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Territorial claims in Antarctica


There are seven sovereign states who have territorial claims in
Antarctica: Argentina, Australia, Chile, France, New Zealand,
Norway and the United Kingdom. These countries have tended to
place their Antarctic scientific observation and study facilities
within their respective claimed territories; however, a number of
such facilities are located outside of the area claimed by their
respective countries of operation, and countries without claims
such as Russia and the United States have constructed research
facilities within the areas claimed by other countries.

Contents
History
Spanish claims
British claims
Map of territorial claims in Antarctica, including
Other European claims Marie Byrd Land, most of which is
South American involvement unclaimed[Notes 1]
Postwar developments
Argentina
Towards an international treaty
Australia
Antarctic territorial claims
Official claims south of 60° S Chile
Overlapping claims France
Unclaimed New Zealand
Official claims of Antarctic islands north of 60° S
Norway
Possible future claims
United Kingdom
Antarctic Treaty
See also
Notes and references
Notes
References

History

Spanish claims
According to Argentina and Chile, Spain had claims on Antarctica. The capitulación (governorship) granted to the
conquistador Pedro Sánchez de la Hoz explicitly included all lands south of the Straits of Magellan (Terra Australis, and
Tierra del Fuego and by extension the entire continent of Antarctica). This grant established, according to Argentina and
Chile, that an animus occupandi existed on the part of Spain in Antarctica. Spain's sovereignty claim over parts of
Antarctica was, according to Chile and Argentina, internationally recognized with the Inter caetera bull of 1493 and the

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Treaty of Tordesillas of 1494. Argentina and Chile treat these treaties as legal international treaties mediated by the
Catholic Church that was at that time a recognized arbiter in such matters.[1] Each country currently has claimed a sector
of the Antarctic continent that is more or less directly south of its national antarctic-facing lands.

British claims
The United Kingdom reasserted sovereignty over the Falkland Islands in the far South Atlantic in 1833 and maintained a
continuous presence there. In 1908, the British government extended its territorial claim by declaring sovereignty over
"South Georgia, the South Orkneys, the South Shetlands, and the (South) Sandwich Islands, and Graham's Land, situated
in the South Atlantic Ocean and on the Antarctic continent to the south of the 50th parallel of south latitude, and lying
between the 20th and the 80th degrees of west longitude".[2] All these territories were administered as Falkland Islands
Dependencies from Stanley by the Governor of the Falkland Islands. The motivation for this declaration lay in the need to
regulate and tax the whaling industry effectively. Commercial operators would hunt whales in areas outside the official
boundaries of the Falkland Islands and its dependencies, and there was a need to close this loophole.

In 1917, the wording of the claim was modified, so as to unambiguously include all the territory in the sector stretching to
the South Pole (thus encompassing all the present British Antarctic Territory). The new claim covered "all islands and
territories whatsoever between the 20th degree of west longitude and the 50th degree of west longitude which are situated
south of the 50th parallel of south latitude; and all islands and territories whatsoever between the 50th degree of west
longitude and the 80th degree of west longitude which are situated south of the 58th parallel of south latitude".[2]

It was the ambition of Leopold Amery, then Under-Secretary of State for the Colonies, that Britain incorporate the entire
continent into the Empire. In a memorandum to the governors-general for Australia and New Zealand, he wrote that 'with
the exception of Chile and Argentina and some barren islands belonging to France... it is desirable that the whole of the
Antarctic should ultimately be included in the British Empire.' The first step was taken on 30 July 1923, when the British
government passed an Order in Council under the British Settlements Act 1887, defining the new borders for the Ross
Dependency—"that part of His Majesty's Dominions in the Antarctic Seas, which comprises all the islands and territories
between the 160th degree of East Longitude and the 150th degree of West Longitude which are situated south of the 60th
degree of South Latitude shall be named the Ross Dependency." The Order in Council then went on to appoint the
Governor-General and Commander-in Chief of New Zealand as the Governor of the territory.[3]

In 1930, the United Kingdom claimed Enderby Land. In 1933, a British imperial order transferred territory south of 60° S
and between meridians 160° E and 45° E to Australia as the Australian Antarctic Territory.[4][5]

Following the passing of the Statute of Westminster in 1931, the government of the United Kingdom relinquished all
control over the government of New Zealand and Australia. This however had no bearing on the obligations of the
governors-general of both countries in their capacity as Governors of the Antarctic territories.

