleration and determination of acceleration due to gravity are
possible with this apparatus.

30 www.cussons.co.uk
P5464 - INCLINED PLANE / SLIDING FRICTION P2776 - ENERGY OF FLYWHEEL
APPARATUS
The Energy of
Flywheel apparatus
This apparatus is an extremely
enables students robust and versatile
to measure the unit comprising a
coefficient of flywheel - the mass
friction for several of which may be
combinations of varied by adding
materials. The and removing two
robust apparatus rings and one disc
is of all metal - mounted upon a
construction with heavy duty stand.
an inclinable 90 cm The unit also
ground steel plane. includes a vibrating
arm to enable
traces to be drawn
on a paper strip positioned on the circumference of the flywheel.

P2799 - CENTRIPETAL FORCE APPARATUS P5428 - WHIRLING OF SHAFTS APPARATUS

The Centripetal The Whirling of


Force Apparatus Shafts Apparatus
enables accurate enables students
determinations of to investigate
the relationship the whirling of
between force, a long thin shaft
mass radius and supported at its
angular velocity for ends, whirling
a rotating body. of a shaft with
concentrated
masses, whirling of a continuous shaft and whirling of a shaft with
intermediate nodes.

P5377 - ELECTRICAL GYROSCOPE COMPLETE P5013 - JOURNAL FRICTION APPARATUS


WITH DIGITAL TACHOMETER
This apparatus provides a
This Electrical wide range of laboratory
Gyroscope has experiments on journal
been designed bearings within a self-
to demonstrate contained unit. Various
the relationships options make it possible to
between measure journal friction, map
gyroscopic the hydrodynamic pressure
speed, gyroscopic of the oil film and determine
inertia, external the bearing attitude of a
applied torque journal bearing using only
and precession. A the optional instrumentation
separate hand-held 5014 and P5015.
optical tachometer
is provided
for accurate
measurement of
the gyroscope
rotor speed.

P5000 - FREE AND FORCED VIBRATION APPARATUS

The Free and Forced Vibration Apparatus has been developed to


present vibration phenomena with viscous damping in a way that
may be easily perceived and accurately analysed.

31
Strength of Materials
P5030 - UNIVERSAL TESTING MACHINES

Cussons is able to offer digital testing machines ranging from


25kN to 1,000kN capacity with high precision control and
accuracy and including automated computer control of test
methods for simplicity of operation. These UTMs have 800%
overload capability (load cells), small footprint, high resolution,
self-cleaning ball-screws and an extensive suite of software. A
range of different grips and fixtures for tension and compression
is available.

P5030 – 25 Universal Testing Machines 25kN


P5030 – 50 Universal Testing Machines 50kN
P5030 – 100 Universal Testing Machines 100kN
P5030 – 500 Universal Testing Machines 500kN
P5030 – 600 Universal Testing Machines 600kN

P4334 - TORSION APPARATUS

The Torsion Apparatus is


bench mounted and consists
of a horizontal unit which can
accept specimens up to 6 mm
diameter and 450 mm length.
The torsion head is supported
in ball bearings and torque
is applied by a hanger and
masses. Angular displacement
is measured by a dial and
pointer which can slide along
the base to enable readings to
be taken at any point.

P2180 - EXTENSION & COMPRESSION OF SPRINGS P1206 - RUBBER BLOCK APPARATUS

The Extension and The Rubber Block


Compression of Springs Apparatus is a wall
apparatus is a wall mounted unit which
mounted unit which enables students to
enables students to investigate the shear
determine the load and stress and shear strain
deflection relationship in a rubber slab. It
for close coiled springs introduces students to
as well as concepts of the concept of Modulus
Modulus of Rigidity. of Rigidity.

32 www.cussons.co.uk
Process Control Engineering
A practical understanding of Process Control Engineering is essential in many
industries. Cussons’ range of process control engineering products presents students
with a broad cross section of control techniques and applications typical of those in the
real world.

