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GROUP 2 HYDRAULIC AND MECHANICAL SYSTEM

1. INTRODUCTION
1) MACHINE IN GENERAL
(1) If even a minor fault is left intact and operation is continued, a fatal failure may be caused, entailing
a large sum of expenses and long hours of restoration.
Therefore when even a small trouble occurs, do not rely on your intuition and experience, but look
for the cause based on the troubleshooting principle and perform maintenance and adjustment to
prevent major failure from occurring. Keep in mind that a fault results from a combination of
different causes.
(2) The following lists up commonly occurring faults and possible causes with this machine. For the
troubleshooting of the engine, refer to the coming troubleshooting and repair.
(3) When carrying out troubleshooting, do not hurry to disassemble the components.
It will become impossible to find the cause of the problem.
(4) Ask user or operator the following.
① Was there any strange thing about machine before failure occurred?
② Under what conditions did the failure occur?
③ Have any repairs been carried out before the failure?
(5) Check before troubleshooting.
① Check oil and fuel level.
② Check for any external leakage of oil from components.
③ Check for loose or damage of wiring and connections.

6-4
2. DRIVE SYSTEM
1) UNUSUAL NOISE COMES OUT OF PUMP CONNECTION

Cause Remedy
YES
Coupling element Disassemble
is broken. and repair.
Remove dust plug
under engine
flywheel and
YES
check if rubber Replace hub or
pieces or particles retighten
are not present. Coupling hub setscrew.
spline is worn or
NO hub fastening
setscrew is slack.
If hydraulic pump or engine is
suspected as a culprit refer to this
NO
manual "Structure and function".

6-5
2) ENGINE STARTS BUT MACHINE DOES NOT OPERATE AT ALL

Cause Remedy
NO
Replenish
specified oil to
the standard
Is oil level in Abnormal noise level.
hydraulic oil YES comes out of YES
Hydraulic pump is Disassemble
tank within hydraulic pump
standard level? broken. and repair.
Do not hydraulic Abnormal noise
pump and pump YES comes out of YES
connections pump See item 1).
YES make abnormal
connection at page 6-5
noise?

Is primary pilot
pressure within ⓐ
NO standard level?

YES
Clean pilot
Is not pilot piping piping interior or
YES clogged or is not
oil leakage present repair piping.
on pilot piping?
NO
Pilot valve is Disassemble
ⓐ faulty. and repair.
YES
Pilot relief valve is Repair or
Is gear pump faulty. replace.
NO delivering oil?

NO Gear pump is Disassemble


broken. and repair.

6-6
3. HYDRAULIC SYSTEM
1) HYDRAULIC OIL IS CLOUDY

Cause Remedy
YES
Water is mixed. Put hydraulic oil
still, separate
Drop hydraulic oil water and
sample on hot dispose it or
plate and check if replace hydraulic
foams come up. oil.

NO Air is intruded. Check suction


line and return
line and eliminate
the air intruding
source.

2) HYDRAULIC OIL TEMPERATURE HAS RISEN ABNORMALLY

Cause Remedy
NO
Replenish
specified oil to
the standard
Is hydraulic oil level.
volume proper? YES
Clean oil cooler.
Is not oil cooler Secure air
clogged and is circulation route.
YES anything blocking YES

air circulation?
Is fan belt
NO tension proper?
Adjust belt
NO
tension or
replace belt.
Is not the set YES
pressure of main Readjust set
relief, relief and pressure.

travel relief valve Is main relief
lower than the YES
valve used very Reduce load.
standard level? NO often?

6-7
3) CAVITATION OCCURS WITH PUMP

Cause Remedy
NO
Replenish
specified oil to
the standard
Is hydraulic oil level.
volume proper? YES
Replace oil with
one of proper
Is not viscosity viscosity.
of hydraulic oil
YES YES
too high? Clean suction
Is not suction strainer.
NO strainer clogged? Is not air intruding
from pump Check for air
NO
suction line? intrusion in
suction line and
retighten or
replace parts.

4) HYDRAULIC OIL IS CONTAMINATED

Cause Remedy
YES
Replace
Has not hydraulic hydraulic oil to be
oil passed specified.
specified replace-
ment hours? Has return filter
NO
been replaced at Flush with
NO proper intervals?
hydraulic oil and
replace return
filter.