Other European claims


The basis for the claim to Adélie Land by France depended on the discovery of the coastline in 1840 by the French explorer
Jules Dumont d'Urville, who named it after his wife, Adèle.[6] He erected the French flag and took possession of the land
for France, on January 21, 1840 at 5:30 PM.[7]

The British eventually decided to recognize this claim, and the border between Adélie Land and the Australian Antarctic
Territory was fixed definitively in 1938.[8]

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These developments also concerned Norwegian whaling interests, which


wished to avoid British taxation of whaling stations in the Antarctic and felt
concern that they would be commercially excluded from the continent. The
whale-ship owner Lars Christensen financed several expeditions to the
Antarctic with the view to claiming land for Norway and to establishing
stations on Norwegian territory to gain better privileges.[9] The first
expedition, led by Nils Larsen and Ola Olstad, landed on Peter I Island in 1929
and claimed the island for Norway. On 6 March 1931 a Norwegian royal
proclamation declared the island under Norwegian sovereignty[9] and on 23
Discovery and claim of French
March 1933 the island was declared a dependency.[10][Notes 2] sovereignty on Adélie Land by Jules
Dumont d'Urville, in 1840.
The 1929 expedition led by Hjalmar Riiser-Larsen and Finn Lützow-Holm
named the continental landmass near the island as Queen Maud Land after the
Norwegian queen Maud of Wales.[11] The territory was explored further during the Norvegia expedition of 1930–31.[12]
Negotiations with the British government in 1938 resulted in setting the western border of Queen Maud Land at 20°W.[12]

The United States, Chile, the Soviet Union and Germany disputed Norway's
claim.[13][14] In 1938 Germany dispatched the German Antarctic Expedition,
led by Alfred Ritscher, to fly over as much of it as possible.[12] The ship
Schwabenland reached the pack ice off Antarctica on 19 January 1939.[15]
During the expedition, Ritscher photographed an area of about 350,000
square kilometres (140,000 sq mi) from the air[16] and dropped darts inscribed
with swastikas every 26 kilometres (16 mi). However, despite intensively
surveying the land, Germany never made any formal claim or constructed any
Norwegian expedition landing on
Peter I Island island in 1929. lasting bases.[17]

On 14 January 1939, five days before the German arrival, Norway annexed
Queen Maud Land[11] after a royal decree announced that the land bordering the Falkland Islands Dependencies in the
west and the Australian Antarctic Dependency in the east was to be brought under Norwegian sovereignty.[12] The primary
aim of the annexation was to secure the Norwegian whaling industry's access to the region.[11][18] In 1948 Norway and the
United Kingdom agreed to limit Queen Maud Land to from 20°W to 45°E, and to incorporate the Bruce Coast and Coats
Land into Norwegian territory.[12]

South American involvement


Upon independence in the early 19th century South American nations based their boundaries upon the uti possidetis iuris
principle. This meant there was no land without a sovereign. Chile and Argentina applied this to Antarctica citing the Inter
caetera bull of 1493 and the Treaty of Tordesillas of 1494. Argentina and Chile treat these treaties as legal international
treaties mediated by the Catholic Church that was in that time a recognized arbiter in these matters.[1]

This encroachment of foreign powers was a matter of immense disquiet to the nearby South American countries,
Argentina and Chile. Taking advantage of a European continent plunged into turmoil with the onset of the Second World
War, Chile's president, Pedro Aguirre Cerda, declared the establishment of a Chilean Antarctic Territory in areas already
claimed by Britain.

