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INDEX_p.

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Index
A Closed-loop stability, 173
Closed-loop transfer function, 164
Adaptive control, 144
multivariable, 435
Adiabatic reactors, 465
Closed-loop time constant, 165
Algorithm, control, 5
Cohen-Coon tuning, 202
All-pass factorization, 257
Compartmental models, 692
All-pass, frequency response, 225
Compressor control, 463
Amplitude, 216
Constitutive equations, 44
Amplitude ratio, 218, 222
Constraints
Anaerobic sludge digester, 725
control problem, 3
Analog, 15
windup, 346
Anesthesia, 694
MPC, 503
Antireset windup, 346
Control and instrumentation diagram, 7
external, 350
Control horizon, 490
Arrhenius rate expression, 46
Control objectives, 2
Art of process engineering, 527
Controller output, 160
Automatic tuning, 354
Controller pairing, 382, 385
Autoregressive models, 136
Controller parameters
derivative time, 172
B
integral time, 169
Backwards shift operator, 137, 752 proportional gain, 157
Batch reactor, 679 proportional band, 173, 736
Bias, 157 Control valves,
Biochemical reactors, 631 bypass, 17
Biomedical control, 691 equal percentage, 741
Blending system, 383 gain, 159
ratio control, 373 installed characteristic, 746
Block diagram, control, 159 linear, 741
Blood glucose control, 694 quick opening, 741
Blood pressure control, 698 Conversion, 42
Bode diagrams, 219, 622 Critical care, 698
Bode stability criterion, 230 Critical gain, 198
Bypass valve, 17 Crossover frequency, 622
Current-to-pressure transducer, 737
C
Cascade control, 314 D
Case study, 721 Damping factor, 103
Characteristic equation, 164 Damkohler number, 42
Characteristic polynomial, 82 Deadband, 156
Chemical reactor autotuning, 357
cascade control, 318 Decoupling, 453
ethylene glycol, 39 Demand-side control, 462
exothermic, jacketed, 641 Derivative control, 172
isothermal, 39, 605 Deviation variables, 59, 64
propylene glycol, 646 Differential Pressure (DP) cell, 735
Closed-loop oscillation-based tuning, 198 Digital control, 749

765
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766 Index

Direct synthesis, 203 general form, 56


Distillation Furnace control, 314
control, 704 air-fuel ratio, 374
step response, 134 with heat exchanger, 466
Disturbance
transfer function, 162 G
rejection, 178 Gain
Drug infusion, 727 controller, 157
Dynamic Matrix Control (DMC), 493 process, 97
valve, 159
E Gain margin, 231, 622
Eigenvalue, 82 Gain scheduling, 359
Effective gain (one loop closed), 392 Gas surge drum, 37
Empirical models Generalized predictive control (GPC), 507
autoregressive, 136
first-order + dead time, 129 H
integrator + dead time, 133 Heat capacity, 50
Energy balances, 48 Heat exchanger control, 464
Enthalpy, 50 Heat transfer, 47
Evironmental issues, 4 HDA (hydrodealkylation), 473
Error, 157 Hysteresis, 649
Ethylene glycol reactor, 39 autotuning, 357
Euler integration, 59
Exothermic CSTR, 83 I
External reset, 350 IDCOM, 507
Ideal gas law, 45
F Initial value theorem
Factorization, 256 Laplace transforms (continuous), 89
all-pass, 257 Z-transforms (discrete), 139
discrete, 756 Instrumentation, 15
multivariable, 443 Integral control, 169
Failure sensitivity, 402 Integral time, 169
Fail-closed valve, 4, 738 Integral windup, 346
Fail-open valve, 4, 158, 738 Integrating process
Feedback control, 4, 155 gas surge drum, 37
Feed-forward control, 4, 324 impulse response, 101
Final value theorem, 89 steam drum, 661
calculating offset, 166 step response, 81, 101
discrete, 139 surge vessel, 18, 669
First-order process, 97 transfer function, 168
stirred tank heater, 99 Integrator + dead time, 133
First-order + dead time (FODT) Internal instability, 207, 254
estimation, 129 Internal model control (IMC), 245
frequency response, 223, 235, 618 block diagram, 263
Flowmeter design for disturbances, 273
orifice plate, 735, 739 design procedure, 265
Fluidized catalytic cracking (FCCU), 725 digital, 756
Frequency response, 215 filter, 266
Function files, 554 multivariable, 440
Fundamental models IMC-based PID, 285
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disturbance rejection, 292 Modeling, 31


integrating systems, 293 Models
stable systems, 289 definition, 17
time-delay systems, 294 empirical, 127
unstable systems, 301 fundamental, 31
Input Modules
constraints, 275, 346 MATLAB, 539
disturbance, 2, 57 SIMULINK, 559
manipulated, 57 ODE, 573
Insulin, 694 LTI, 585
Interaction, 381 isothermal CSTR, 605
Inverse response, 109, 112 FODT, 619
isothermal reactor, 605 biochemical reactor, 631
steam drum, 661 CSTR, 641
steam drum level, 661
J surge vessel level, 669
Jacketed tank heater, 65, 376 batch reactor, 679
Jacketed batch reactor, 679 biomedical, 691
Jacketed CSTR, 641 distillation, 703
case study, 721
L flow, 733
digital, 749
Laplace transforms
Monod kinetics, 632
definition, 85
Multiple input–multiple output, 382
derivative, 86
Multiple steady states
exponential, 85
biochemical reactor, 633
impulse, 88
exothermic CSTR, 648
pulse, 87
van de Vusse reactor, 606
step, 87
time-delay, 86
Lead-lag transfer function, 110
N
Level control Nonlinear PID, 359
steam drum, 258, 266, 661 surge vessel, 672
surge vessel, 5, 156, 669 Nonminimum phase, 225
Linearization, 60 Numerator dynamics, 107
LTI models, 585 Numerical integration, 58, 573
Lumped parameter system, 32 Nyquist plots, 221, 622
Nyquist stability criterion, 231
M
MATLAB
O
tutorial, 539 Objective, control, 2
frequently used functions, 556 Offset, P-control, 165
Master controller, 315 Objective function, 490
Material balances, 36 On-off control, 156
Matrix notation, 541 Open-loop control, 247
m-files, 552 Operability, 428
Mean value theorem Optimization
differential calculus, 35 plantwide, 466
integral calculus, 35 MPC, 488
Model length, 491 Ordinary differential equations
Model Predictive Control (MPC), 487 general form, 57
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768 Index