6-8
4. SWING SYSTEM
1) BOTH LH AND RH SWING ACTIONS ARE IMPOSSIBLE

Cause Remedy
NO
Replenish
YES specified oil to the
Is safety solenoid ⓐ
YES
valve pressure standard level.
Is gear pump pilot within standard? Safety valve faulty Repair or replace.
NO
pressure within or not operated.
YES standard level?
Is oil in hydraulic
YES tank within
Gear pump faulty. Repair or replace.
standard level? NO
YES
Are broken pieces Pump connection Disassemble and
of coupling present coupling is broken. repair.
ⓐ when dust plug
under engine fly
Are attachment Is not main relief NO Hydraulic pump is Disassemble and
wheel is removed? NO
and travel valve faulty?
out of order. repair.
motions
impossible at all? NO Swing control valve Disassemble and
Does swing
YES control valve spool is stuck. repair.
spool move
Is MCV pilot
YES
pressure within
lightly by hand? YES ⓑ
standard level?
Does RH travel NO

NO function?
Does not symptom
change when front YES
Hydraulic pump is Disassemble and
NO and rear pump
discharge hoses broken. repair.
are exchanged?
YES
Swing brake Disassemble and
release valve is repair.
Is swing brake broken.
ⓑ release valve
faulty? YES Swing reduction Disassemble and
Does swing unit is broken. repair.
NO motor rotate?
Swing motor is Disassemble and
NO
broken. repair.

YES Pilot relief valve is Disassemble and


NO Is gear pump faulty. repair or replace.
delivering oil?
Gear pump is out Disassemble and
Is gear pump pilot NO
of order. repair.
ⓒ pressure within
standard level? YES
Is not there oil Clean pilot piping
leakage from interior or repair
YES pilot piping or is piping.
not it clogged? Pilot valve is Disassemble and
NO
broken. repair.

6-9
2) SWING SPEED IS LOW

Cause Remedy
YES
Swing port relief Disassemble and
YES
Does swing control valve is faulty. repair or replace.
valve spool move
smoothly by hand?
Swing control valve Disassemble
Is MCV pilot NO
spool is stuck. and repair.
pressure same
on LH and RH YES Clogged or oil
sides? Clean pilot piping
leak. interior or repair
Is not pilot piping
Single direction clogged or is not piping.
NO it leaking oil?
Is the trouble in Pilot valve or shuttle Disassemble
one direction or NO
valve is faulty. and repair.
in both direction? YES ⓐ
Does swing
YES control valve
Both directions spool move
Is MCV pilot lightly by hand?
YES Swing control valve Disassemble
pressure within NO
Is Arm speed spool is stuck. and repair.
standard level?
within standard ⓑ
value? NO

NO

Is swing motor's NO
ⓐ drain rate within Swing motor is Disassemble
standard value? Check that pilot broken. and repair.
piping is not
YES clogged or oil is NO
Pilot valve or Disassemble
not leaking from shuttle valve is and repair.
it? faulty.
Clogged or oil leak. Clean pilot piping
Is gear pump pilot interior or repair
ⓑ pressure within piping.
standard level?
YES
Pilot relief valve Disassemble and
Is gear pump is defective. repair or replace.
NO delivering oil?
Gear pump is Disassemble
NO
broken. and repair.

NO
Main relief valve Main relief valve
faulty. pressure resetting
or repair.

Is main relief valve Does the symptom YES Hydraulic pump Disassemble
ⓒ setting pressure change when front
YES
and rear pump is broken. and repair.
normal?
discharge hoses
Is safety valve are exchanged? NO Shuttle valve is Repair or replace.
pilot pressure faulty.
YES within standard
level? YES
Is gear pump Pilot relief valve Repair or replace.
output pressure is faulty.
NO within standard
level? Gear pump is Repair or replace.
NO
faulty.

6-10
3) SWING MOTION IS IMPOSSIBLE IN ONE DIRECTION

Cause Remedy
Does symptom YES
Swing port relief Disassemble and
change when LH
YES valve is faulty. repair.
and RH port relief
valves are
exchanged Shuttle valve is Disassemble and
Does swing control NO
YES faulty. repair.
valve spool move
smoothly by hand?

Is MCV pilot Swing control valve Disassemble and


NO
pressure same spool is stuck. repair.
for LH and RH?
Check if pilot YES
Pilot valve is faulty. Disassemble and
piping is not repair.
clogged or does
NO not have oil
Clogged or oil
leakage. NO leak.
Clean pilot piping
interior or repair
piping.

4) MACHINE SWINGS BUT DOES NOT STOP

Cause Remedy
YES Pilot relief valve is Disassemble and
Is MCV pilot faulty. repair or replace.
YES YES Is gear pump pilot
pressure within pressure within
standard value? standard level?
Gear pump is Disassemble and
NO
broken. repair.
YES Does swing control
valve spool move
smoothly by hand? Pilot valve is faulty. Disassemble and
NO
repair.
Is swing control
valve's return
spring normal? Swing control Disassemble and
NO
valve spool is repair.
stuck.
Return spring is Disassemble and
NO
faulty. replace.

