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Project Overview
The Sustainable Urban Transport Project (SUTP) is a capacity
building programme that is jointly funded by MoUD, GEF,
World Bank and UNDP
Project Objectives
 Enhance capacity in implementing plans for Non-motorized
transportation, public bike sharing, transit-oriented
 Develop guidance documents
 Prepare city-specific plans
Proposed Demonstration City (NMT) –
Why Vishakhapatnam?
 Tier II City

 Regionally Development Focused along Transit Corridors

 High Pedestrian Modal Share which is steadily decreasing.

 Important Regional Linkage connecting Chennai and Kolkata

 Increasing Pollution, Congestion and Accidents observed

 Opportunity: to contribute/learn from the ongoing update of the Development Plan,

The investment in the Metro Lines; and now the Smart City Challenge
 Challenge: to provide walking and cycling infrastructure in the highly variable terrain
of Vizag; to provide universal accessibility to elderly, the disabled; to implement a
public bike sharing scheme in Vizag
Vishakhapatnam City
Vishakhapatnam – The Port City
Visakhapatnam or Vizag is a port
city on the southeast coast of Bay of
Bengal and the second largest urban
agglomeration in Andhra Pradesh.
It has a population of about 1.73
million as per Census, 2011. The
city is known for heavy industries
and steel plant.

It is the largest seaport of India and

oldest shipyard. It has the only
natural harbour of India and
headquarters of the Eastern Naval
Command of the Indian Navy.
Transport Network in the City
 Although a majority (52%)of people walk in Vizag, the increasing
motorization and automobile oriented transport development would
contribute to its decline in the years to come. The cycle mode share
has also been declining from 3% to 2% and only the captive cycle
users are likely to use this mode.
 Providing adequate walking and cycling infrastructure needs to be an
integral part of the development of the city to make the future
mobility of the city sustainable.
 Also, increased transport activity is leading to an increase in
pollution, congestion and accidents in the city. Hence, there is a
need for appropriate planning which can ensure safe mobility and
accessibility to people irrespective of their socio-economic background
in a way that does not compromise with the health of the
Regional Setting
Land Use Planning Existing City Structure
of Vizag
Land use pattern as per the
Master Plan, Vizag, Andhra
Area (sq. km) Total Population (in lakh)

2001 2006 2001 2006 2011 2021

111 540 9.69 14.5 16.61 20.99

VUDA 1701 1701 22.02 26.21 30.58 34.99

Existing Land Use Patterns

of Vizag
Built up % Area
Land use type area (in sq. Occupie
km) d
Industrial 95 57%
Residential 38 23%
Commercial 2 1%
Public Spaces 1 1%
Roads 17 10%
Airport+ Bus 11 6%
Other 2 1%

Total 166 100%

Regional Connectivity through Population Density of
Vizag Vizag

Greater Vishakapatnam
GVMC Population = 1.73
Municipal Corporation =
City Road Network Hierarchy
Existing Pedestrian Facilities

Unusable Footpaths due to drain covers Inadequate street infrastructure along the NH-5

Quality of Footpath Length and width of available

Infrastructure footpaths in Visakhapatnam
Proportion of Width of Footpath
Quality of footpath Length (km)
footpaths (in m)

No encroachments 30% 1.5 67

Discontinuous 50% 2.0 6
Mostly un-usable 20% 3.0 4
Total 100% Total 77
Transport Demand and Market

Mode Shares in Visakhapatnam, 2013

Mode Total
Walk 52%
Car 2%
2-Wheeler 15%
Bus 18%

Auto Rickshaw 9%

Cycle 3%
Others 1%
Total 100%
Transport Demand and Market
Mode Vs Income distribution in Vizag

< 5000 5000-10000 10000-20000 20000-50000 > 50000

1% 1% 0%
2% 1% 2% 4%
5% 6% 7%
13% 10% 8%
17% 18%
17% 13%
21% 25%

45% 37%


38% 37%
15% 28% 31% 28%
8% 10%


Source: Primary data, iTrans, LCMP 2014

Transport Demand and Market
Mode Vs Trip Length in Vizag

2% 2%
13% 9% 9%
11% 12%
24% 30% 10% <1
18% 14%
21% 9%
17% 1-3
19% 17%
16% 26%
12% 35% 3-5
22% 25% 34%
20% 5-10
17% 36% >10
25% 25% 20%

