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Archival Information

How to Find It, How to Use It

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Archival Information
How to Find It, How to Use It

Edited by
Steven Fisher

Westport, Connecticut • London
Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data
Archival Information / edited by Steven Fisher,
p. cm.— (How to find it, how to use it)
Includes bibliographical references and index.
ISBN 1-57356-389-7 (alk. paper)
1. Archives—United States—Handbooks, manuals, etc.
I. Fisher, Steven, 1951-
II. Series
CD3021.A38 2004
027.073—dc22 2003060051
British Library Cataloguing in Publication Data is available.
Copyright © 2004 by Steven Fisher
All rights reserved. No portion of this book may be
reproduced, by any process or technique, without the
express written consent of the publisher.
Library of Congress Catalog Card Number: 2003060051
ISBN: 1-57356-389-7
First published in 2004
Greenwood Press, 88 Post Road West, Westport, CT 06881
An imprint of Greenwood Publishing Group, Inc.
Printed in the United States of America

The paper used in this book complies with the
Permanent Paper Standard issued by the National
Information Standards Organization (Z39.48-1984).
10 9 87654321
For Navis, Paul, and Barbara
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Introduction ix

Chapter 1. American Governmental Archives 1

Faye Phillips
Chapter 2. Genealogical Archives 23
Russell P Baker
Chapter 3. Science Archives 39
Elisabeth Buehlman
Chapter 4. Religious Archives 57
Alan Delozier
Chapter 5. Women's History Archives 65
Wendy Chmielewski
Chapter 6. Moving Image and Sound Archives 84
Dwight Swans on
Chapter 7. Fine Arts Archives 102
Tammi Moe

Chapter 8. Performing Arts Archives 118

Willem Rodenhuis
Chapter 9. Sports Archives 128
Jackie R. Esposito
Chapter 10. Business Archives 138
Gregory S. Hunter
Chapter 11. Military Archives 161
Carrie Bohman

Index 171
About the Contributors 179
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While much has been written about archives and dren in the Juvenile section, and later we browse the
archival collections, the vast majority consists of pro- current best sellers, find a how-to book, or research a
fessional literature aimed at the archival community particular topic from encyclopedias and other popular
itself. What remains tends to focus on specific collec- reference sources. For those familiar with using li-
tions, the archives of a particular subject, or a particu- braries as a source of information, finding and using
lar collecting institution. This book is aimed at the archival information for the first time may be a chal-
general researcher who finds the need to conduct lenge. Most library materials are published materials,
archival research. The book is divided into chapters also known as secondary sources, while most archival
covering popular research subject areas written by an material is unique, referred to as primary sources. Li-
archival authority for that particular field of study. The brary materials are usually duplicated in other li-
best sources for that particular subject are covered, as braries, while archival material is not. Library
are the major libraries, museums, and historical soci- material, if lost, is usually replaceable. Archival mate-
eties collecting in that field. rial, because it is unique, is usually not replaceable.
While we are free to browse through most library
THE DIGITAL AGE material, archival material is kept in secured areas
away from the public and usually may not be browsed.
"It's all on the Internet" is an expression one hears
Archival information may sometimes be found in pub-
quite often these days, mostly from high school stu-
lic libraries, but more often it is located in governmen-
dents and college undergraduates. The Internet has
tal agencies, historical societies, museums, or
made finding information on a wide range of topics
academic libraries. Archival material originating from
faster and easier than ever before. Unfortunately, not
one source may be scattered throughout the United
all information is on the Internet, and some never will
States or around the world. Consider the case of nov-
be. In no area of research is this more true than in the
elist James Michener. A prolific writer, Michener pro-
area of unique primary sources.
duced dozens of works that sold millions of copies. To
The Internet has been of great assistance in allow-
research his novels he traveled extensively and often
ing archival repositories to share more information
left his research material wherever he had done the re-
about their holdings than ever before. The majority of
search. Hence Michener papers may be found at the
the larger archives now have their own Web presence,
Library of Congress, Swarthmore College, the Uni-
giving researchers contact information, hours of ser-
versity of Alaska, the University of Hawaii, the Uni-
vice, and descriptions of collections. Few, however,
versity of Miami Florida, the University of Northern
have had the time or means necessary to digitize the
Colorado, the University of Pennsylvania, and the
majority of their collections. This is understandable
University of Texas. For someone doing research on
when one considers that digitization is labor-intensive
Michener, this presents a definite challenge. Michener
and that collections may run into thousands of pages.
is an extreme example, but he illustrates the fugitive
Most collections that have been digitized have been
nature of archival material.
done so via grant dollars, rather than general operat-
It follows that because archival information is
ing funds.
unique, it tends to be found in only one physical loca-
tion. Information about a particular library's holdings
was traditionally found in a paper card catalog and
Most of us grow up using libraries. The local public now is found in the online public access catalog
library is familiar in communities large and small, (PAC), and national databases document the vast ma-
urban and rural. Many of us first use libraries as chil- jority of printed material. Guides and indexes to
archival information, on the other hand, are usually material that is really needed. It is best to fully exhaust
unpublished or available only in-house and may be all secondary sources in your subject area before turn-
difficult to locate. Archives often operate with smaller ing to primary materials. This serves two purposes.
staffs and shorter hours than do libraries, or by ap- First of all, the researcher may find that the needed in-
pointment only. formation is available in secondary sources and
archival research is unnecessary.
