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The Association of Consulting Engineers of Hong Kong

Annual Seminar on “Transforming Hong Kong into a Smart City with Digital Engineering”

Wednesday, 20 June 2018

Double Smart to Tackle Double Aging Problem in Hong Kong

K.K. LING, SBS

Director, Jockey Club Design Institute for Social Innovation,

Professor of Practice (Planning), The Hong Kong Polytechnic University

Honorary Professor, The University of Hong Kong

Adjunct Professor, The Chinese University of Hong Kong

Presentation Outline:

Double Aging Forewarned by HK2030+

Smart Aging As Enablers Smart City makes City Inclusive

Concluding Remarks

Double Aging --

an issue forewarned in HK2030+

Aging of Population

Shrinking and aging workforce affects economic vibrancy

Community burden on medical services and elderly caring

 Shrinking and aging workforce affects economic vibrancy  Community burden on medical services and elderly
 Shrinking and aging workforce affects economic vibrancy  Community burden on medical services and elderly
Elderly Commission, Elderly Services Programme Plan, 2017
Elderly
Commission,
Elderly Services
Programme Plan,
2017
Elderly Commission, Elderly Services Programme Plan, 2017
Present main stream concerns of the community :  Financial subsidy to the needed elderlies
Present main stream concerns of the
community :
 Financial subsidy to the needed elderlies
 Availability of caring facilities and services
 Social participation and mobility of elderlies

Double Aging --

an issue forewarned in HK2030+

Aging of Building Stock

Asset may become liability with heavy burden on renovation

Home may no more be a safe and comfortable place

 Asset may become liability with heavy burden on renovation  Home may no more be
 Asset may become liability with heavy burden on renovation  Home may no more be
 Asset may become liability with heavy burden on renovation  Home may no more be
Source: Our Hong Kong Foundation
Source: Our Hong Kong Foundation

Source: Our Hong Kong Foundation

Government Subsidized

Mandatory Building Maintenance Highly commendable effort with remarkable achievement!
Mandatory Building
Maintenance
Highly commendable effort
with remarkable achievement!

How Durable are Our Reinforced Concrete

How Durable are Our Reinforced Concrete and Steel Structures?

and Steel Structures?

How Durable are Our Reinforced Concrete and Steel Structures?
Unique challenge:  Aging population living in aging built-environment of a global city with high-
Unique challenge:  Aging population living in aging built-environment of a global city with high-
Unique challenge:  Aging population living in aging built-environment of a global city with high-

Unique challenge:

Aging population living in aging built-environment of a global city with high- density and compact urban form

Aging is a lengthy process. The community at present does not conceive “double aging” a critical issue of any urgency

is a lengthy process. The community at present does not conceive “double aging” a critical issue
is a lengthy process. The community at present does not conceive “double aging” a critical issue
is a lengthy process. The community at present does not conceive “double aging” a critical issue
 The combined effect of “population aging” and “building stock aging” is one of the
 The combined effect of “population aging” and “building stock aging” is one of the
 The combined effect of “population aging” and “building stock aging” is one of the

The combined effect of “population aging” and “building stock aging” is one

of the most difficult challenges that Hong Kong MUST overcome in the coming

decades

Innovative institutional arrangement and technical solutions MUST be worked out with collective wisdom and concerted effort of the community

Academia and professionals MUST contribute in working out solutions

wisdom and concerted effort of the community  Academia and professionals MUST contribute in working out
wisdom and concerted effort of the community  Academia and professionals MUST contribute in working out
wisdom and concerted effort of the community  Academia and professionals MUST contribute in working out

Key Concepts:

Active Aging

Healthy Aging

Aging in place

 Active Aging  Healthy Aging  Aging in place Active Aging International experiences reveal that

Active Aging

International experiences reveal that older people would benefit from maintaining active engagement

in society in various aspects, including social,

recreational, cultural and leisure activities, lifelong learning, volunteering, and even gainfulemployment.

Through such active aging, older people can have

positive interaction with other age groups in society, thus promoting inter-generational understanding

and appreciation.

Key Concepts:

Active Aging

Healthy Aging

Aging in place

Ability to:

Walk

Think

See

Hear

remember

Healthy Ageing is the focus of WHO’s work on ageing

between 2015 2030. Healthy Ageing replaces the World Health

Organizations previous Active ageing: a policy

framework developed in 2002. Healthy Ageing, like Active Ageing, emphasizes the need for action across multiple sectors and enabling older people to remain a resource to their families, communities

and economies.

WHO defines Healthy Ageing “as the process of developing and

maintaining the functional ability that enables wellbeing in older

age”. Functional ability is about having the capabilities that

enable all people to be and do what they have reason to value. This includes a person’s ability to:

meet their basic needs;

to learn, grow and make decisions;

to be mobile;

to build and maintain relationships; and

to contribute to society.

grow and make decisions;  to be mobile;  to build and maintain relationships; and 

Key Concepts:

Active Aging

Healthy Aging

Aging in place

 Active Aging  Healthy Aging  Aging in place Key Concern of Town Planners: Aging

Key Concern of Town Planners:

Aging is a lengthy process. The interaction of aging population and our built

environment for homes,

neighbourhoods and communities

a lengthy process. The interaction of aging population and our built environment for homes, neighbourhoods and

Smart Aging

Smart Aging Source: Smart Aging Technology Hub, PolyU Smart Aging is defined as “using technology, innovation

Source: Smart Aging Technology Hub, PolyU

Smart Aging is defined as “using technology, innovation and design in both the public and

private sectors to produce products, services,

solutions and systems to improve the quality

of life” for old generation in the three key

areas: functional food, connected health, and

assisted living

Smart aging promotes the well-being of aging population by seamless integration of information technology, medical systems and devices, bio-technology, and robotics.