Source: Primary data, iTrans, LCMP 2014

Road Accidents
Traffic fatality- Victim and Impacting vehicle types

Source: FIR Data from Visakhapatnam Traffic Police, IIT Delhi, 2012
Project Methodology

Readiness Assessment





Source: Ecomobility Readiness

assessment of 28 Cities, ICLEI & iTrans
Visakhapatnam readiness assessment performance graph
Distribution of Functions at Various Levels of

Planning and Infrastructure Monitoring and

Level of Authority Policy Construction and Operations Evaluation

National level

State level
City/ Metropolitan
Strategies to Build an Enabling Environment
The Vision for an NMT friendly Vizag
Integrate land use and transit: Encourage mixed use planning in all new
development areas accompanied by high density development along major transit
Build/retrofit roads with walking infrastructure: All 430 kms of arterial
and sub-arterial roads should be upgraded with walking infrastructure built as per ‘Urban
Road Codes, 2012’
Build/retrofit roads with cycling infrastructure: In keeping with the
VUDA Master Plan, all roads with a proposed ROW of 30m or higher, should segregated
cycle tracks. Beach road should be equipped with a cycling track
and bicycle parking facilities.
Build a PBS network: In keeping with the NMT master plan, a PBS network
having a 3km radius coverage around the main public transit lines (the proposed Metro
and BRT) and feeder lines should be built.
Integrate first and last mile needs of Transit: NMT infrastructure
upgradation must be given priority in the transit influence zones accompanied by
multiple transit opportunities for efficient last mile connectivity.
The Plan and Design
The Principles of NMT Network Planning
These guidelines have guided the NMT
plan of Vishakhapatnam
The NMT Network Plan
• The network design will
have five main
requirements –
Coherence, Directness,
Attractiveness, Safety and
Security and Comfort.
• The plan proposal
should include routes
and links for segregated
cycle tracks and
pedestrian footpaths on
arterial roads, location of
traffic calming measures
etc. The plan should look
out for missing links.

Source: iTrans
Proposed Street Hierarchy
• The different road widths, with different functions need to be
designed differently to integrate pedestrian facilities within them.
• Providing footpaths and cycle tracks or lanes on both sides of roads is
• Footpaths and cycle tracks or lanes need to be constructed especially
near schools, bus stops and along the main roads.
The minimum design width for footpaths and cycle tracks
are as presented:
Effective capacity as per LOS C in Effective width of
persons per/min counted over footpath (m)
15 min
23-50 1.5
58-83 2.5
81-116 3.5
115-165 5.0
Source: Urban Road Codes, 2012
Key Idea - Integrating Land Use and Transport – Accessible Cities
Land use and transport integration in a city can only happen by promoting
mixed use development. This would result in growth of population density in the
city area since people would stay closer to their jobs.
Following is a picture explaining this scenario. The
commercial landuse is developed along the main road

Source: iTrans
The Growth Centres in the City

• The LCMP envisaged

groeth patterns in the city
along the commercial
• According to the LCMP,
the proposed 3 growth
centres are -
Madhurawada, Pendurti
and Gajuwaka

Source: iTrans
500m Buffer around the social, institutional and recreational
• Specific care needs to be
taken to ensure that all
the school zones are
accessible by walk and
crossings in these zones
are safe and well designed
as a lot of student
population is crossing
these areas.
• The social, institutional
and recreational zones in
the cities are identified,
earmarking them for
priority intervention of
pedestrian crossings.
Source: iTrans
Proposed NMT Infrastructure

The map here shows

the Proposed NMT
design (i.e. for both
walking and cycling) in
the city which is based
on the road hierarchy
and functions on the
various roads.