6-11
5) THE SWING UNIT DRIFTS WHEN THE MACHINE IS AT REST ON A SLOPE

Cause Remedy
YES

YES Is swing shuttle
valve normal?
Shuttle valve is Disassemble
NO
faulty. and replace.
YES Is brake spring
normal?

Is return spring
of swing control Brake spring is Disassemble
NO
valve normal? faulty. and replace.

NO Return spring of Disassemble


swing control and replace.
valve is faulty.
YES
Is drain rate of Swing relief valve Disassemble
YES swing motor is faulty. and repair or
within standard replace.
Is swing relief value? Disassemble
NO Swing motor is
ⓐ pressure within broken. and repair.
standard level?

NO Adjust swing
relief valve
pressure or
replace swing
relief valve.

6-12
5. TRAVEL SYSTEM
1) TRAVEL DOES NOT FUNCTION AT ALL ON ONE SIDE

Cause Remedy
YES
Does counterbalance ⓐ
YES spool in travel
brake valve move
lightly by hand?
Is travel brake Counter spool in Disassemble
NO
YES valve pressure travel brake valve and repair or
within standard is stuck. replace.
level? Does the symptom
change when
relief valves in YES
Relief valve built Disassemble
Has travel NO travel motor are
YES control valve exchanged? in travel motor is and repair.
spool changed faulty.
over positively?
YES
Control system is Disassemble
defective. inspect and
Does spool move repair.
NO lightly by hand?

NO Travel control Disassemble


valve spool is and repair.
stuck.
Is bucket or arm
operation YES Disassemble
Travel reduction
possible? Do not metallic
particles come unit is faulty. and repair.
ⓐ out of drain port
in travel
reduction unit? Travel motor is Disassemble
NO
out of order. and repair.
Does the symptom
NO
change when front YES
and rear pump Hydraulic pump is Disassemble
Does the discharge hoses
symptom change broken. and repair.
are exchanged?
when LH/RH
NO travel relief valves
are exchanged?
YES Travel relief Disassemble
valves are faulty. and repair or
replace.

6-13
2) SPEED ON ONE SIDE FALLS AND THE MACHINE CURVES

Cause Remedy
YES
Brake valve is Disassemble
Do LH and RH
travel speeds defective. and repair or
YES change when LH replace.
and RH travel YES
Does the symptom Relief valve built Disassemble
brake valves are change when in travel motor is and repair.
exchanged? relief valves in
faulty.
NO LH and RH
Has control valve travel motors are
YES
spool changed exchanged? ⓐ
over positively? NO
YES
Control system is Disassemble,
Does spool move faulty . inspect and
lightly when it is
repair.
Is the lower NO cut off from
speed(Bucket or control spool?
arm) within Control valve Disassemble
NO
standard level? spool is stuck. and repair.

YES
Travel relief valve Disassemble
Do LH and RH is faulty. and repair or
travel speeds Does the symptom replace.
change over when change when
NO travel relief valves YES front and rear YES
pump discharge Hydraulic pump is Disassemble
are exchanged?
Is external pilot hoses are broken. and repair.
pressure within exchanged?
NO
standard level?
External pilot Disassemble
NO
piping is clogged and clean.
or oil is leaking
Does travel speed from it.
change when
YES parking brake YES
spring in the Travel motor's Disassemble
slower travel parking brake is and clean pilot
Is leak rate of motor is removed? not released piping.
ⓐ travel motor within
standard level? properly.

Travel motor is Disassemble


NO
faulty. and repair.

6-14
3) MACHINE DOES NOT STOP ON A SLOPE
Machine is pulled forward as sprocket rotates during digging operation.

Cause Remedy
None Is parking brake YES
friction plate Friction plate is Disassemble
YES Check if parking worn? faulty. and repair.
brake pilot line is
not clogged.
Clogged Disassemble
and clean pilot
Is drain rate of piping.
Is travel brake YES travel motor NO
pressure within Travel motor is Disassemble
within standard
standard level? defective. and repair.
value?

Brake valve is Disassemble


NO
faulty. and repair or
replace.

4) LH AND RH TRAVEL MOTIONS ARE IMPOSSIBLE

Cause Remedy
YES
Inspect according
to the procedure
"Travel does not
function at all on
one side."
However, a case
where both LH
and RH travel
motions are
Is bucket or arm disabled is
operation extremelyseldom
possible? statistically.
OK
Hydraulic pump is Disassemble and
Disassemble both faulty. repair.
OK travel relief valves
Remove dust and inspect for
plug under engine any fault.
OK flywheel and Travel relief valve Disassemble and
check that there is Faulty
is faulty. repair or replace.
no coupling
element particles.
Check oil volume Particles present. Coupling at pump Disassemble and
in hydraulic oil connection is repair.
NO tank.
broken.