WHAT ARE ARCHIVES? Secondly, a familiarity with published materials in a
given subject area makes the use of archival materials
To understand archives one must first understand
much easier. If the researcher is aware of key names and
records. Simply put, a record is any document that
dates, less time must be spent navigating entire archival
contains information. Archives are those records that
collections. Information about a particular research sub-
have been determined to be of enduring value, per-
ject may be found in published books, periodicals, and
haps only five percent of all created records. This en-
newspapers, as well as Web sites. Checking bibliogra-
during value may be based upon historical, legal, or
phies will lead to further published sources.
administrative factors. Like published material,
archival material comes in a variety of formats. The If the researcher finds that archival material will be
most common format is still paper (despite the digital needed, the next step is locating primary sources.
revolution), but archives can also be photographs, Much of this book will be devoted to providing guid-
film, videocassettes, or computer disks. The term ance on finding the location of archival material on a
archives may itself be confusing because it refers not wide range of subjects. Once material has been lo-
only to records of enduring value but also may refer to cated, the researcher may request a copy of a finding
a specific department within a larger institution. aid to the particular collection if one is not available
("That is located in the Archives.") online. Once the finding aid is reviewed, the next deci-
sion for the researcher is whether an actual trip to the
There are several types of archives. An institutional
archives is necessary. It is possible that the staff of a
archives is one that collects only material generated
particular repository may be able to answer simple re-
in-house, such as a corporate archives. A collecting
quests for information by mail, e-mail, fax, or phone.
archives collects material based on a subject or theme,
Some material may be available on microfilm, through
such as a military archives. Many archives are a com-
interlibrary loan, or may be photocopied and mailed
bination of these two types.
by archives staff if the quantity is reasonable.
Some archives set a time limit, perhaps fifteen min-
ARCHIVAL TERMINOLOGY utes to a half-hour, that they will research a particular
question for free. Questions taking longer than that
Like most professionals, archivists have a select vo-
cabulary to describe various functions. It is helpful for may incur a staff fee or the researcher may be referred
the researcher to have a basic understanding of some to an independent fee-based researcher for help. Many
of the terms commonly used by archivists. archives maintain lists of independent researchers
who perform this service. Independent researchers
Accession: an acquisition, a new collection coming may also be utilized if the remote location of the
into the archives. To accession a collection means archives makes a trip impractical.
to take legal and physical custody. If the researcher is able to make a trip to the
Processing: the act of arranging and describing a col- archives, it is always best to first phone or write ahead.
lection to make it usable for researchers. Arrang- As previously mentioned, archives often have irregu-
ing and describing collections are two of the lar hours and small staffs. Many archives are open
primary responsibilities of archivists. weekdays only and rarely in the evening, though there
Finding Aid: a guide, an index, or an inventory of a are exceptions. Fortunately, technology has made
collection, usually describing it at a file folder archival institutions more accessible. Many archives
level. Finding aids may or may not be published.
may be contacted not only by phone or mail, but also
by fax or e-mail. This book contains contact informa-
tion for a large number of archival repositories. Mak-
ing an appointment ahead of time not only assures
Before contacting an archival institution, the re- access but also allows staff to retrieve any materials
searcher must first determine if it is in fact archival that may be stored off-site if necessary.
ARCHIVAL ETIQUETTE dollar is not uncommon. Some collections may be re-
stricted from copying, because the collection is fragile
When visiting an archives, the researcher will be
or restricted in some way.
presented with a list of rules and regulations that may
seem alien to those only familiar with the more tradi- COPYRIGHT
tional library setting. The researcher will probably be
asked to fill out a user form with his or her name, ad- Finding archival material is one thing; being able to
dress, phone number, the purpose of the visit, and ma- use it is another. The user of archival material must be
terial requested. A driver's license or other form of especially aware of copyright law. It is a common mis-
identification may be requested. While this may seem understanding that only published works are covered
to the uninitiated an unnecessary invasion of privacy, under copyright law, but this is not the case. The cur-
it is simply standard practice. If an item is later miss- rent copyright law of the United States, known as Title
ing or damaged, it is useful for archives staff to know 17, US. Code, took effect on January 1, 1978. It pro-
who last used it. Information forms are also used for tects both published and unpublished material. Copy-
statistical purposes, tracking the time of day when col- right is the right given to an author or creator to:
lections are most heavily used, or what types of mate-
rials are being requested most frequently. This will 1. Reproduce.
help the archives staff in better serving future users. 2. Prepare derivative works based upon the original
While in a typical library browsing is the norm, work.
archival material is usually closed-access and must be 3. Distribute copies by sale, lease, or rent.
retrieved by staff. Material may not leave the area, and 4. Publicly perform (music, drama, dance, etc.).
researchers will usually find that they are watched 5. Display the work.
while using archival material. This should not be taken
as a personal affront, as it is standard practice to en- Copyright law, however, does not apply to every-
sure the preservation of unique materials. thing. Some things are not protected. These include:

1. Titles
2. Names
Besides filling out a form, the researcher will often 3. Short phrases
be asked to read a copy of local guidelines for the use 4. Slogans
of archival material. Typical rules and regulations may 5. Ideas
include: 6. Procedures
7. Methods
No coats, briefcases, or backpacks at the reading 8. Systems and processes
table. This is a security measure to prevent theft of 9. Concepts
manuscript material. You may usually check these
items with the staff when entering the reading The concept of fair use also limits copyright. Fair
room area. use allows for the use of copyrighted material for:
No pens—pencil only. This is to prevent damage to
the materials.
