Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 21

Republic of the Philippines

MARIKINA POLYTECHNIC COLLEGE


#2 Mayor Juan Chanyungco St. Sta.Elena Marikina City
GRADUATE SCHOOL

CURRENT TRENDS
AND TECHNIQUES
OF TEACHING
DR. VIRGINIA BACAY

EVALUATING FOR
EFFECTIVENESS
GROUP 9 REPORTS
Members:

Mary Jane R. Garcia


Maria Victoria T. Manalo
Kenneth M. Villanueva
Jenifer R. Fronda
Genalyn A. Antonio
Marissa B. Casilao

First Semester ● SY 2019-2020


EVALUATING FOR EFFECTIVENESS

Evaluation is the basic means by which planned improvement occurs. It is

the force that causes constructive changes in schools.

Why evaluate?

Supervisors are regularly involved in the evaluation through assessment

of programs, processes and people.

Supervisors are people who work with teachers and others to improve

constantly the students’ learning experience.

Organizing for Evaluation

Supervisors are generally involved in evaluation activities in four primary

areas:

1. Program

2. Processes

3. Products

4. Personnel

Purpose:

1. to make the rationale of the instructional program as a basis for

deciding which aspect of the program should be evaluated.

2. to collect data upon which judgement about effectiveness can be

formulated.

3. To analyze data draw conclusion

4. To make decision based on such data

5. To implement the decisions to improve the instructional program

General evaluation function by Daniel Stufflebeam:

A. Focusing the evaluation

Decision making to be served local state or for national variables

for measurement and standard to use in judgement


B. Collection of information

Source of information, instrument and methods and sampling

procedure

C. Organization of information

Format, coding, organizing storing and retrieving

D. Analysis of information

Analytical procedure and means in performing analysis

E. Reporting of information

Audience, means of providing the information

RESEARCH ON TEACHING VARIABLES

Researchers Rosenshine and Furst (1971) proposed 11 teaching

variables or proposed principles:

 Clarity

 Variability

 Enthusiasm

 Task-oriented

 Student Learning and Performance

 Use of General Student Ideas

 Criticism= Teacher Criticism vs. Student Achievement

 Structuring= ‘Cognitive Scaffolding’

 Question Types Asked

 Probing

 Level of Difficulty in Instruction

Two Studies Using the Variables of Teaching

 Teacher Effectiveness Study: Process-product design

 Teacher Evaluation Study: Classified teachers’ effectiveness


Gage’s Suggestions on Teacher’s Effectiveness

TEACHERS

Rules on attending to Pupils needs

 Monitor and move around the classroom “working without teacher’s

directions”

 Daily schedules and minimum oral activities for group instructions

or “drill”

Characteristics of Teachers

Teachers should Positively criticize academically oriented pupils and

optimize ‘academic learning time. Their behaviors consist of being clear,

enthusiastic and vivid intertwined with pupil’s achievement.

Six Categories of Effective Schools

 School Climate

Professionalism/Academic Excellence

 Curriculum

Planning and monitoring of Grade Level Expectations

 Instruction

Efficient classroom management/Teaching Techniques,

Learning Approach / Maximizing ‘Time-on-task’


 Coordination of Supportive Services

Instructional approach/Curriculum Content by maximizing

use of time

 Evaluation

Routine or Frequent assessment of students’ progress/ Test-

taking preparation and skills

 Parent and Community Support

Regular dialogue with parents on home works, regular

school attendance, school expectations on standard behavior and

increase awareness on community service for extended student

learning experience.

Effectiveness on teacher research need to call for matching of

teachers and students according to their specific thinking style and

personality. It will take a long way for classroom teachers and supervisors

meet half way almost all of the time.

Teaching as a science is to research to inform your practice, it is an

art, to find methods/strategies that work for you and craft or a skill that is

learned through experience.

THE USE OF RESEARCH AND EVALUATION BY SUPERVISORS

Supervisors need to fully understand the role of evaluation in improving

instruction as well as the skills that make evaluation work.