Replenish
Short hydraulic oil.

6-15
5) TRAVEL ACTION IS POWERLESS(Travel only)

Cause Remedy
YES

Is travel motor's
YES
drain rate within
standard level?
Is travel brake Travel motor is Disassemble
YES pressure within NO
faulty. and repair.
standard level?
Is travel relief
valve pressure Travel brake Disassemble
NO
within standard valve is defective. and repair or
level?
replace.
NO Travel relief valve Disassemble
is faulty. and repair or
replace.

YES
Hydraulic circuit Disassemble
Does parking that releases and clean.
brake piston travel parking
Increases move lightly by
Remove parking brake is clogged
brake spring in hand?
with dirt.
travel motor,
Disassemble
ⓐ draw out piston NO Parking brake
completely, refit piston in travel and repair.
cover and check motor is stuck.
if travel power
changes. Remains
unchanged Travel reduction Disassemble
unit is defective. and repair.

6) MACHINE RUNS RECKLESSLY ON A SLOPE

Cause Remedy
Travel brake valve
(counterbalance Disassemble
valve) is faulty. and repair or
replace.

6-16
7) MACHINE MAKES A CURVED TRAVEL OR DOES NOT TRAVEL AT ALL WHEN TRAVEL
AND ATTACHMENT OPERATIONS ARE EXECUTED AT THE SAME TIME

Cause Remedy
YES
Normal.

YES Is select valve


normal?

Select valve is Repair or


Is pilot pressure NO
for travel select faulty. replace.
valve within
standard level? YES
Remove dirt on
Is filter in pilot pilot line filter.
piping between
gear pump and YES Is pilot relief NO
NO control valve not Pilot relief valve is Disassemble
valve normal?
clogged? defective. and repair or
Is gear pump
replace.
NO delivering oil?

Gear pump is Disassemble


NO
broken. and repair.

6-17
6. ATTACHMENT SYSTEM
1) BOOM OR ARM ACTION IS IMPOSSIBLE AT ALL

Cause Remedy
YES
Does the Port relief valve is Disassemble
symptom change faulty. and repair or
YES
when port relief
replace.
valve is replaced
Is MCV pilot with other valve? NO ⓐ
YES
pressure within
standard level?
Inspect if pilot
piping is not
OK
clogged or oil is Pilot valve is Disassemble
Are other NO
YES
not leaking from faulty. and repair.
attachments the piping.
operatable?

Pilot relief valve is Disassemble


Is gear pump pilot YES
Is gear pump faulty. and repair or
pressure within
NO delivering oil? replace.
standard level?
Gear pump is Disassemble
NO
broken. and repair.
Are LH/RH
operations OK
possible? Hydraulic pump is Disassemble
Disassemble broken. and repair.
YES main relief valve
Remove dust plug and check if it is
under engine not irregular.
OK flywheel and Faulty
Main relief valve Disassemble
check if coupling is defective. and repair or
element particles replace.
Inspect oil are not present. Particles present Coupling at pump Disassemble
NO
volume in
hydraulic oil tank. connection is and repair.
broken.
Short Replenish
hydraulic oil.

YES
Cylinder interior is Disassemble
Does control
broken. and repair.
ⓐ valve spool move
lightly by hand?
NO Control valve Disassemble
spool is stuck. and repair.

6-18
2) BOOM, ARM OR BUCKET SPEED IS LOW
Cause Remedy
YES
Normal.
YES
Are other ⓐ
YES attachment
Is combination speeds within
Is speed low only of oil streams standard levels? NO ⓑ
in composite YES
normal at boom YES
operation? hoisting and at Flow summation Disassemble and
Does spool of flow
arm extrusion? summation check check valve spool repair.
NO valve move lightly is stuck.
Are LH/RH travel
by hand?
NO speeds within NO
standard levels?
YES
Hydraulic pump is Disassemble and
Are both LH/RH faulty. repair.
travel speeds YES ⓒ
NO
low? Is MCV pilot
pressure within
NO
standard? ⓓ
NO
OK
Does the Port relief valve is Disassemble and
symptom change faulty. repair or replace.
YES
when port relief
valve is replaced
Does control with other valve? Cylinder is faulty. Disassemble and
YES NO
valve spool move repair.
lightly by hand?