1. Criticism
No hand-held scanners. This serves two purposes. It
prevents any potential damage to materials and 2. Comment
also prevents extensive copying that may violate 3. News reporting
copyright. 4. Teaching
5. Scholarship or research
6. Preservation
Up until the passage of new copyright legislation in
Photocopying is permitted in most archival institu- 1976, unpublished material was not subject to the
tions, within limits and depending upon the particular same copyright protection as published material was
restrictions of the collection. Archives staff will usu- unless it was registered in the copyright office. This is
ally perform the copying, and for this reason photo- no longer the case. Material is now considered to be
copy charges may be expensive—fifty cents to one subject to copyright when it is "fixed" by writing,
filming, creating a work of art, and so on. Web pages cuss with the researcher any issues of copyright that
are covered by copyright. Copyright remains in force may apply to the collection being requested. Copy-
for the life of the author plus seventy years. right may be waived by the archives or by the original
When thinking of copyright in terms of archival ma- donor if it was not waived at the time the collection
terial, it is important to always keep in mind that phys- was donated to the institution. How the collection is to
ical ownership and intellectual ownership are two be used is the critical factor.
separate things. Today, when a collection is acquired
by an archival repository, copyright is usually trans-
ferred along with the physical custody of the material;
however, this was not always the case in the past, and If the researcher seeks material that is to be used for
many archivists now spend much time and effort trying a commercial publication or for profit, there may be a
to track down individuals who donated material long use fee charged by the archives. These fees usually
ago to acquire copyright. Unless the deed of gift spe- pertain to photographs or works of art, and are often
cifically transferred copyright to the archives, it re- referred to as commercial service fees. Whether the
mains with the donor. This is not so much an issue with reproduction is for a book, magazine, newspaper,
institutional archives, such as corporate archives that poster, postcard, videotape, or motion picture, fees are
mainly collect material generated in-house, but it is an usually based on the number of copies being pro-
issue for collecting repositories, such historical soci- duced. For example, fees may be larger for mass-
eties. Archival material generated by governmental market book publication than they would be for
agencies is usually not subject to copyright and may be smaller academic press runs. Fees are also larger for
freely used. Photographs may be especially tricky, be- commercially produced, national film or television
cause there is the issue not only of the rights of the projects than they would be for smaller local produc-
photographer but also of the persons photographed, tions. Typically these fees range from $10 to $150.
who may have to give permission for photos to be For an excellent introduction to archives and
used. Photographs of public figures, such as politicians archival procedures, visit the National Archives of
or entertainers, are exempted from this rule. Canada Web site at http://www.archives.ca/04/
Many collection level descriptions of collections 0416_e.html.
and finding aids to particular collections will describe Though Canadian in origin, the information given
copyright status, but not always. The archivist will dis- applies to researchers of material found in any country.
American Governmental Archives
Faye Phillips

Governmental records in the United States of America mine what evidence is essential for such documentation;
are created at four levels: the national/federal, the ensure that government creates such evidence; make it easy
state, the county, and the municipal/city. Of the mil- for users to access that evidence regardless of where it is,
lions of records created each year by these govern- where they are, for as long as needed; find technologies,
ments, approximately one-third are deemed archival. techniques, and partners world-wide that can help improve
These archival records are acquired by, preserved, and service and hold down cost; and help staff members contin-
uously expand their capability to make the changes neces-
made accessible to the public by archival institutions
sary to realize the vision. Mission: NARA ensures, for the
administered by agencies of the four levels of govern- citizen and the public servant, for the President and for the
ment. A brief review of the holdings of federal, state, Congress and the Courts, ready access to essential evi-
and local government archives, as well as contact in- dence. http://www.archives.gov/about_us/vision_mission_
formation, is included in this chapter. Some govern- values.html
mental and agencies records have been acquired over
time by nongovernment archives. These are not dis- NARA contains the government records of federal
cussed in this chapter. agencies, Congress, federal courts, executive agen-
cies, and presidential offices. These records are
housed in a number of facilities throughout the coun-
try. The historic National Archives Building at 700
Pennsylvania Avenue NW in downtown Washington,
The National Archives and Records Administration D.C., (between Seventh Street and Ninth Street) is the
(NARA) of the United States was formed in 1934 for home to the Rotunda Exhibit Hall, which contains the
the purpose of appraising, arranging and describing, Charters of Freedom: the original manuscript copies
making available for research, and preserving the of the Declaration of Independence, 1776, and the
records of the agencies of the U.S. government from United States Constitution, 1787. See http://www.
its inception to the present. archives.gov/exhibit_hall/charters_of_freedom/decla-
NARA's published vision and mission statements ration/declaration.html for digital images of the Char-
are: ters of Freedom.
Vision: The National Archives is not a dusty hoard of an-
cient history. It is a public trust on which our democracy Materials Available at NARA Locations
depends. It enables people to inspect for themselves the
record of what government has done. It enables officials At the National Archives Building in Washington,
and agencies to review their actions and helps citizens hold D.C., researchers can gain access to the archival
them accountable. It ensures continuing access to essential records of the U.S. Congress through the Legislative
evidence that documents: the rights of American citizens, Archives Center. See also Robert W. Coren, et al.,
the actions of federal officials, and the national experience. Guide to the Records of the United States Senate at
To be effective, we at NARA must do the following: deter- the National Archives 1789-1989, Washington, D.C.:
United States Senate, 1989. Also see Charles E. is a prototype database that contains information
Schamel, et al., Guide to the Records of the United about NARA's holdings across the country. Re-
States House of Representatives at the National searchers use NAIL to search archival descriptions for
Archives, 1789-1989, Washington, D.C.: United keywords or topics, and then to retrieve digital copies
States House of Representatives, 1989. The papers of of selected textual documents, photographs, maps,
members of the Senate and the House of Representa- and sound recordings. Although numerous and grow-
tives are by tradition considered personal papers. ing continually, the records described and/or repro-
Therefore, these papers may be deposited in or given duced in NAIL represent only a limited portion of
to libraries or archives in the members' home states or NARA's vast holdings. NAIL also contains descrip-
even disposed of if the member so chooses. There are tions of NARA's guides to microfilm and lists loca-
no federal laws governing the disposition of the pa- tions where the microfilm can be found. Each
pers and the records of members of Congress. See description indicates all NARA units that have copies
Karen Dawley Paul, Guide to the Research Collec- of a microfilm publication in part or in full.