Argentina has a long history in the area.[19] In 1904 the Argentine government began a permanent occupation of one of
the Antarctic islands with the purchase of a meteorological station on Laurie Island established in 1903 by Dr William S.
Bruce's Scottish National Antarctic Expedition. Bruce offered to transfer the station and instruments for the sum of 5.000

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pesos, on the condition that the government committed itself to the


continuation of the scientific mission.[20] British officer William Haggard also
sent a note to the Argentine Foreign Minister, José Terry, ratifying the terms of
Bruce proposition.[20]

In 1906, Argentina communicated to the international community the


establishment of a permanent base in the South Orkney Islands, the Orcadas
Base. However, Haggard responded by reminding Argentina that the South
Orkneys were British. The British position was that Argentine personnel was
granted permission only for the period of one year. The Argentine government
entered into negotiations with the British in 1913 over the possible transfer of Omond House was built in 1904 by
the island. Although these talks were unsuccessful, Argentina attempted to the Scottish National Antarctic
Expedition as the first permanent
unilaterally establish their sovereignty with the erection of markers, national
base in Antarctica. It was later sold
flags and other symbols.[21] Finally, with British attention elsewhere, Argentina
to Argentina.
declared the establishment of Argentine Antarctica in 1943, claiming territory
in the continent itself, and not just islands, and it overlapped with British (
20°W to 80°W) and the earlier Chilean (53°W to 90°W) claims.

In response to this and earlier German explorations, the British Admiralty and Colonial Office launched Operation
Tabarin in 1943 to reassert British territorial claims against Argentinian and Chilean incursion and establish a permanent
British presence in the Antarctic.[22] The move was also motivated by concerns within the Foreign Office about the
direction of United States post-war activity in the region.

A suitable cover story was the need to deny use of the area to the enemy. The Kriegsmarine was known to use remote
islands as rendezvous points and as shelters for commerce raiders, U-boats and supply ships. Also, in 1941, there existed a
fear that Japan might attempt to seize the Falkland Islands, either as a base or to hand them over to Argentina, thus
gaining political advantage for the Axis and denying their use to Britain.

In 1943, British personnel from HMS Carnarvon Castle[23] removed Argentine flags from Deception Island. The
expedition was led by Lieutenant James Marr and left the Falkland Islands in two ships, HMS William Scoresby (a
minesweeping trawler) and Fitzroy, on Saturday January 29, 1944.

Bases were established during February near the abandoned Norwegian whaling station on Deception Island, where the
Union Flag was hoisted in place of Argentine flags, and at Port Lockroy (on February 11) on the coast of Graham Land. A
further base was founded at Hope Bay on February 13, 1945, after a failed attempt to unload stores on February 7, 1944.
Symbols of British sovereignty, including post offices, signposts and plaques were also constructed and postage stamps
were issued.

Operation Tabarin provoked Chile to organise its First Chilean Antarctic Expedition in 1947–48, where the Chilean
president Gabriel González Videla personally inaugurated one of its bases.[24]

Following the end of the war in 1945, the British bases were handed over to civilian members of the newly created
Falkland Islands Dependencies Survey (subsequently the British Antarctic Survey), the first such national scientific body
to be established in Antarctica.

Postwar developments

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Friction between Britain and Argentina continued into the postwar period.
Royal Navy warships were dispatched in 1948 to prevent naval incursions. The
only instance of shots fired in anger on Antarctica occurred in 1952 at Hope
Bay, when staff at British Base "D" (established 1945) came up against the
Argentine team at Esperanza Base (est. 1952), who fired a machine gun over
the heads of a British Antarctic Survey team unloading supplies from the John
Biscoe. The Argentines later extended a diplomatic apology, saying that there
had been a misunderstanding and that the Argentine military commander on
the ground had exceeded his authority.
Hut built at Hope Bay in 1903. It was
there that the only instance of shots
The United States became politically interested in the Antarctic continent
fired in anger on the Continent
before and during WWII. The United States Antarctic Service Expedition, from
occurred in 1952.
1939–1941, was sponsored by the government with additional support from
donations and gifts by private citizens, corporations and institutions. The
objective of the Expedition, outlined by President Franklin D. Roosevelt, was to establish two bases: East Base, in the
vicinity of Charcot Island, and West Base, in the vicinity of King Edward VII Land. After operating successfully for two
years but with international tensions on the rise, it was considered wise to evacuate the two bases.[25] However,
immediately after the war, American interest was rekindled with an explicitly geopolitical motive. Operation Highjump,
from 1946-1947 was organised by Rear Admiral Richard E. Byrd Jr. and included 4,700 men, 13 ships, and multiple
aircraft. The primary mission of Operation Highjump was to establish the Antarctic research base Little America IV,[26]
for the purpose of training personnel and testing equipment in frigid conditions and amplifying existing stores of
knowledge of hydrographic, geographic, geological, meteorological and electromagnetic propagation conditions in the
area. The mission was also aimed at consolidating and extending United States sovereignty over the largest practicable
area of the Antarctic continent, although this was publicly denied as a goal even before the expedition ended.