P7665 - BOILER CONTROL DEMONSTRATION AND P3005 - PROCESS CONTROL SIMULATOR


FAULT SIMULATION UNIT
The Process Control
Simulator is a self-
The Boiler Control unit along contained laboratory
with its software simulation scale industrial system
allows students to investigate (bench type model -
the operation of a steam under development)
generation plant. Altering that allows the principles
the system properties allows underlying modern
the user to simulate a wide industrial control
range of boiler systems equipment to be
for periods up to 24 hours studied in the context
and adjustments to the of process operations.
operating parameters may be The unit may be used
made whilst the simulation to investigate pressure,
is running to allow the flow, temperature, level
investigation of transients on and cascade control utilising pneumatic and microprocessor-
the system. based PID controllers.

P3010 - FLOW CONTROL APPARATUS, THREE P3015 - LEVEL CONTROL APPARATUS, THREE
TERM ELECTRONIC TERM ELECTRONIC

This Flow Control This Level Control


Apparatus is designed to System is designed to
demonstrate automatic allow numerous level
control of the flow of control experiments to
water delivered by a be performed within a
centrifugal pump. The typical
unit enables students to laboratory session. The
investigate the effects of unit enables students
changing the parameters to investigate the
of the control algorithm effects of changing
(proportional band, the parameters of
integral action and the control algorithm
derivative time) on the and changes can be
control capability of the system. made to the process
conditions by adjustment of the flow into the vessel.

P3035 - TEMPERATURE CONTROL APPARATUS, THREE TERM ELECTRONIC

The Temperature Control Apparatus illustrates the control of temperature in a simulated


reactor vessel by controlling the supply of coolant (air) in response to changes in process
conditions. The unit provides students with the opportunity of investigating the effects of
a change of controller parameters (proportional band, integral and derivative times) on the
control capability of the system. The unit is made up of typical items of control equipment
currently used in industrial applications, thereby providing an excellent opportunity for
familiarisation.

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P3600 - INDUSTRIAL PROCESS PLANT TRAINER

The Plant Trainer has been designed to


provide a unique opportunity to train
technicians on an industrial process
plant in a safe, controlled and supervised
environment. The trainer is the perfect tool to
offer training courses in Plant Maintenance,
Control Engineering, Mechanical Engineering,
Electrical Engineering, Chemical Engineering,
Environmental Engineering and Health and
Safety Engineering. Use of this equipment by
companies such as BP and Shell, has allowed
their technicians to gain hands on experience
of a real, full size process plant facility without
the obvious danger of contamination due to
leakage, human error or expensive equipment
damage

P3020 - ACIDITY (PH) CONTROL APPARATUS

The pH Control Apparatus is designed to demonstrate the control of the


acidity of a water supply by chemical dosing. Two methods are available
to control the addition of the dosing chemical, either slug (on-off) dosing
or continuous controlled injection.

P3030 - PROGRAMMABLE LOGIC CONTROL MODULE

The Programmable Logic Control Module (PLC) is designed to be connected to a


range of experiments for simulating an automatic process. The unit has digital inputs
and relay outputs which, when connected to the experiments, may be used to start
and stop pumps, select remote set point inputs and create disturbances to a process
by opening or closing solenoid valves.

34 www.cussons.co.uk
P3700 - THREE PHASE SEPARATION TRAINING UNIT

The Three Phase Separator is an essential


resource for teaching engineering
students and ‘oil & gas’ or process
industry personnel. It enables students
to investigate the effects of separation
pressure and flow/residence time etc. on
the separation dynamics. Experimental
coverage includes flow vs residence time,
flow vs composition, pressure vs flow,
pressure vs composition and temperature
vs composition (latter by means of
simulation).

P3620 - MULTIPHASE FLOW UNIT

The Multiphase Flow Unit which is particularly suitable for ‘oil


and gas‘courses enables students to study 2- and 3-phase flow
(oil, water and compressed air) by means of ‘once through’
experimental runs followed by gravitational separation. The unit
provides for various investigations including single phase flow,
hydrostatic and dynamic pressure investigations, hold-up time
and slip velocity, 2-phase separation and superficial velocity, drift
velocity in air/water flow, 2-phase flow, 2-phase and 3-phase flow
separation rates, bubble structures and bubble sizes. The unit is
operated via a touch-screen PC with SCADA software and may
be specified with an electrical capacitance tomography sensor
option for advanced studies in flow and bubble structure imaging.