tions of Former United States Senators, 1789-1995, As part of its records management program, NARA
Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office, 1995; operates 19 records centers where users can access the
and Guide to the Research Collections of Former archival records of federal agencies. Records sched-
Members of the United States House of Representa- uled as non-permanent that will be destroyed at a de-
tives, 1789-1987, Washington, D.C.: Government termined date can also be accessed at records centers.
Printing Office, 1988. Many types of genealogical in- These are referred to as records center holdings. Ma-
formation may also be accessed at this location, in- terials may also be obtained through the Freedom of
cluding census microfilm from 1790 through 1930. Information Act (FOIA) http://www.archives.gov/re-
See also the National Archival Information Locator search_room/foia_reading_room/foia_reading_room.
(NAIL) database http://www.archives.gov/research_ html. Records centers all have research rooms where
room/nail/ of selected records descriptions and digital users can view paper records and microfilm. Contact
copies, and Robert B. Matchette with Anne B. Eakes, the records centers through their online sites or by
et al., Guide to Federal Records in the National telephone, fax, or U.S. mail. Their current addresses
Archives of the United States, Washington, D.C.: and contact information are:
NARA, 1995 (this guide is available at most public li-
braries). Archival records of federal and executive
agencies and federal courts may be accessed at the Alaska
National Archives and Records Administration NARA's Pacific Alaska Region
Archives II: National Archives at College Park, 8601 654 West Third Avenue
Adelphi Road, College Park, MD 20740-6001, located Anchorage, Alaska 99501-2145
near the University of Maryland's College Park cam- http://www.archives.gov/facilities/ak/anchorage.html
pus. Through appraisal and records scheduling, the alaska. archive s@nara. gov
National Archives determines which federal records
Fax: 907-271-2442
will be permanently held in NARA. Records that are
determined to be permanently valuable are then Archival holdings from federal agencies and courts
arranged and described through the standard proce- in Alaska and microfilm.
dures of written records inventories and guides. Many
of the inventories and guides can be purchased in print
or are available on NARA's Web site http://www.
archives.gov/. Also on the Web site, see the Guide to Laguna Niguel, NARA's Pacific Region
Federal Records in the National Archives, which de- 24000 Avila Road, First Floor-East Entrance
scribes records in NARA at the records group level. Laguna Niguel, California 92677-3497
This resource provides the broadest view of the orga-
nization of federal records in NARA and includes fed-
Fax: 949-360-2624
eral records housed in facilities nationwide
http://www.archives.gov/research_room/federal_ Archival, microfilm (call 949-360-2641), and
records_guide/. The National Archival Information records center holdings (call 949-360-2628) from fed-
Locator http://www.archives.gov/research_room/nail/ eral agencies and courts in Arizona; southern Califor-
nia; and Clark County, Nevada, as well as records of 773-581-7816
the Nevada District Court, Las Vegas, 1954-1968. Fax:312-353-1294
Archival holdings from federal agencies and
California courts in Illinois, Indiana, Michigan, Minnesota,
NARA's Pacific Region (San Francisco) Ohio, and Wisconsin. Records center holdings from
1000 Commodore Drive federal agencies in Illinois, Minnesota, and Wiscon-
San Bruno, California 94066-2350 sin, and from federal courts in Illinois, Indiana,
http://www.archives.gov/facilities/ca/san_francisco.html Michigan, Minnesota, Ohio, and Wisconsin. Micro-
sanbruno. archives@nara.gov
film holdings.
Fax: 650-876-9233
Archival, microfilm (call 650-876-9009), and Maryland
records center (call 650-876-9001) holdings from fed-
eral agencies and courts in northern California, Washington National Records Center
Hawaii, Nevada (except Clark County), the Pacific 4205 Suitland Road
Suitland, Maryland 20746-8001
Trust Territories, and American Samoa.
NARA's Rocky Mountain Region Fax:301-457-7117
Building 48, Denver Federal Center
West 6th Avenue and Kipling Street Records center holdings for federal agency head-
Denver, Colorado 80225 quarters offices in the District of Columbia, Maryland,
P.O. Box 25307 and Virginia; federal agency field offices in Maryland,
Denver, Colorado 80225-0307 Virginia, and West Virginia; federal courts in the Dis-
http://www.archives.gov/facilities/co/denver.html trict of Columbia; and U.S. armed forces worldwide.
Fax: 303-236-9297 Massachusetts
NARA's Northeast Region (Boston)
Archival and records center holdings from federal
380 Trapelo Road
agencies and courts in Colorado, Montana, New Mex-
Waltham, Massachusetts 02452-6399
ico, North Dakota, South Dakota, Utah, and
Wyoming. Call 303-236-0817 for microfilm holdings. waltham.center@nara.gov
Georgia Fax: 781-647-8088
NARA's Southeast Region
Archival and records center (call 781-647-8108)
1557 St. Joseph Avenue
East Point, Georgia 30344-2593 holdings from federal agencies and courts in Con-
http://www.archives.gov/facilities/ga/atlanta.html necticut, Maine, Massachusetts, New Hampshire,
atlanta.center@nara.gov Rhode Island, and Vermont. Call 781-647-8100 for
404-763-7474 or 404-763-7383 microfilm holdings.