numerical solution, 59, 574 R


ode45, 574
Ratio control, 372
Orifice plate flowmeter, 735, 739
Reactive ion etching, 723
Output variables, 3, 18
Recirculating heat transfer system, 652
measured, 3
Recycle systems, 455
unmeasured, 3
dynamic effects, 459
Overshoot, 107
steady-state effects, 455
Override control, 373
Relative gain array (RGA), 392
P Relative order, 107, 227, 750
Relative volatility, 47
Packed bed reactor, 374 Relay autotuning, 354
Padé approximation, 114 Reset windup, 346
Pairing, controller, 382, 385 antireset windup (ARW), 346
Parameters, 57 external ARW, 353
estimation, 140 Residence time, 42
Perturbation variables, 81 Right-half-plane
Petroleum refining, 467 transmission zeros, 421
Pharmacokinetics, 692 zeros, 109
Phase angle, 218, 222 Rise time, 108
Phase equilibria, 47 Robustness, 216, 235
Phase margin, 232, 622 Root locus, 177
Philosophy of process engineering, 527 Roots, polynomial, 83
Physical realizability, Rotary lime kiln, 724
Plantwide control, 453 Routh array, 173
Pole-zero cancellation, 635 Routh stability criterion, 173
Poles
continuous, 111 S
discrete, 137
Safety, 4
Potential energy, 49
Sample time, 497, 755
Primary controller, 315
Saturation, 346
Process gain
Scale-up, 53, 632, 647
estimation, 129
Scaling, 424
Process model, 256
Second order process, 103
Proper transfer function, 249
step response, 104
semiproper, 249
Secondary controller, 315
strictly proper, 249
Selective control, 373
Proportional band, 173, 736
Self-regulating process, 38
Proportional control, 157
Sensitivity, 399
Proportional gain, 157
directional, 428
Proportional-integral (PI) control, 169
failure, 400
Proportional-integral-derivative (PID), 172
model error, 402
discrete, 751
Setpoint, 5
Propylene glycol reactor, 646
Shower
Pump head curve, 743
control analysis, 12
Purge stream, 474
SIMULINK
Q tutorial, 559
block diagram, 564
Quadratic formula, 83 PID controller, 564
Quadratic programming, 501 Simulation
Quadruple tank, 423 control system, 563
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Singular value decomposition (SVD), 429 Transfer functions,


distillation, 712 closed-loop, 164
Slave controller, 315 first-order, 97
Snowball effect, 455 general form, 96
Split-range control, 374 matrix, 386, 421
batch reactor, 680 second-order, 103
CSTR, 656 Transmission zeros, 421, 444
Stability, 82 Transpose, matrix, 541
discrete, 138 Tyreus-Luyben tuning, 198, 626
discrete closed-loop, 753
necessary condition, 174 U
sufficient condition, 174 Ultimate gain, 198
State space models, 64, 81 Ultimate period, 198
State variables, 18, 57 Underdamped, 81, 106
Steady-state, 58 Unit circle, 137, 750
Steam drum level, 661 Unstable processes
feedback control, 663 P, PI control, 180
feedforward control, 661 IMC-based PID, 301
three-mode control, 666
Step response V
continuous, 31 Valve characteristics, 48, 741
discrete, 144, 599 Valve gain, 48, 159
first-order process, 98 van de Vusse reaction, 606
MATLAB, 119, 599 discrete state space, 598
second-order process, 104 discrete transfer function, 596
Stirred tank frequency response, 232
heater, 50, 99 IMC, 615
jacketed, 65, 376 input multiplicity, 608
mixer, 425, 433 MPC, 501
isothermal reactor, 39 ODEs, 575
Substrate inhibition kinetics, 632 SIMULINK, 567
Supply-side control, 462 state space, 586
Surge vessel step response, 93
control objectives, 5 transfer function, 587
gas, 37 zero-pole-gain, 589
model, 18 Ziegler-Nichols, 613
nonlinear control, 669 van der Waal’s gas law, 45
step response, 102 Velocity form, discrete PID, 751
T Z
Time constant Z-transforms, 137, 752
estimation, 129, 132 Zero-order hold, 751
Time-delay, 86, 113 Zeros, 111
estimation, 132 discrete, 137
Textbooks, control, 20 right-half-plane (RHP), 112
Thermodynamics, 49 transmission, matrix, 421
Transducer Ziegler-Nichols tuning, 198
current-to-pressure (I/P), 737 closed-loop method, 198
pressure-to-current (P/I), 737 open-loop method, 201
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