P3050 - PROCESS CONTROL UNIT

The Process Control Unit provides measurement, data acquisition


and PID control of water temperature, level, pressure and flow
rate. Digital and LED displays provide instant indication of status
and measured values for group demonstrations. Connexion to a
PC is by means of a USB cable and powerful Windows software
is included. The package provides a complete solution for
introducing the concept of closed loop ‘error driven’ process
control systems. It enables students to gain practical experience
of tuning real-world loops in a completely safe environment.
Experiments may be as short as thirty seconds (for studying some
aspects of flow rate control) or several minutes (for temperature
control) and may be changed as required by the user. This
allows many highly relevant experiences to be packed into short
practical sessions for a large cohort. It offers academics, course
designers and managers great benefits in terms of the efficient
‘exposure’ of students to a wealth of short practical investigations
and real-world data acquisition opportunities to support many
areas of theoretical study.

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Marine Hydrodynamics
Cussons Technology has built on the success of its Kempf & Remmers range of
hydrodynamics research and test equipment and its knowledge of tertiary educational
engineering equipment to produce a new range of educational hydrodynamic
equipment to complement smaller facilities. Its purpose is to allow straightforward
lecturer demonstrations and enable students to conduct a range of experiments with
repeatable results and reasonable accuracy.

Educational Towing Carriages


Cussons has a whole new range of towing carriages aimed at University and Educational Institutes that do not have the room for the
larger scale research grade facilities. This range of unmanned carriages, are light weight, highly rigid & robust platforms that allow a
wide variety of equipment to be attached from them. The carriages are controlled and operated by a shore based Wireless supervisory
control and data logging / acquisition system.

C20E - EDUCATIONAL TOWING CARRIAGE

Designed to suit a towing tank 2m wide, with minimum length 40 up to a


maximum of 70m (maximum rail length is 60m) - Max Speed 3m/s

C40E - EDUCATIONAL TOWING CARRIAGE

Designed to suit a towing tank 4m wide, with minimum length 40 up to a


maximum of 70m (maximum rail length is 60m) - Max Speed 3m/s (however
4m/s is possible)

DYNAMOMETERS FOR EDUCATIONAL TOWING CARRIAGES

A variety of dynamometers can be supplied for use with the educational


carriages, these are interfaced with he support frame for connection to ship
models or fitting of propeller models. These include:

R35E – Educational Resistance Dynamometer


R200E – Educational Multi Component Ship / Yacht Model Balance
V110E - Educational Ship Stability Dynamometer
H75E - Educational Open Water Propeller / Turbine
Dynamometer R75E - Educational Self–Propulsion
R31E, R42E & R43E Traditional Self-Propulsion Dynamometer for educational scaled models

36 www.cussons.co.uk
ADDITIONAL EQUIPMENT & INSTRUMENTATION

We also supply additional equipment which can be used in


conjunction with the towing carriage for model manufacturing
& measuring facilities:

R28E - Educational Scaled Model Guiding Arms


V122E - Educational High Speed Camera System
N10E - Educational Wake Rake with
Integrated Pressure Transducers
M150E - Educational 1.5m Offshore
Support Vessel / Trawler Model
H75P Set of Educational Scaled Propeller models
R67 - Tank Pit mounted Off–shore & floor mounted static model 6 component balance

Educational Wave Makers & Wave Absorbing Beaches

Cussons Technology wave makers incorporate proven software techniques for wave
generator control and can include software links to towing carriages to optimise test
duration. Wave Technology is a rapidly advancing science - new or modified products
are continually being developed to meet unique experimental needs, including those
associated with the offshore industry’s deep-sea exploration research programmes. Our
wave maker designs include:

W20E/W40E - Wet Back Hinge Flap Regular / Irregular Wave Maker


W20EB/W40EB – Hybrid Resonant Tuneable Wave Absorbing Beach
R23E - Educational Carriage Mounted Wave Probe

Educational Cavitation Tunnels

Cussons offers a range of small Cavitation Tunnels developed from the Kempf and Remmers designs for use in the laboratories of
Technical Universities. The Tunnels are manufactured from high grade materials to resist corrosion and fouling. Each of our Educational
Range of Tunnels is supplied with optional control and data-acquisition systems. The data acquisition system interface is based on
National Instruments Front End for development with Labview.

K14 - EDUCATIONAL CAVITATION TUNNEL

A small but carefully made circulating water tunnel with


pressure regulation for cavitation tests, which is suitable
for various kinds of experimental and demonstration work
on flow and cavitation. The tunnel provides a range of
experiments in either hydrodynamic, aerospace or civil
engineering.