Fax: 404-763-7815 or 404-763-7967
Archival, microfilm, and records center holdings
from federal agencies and courts in Alabama, Florida, NARA's Northeast Region (Pittsfield)
Georgia, Kentucky, Mississippi, North Carolina, 10 Conte Drive
South Carolina, and Tennessee. Pittsfield, Massachusetts 01201-8230
413-445-6885, ext. 14
NARA's Great Lakes Region Fax: 413-445-7599
7358 South Pulaski Road
Chicago, Illinois 60629-5898 Records center holdings from selected federal agen-
http://www.archives.gov/facilities/il/chicago.html cies nationwide. For microfilm holdings, call 413-
chicago.archives@nara.gov 445-6885, ext. 24.
Missouri Military personnel records and military and retired
military medical records from all services; selected
NARA's Central Plains Region (Kansas City)
2312 East Bannister Road dependent medical records, morning reports, and ros-
Kansas City, Missouri 64131-3011 ters. World War II Philippine army and guerilla
http://www.archives.gov/facilities/mo/kansas_city.html records were formerly held by the Army Reserve Per-
kansascity.archives@nara.gov sonnel Command. During World War II, some parts of
816-926-6272 the Philippine Commonwealth Army were made a part
Fax: 816-926-6982 of the United States Army Forces Far East. (Telephone
requests not accepted.)
Archival, microfilm, and records center holdings
from federal agencies and courts in Iowa, Kansas,
New York
Missouri, and Nebraska.
NARA's Northeast Region (New York City)
Missouri 201 Varick Street
New York, New York 10014-4811
NARA's Central Plains Region (Lee's Summit) http: //www. archives. gov/facilities/ny/new_y ork_city.html
200 Space Center Drive newyork.archives@nara.gov
Lee's Summit, Missouri 64064-1182 212-337-1300
http://www.archives.gov/facilities/mo/lees_summit.html Fax:212-337-1306
816-478-7079 Archival and microfilm holdings from federal
Fax: 816-478-7625 agencies and courts in New Jersey, New York, Puerto
Rico, and the U.S. Virgin Islands. (NOTE: The Mis-
Maintains retired records from federal agencies and
souri NARA Central Plains Region Records Center
courts in New Jersey, New York, Puerto Rico, and the
in Lee's Summit, MO, also holds records from New
U.S. Virgin Islands. (NOTE: The New York NARA
Jersey, New York, Puerto Rico, and the U.S. Virgin
Northeast Region Records Center in New York City
also holds records from New Jersey, New York, Puerto
Rico, and the U S . Virgin Islands.) Also holds most
Department of Veterans Affairs offices nationwide.
NARA's Great Lakes Region (Dayton)
Missouri 3150 Springboro Road
Dayton, Ohio 45439-1883
NARA's National Personnel Records Center http://www.archives.gov/facilities/oh/dayton.html
Civilian Personnel Records dayton. c enter @nara. gov
111 Winnebago Street 937-225-2852
St. Louis, Missouri 63118-4199 Fax: 937-225-7236
_personnel_records.html Records center holdings from federal agencies in
cpr.center@nara.gov Indiana, Michigan, and Ohio; federal bankruptcy
Fax:314-538-5719 court records from Ohio since 1991/92; Defense Fi-
nance Accounting System records nationwide and
Civilian personnel records from federal agencies
from Germany and Korea; and Internal Revenue Ser-
nationwide; selected military dependent medical
vice records from selected sites nationwide.
records. (Telephone requests not accepted.)

NARA's Mid Atlantic Region (Center City Philadelphia)
NARA's National Personnel Records Center
900 Market Street
Military Personnel Records
Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19107-4292
9700 Page Avenue
St. Louis, Missouri 63132-5100
Fax: 215-597-2303
Archival and microfilm holdings from federal agen- nine libraries are located in various parts of the United
cies and courts in Delaware, Maryland, Pennsylvania, States, usually near the birthplaces or homes of the
Virginia, and West Virginia. (NOTE: For records cen- former presidents, or near the universities they at-
ter holdings from these states contact the Northeast tended. Facilities including museums, libraries,
Philadelphia center.) archival storage areas, and research rooms are con-
structed with private funds. A staff composed of
Pennsylvania NARA employees is responsible for arranging, de-
scribing, and making the records available. The
NARA's Mid Atlantic Region (Northeast Philadelphia)
14700 Townsend Road records contained in the facilities are mainly govern-
Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19154-1096 ment records. Through the Presidential Record Act of
http://www.archives.gov/facilities/pa/philadelphia 1972, Congress determined that all records and papers
_northeast.html created by a president during his term in office would
center@philfrc.nara.gov remain the property of the U.S. government and would
215-671-9027 ext. 105 be held and preserved by NARA. However, the law
Fax:215-671-8001 provides a period of 12 years from the end of the pres-
idential term until the records must be made fully ac-
Records center holdings from federal agencies in
cessible by NARA. During those 12 years, copies of
Delaware and Pennsylvania and federal courts in
Delaware, Maryland, Pennsylvania, Virginia, and West materials may only be obtained by individuals through
Virginia. (NOTE: For archival and microfilm holdings the Freedom of Information Act http://www
from these states, contact the Center City Philadelphia archives.gov/research_room/foia_reading_room/foia_
Center.) reading_room.html. Before the Presidential Records
Act of 1972, the records and papers of the presidents
were traditionally considered personal papers. This
tradition allowed presidents and their families to de-
NARA's Southwest Region termine where these materials would be housed and
501 West Felix Street, Building 1 maintained. Some presidential papers can be found in
Fort Worth, Texas 76115-3405 the Library of Congress in Washington, D.C. Other
P.O. Box 6216
materials contained at presidential libraries include
Fort Worth, Texas 76115-0216
the papers of the vice presidents, the first ladies, other
family members, members of the cabinet, presidential
817-334-5525 staff and aides, and campaign staff, and volunteers.