Towards an international treaty


Meanwhile, in an attempt at ending the impasse, Britain submitted an application to
the International Court of Justice in 1955 to adjudicate between the territorial claims
of Britain, Argentina, and Chile. This proposal failed, as both Latin American
countries rejected submitting to an international arbitration procedure.[27]

Negotiations towards the establishment of an international condominium over the


continent first began in 1948, involving the 8 claimant countries: Britain, Australia,
New Zealand, U.S.A., France, Norway, Chile and Argentina. This attempt was aimed
at excluding the Soviet Union from the affairs of the continent and rapidly fell apart
when the USSR declared an interest in the region, refused to recognize any claims of The International
sovereignty and reserved the right to make its own claims in 1950.[27] Geophysical Year was pivotal
in establishing a cooperative
An important impetus toward the formation of the Antarctic Treaty System in 1959 international framework in
was the International Geophysical Year (IGY), 1957–1958. This year of international Antarctica, and led on to the
scientific cooperation triggered an 18-month period of intense Antarctic science. Antarctic Treaty System in
More than 70 existing national scientific organisations then formed IGY committees, 1959.
and participated in the cooperative effort. The British established Halley Research
Station in 1956 by an expedition from the Royal Society. Sir Vivian Fuchs headed the

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Commonwealth Trans-Antarctic Expedition, which completed the first overland crossing of Antarctica in 1958. In Japan,
the Japan Maritime Safety Agency offered ice breaker Sōya as the South Pole observation ship and Showa Station was
built as the first Japanese observation base on Antarctica.

France contributed with Dumont d'Urville Station and Charcot Station in Adélie Land. The ship Commandant Charcot of
the French Navy spent nine months of 1949/50 at the coast of Adélie Land, performing ionospheric soundings.[28] The US
erected the Amundsen–Scott South Pole Station as the first permanent structure directly over the South Pole in January
1957.[29]

Finally, to prevent the possibility of military conflict in the region, the United States, United Kingdom, the Soviet Union,
and 9 other countries with significant interests negotiated and signed the Antarctic Treaty in 1959. The treaty entered into
force in 1961 and sets aside Antarctica as a scientific preserve, established freedom of scientific investigation, and banned
military activity on that continent. The treaty was the first arms control agreement established during the Cold War.[30]

Antarctic territorial claims


Seven sovereign states had made eight territorial claims to land in Antarctica
south of the 60° S parallel before 1961. None of these claims have an
indigenous population.

All claim areas are sectors with the exception of Peter I Island. The South
Orkney Islands fall within the territory claimed by Argentina and the United
Kingdom, and the South Shetland Islands fall within the areas claimed by
Territorial claims in Antarctica
Argentina, Chile, and the United Kingdom.

These claims have been recognized only between (some of) the seven claiming
states. The UK, France, Australia, New Zealand and Norway all recognize each other's claims[31] (none of their claims
overlap with each other).

Prior to 1962, the British Antarctic Territory was a dependency of the Falkland Islands and also included South Georgia
and the South Sandwich Islands. The Antarctic areas became a separate overseas territory following the ratification of the
Antarctic Treaty. South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands remained a dependency of the Falkland Islands until
1985 when they too became a separate overseas territory.