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K23 - RESEARCH CAVITATION TUNNEL - ENTRY LEVEL

This is a Small Research Cavitation Tunnel with 3


different interchangeable measuring sections available:

- 300mm x 300mm Measuring Section Max Speed 9m/s


- 425mm x 425mm Measuring Section Max Speed 5m/s
- Asymmetric 630mm x 350mm Measuring Section Max
Speed 4m/s

EDUCATIONAL CAVITATION TUNNEL DYNAMOMETERS

There is a full range of equipment available to compliment these facilities including;


Open-water propeller dynamometers, force and moment balances, wake rakes and pitot
static Prandtl probes. Please see the list on the adjacent page. Within the standard K14
and the K23 square sections we would recommend the use of the Open water propeller
dynamometers that can be mounted either down-stream of the flow in the traditional
open water mode, or upstream of the flow where it can be installed with wake screens to
simulate the wake of the hull.

External Mounted Dynamometers for Component Balance range:


use in Tunnels for Open Water Propeller The R30 Three Component Balance is
testing in the following ranges: designed for use in the measuring section
of water tunnels with pressure regulation
R33E Rated Max Torque ±15Nm, Rated for cavitation tests.
Max Thrust ±400N at 3500rpm. Rated
Max Torque ±30Nm, Rated Max Thrust The R35 Single Component Balance
±600N at 3500rpm. can be used in air as well as under water,
including within a Cavitation Tunnel.
R73E Rated Max Torque ±15Nm, Rated
Max Thrust ±400N at 3500rpm. Rated The R37 Six Component Balance is
Max Torque ±30Nm, Rated Max Thrust designed for testing rudders, hydrofoils
±600N at 3500rpm. and ship appendages within medium sized
measuring sections of Cavitation Tunnels.

EDUCATIONAL CAVITATION TUNNEL INSTRUMENTATION

Cussons offers a large variety of instrumentation for hydrodynamic studies. Our range
of Wake Rakes, Pitot Tubes and High Speed Cameras allow the experimental work
associated with new research being undertaken in many parts of the world.

J19 Wake Rake with Integrated Pressure Transducers for use Tunnels
K23-06 Pitot Static Tube for use in measuring section of Tunnel
V121E High Speed / Frame Rate Camera system for observing cavitation.
V140 B&K Cavitation Tunnel Hydrophone system
V123E Flat Plate and Cylinder Model Experiment for use in Tunnels