“The landscape of smart aging: Topics, applications, and agenda”, Il-Yeol Song (et.el.), in Data & Knowledge Engineering 115 (2018) 6879

Smart Aging Technology supports independent living of the elderly and enables them to live in a healthy living environment where more effective assistance is available

Smart Home

Smart Building

Smart Neighbourhood

Smart Street Grid

Smart Age-friendly Employment

Smart Mobility

Smart Health Care

Employment  Smart Mobility  Smart Health Care Smart City where smart technology and smart institution

Smart City

where smart technology

and smart institution can

be innovated and integrated

Source: https://medium.com/iomob/blockchain-cities-and-the-smart-cities-wheel-9f65c2f32c36
Source: https://medium.com/iomob/blockchain-cities-and-the-smart-cities-wheel-9f65c2f32c36

Smart City Wheel

The 3 Generations of Smart Cities

Boyd Cohen, 2015

SMART CITIES 1.0: TECHNOLOGY DRIVEN:

Smart Cities 1.0 is characterized by technology

providers encouraging the adoption of their solutions to cities

SMART CITIES 2.0: TECHNOLOGY ENABLED, CITY- LED: The municipalityled by forward-thinking mayors and city administratorstakes the lead in helping determine what the future of their city is and what the role is for the deployment of smart technologies and other innovations.

SMART CITIES 3.0: CITIZEN CO-CREATION:

Leading smart cities are beginning to embrace citizen co-creation models for helping to drive the next generation of smarter cities.

Source: Technologies for Smart Aging City, presentation by William Li, HKT Ltd., 2016

Urban

Density and

Building

Volume

Urban Density and Building Volume

The 1956 legislation controlled plot development by specifying building height in relation to street, permitting twice the street width in height. Continuing the shop-house tradition of building out over the pavement, new construction techniques using concrete were adopted to permit the

buildings to cantilever over the street pavement or sidewalk and then rake

back a maximum of 76 degrees as they rose, the control of the normal

building shadow to half the street. This led to potential plot ratio of up to

20 in some spots.

led to potential plot ratio of up to 20 in some spots. Page 114 in “The
led to potential plot ratio of up to 20 in some spots. Page 114 in “The

Page 114 in “The Making of Hong Kong: From Vertical to Volumetric” by Barrie Shelton, Justyna Karakiewiz and Thomas Khan

Source of Photo: “Building Codes and Postwar Reconstruction in Hong Kong” by Prof. YC Richard
Source of Photo: “Building Codes and Postwar Reconstruction in Hong Kong” by Prof. YC Richard
Wong published in Hong Kong Economic Journal on 20 May 2015
Postwar Reconstruction in Hong Kong” by Prof. YC Richard Wong published in Hong Kong Economic Journal
Postwar Reconstruction in Hong Kong” by Prof. YC Richard Wong published in Hong Kong Economic Journal
Source: Effects of the Building Code on Construction and Design of Hong Kong Residential Buildings
Source:
Effects of the Building Code on
Construction and Design of Hong Kong
Residential Buildings in the Colony

Wong Wah Sang University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong SAR

Chung King Mansions

1959construction

commenced

1961/11/11completed

for occupation

2004 completed the first

comprehensive renovation

2011/11/11

comprehensive renovation

scheme of external wall

completed for celebration of the 50th anniversary of

the Mansions

– comprehensive renovation scheme of external wall completed for celebration of the 50th anniversary of the
– comprehensive renovation scheme of external wall completed for celebration of the 50th anniversary of the
So far, studies on Chung King Mansions case are more from anthropological and social perspectives.
So far, studies on Chung King Mansions case are more from anthropological and social perspectives.

So far, studies on Chung King Mansions case are more from anthropological and social perspectives.

Perhaps, we need studies from building technology, maintenance and

management perspectives to investigate how our housing stock can be sustained.

Hong Kong’s “DNA” for Planning and Development

 

D Density and Diversity

N Nexus

A Adaptiveness

Past success of HK

Urbanism has become a

challenge to us:

How can we maintain

and renew our housing

stock which has been

built to extremely high

density and held by multiple ownership?

How smart city principle

and technology can be applied in HK?

6

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Smart cities in aging societies must contribute to making cities age-friendly and inclusive

Smart cities in aging societies must contribute to

making cities age-friendly

and inclusive

Smart cities in aging societies must contribute to making cities age-friendly and inclusive

An Hong Kong Example in the move!

An Hong Kong Example in the move!
An Hong Kong Example in the move!
An Hong Kong Example in the move!

Historic Challenge to Cities

City development in human history was never aimed at serving elderlies.

The urban fabric and urban operation system created in the urbanization

process after WWII was largely designed for and by the “baby boomer”

generation.

They were then young, economically active and ambitious, highly mobile,

and the population was mainly comprised of youth and children.

Now, for the first time in human history, cities would begin to

accommodate such a high proportion of elderly population.

Smart Aging and Smart City as Enablers

We need fundamental change in mindset and acquire new skill-set to

retrofit our cities meeting the need of the elderly population.

Buildings, facilities, neighbourhoods, and new towns should be

planned, designed and developed not only to meet the need of the present elderly population, but also the anticipated aging of their

present population.

Smart Aging and Smart City are enablers to innovate technology advancement and institutional re-engineering to tackle the Double Aging issue.

Contribution of HK New Urbanism

-- towards an inclusive livable high-density city for all ages

The “double aging” phenomenon in Hong Kong is unique in the

world in terms of its scale and complexity

Hong Kong as a “urban laboratory” provides unique

opportunities for world-class urban research and solutions in

smart aging and smart city

Contributes useful references to China and the world with our unique researches and solutions

Let’s co-create smart solutions

under this approach:

Double Smart to Tackle

Double Aging Problem in Hong Kong

Thank You!