Official claims south of 60° S

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Territory Claimant Date Claim limits Area (km2)


25°W (https://tools.
wmflabs.org/geoha
ck/geohack.php?pa
gename=Territorial
_claims_in_Antarcti
Argentine Antarctica ca&params=60_0_
(Department of Tierra del Fuego,
Argentina S_25_0_W_)–
1942 1,461,597
Antarctica, and South Atlantic Islands 74°W (https://tools.
Province) wmflabs.org/geoha
ck/geohack.php?pa
gename=Territorial
_claims_in_Antarcti
ca&params=60_0_
S_74_0_W_)
160°E (https://tool
s.wmflabs.org/geoh
ack/geohack.php?p
agename=Territoria
l_claims_in_Antarct
ica&params=60_0_
S_160_0_E_)–
142°2′E (https://too
ls.wmflabs.org/geo
hack/geohack.php?
pagename=Territori
al_claims_in_Antar
ctica&params=60_
Australian Antarctic Territory
0_S_142_2_E_)
(External dependent territory of Australia 1933 5,896,500
136°11′E (https://to
Australia)
ols.wmflabs.org/ge
ohack/geohack.ph
p?pagename=Territ
orial_claims_in_Ant
arctica&params=60
_0_S_136_11_E_)–
44°38′E (https://too
ls.wmflabs.org/geo
hack/geohack.php?
pagename=Territori
al_claims_in_Antar
ctica&params=60_
0_S_44_38_E_)
53°W (https://tools.
wmflabs.org/geoha
ck/geohack.php?pa
gename=Territorial
_claims_in_Antarcti
ca&params=60_0_
Chilean Antarctic Territory
Chile S_53_0_W_)–
(Commune of Antártica Chilena 1940 1,250,257.6
90°W (https://tools.
Province)
wmflabs.org/geoha
ck/geohack.php?pa
gename=Territorial
_claims_in_Antarcti
ca&params=60_0_
S_90_0_W_)
Adélie Land France 1840 142°2′E (https://too 432,000
(District of the French Southern and ls.wmflabs.org/geo
Antarctic Lands) hack/geohack.php?
pagename=Territori

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al_claims_in_Antar
ctica&params=60_
0_S_142_2_E_)–
136°11′E (https://to
ols.wmflabs.org/ge
ohack/geohack.ph
p?pagename=Territ
orial_claims_in_Ant
arctica&params=60
_0_S_136_11_E_)
150°W (https://tool
s.wmflabs.org/geoh
ack/geohack.php?p
agename=Territoria
l_claims_in_Antarct
ica&params=60_0_
Ross Dependency New S_150_0_W_)–
1923 450,000
(Dependency of New Zealand) Zealand 160°E (https://tool
s.wmflabs.org/geoh
ack/geohack.php?p
agename=Territoria
l_claims_in_Antarct
ica&params=60_0_
S_160_0_E_)

Peter I Island Norway 1929 68°50′S 90°35′W 154


(Dependency of Norway)

44°38′E (https://too
ls.wmflabs.org/geo
hack/geohack.php?
pagename=Territori
al_claims_in_Antar
ctica&params=60_
Queen Maud Land Norway 0_S_44_38_E_)–
1939 2,700,000
(Dependency of Norway) 20°W (https://tools.
wmflabs.org/geoha
ck/geohack.php?pa
gename=Territorial
_claims_in_Antarcti
ca&params=60_0_
S_20_0_W_)
20°W (https://tools.
wmflabs.org/geoha
ck/geohack.php?pa
gename=Territorial
_claims_in_Antarcti
ca&params=60_0_
British Antarctic Territory
United S_20_0_W_)–
(Overseas territory of the United 1908 1,709,400
Kingdom 80°W (https://tools.
Kingdom)
wmflabs.org/geoha
ck/geohack.php?pa
gename=Territorial
_claims_in_Antarcti
ca&params=60_0_
S_80_0_W_)
Total 13,899,908.6