The detailed mapping

is presented further

Source: iTrans
Cycling Infrastructure
On the arterial roads with
ROW more than 30m,
segregated cycle tracks are
needed to separate the
cyclists from high speed
motorised traffic.

All roads with a proposed

ROW of 30m or higher, as
per the VUDA Master
Plan, are identified for the
provision of segregated
cycle tracks.

Source: iTrans
Walking Infrastructure
Currently, only 78kms
out of the 430 kms of
arterial and sub-arterial
roads in the city have
some kind of footpaths

This should be upgraded

to the entire 430 km
stretch over the course of
time and in the long run
all roads, including the
collector and access roads
need to be pedestrian

Source: iTrans
Public Bike Sharing (PBS)
PBS is a public transportation system
based on cycles, which are generally
stored in a closely spaced network of

With a smart card or any other form of

identification, a user can check out a
bicycle from a station and return it to
any other station.

The central concept of these systems is

to provide free or affordable access to
cycles for short distance trips in an
urban area as an alternative to
motorized public transportation or
private vehicles.
PBS in Vizag
In the case of Vizag, under the
NMT master plan proposes a 3km
radius coverage of the PBS system
around the main public transit
lines (the proposed Metro and
BRT) and feeder lines. This
coverage, as seen in the Figure
here, covers almost the entire city
in blue by cycle share.

One of the end line location

(which can be seen in light peach
colour) it was found that due
longer cycling distance from
public transit and the hilly
Pilot for the implementation of PBS
Other than this, as GVMC is interested in developing a Public Bicycle Sharing
(PBS) scheme to promote cycling further in the city. Two networks have been
identified as part of LCMP which can act as a pilot for the implementation of
PBS in the city and are shown in the following

Core Area Gaujuwaka Area

The First and Last Mile Needs of Transit

The first and last mile connection to transit is crucial. Biking and
walking provide important connections to public transportation.

Transit systems usually involve some multi modal connection in order to

get a person from point to point. This difference is sometimes referred to
as the “first-and-last mile” problem.

Improving the NMT-transit link is an important part of making

walking and bicycling a part of daily life in Vizag.
The First and Last Mile Needs of Transit in Vizag

In Vizag, a 30 km NMT and

IPT access network to the BRT
corridors has also been
identified in the NMT Network

Routes are selected in such a

way that they integrate the
various mass transit corridors
and also provide access to these
corridors for the entire city..

These routes also provide the best possible access by walk, cycle, auto-rickshaw
and city bus
Identifying signature projects
Implementation of some Cycle lanes, Foot paths and Public Bicycle
Schemes in Visakhapatnam City could become signature projects to
create interest in interventions for NMT.

Two projects are proposed under this:

Cycling highway along the beach road

Accessibility design for influence areas of

the proposed metro station
Retrofitting the streets
GVMC is planning and
designing some of the streets
in CBD of the city so as to
improve walking and cycling
and the cross section
designed based on the Urban
Road codes (Part 1 Cross
Section), 2014.

These sections have selected

on roads which of ROW
between 18m and more and
have existing footpaths. A 2m
wide cycle track on both sides
of the road has been The table here shows the list of all the selected
proposed and improvements sections (preselected by GVMC, 2012).
of footpaths on each of the
Locations of these selected sections
The cross section of existing condition of Old Jail road and its Proposed
road section is presented in the following -
Existing Cross-Section

Proposed Cross-Section of Old Jail Road

Restructuring intersections for less conflicts

In Visakhapatnam city, the intersection

restructuring is required for safer travel
and reduce accidents at few intersections.
There may be two major types
One of such intersection is shown below that can be designed depending
in the picture. on the location and type of the

• Roundabouts
• Signalized Junctions
Safety and Security
The object of traffic calming is to
modify driver behavior, control
vehicle speeds and, in some
circumstances, to reduce the
volume of traffic.

This reduces danger from traffic

and can enable users, including
children, to reclaim the streets as
social places where walking and
cycling can be safer.