Fax: 817-334-5621 Some of the records and papers of these various indi-
viduals may be federal records, while others are per-
Archival, microfilm, and records center (call 817- sonal papers.
334-5515) holdings from federal agencies and courts
The locations and addresses of the presidential li-
in Arkansas, Louisiana, Oklahoma, and Texas.
braries are:
Washington (State) George Bush Library
George Bush Drive West
NARA's Pacific Alaska Region (Seattle) College Station, TX 77845
6125 Sand Point Way NE http://bushlibrary.tamu.edu/
Seattle, Washington 98115-7999 979-260-9554
http://www.archives.gov/facilities/wa/seattle.html Fax: 979-260-9557
seattle.archives@nara.gov bush.library@nara.gov
Fax: 206-526-6575
Jimmy Carter Library
Archival holdings from federal agencies and courts 441 Freedom Parkway
in Idaho, Oregon, and Washington State. Records cen- Atlanta, GA 30307-1498
ter holdings for federal agencies and courts in the http: //www.j immycarterlibrary. org/
same states and Alaska. Microfilm holdings. 404-331-3942
Presidential libraries are another division of the Na- Fax:404-730-2215
tional Archives and Records Administration. These carter.library@nara.gov
William J. Clinton Presidential Materials Project Nixon Presidential Materials Staff
1000 LaHarpe Boulevard National Archives at College Park
Little Rock, AR 72201 8601 Adelphi Road
http://clinton.archives.gov/ College Park, MD 20740-6001
501-244-9756 http://www.archives.gov/nixon/index.html
Fax: 501-244-9764 301-713-6950
Clinton@nara.gov Fax: 301-713-6916
Dwight D. Eisenhower Library
200 SE 4th Street Ronald Reagan Library
Abilene, KS 67410-2900 40 Presidential Drive
http://www.eisenhower.utexas.edu/ Simi Valley, CA 93065-0600
785-263-4751 http://www.reagan.utexas.edu/
Fax: 785-263-4218 800-410-8354
eisenhower.library@nara.gov Fax: 805-522-9621
Gerald R. Ford Library
1000 Beal Avenue Franklin D. Roosevelt Library
Ann Arbor, MI 48109-2114 4079 Albany Post Road
http: //www. ford.utexas. edu/ Hyde Park, NY 12538-1999
734-741-2218 http://www.fdrlibrary.marist.edu/
Fax: 734-741-2341 845-229-8114
http://www.ford.utexas.edu/email.htm Fax: 845-229-0872
Gerald R. Ford Museum
303 Pearl Street NW Harry S. Truman Library
Grand Rapids, MI 49504-5353 500 West U.S. Highway 24
http: //www. ford.utexas .edu/ Independence, MO 64050-1798
616-451-9263 http ://www. trumanlibrary.org/
Fax:616-451-9570 816-833-1400
http ://www. ford.utexas. edu/email .htm Fax: 816-833-4368
Herbert Hoover Library
210 Parkside Drive
West Branch, IA 52358-0488
http ://hoover.nara. gov/ Some federal agencies maintain their own archival
319-643-5301 records, but access to these records varies. It is best to
Fax:319-643-5825 contact the agency archives to determine whether they
hoover.library@nara.gov will assist researchers. If the agency archives are not
open to the public, materials may be obtained through
Lyndon B. Johnson Library the Freedom of Information Act (FOIA)
2313 Red River Street http://www.archives.gov/research_room/foia_
Austin, TX 78705-5702 reading_room/foia_reading_room.html.
http ://www.lbj lib.utexas.edu/
Some examples of agency archives are: the Federal
Reserve Board, the Kennedy Space Center, the NASA
johnson.library@nara.gov Glen Research Center, Los Alamos National Labora-
tory, the National Agricultural Library, the National
John F. Kennedy Library Library of Medicine, the National Park Service, Na-
Columbia Point, Boston, MA 02125-3398 tional Public Radio, the Naval Research Center, the
http: //www.j fklibrary. org/ Smithsonian Institution, the United States Capitol Of-
617-929-4500 fice of the Architect, the U.S. Geological Survey, the
Fax: 617-929-4538 U.S. Corps of Engineers, the U.S. Department of Jus-
kennedy.library@nara.gov tice, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, the
U.S. Mint, and the U.S. Patent and Trademark Office. Arizona State Archives
A separate guide to all agency archives does not exist, 1700 West Washington, Room 200
but information on some of them can be found in stan- Phoenix, AZ 85007
dard guides. NARA can answer questions regarding http://www.lib.az.us/archives/
federal agency archives and can put researchers in
Fax: 602-542-4402
touch with staff at the agency archives. NARA's Web
site also includes information about agency archives.