38 www.cussons.co.uk
Product Index
Product Code Page Product Code Page
Acidity (PH) Control P3020 34 Miniature Flow Channel P6249 12
Air Conditioning Unit P5698 20 Miniature Steam Power Plant P7669 22
Air Flow Bench P3200 14 Multiphase Flow P3620 35
Anemometer P3204 14 Multi-Pump Test Rig incl. Pumps P6360 - P6367 13
Angular Acceleration P5226 30 Multitube Manometer P3202 14
AutoTrainer Test Stands P8952 / P8962 26 Mutli-Cylinder Test Beds P8001 / P8002 / P8750 25 - 26
Axial & Centrifugal Fan P3226 / P3228 15 Network of Pipes P6510 13
Bernouilli’s Apparatus P3208 14 Nozzle Rig Bench P7681 24
Bernouilli’s Experiment P6231 10 Open Channel Weirs P6225 / P6226 10
Blowby Meters P8360 - P8373 27 Orifices Studies P6223 / P6224 10
Boiler Demonstration P7665 33 Osborne Reynolds P6248 11
Boiling Heat Transfer P5697 19 Pelton Wheel P6240 9
Boundary Layer P3232 15 Permeability Apparatus P6520 13
Boy’s Gas Calorimeter P5615 21 Photovoltaic Solar Power Unit P9060 29
Calibration of Pressure Gauge P6234 11 Pipe Surge & Water Hammer P6515 13
Calorimeter Set P6310 21 Pressure Measuring P4811 17
Cavitation Demonstration Set P6211 9 Pressure/Temperature Bench P7671 23
Centre of Pressure P6237 11 Process Control Simulator P3005 33
Centripal Force P2799 31 Radiation & Convection P3300 18
Combustion & Flue Gas Analyser P8385 24 Reciprocating Steam Engine Bench P7676R 24
Condenser Bench P7675 23 Rubber Block P1206 32
Double Effect Evaporator Bench P7683 24 Sediment Transport P6540 13
Ejector Bench P7674 23 Separating & Throttling Calorimeter P7672 / P7660 23 - 24
Electrical Gyroscope P5377 31 Series and Parallel Pump Test Set P6135 12
Energy Balance P9080 19 Single Cylinder Test Beds P8250 / P8160 25
Energy of Flywheel P2776 31 Smoke Generator P3233 15
Entry, Exit & Expansion Losses P6222 9 Solar Distillation P7130 / P7135 29
Exhaust Gas Analyser P8390 - P8393 27 Solar Energy Demonstration P7140 29
Exhaust Gas Calorimeters P8260 - P8265 27 Solar Energy Unit P9065 29
Extension & Compression Springs P2180 32 Static & Dynamic Balancing P1150 30
Fan Test Stand P3240 15 Steam Boiler Bench P7670 23
Flash Point Apparatus P5656 / P5657 21 Steam Power Plant - 1kW P7690 22
Fletcher Trolley P2072 30 Steam Power Plants - 5, 10, 20kW P7600 - P7655 22
Flow Channels P6245 / P6255 12 Steam Process Plant Bench P7678 24
Flow Channels - Advanced P6275 / P6410 12 Stirling Cycle P5691 17
Flow Control P3010 33 Structures Range CST 4-7
Flow in Pipes P3234 14 Temperature Control P3035 33
Flow Measurement Apparatus P3203 14 Temperature Measurement P4810 17
Flow Through a Bend P3222 14 Thermal Conductivity P5687 18
Francis Turbine P6212 9 Three Phase Separation P3700 35
Free & Forced Vortex P6238 10 Torsion Apparatus P4334 32
Free and Forced Convection P3420 19 Torsional Vibration P1901 30
Free and Forced Vibration P5000 31 Turbojet Engine Test Stand P9010E 19
Friction Loss in Pipes & Fittings P5160 12 Turbulent Jet P3234 15
Friction Losses P6221 9 Two Component Balance P3231 15
Fuel Cell Unit P9040 29 Two Dimensional Wind Tunnel P3230 15
Heat Exchanger and Accessories P3400 - P3405 19 Two Shaft Gas Turbine P9005 19
Heat Pump Demonstration Unit P5730 20 Universal Testing Machines P5030 32
Heat Transfer Bench P3210 18 Vapour Compression & Heat Pump P5750 20
Hele Shaw P6246 11 Volumetric Fuel Flow P8227 27
Hydraulic Bench P6100 8-9 Water Cooling Tower P3430 19
Hydraulic Ram P6232 10 Water Flow Measurement P6239 10
Hydraulic Service Unit P6290 9 Water Flow Measurement Range P6227 - P6230 10
Hydrology Apparatus P6530 13 Water Flow Visualisation P6247 13
Hydrostatics Bench / Set P6242 / P6244 11 Water Treatment Studies Bench P7677 24
Impact of Jets P6233 10 Whirling of Shafts P5428 31
Impulse Swirl Meter P7300 26 Wind Generator Set P3130A 28
Inclined Plane / Sliding Friction P5464 31 Wind Tunnels P3259 / P3260 / P3290 16
Industrial Process Plant P3600 34 Wind Turbine Trainer P3150 29
Journal Friction P5013 31
Kaplan Turbine P6213 9 MARINE HYDRODYNAMICS
Lagging Efficiency Bench P7673 23
Laminar Flow P6220 9 Educational Towing Carriages 36
Laminar Flow Meters P7190 - P7217 26 Dynamometers 36 & 38
Level Control P3015 33 Wave Makers & Wave Absorbing Beaches 37
Marcet Boiler P5700 17 Educational Cavitation Tunnels 37
Mechanical Equivalent of Heat P5631 17 Research Cavitation Tunnels 38
Metacentric Height P6235 / P6236 11

39
HEAD OFFICE
Cussons Technology Limited
Cussons Technology Ltd
Great Clowes Street
Manchester
M7 1RH

TEL: +44 (0)161 833 0036


FAX: +44 (0)161 834 4688
E-MAIL: sales@cussons.co.uk

www.cussons.co.uk