Overlapping claims Unclaimed

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Claimants
Extent of Region Unclaimed limits Area (km2)
overlap
90°W (https://tools.w
25°W (htt mflabs.org/geohack/g
ps://tools. eohack.php?pagena
wmflabs. me=Territorial_claims
org/geoh _in_Antarctica&para
ack/geoh ms=60_0_S_90_0_W
ack.php? Marie Byrd Land _)–150°W (https://tool 1,610,000
pagenam s.wmflabs.org/geohac
e=Territor k/geohack.php?page
ial_claims name=Territorial_clai
_in_Antar ms_in_Antarctica&pa
ctica&par rams=60_0_S_150_0
ams=60_ _W_)
0_S_25_
Argentina, 0_W_)–
United 53°W (htt
Kingdom ps://tools.
wmflabs.
org/geoh
ack/geoh
ack.php?
pagenam
e=Territor
ial_claims
_in_Antar
ctica&par
ams=60_
0_S_53_
0_W_)
53°W (htt
ps://tools.
wmflabs.
org/geoh
ack/geoh
ack.php?
pagenam
e=Territor
ial_claims
_in_Antar
ctica&par
ams=60_
0_S_53_
Argentina,
0_W_)–
Chile,
74°W (htt
United ps://tools.
Kingdom wmflabs.
org/geoh
ack/geoh
ack.php?
pagenam
e=Territor
ial_claims
_in_Antar
ctica&par
ams=60_
0_S_74_
0_W_)
Chile, 74°W (htt
United ps://tools.
Kingdom wmflabs.
org/geoh

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ack/geoh
ack.php?
pagenam
e=Territor
ial_claims
_in_Antar
ctica&par
ams=60_
0_S_74_
0_W_)–
80°W (htt
ps://tools.
wmflabs.
org/geoh
ack/geoh
ack.php?
pagenam
e=Territor
ial_claims
_in_Antar
ctica&par
ams=60_
0_S_80_
0_W_)

Official claims of Antarctic islands north of 60° S


Four island territories on the Antarctic Plate located north of the 60° South circle of latitude are associated with the
continent of Antarctica. They are not subject to the Antarctic Treaty System. None of these territories has an indigenous
population.

Bouvet Island (Dependency of Norway)


Districts of the French Southern and Antarctic Lands excluding Adélie Land[Notes 3]
Heard Island and McDonald Islands (External dependent territory of Australia)
Prince Edward Islands (South African territory)

Another territory, partly located on the Sandwich Plate and partly on the Scotia Plate,[Notes 4] is sometimes associated with
the continent of Antarctica (since both of those are minor tectonic plates that border the major Antarctic Plate).

South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands (Overseas territory of the United Kingdom)

Possible future claims


There has been speculation about possible future claims. The United States and Russia (as successor state of the Soviet
Union) maintain they have reserved the right to make claims. There has also been speculation on Brazil making a claim
bounded by 53° W and 28° W,[32] overlapping thus with the Argentine and British claims but not with the Chilean. Peru
made a reservation of its territory rights under the principle of Antarctic defrontation and due to influence on its climate,
ecology and marine biology, adducing, in addition, geological continuity and historical links.[33]

Uruguayan adhesion to Antarctic Treaty System includes a declaration in that it reserves its rights in Antarctica in
accordance with international law.[34]

In 1967 Ecuador declared its right over an area bounded by 84°30' W and 95°30' W. The claim was ratified in 1987.[35]

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Antarctic Treaty
The Antarctic Treaty and related agreements regulate international relations with respect to Antarctica, Earth's only
continent without a native human population. The Treaty has now been signed by 48 countries, including the United
Kingdom, the United States, and the now-defunct Soviet Union. The Treaty set aside Antarctica as a scientific preserve,
established freedom of scientific investigation and banned military activity on that continent. This was the first arms
control agreement established during the Cold War.

The Antarctic Treaty states that contracting to the treaty:

is not a renunciation of any previous territorial claim


does not affect the basis of claims made as a result of activities of the signatory nation within Antarctica
does not affect the rights of a State under customary international law to recognise (or refuse to recognise) any other
territorial claim
What the treaty does affect is new claims:

No activities occurring after 1961 can be the basis of a territorial claim.