Supervisors need to fully understand the role of evaluation in improving

instruction as well as the skills that make evaluation work.

Supervisors need to tie the efforts of research and evaluation directly to

activities that improve instruction at the classroom level.

Supervisors should also understand the basic precept that good decisions

are based on good information. To obtain good information, the supervisor must
do assessments, conduct testing, and establish a research program that answers

basic questions about improving instruction.

All aspects of instructional program are reviewed and contrasted with

opinions of those supporting the program to find where consensus and

discrepancies are located.

TESTING

It is an area that dominates the time of many school-based supervisors,

but many never see testing in its proper perspective.

Its primary purpose is to receive feedback on the effectiveness of the

instructional program.

The results of the total testing pattern provide much better clues about

what is happening in the classroom than the scores of the individual students.

SOURCES OF DATA

A. Pupil Performance

1. Standardized tests – teacher made tests

2. Pupil grades

3. Dropout data

4. Pupil attendance

B. Questionnaires

1. Polls of parents regarding the success of certain school programs

2. Group interviews with students, parents, teachers about the success

of curriculum innovations

3. Attitude surveys of students about certain programs

4. Comparison of attitudes of students and teachers toward contrasting

programs

5. Systematic questionnaires, rating sheets, and interviews with small

random samples of students.


C. Follow-up studies of learners

1. Success at the next grade level

2. Continuation of schooling

3. College success

4. Success at work

5. Application of skills learned, interests generated in school (participation

in sports, the arts, …)

D. Examination of learning materials

1. Examining learning materials to see if they are feasible and practical

for use by teachers in the schools - accuracy and soundness of

materials

2. Determining if costs of materials are too great

3. Checking materials to see if they are at the right level for students

4. Determining whether teachers get special retraining in order to

understand and use new materials

5. Matching materials to student’s interests, needs, and aspirations

- relevancy of materials

Needs Assessment Plan

Sample findings school-based Periodic Exam


Sample findings on NAT Exam

Each of these three examples indicates the level at which the supervisor

should review testing programs.

To view testing as the measure of one teacher’s worth, as is done in some

school, is to ignore the 95 percent of the variables influencing such a score.

TESTING

Norm-referenced Tests

-examinee’s performance against normative group

Achievement Tests

-student has acquired knowledge or skills intended

Criterion-referenced Tests

-the status of the examinee with respect to a well-defined class of

behaviors

Supervisors should be aware that each of these types of tests intends to

test something different, and that the various types are appropriate according to

the kind of curriculum that is in place.

Supervisors should be aware that in many schools, the pressure of school

boards or parents to show score performance on the achievement tests has

distorted the curriculum.


Standardized testing implies that people can and should be compared with

one another.

In the use of both research and evaluation, a special language exists

among specialists. Some of them are:

 Content Validity – the degree to which a measuring device is judged to be

appropriate for its purpose, for example, the degree to which it is congruent

with a set of instructional objectives.

 Correlation – The tendency for corresponding observations in two or more

series to have similar positions.

 Criterion-Referenced Measurement – designed to assess an individual’s

status with respect to a particular criterion or standard of performance,

irrespective of the relationship of his performance to that of others.

 Criterion Validity – the degree to which a particular measure, such as test of

intellectual ability, correlates with an external criterion such as subsequent

scholastic performance in college.

 Distractors – These are the alternatives or wrong answers in a multiple-

choice or comparable test item.

 Formative Evaluation – the evaluation of an instructional program before it is

finally completed – that is, the attempt to evaluate a program to improve it.

 Item Analysis – any one of the several methods used in revising a test to

determine how well a given item discriminates among individuals, or

different degrees of ability or among individuals differing in some other

characteristic.

 Item Sampling – the procedure administering different forms of a test to

different individuals, thereby reducing the time required for testing.

 Norm-Reference measurement – measurement designed to assess an

individual’s standing with respect to other individuals on the same

measuring device.
 Percentile – The point in distribution of scores below which a certain

proportion of the scores fall. For example, a student scoring at the

seventieth percentile on a test would have exceeded the scores of 70

percent of those taking the test.