Agency records include those from boards, com-
missions, and departments, as well as executive, leg-
islative, and judicial branches and date from 1863 to
the early 1990s. Local records include those from
Each of the 50 states in the United States has an county and city governments and date from 1863 to
agency that serves the function of the state archives. the 1940s. The Archives currently holds 143 record
Each has a mission similar to that of the National groups. The Web site gives information regarding
Archives and Records Administration: to appraise and local government records holdings through an interac-
provide records schedules, accession, arrange and de- tive map. Each county in Arizona is represented.
scribe, preserve and make available for research the
records of the state government and state agencies. Arkansas History Commission
Some state archives also collect, preserve, and make One Capitol Mall
available the papers of private individuals and families. Little Rock, AR 72201
The locations, contact information, publications, and http: //www. ark-ives. com/
descriptions of content of the state archives follows.
Fax: 501-682-1364
Alabama Department of Archives and History The records as a whole span Arkansas's history
P.O. Box 300100 from its territorial days to the late twentieth century.
624 Washington Ave. Agencies holdings include those from the Bank De-
Montgomery, AL 36130-0100 partment, Attorney General's office, Soil Conserva-
http: //www. archives. state. al .us/
tion District, State Council of Defense, Railroad
Commission, Correction Department, and State Hos-
Fax: 334-240-3433
pital. There are letter books of correspondence of
The Web site gives a link for each county and shows nineteenth-century governors, ledgers of trademarks
what local records are held for each county. Records and labels, notaries public, Highway Commission au-
include official archives of the Territory and State of dits, and records from the treasurer's office and the au-
Alabama; county records; private manuscript collec- ditor's office. This material may be accessed through
tions of Alabamians beginning with the eighteenth the card catalog, inventories, and finding aids. Se-
century; military records and soldiers' correspon- lected records from 1797-1950 are available from all
dence from all wars in which Alabamians have partic- Arkansas counties. These records include marriage li-
ipated; and compilations of correspondence and other censes; deeds; circuit and chancery court records; tax
material of genealogical interest. records (both personal property and real estate); pro-
bate records (wills, guardianships, executors, and let-
Alaska State Archives ters of administration); and some naturalization
P.O.Box 110571 records.
141 Willoughby Avenue
Juneau,AK 99811-1720 California State Archives
http://www.archives.state.ak.us/ 1020 O Street
archives@eed.state.ak.us Sacramento, CA 95814
907-465-2270 http://www.ss.ca.gov/archives/archives_e.htm
Fax: 907-465-2465 916-653-8099
Fax: 916-653-7134
The Archives Section identifies, preserves, and
makes available for research the public records of the The collections document the broad scope of Cali-
state, including those of the state and territorial gov- fornia government and its impact on the people of the
ernments of Alaska. state. Over 65,000 cubic feet of records of all types are
represented, including millions of documents and agencies (including defunct bureaus, divisions, depart-
bound volumes. Finding aids that describe California ments, or predecessor agencies). The State Archives
State Archives' collections are available via the Cali- supports retention of local government archival
fornia Digital Library's Online Archive Web site. Ad- records in the locality of origin but shall accept such
ditional descriptive information can also be obtained records when offered if they have enduring informa-
through the Research Libraries Information Network tional value and otherwise would be destroyed.
(RLIN) http://www.rlg.org/rlin.html. Collections in-
Delaware Public Archives
clude California Constitutions, Spanish and Mexican Hall of Records
Land Grants, Family History Resources, Legislative 121 Duke of York Street
Materials, Robert F. Kennedy Assassination Investiga- Dover, DE 19901
tion, California Governors, Supreme and Appellate http://www.state.de.us/sos/dpa/index.htm
Courts, Elections and Political Campaigns, State 302-744-5000
Agencies, and Constitutional Officers. Fax: 302-739-2578
Colorado State Archives The Delaware Public Archives identifies, collects, and
1313 Sherman Street, Room 1B-20 preserves public records of enduring historical and evi-
Denver, CO 80203 dential value to ensure access to public records for present
http ://www. archives. state .co .us/ and future generations of Delawareans and to promote the
303-866-2358 or 303-866-2390, in Colorado toll-free at availability and use of public records. Collections include
1-800-305-3442 agency histories, vital records (births, marriages, and
Fax: 303-866-2257
deaths), census records, Civil War records, naturalization
The Colorado State Archives is the legal repository records, and probate records. An online guide to the col-
for selected historical and contemporary records and lections is available at http://www.state.de.us/sos/dpa/col-
information generated by state and local governments lections/guideintro.htm.
in Colorado. The record holding listings identify gov-
Florida State Archives
ernment records that are currently available for re- R.A. Gray Building
search. Available resources include records from the 500 South Bronough Street
Department of Agriculture, Department of Correc- Tallahassee, Florida 32399-0250
tions, Department of Education, the court and judicial http://dlis.dos.state.fl.us/barm/fsa.html
system, Colorado governors, Civilian Conservation barm@mail.dos.state.fl.us
Corps, Governor's Council of Defense—WWI and II, 850-245-6700
and Colorado Children's Home. Also available are
The core collection is approximately 30,000 cubic
legislative history resources, business incorporation
feet of records documenting the activities of Florida's
records, military records, school records, federal cen-
territorial and state governments from 1821 to the
sus, Colorado tourism files, historic mine report files,
present. Included are gubernatorial records, legislative
railroad records, and the Index to Water Decrees
acts and committee records, Supreme Court case files,
military records, and the records of cabinet officers
Connecticut State Archives and their departments. The Archives maintains a small
Connecticut State Library collection of original public records generated by
231 Capitol Avenue local government agencies throughout the state. Pro-
Hartford, CT 06106 bate, tax, voting, and commission records of different
http://www.cslib.org/archives.htm city, town, and county agencies are among the materi-
860-757-6595 als kept in the Local Government Records Collection,
Fax: 860-757-6521
as well as microfilmed county tax, deed, marriage,
Records from and/or about the following offices: probate, and some birth and naturalization records.