Some of the traffic calming

techniques are Road bumps,
Chicanes are curb extensions or
edge islands and rumble strips.
Universal access and inclusion:
There can be a lot of requirements in addition to basic facilities require by
different NMT users. The key provisions that are required for universal
design are:

• Ramps on to sidewalks for easy

movement of wheelchairs
• Bridges and tunnels with ramps at
appropriate slopes or elevators
• Textured sidewalks to direct
visually impaired
• Audible signals in at-level
Non-motorized Design and Planning Guidelines, 2014 gives a summary of all
the Non-motorized signage to be used.
Designing for site specific conditions
Public convenience
Vending Spaces
Prioritizing NMT in City Budget Allocations

The annual budget and accounts data of GVMC for the past five years has been studied
for investment trends for various modes. The actual expenditure made on various
transportation infrastructures has been studied and is summarized in the following table -
Cost estimates as per the NMT PBS project Report by GVMC

Cost estimate as per LCMP project

Alternative Financing Options
• State transport duties revenue reallocation – state government should earmark a
fixed portion (for NMT infrastructure provision) of revenue collected from
imposing various transport duties like MV licencing, octroi etc.
• The, KfW Development Bank or the German development bank as part of the
KfW banking group is responsible for Financial Cooperation with developing
countries. KFW has shown keen interest in facilitating a loan for Public transit
and NMT upgradation in Vizag.
• GVMC can allocate municipal budget for Non-motorized infrastructure
implementation and phase the network according to the funds available.
• Advertisement revenue – government should formulate a committee for
integration of advertisement revenue, from different sources like bus shelters,
buses, road space etc., for funding parts of NMT infrastructure like guarded
bicycle parking system, PBS system etc.
• NMT fund – state government should establish the NMT fund to promote the
implementation of NMT projects and assist Municipalities in funding NMT
related road infrastructure improvement.
• Visakhapatnam Transportation Fund can be proposed for Vizag which could
become the financing tool to fund various non-motorized projects.
Organizational Framework Roles & Responsibilities
Community Engagement and Outreach

• Posting information on the GVMC website, running display ads in the

newspaper and public buildings, being interviewed on local radio shows and
running public service announcements on the radio before public meetings.

• Hosting five public meetings in different locations throughout the

community to explain the project, answer questions and encourage people to
draw routes they use, wish to use, and desire to be improved as they walk, bike
or use other non‐motorized transportation to get around their neighborhoods
and the community.

• Contacting and/or holding meetings with agencies or stakeholder groups

such as the RWAs, Bicycle Club, TPCO, AMC, UD etc.

• Developing a project questionnaire to solicit written, mapped and emailed

comments and ideas on walking and biking destinations, missing links, safety
concerns and other obstacles along the routes.
Project Management and Supervision
Planners/designers should produce a set of key guidelines as instructions for
the agency/ team implementing and executing the design.

Transfer of a well-conceived NMT infrastructure plan on site, demands good

communication between design agency, project managers and the contractors
in order to explain instruction on use and interpretation of drawings.

• Preparation of
• Project Manager and Quality
• Site Layout and Inspection
• Site Inspection Procedures
Enforcement is needed against violations of motorized vehicles entering
sidewalks and cycle tracks, parking on them, over speeding, traffic signal
violations, etc.

Some, enforcing strategies need to be replicated in others to promote and safe

guard NMT facilities.

•Some of enforcement
Stationing of trained strategies
policemenareor suggested as follows-
marshals at each entry to cycle
• Policing and citations at junctions,
towards the end of cycle paths.
• Improvement of the enforcement of
speed limits and other safety related
• Recording of violations for secondary
fines and citations using video cameras
Monitoring and Evaluation
After the NMT infrastructure in the city is laid down, there is a need to monitor
the facilities at regular intervals.

The strategies to me followed by the M & E team should be as follows

• Focus on direct outcomes of the projects that have been carried out. In
that case it is important to pay attention to the development of
knowledge, arguments and instruments.
• Focus on the internalization of the results of the projects in policy and
plans of the target groups.
• Assess the impacts achieved by the project as per pre-developed
quantitative verifiable indicators.
Thank You