 Reliability – the accuracy with which a measuring device measures

something; the degree to which a test measures consistently whatever it

measures.

 Standardized Test – A test for which content has been selected and

checked empirically, for which norms have been established, for which

uniform methods of administering and scoring have been developed, and

which may be scored with a relatively high degree of objectivity.

 Summative Evaluation – the final evaluation of a program in which the

results of the program are characteristically compared with results of

comparable programs in order for selection to be made among competing

instructional programs.

 Validity – the extent to which a test or other measuring instrument fulfills the

purpose for which it is used.

EVALUATION IN THE CLASSROOM

THREE (3) MAJOR IDEAS THAT GOVERN THE EVALUATION OF TEACHERS

IN THE CLASSROOM

1. The teacher needs to see himself or herself as a part of the curriculum,

not apart from it.

2. The teacher needs to understand the intent of the planned program as

well as its structure.

3. The teacher must clearly perceive evaluation and staff development as

part of a program improvement effort.


 Instruction is the implementation of the curriculum, and the teacher is the

instrument by which the curriculum is delivered.

EIGHT (8) CATEGORIES THAT COULD BE USED BY THE SUPERVISOR TO

CONSTRUCT SCHOOL BASED TEACHER EVALUATION

I. DEPENDABILITY

1. Punctual

2. Reliable

3. Fulfils duties

 A dependable employee not only shows up for work on time every day but

also produces consistent work and can apply company policies and

business strategies evenly to each task and assignment.

II. HUMAN RELATIONS SKILLS

1. Helps development of positive self-images

 Praises. Listens, making students feel important. Relates to students

on an individual basis. Provides opportunities for successful

experiences.

2. Works effectively with different social/ ethnic groups.

 Relates well to students, parents, and staff from different ethnic and

socioeconomic backgrounds.

3. Demonstrates skills in various kinds of communications.

 Adjust voice and tone to situations; large group, small group, and

individuals.

 Listens accurately to pupils and staff. Recognizes nonverbal

statements and adjusts language and content to students’ age level.

4. Help students become independent learners.

 Facilitates individual exploration. Provides opportunities for diversity.

5. Facilitates students’ social interactions and activities.


 Helps in special activity: field trip, play games, and PTA.

6. Works effectively as a team member.

 Get along with staff. Assumes responsibility for tasks as a team

member.

 Human Relations Skills with Students include: infuse qualities of good

character into teaching, modeling courtesy and good manners, giving

regular attention, showing continual willingness to help, and use verbal and

behavioral reinforces.

III. MANAGING THE CLASSROOM

1. Maintains a safe environment.

 Follows safety regulations.

2. Maintains physical environment conducive to learning.

 Arranges room with books, materials, and learning stations that

produce a stimulating academic environment. Decorates room

reflecting students’ ages and interests. Maintains room lightning and

temperature as comfortable as possible.

3. Maintains socioemotional environment conducive to learning.

 Respects rights of individuals. Enthusiastic about class work. Sense of

humor.

 Provides opportunities for students to share experiences and feelings.

 Provides opportunities for cooperation.

4. Involves students in the management of the classroom.

 Involves students in decision making concerning the identification,

implementation, and enforcement of classroom regulations.

5. Manages disruptive behavior appropriately.

 Implements rules and procedures consistently.


 Attends disruptive behavior individually and privately. Maintains

control.

6. Designs procedures for handling routines in the class.

 Gets started within 5 minutes of signal and finished on time.

 Establishes procedures for hall passes, lunch count, storage of

materials.

 Teaching is a very important job and classroom management is a very

important aspect of teaching. Once you get your classroom management

strategies together you will find that teaching is a pleasure and your

students will excel at learning. You will enjoy teaching more as well as

have a more productive teaching career.

IV. PLANNING INSTRUCTION

1. Select appropriate learning goals and objectives.

 Develops unit and daily lesson plans that include appropriate learning

objectives.

2. Demonstrates skills in organizing learners for instruction.

 Organize different size groups of students for various instructional

purpose.