NO
Control valve spool Disassemble and
Is MCV pilot
ⓐ pressure within is stuck. repair.
standard level?
YES
Clean pilot piping
Is not MCV pilot
pressure piping interior or repair
NO clogged or is not piping.
there oil leakage? Pilot valve is Disassemble and
NO
defective. repair.
YES
Pilot relief valve is Disassemble and
Is primary pilot NO Is gear pump faulty. repair or replace.
ⓑ pressure within
delivering oil?
standard level?
NO
Gear pump is Disassemble and
broken. repair.
Is engine NO
ⓒ revolution within Adjust engine
standard level? revolution.

YES
Clean orifice in
control valve.
Is not orifice in
ⓓ control valve YES
clogged? Is pilot piping not Clean pilot piping
clogged or is oil interior or repair
NO not leaking from piping.
the piping? Is pilot valve
Pilot valve is faulty. Disassemble and
NO normal? NO
repair.

6-19
3) BOOM, ARM OR BUCKET CYLINDER EXTENDS OR CONTRACTS ITSELF AND ATTACHMENT FALLS

Cause Remedy
YES
Does the Port relief valve is Disassemble
symptom change faulty. and repair or
Normal when port relief replace.
valve is replaced YES
with normal ⓐ
Is control valve
valve?
return spring
YES
Is not hydraulic NO
normal?
oil temperature Control valve's Disassemble
high? NO
return spring is and replace.
faulty.
Is genuine Abnormally high. Locate the
hydraulic oil or cause of
equivalent being
hydraulic oil
used?
temperature rise
and lower it to
proper level.
Replace with
NO
genuine
hydraulic oil or
equivalent.

OK
Pressure Disassemble
Disassemble and tightness and repair.
YES inspect check between control
valve in hydraulic
circuit and check valve casing and
for any fault. spool is poor.
Is cylinder internal Abnormal Contact surface Disassemble
ⓐ leakage within between poppet and repair.
standard level?
and seat is poor.

Cylinder is faulty. Disassemble


NO

6-20
4) BOOM, ARM OR BUCKET POWER IS WEAK

Cause Remedy
YES
Check according
Is cylinder to the procedure
YES internal leakage in Item "Speed is
within standard low".
level?
Is relief pressure
YES in port relief Cylinder is faulty. Disassemble
valve within NO
and repair.
standard level?
Is relief pressure
in main relief Port relief valve is Adjust pressure,
valve within NO
faulty. repair or replace.
standard level?

Main relief valve Adjust pressure,


NO
is defective. repair or replace.

5) ONLY BUCKET OPERATION IS TOTALLY IMPOSSIBLE

Cause Remedy
YES
Port relief valve is Disassemble
Does the defective. and repair or
YES
symptom change
when port relief replace.
YES
valve is replaced Cylinder interior is Disassemble
Does control
with other valve? valve spool broken. and repair.
Is MCV pilot NO move smoothly
YES
pressure within by hand? Control valve Disassemble
standard level? NO
spool is stuck. and repair.

Is RH travel Pilot valve is Disassemble


NO
possible? faulty. and repair.

Does the YES


Main relief valve Adjust pressure,
symptom change is faulty. repair or
Does the
when main relief
NO valves are symptom change replace.
when hydraulic YES
exchanged? Hydraulic pump is
NO pump's discharge
hoses are broken. Disassemble
exchanged? and repair.

6-21
6) BOOM MAKES A SQUEAKING NOISE WHEN BOOM IS OPERATED

Cause Remedy
YES
Frictional noise
occurs between
the sliding faces
of boom
cylinder's oil
Is boom foot pin seal and boom
greased proper.
sufficiently?
※ Frictional
noise will
disappear if
they are kept
used.

Boom foot pin Supply grease


NO
has run out of to it.
grease. ※
If seizure is in
an initial stage,
supply sufficient
grease.
If seizure is in
a grown state,
correct it by
paper lapping
or with an oil
stone.

6-22
※ HOW TO CHECK INTERNAL BOOM CYLINDER LEAKAGE
1. Lower the bucket teeth to the ground with
bucket cylinder fully retracted and arm
cylinder rod retracted almost in full.

R29076TS01

2. Disconnect hose(A) from rod side of boom


cylinder and drain oil from cylinders and
hose.(Put cups on piping and hose ends) A

6-20(2)

3. Raise bucket OFF the ground by retracting


the arm cylinder rod.

If oil leaks from piping side and boom


cylinder rod is retracted there is an internal
leak in the cylinder.
If no oil leaks from piping side and boom
cylinder rod is retracted, there is an internal
leak in the control valve.
R29076TS01

6-23