No new claim can be made.
No claim can be enlarged.
The Soviet Union and the United States both filed reservations against the restriction on new claims,[36] and the United
States and Russia assert their right to make claims in the future if they so choose. Brazil maintains the Comandante Ferraz
(the Brazilian Antarctic Base) and has proposed a theory to delimiting territories using meridians, which would give it and
other countries a claim.

In general, territorial claims below the 60° S parallel have only been recognised among those countries making claims in
the area. However, although claims are often indicated on maps of Antarctica, this does not signify de jure recognition. All
claim areas except Peter I Island are sectors, the borders of which are defined by degrees of longitude. In terms of latitude,
the northern border of all sectors is the 60° S parallel (which does not cut through any piece of land, continent or island)
and is also the northern limit of the Antarctic Treaty. The southern borders of all sectors are one single point, the South
Pole. Previously, the Norwegian sector was an exception: the original claim of 1930 did not specify a northern or a
southern limit, so that its territory was only defined by eastern and western limits.[Notes 5] However, in 2015 Norway
formally annexed the areas south to the pole.[37]

See also
Territorial claims in the Arctic

Notes and references

Notes
1.
The claims of Chile, Argentina and the United Kingdom partially overlap (as can be seen from the mixed colours
above).
Norway claims two territories: Peter I Island (small circle in the top of the unclaimed territory) and Queen Maud
Land.
Brazilian Antarctica (Brazil's unofficial claim) and New Swabia (Nazi Germany's historical claim) are both marked
out in the code of the image but have not been coloured in. (Note: New Swabia is lacking northerly and southerly

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borders on the map.)


2. At the time of the claim, Norway did not validate the sector method of demarcating polar territory. This was in line with
Norwegian claims in the Arctic and hence to avoid compromising Norway's position with regard to the former Soviet
Union (present-day Russia). In the 2015 Meld. St. No. 32 (2014-2015) 'Norske interesser og politikk i Antarktis' (White
Paper No. 32 on Norwegian Interests and Policy in the Antarctica) (https://www.regjeringen.no/no/dokumenter/meld.-s
t.-32-20142015/id2415997/), the Foreign Ministry confirmed that while Norway rejected the sector method of
delimiting claims it was not intended create a difference in interpretation of the Norwegian claim in Antarctica. White
Paper No. 19 (1939) had stated that the purpose of the annexation was to annex 'land which is currently terra nullius
and that only Norwegians have researched and mapped'.
3. Includes the Scattered Islands in the Indian Ocean, which is associated with Africa.
4. However, experts in plate tectonics have been unable to determine whether the South Georgian Islands are (still) part
of the Scotia Plate or have recently been accreted to the South American Plate.
5. However, the Norwegian government had stated in 2003 that the northern extent of the Norwegian territory conforms
to general practice by extending 12 nautical miles (22 km) from the shore.

References
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Le 21 janvier 1840 il y plante le drapeau français et donne à ce lieu le nom de Terre Adélie en pensant à sa femme
Adèle qu’il n’avait pas vue depuis son départ de Toulon deux ans et demi plus tôt.
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st.-32-20142015/id2415997/). Regjeringa.no.

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(http://www.antarctica.ac.uk/about_bas/our_history/stations_and_refuges/index.php). www.antarctica.ac.uk.
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32. The international politics of Antarctica. Page 119 and 124.
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ADDRESSES AND REPORTS FROM ATCM XXXI" (http://www.ats.aq/documents/ATCM31/fr/ATCM31_fr003_e.pdf#
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37. Rapp, Ole Magnus (21 September 2015). "Norge utvider Dronning Maud Land helt frem til Sydpolen" (http://www.afte
nposten.no/nyheter/iriks/Norge-utvider-Dronning-Maud-Land-helt-frem-til-Sydpolen-8168779.html). Aftenposten (in
Norwegian). Oslo, Norway: Aftenposten. Retrieved 22 September 2015. "…formålet med anneksjonen var å legge
under seg det landet som til nå ligger herreløst og som ingen andre enn nordmenn har kartlagt og gransket. Norske
myndigheter har derfor ikke motsatt seg at noen tolker det norske kravet slik at det går helt opp til og inkluderer
polpunktet."

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