3. Select appropriate teaching strategies.

 Lecture discussion, lecture demonstration, lecture, inductive,

individualization, group investigation, open classroom, simulations,

programmed instruction, etc.

4. Skillful in selecting and preparing resource materials.

 Selects and prepares resource materials for lessons. Utilizes a variety

of printed and electronic media.

5. Involves students in design of the instructional plan.


 Seeks students’ suggestions in the designing of the instructional plan.

Provides opportunities for the student choices.

6. Demonstrates skill in evaluating the instructional plan.

 Provides a rationale for instructional plans. Establishes criteria for

attainment objectives. Evaluates effects of the instructional plan.

 Effective teachers carefully plan their instruction. They decide what to

teach and how to teach it. They also communicate their expectations to

their students.

V. IMPLEMENTING INSTRUCTION
1. Relates instruction to the world of the learners.
 Teaches at students’ level in terms of language, examples, and
activities.
 Deals with content in a problem – solving context.
 Provisions are made to learn by “doing” rather than listening only.
2. Skillful in use of various teaching strategies.
 Lecture discussion, lecture demonstration, lecture, inductive,
individualization, group investigation, open classroom, simulations
3. Applies group dynamics techniques.
 Uses different group management and leadership styles when working
with large groups, middle size groups and small groups of students.
4. Skillful in the individualization of instruction.
 Diagnoses individual levels of proficiency, prescribes appropriate
activities, select appropriate materials, manages learning procedures.
5. Skillful in the use of A- V equipment and computers.
 Operates overhead projector, opaque projector, recorder, movie
6. Skillful in the use of multimedia resources.
 Incorporates oriented and electronic media into learning activities.
7. Demonstrates skills in questioning and responding.
 Asks questions at various level of cognitive taxonomy. Elicits student
participation through questions. Challenges and probes through
questions.
8. Demonstrates skills in value-clarification techniques.
 Raises questions in the mind of the students to prod them gently to
examine personal actions, values, and goals.
9. Evaluates and modifies his/her own performance.
 Identifies areas of strength and weakness and formulates plan for
improvement specifying criteria for accomplishments. Implements plan
and evaluates and report results.

 Implementing instruction focuses on these factors: Instructional strategies


that work. Communication of content and skills knowledge. Instructional
complexity. Questioning strategies. Student engagement.
VI. KNOWLEDGE OF SUBJECT MATTER

1. Demonstrates adequate general academic preparation.

 Make accurate statements and allusions to related fields of knowledge

outside areas of specialization. Exhibits broad academic preparations.

2. Demonstrates knowledge of areas of specialization.

 Well informed, and skillful in field(s) of specialization.

 Teacher must have full knowledge about her teaching subject otherwise

he cannot solve the problems of students. If he has some doubt he must

concern library and other teachers especially who is the master of the

subject.

VII. ASSESSING AND EVALUATING STUDENTS

1. Recognizes individual personalities/learning styles.

 Designs and implements curriculum plans that provide for alternative

learning styles and different cognitive and affective make-up.

2. Demonstrates diagnostic skills.

 Skillful in the analysis of learning tasks. Determines student’s level of

proficiency in content area(s).

3. Skill in selecting and devising formal evaluation instruments.

 Writes tests utilizing variety of types of items, appropriate to content

area and student’s level.


4. Skillful in devising and using informal evaluation procedures.

 Uses informal evaluation techniques to assess progression in learning

such as: interview, case study, analysis of students’ performance data.

5. Skillful in providing feedback to students and parents.

 Devises formative evaluation events: teacher evaluated, learner/parent

evaluated.

 Assessment is concerned with process, while evaluation focuses on

product.

VIII. PROFESSIONALISM

1. Seeks to improve own professional competence.

 Reads professional journals. Attends professional meetings.

 Visits other programs and teachers. Seeks and utilizes professional

feedback.

2. Is accountable for professional actions.

 Dependable. Fulfills responsibility of the professional teacher:

planning, implementing, validating instruction, maintenance tasks,

playground duties, and other tasks.

