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GENERAL BIOLOGY II

CHEMICAL AND NERVOUS CONTROL NEURON (NERVE CELL)


Chemical Control
 Under the regulation of the endocrine
system and includes the various
hormones.
 Is slower but the effect is long term.
Nervous Control
 Under the regulation of the nervous
system with its system of neuronal
mechanisms.
Nervous System
 The one responsible for coordinating the
functions of the other body systems.
 Gathers information, processes the
information and elicits a corresponding
response or reaction to the stimulus.
 Enables the body to respond and adapt to
changes both inside and out.
Neuron
2 MAIN DIVISIONS OF THE NERVOUS
SYSTEM  Basic constituents of the brain, ventral
nerve cord and spinal cord.
 Usually do not connect directly to one
another.
3 TYPES OF NEURON
1. Sensory Neuron
 Allows to receive information from
the outside world through our
senses. This involves the following
which are present in our sensory
organs that send signals to the
spinal cord and the brain:
- Sensation of touch
- Pain
- Vision (eyes)
- Hearing (ears)
- taste
2. Motor Neuron
 Receives impulses from the spinal
cord or the brain and send them
from the muscles causing muscular
1. Central Nervous System (CNS) contraction and also affects the
2. Peripheral Nervous System (PNS) gland secretion.
GENERAL BIOLOGY II
3. Inter Neuron CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM (CNS)
 Communicate and connect with
 Consist of:
each other and represents the
1. Spinal cord
majority of neurons in our brain.
2. Brain
 Allows to:
 Receives sensory signals and
- Think
determine appropriate responses.
- Perceive
 Receives and processes
- see
information.
PARTS OF THE NEURON  Initiates action
 Stores memory
 Carries out thought
1. Spinal Cord (Spine)

1. Dendrites
 Receives signal
2. Cell Body
 Integrates signal  The link between the nerves and
3. Axon the brain.Controls reflex activities.
 Transmits action potential  The spinal cord is protected by
- Myelin Sheath the vertebrae.
 Makes the signal travel  Gray matter contains cell bodies;
faster. white matter contains myelinated
4. Synaptic Terminals fibers.
 Transmit signals  PNS nerves extend outside of the
5. Synapse vertebrae.
 A gap that controls the THE SPINAL REGIONS
transmission of signal
6. Neurotransmitters  Cervical Region
 Cross the synapse and stimulates  Thoracic region
the next neuron.  Lumbar region
 Afferent & efferent spinal nerves
GENERAL BIOLOGY II
1. Somatic Nervous System
 Responsible for carrying motor
and sensory information.
 Made up of nerves that connect to
skin, sensory organs, and skeletal
muscles.
 Responsible for nearly all
voluntary muscle movements.
Cervical Thoracic Lumbar  Processes sensory information
Region Region Region from external stimuli (hearing,
touch and sight).
Afferent and Efferent Spinal Nerves
AFFERENT SENSORY NEURONS

 Merges to form the peripheral  Means “conducting inwards”


nerves. EFFERENT MOTOR NEURONS
 Allow communication between
 Means “conducting outwards”
the nerves throughout the
body.
 Afferent nerve carries
information from the body to
the brain.
 Efferent nerve carries
information from the brain to
the body.
PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM (PNS)
 Consist of:
1. Somatic Nervous System
2. Autonomic Nervous System
2. Autonomic Nervous System
 Transmits signal between the central  Regulates key involuntary
nervous system to the rest of the body. functions of the body including
 Regulates the function of the central the activity of the heart muscle;
nervous system. the smooth muscles, including the
 Receives and transmits motor signals muscles of the intestinal tract; and
from the central nervous system. the glands.
 Sends signals to the central nervous  Motor neurons that control
system. involuntary responses involving
the organs, glands, and smooth
 Stimulates effectors
muscles.
 Nerves, neurons, and sensory organs
outside the central nervous system. 2 DIVISIONS OF THE AUTONOMIC
NERVOUS SYSTEM
2 SYSTEMS OF THE PERIPHERAL
NERVOUS SYSTEM (PNS) 1. Sympathetic Nervous System
2. Parasympathetic Nervous System
1. Somatic Nervous System
2. Autonomic Nervous System
GENERAL BIOLOGY II

The main difference between the 1. Cerebrum


somatic and autonomic nervous systems is in
what target tissues are effectors. Somatic
responses are solely based on skeletal
muscle contraction; Autonomic system,
however, targets cardiac and smooth muscle,
as well as glandular tissue.

1. Sympathetic Nervous System


 Produces “flight or fight” revs up
the body to either defend yourself
 Largest section of the brain.
or escape the threat; prepares
 performs higher functions like
the body.
interpreting touch, vision and hearing, as
- Dilation of pupils
well as speech, reasoning, emotions,
- Increased heart and
learning, and fine control of movement.
breathing rates
- Constriction of blood
1.1 Right Hemisphere
vessels
Responsible for control of the
- Inhibits digestion
left side of the body, and is the
2. Parasympathetic Nervous System
more artistic and creative side of
 Brings all systems of the body
the brain.
back to normal; relaxes the body.
1.2 Left Hemisphere
 Produces the “rest and ruminate”. Responsible for control of the
- Constricts pupils right side of the body, and is the
- Dilates blood vessels more academic and logical side of
- Reduces heart and the brain.
breathing rates.
- Stimulates digestion
THE BRAIN
 Found within the cranium or skull.
6 MAIN SECTIONS OF THE BRAIN
1. Cerebrum
 Division of the cerebrum:
1.1 Right Hemisphere
1.2 Left Hemisphere
 4 lobes of the cerebrum:
a. Frontal
b. Parietal
c. Temporal
d. Occipital
2. Cerebellum
3. Diencephalon
4. Midbrain
5. Pons
6. Medulla Oblongata
GENERAL BIOLOGY II
4 LOBES OF THE CEREBRUM

a. Frontal

Reasoning and thought

b. Parietal

Integrates sensory
information.

c. Temporal

Processes auditory
information from
the ears.

d. Occipital
Processes visual
information from
the eyes.