3. Demonstrate skill in professional decision making.

 Possesses a rationale for professional action. Produces evidence to

justify professional decisions. Evaluates the consequences of actions.

4. Demonstrates awareness of strength and weakness.

 Identifies teaching roles and strategies most and least suited to own

style.

 Identifies human interaction style and its effects in professional work.

5. Behaves according to an accepted code of professional ethics.

 Directly uses information about students, refrains from unprofessional

comments. Avoid exploiting the professional relationship with any

students.
 Deals justly and considerately with each student.

6. Seeks to improve the profession.

 Participates in professional organization. Prepares plan for

improvement of the profession to be implemented during first year of

teaching.

 Teachers focused on professionalism are also concerned with the school

community and how they can work with their colleagues to create an

environment that maximizes learning and bolsters achievement.

SCHOOL-WIDE EVALUATION PLANNING

Evaluation is the collection of, analysis and interpretation of information

about any aspect of a program in education as part of a recognized process of

judging its effectiveness and efficiency.

Evaluation in any school must be comprehensive.

Goals of the
School

Corrections Objectives
Made Derived

Discrepancies Program
Identified Designed

Periodic Evidences
Analysis Gathered
Guided Questions for the Reader’s Consideration

Program Design

1. Is the program concept consistent with the overall philosophy of the district

and its leaders?

2. Does the program fit with the preceding elementary, middle, or secondary

programs? Is there a consistent follow through in other programs?

Policies and Regulations

1. Are some policies and regulations essential in allowing this program to

function fully?

2. Are there rules or policies that in fact contradict the spirit of this program?

Resource Utilization

1. Is there a clear relationship between the allocation of the resources and

funds and the curricular objectives of this program?

2. Are resources available to support innovative instructional approaches or

to promote desired changes?

Student Performance

1. Is student evaluation in this program both systematic and continuous?

2. Is student evaluation perceived by teachers as a measure of the

program’s success?

3. Are the parents involved in the evaluation of the student and program?
4. Is student evaluation directional, indicating where improvement is

needed?

Teacher Effectiveness

1. Is teacher evaluation tied directly to program improvement?

2. Have the talents and abilities of the teachers been fully explored in terms

of contributing to this program?

Staff Development

1. Are moneys budgeted for staff development tied to the needs and goals of

this specific program?

2. Do teachers have the opportunity to critique staff development efforts?

3. Can it be shown through evaluation, where staff development in the past

has improved this program?

Parent – Community Feedback

1. Are the members of the community involved in the formulation and

maintenance of this program?

2. Are members of the community kept informed about any major changes

contemplated or implemented in this program?

3. Does a communication vehicle exist that effectively shares the

accomplishments of this program with the parents and the community?

CURRICULUM INTENT & STAFF IMPROVEMENT

CURRICULUM INTENT

Things to consider in making it happen

 Organization of the classroom

 Teaching styles

 Balance between cognitive and affective

 Classroom arrangement
The actual teaching style should correspond to the objectives of the

curriculum.

We can use different teaching modes and styles.

If the teacher understands the curriculum and its intention, he/she should

be able to adjust his/her behavior to meet the expectations for the students

STAFF IMPROVEMENT

As teacher relates to the curriculum and its intent, evaluation can begin to

be perceived as a fine-tuning of the delivery mechanism rather than a judgment

of the teacher’s worth.

Steps to the Alternative Supervision Model

 Staff members:

(1) identify the key performance/ problem areas in instruction

(2) describes behaviors that indicate the optimal performance according to

the goal.

 Supervisor:

(3) observes the instructional performance of the classroom teacher

 Teacher & Supervisor

(4) view the instructional pattern as totality (discrepancy analysis)

(5) sets improvement goals

 Supervisor:

(6) validates the progress of instructional improvement

To be effective during the instructional improvement, supervision must

promote both trust and clear communication about directional progress.

The supervision-by-objective model offers an objective, fair and productive

means of assisting instructional improvement. That in turn, means an improved

program of education for students.