governors; Judicial Department (Supreme Court, Su- Georgia Department of Archives and History
perior Courts, probate courts, and predecessor courts); 330 Capitol Avenue, S.E.
the General Assembly (leaders, committees, special Atlanta, GA 30334
task forces, commissions, and subcommittees); elected http://www.sos.state.ga.us/archives/
state officials; military units and the Adjutant General 404-656-2358
of the Connecticut National Guard; and all other state Fax: 404-657-8427
Primarily official state government records and a The Idaho State Historical Society serves as the
significant collection of local government records state archives and holds a variety of public records
(110,000 cubic feet). The Archives enters descriptions created by state and local governments, such as state
of these records into RLIN (Research Libraries Infor- agencies, counties, and cities. The collection includes
mation Network http://www.rlg.org/rlin.html). The territorial records; papers from most governors; se-
microfilm library contains nearly 30,000 reels of lected vital, financial, and court records; and a variety
Georgia governmental records, selected U.S. records, of other materials. Microfilm materials include Idaho
Georgia county records, tax digests, a few municipal Death Index and Certificates, 1911-1932; a substan-
records, and 1.5 million land grants and plats from tial portion of U.S. Census records; newspapers; and
1755 to 1909. Other important collections include the selected Idaho county records (1864-1920), such as
federal census schedules; Georgia Confederate Ser- vital records, court records, and deeds.
vice and Pension Records; and Colonial, Headright,
Illinois State Archives
and Land Lottery records. By law, city and county
Office of the Secretary of State
boundary changes, as well as city annexations, are Norton Building, Capitol Complex
filed with the secretary of state's office in the archives Springfield, IL 62756
department. In addition, holdings include the state's http://www.sos.state.il.us/departments/archives/archives.
original Surveyor General collection, which lincludes html
over 10,000 county and state maps. 217-782-4682
Fax: 217-524-3930
Hawaii State Archives
Historical Records Branch The Illinois State Archives serves by law as the de-
Kekauluohi Building, Iolani Palace Grounds pository of public records of Illinois state and local
Honolulu, HI 96813 governmental agencies that possess permanent admin-
http://www.state.hi.us/dags/archives/welcome.html istrative, legal, or historical research value. Its collec-
808-586-0329 tions do not include manuscript, newspaper, or other
Fax: 808-586-0330 nonofficial sources. All three branches of state gov-
ernment are represented in 2,443 record series
The primary government records cover the period
arranged under 191 different offices, departments, di-
from the monarchy to the current legislative session,
visions, institutions, boards, the legislature, the
with a total of over 10,000 cubic feet of material. The
largest groups of government records include minutes, supreme court, and several federal agencies whose
correspondence, reports, plans, registers, certificates, records were transferred officially to the state of Illi-
and ledgers documenting activities of the executive nois. The Archives' holdings of state and related fed-
branch agencies from 1840 to the present. Bills, com- eral records are described in Descriptive Inventory of
mittee reports, journals, testimonies, petitions, mes- the Archives of the State of Illinois, Second Edition
sages, communications, and minutes of the legislative (1997). To search this inventory online see http://
branch from 1840 to the present. Judiciary Records www.sos.state.il.us/departments/archives/di/toc.htm.
including nineteenth- and early twentieth-century pro- Indiana State Archives
bate, divorce, criminal, civil, equity, law and admiralty 6440 E. 30th St.
case files, minute books, and wills from 1847 to ca. Indianapolis, IN 46219
1916. Governor's records include correspondence, http: //www. state. in.us/icpr/webfile/archives/homepage .html
speeches, press releases, reports, and proclamations of 317-591-5222
the chief executive of the territory and the state from To search the Indiana State Archives Collections
1900 to 1990. Access is through Hawaii Voyager (on- Database see http://www.state.in.us/icpr/webfile/
line catalog) http://statearchives.lib.hawaii.edu/. INDWEB/FRAME.HTM. The Indiana State Archives
is the official repository of Indiana government
Idaho State Archives
records of permanent historical and legal significance.
Idaho State Historical Society
It principally contains records generated by state gov-
450 N. Fourth St.
Boise, ID 83702 ernment and state agencies, but also holds a major
http://www2.state.id.us/ishs/Lib%26Arch.html collection of county and local government records.
208-334-2620 Records of the executive, legislative, and judicial
Fax: 208-334-2626 branches begin in the 1790s and include papers of
every governor; bills, acts, and reports of the General living in Kansas in 1883, 1889, and 1930, national
Assembly; and proceedings of both the supreme and guard unit histories, correspondence of the adjutant
appellate courts. The lives of Indiana citizens are general, and miscellaneous documents. Microfilm is
recorded in the many ways they intersect with govern- available through interlibrary loan. For other state
ment, including military service, naturalization proce- records from 1861 to the present, visit the Web site.
dures, the state land office, and state institutions.
Kentucky Department for Libraries and Archives
Iowa State Archives P.O. Box 537
State Historical Society of Iowa 300 Coffee Tree Road, off State Highway 676
600 East Locust Frankfort, Kentucky 40602
DesMoines, IA 50319 http://www.kdla.net/arch/arch.htm
http://www.iowahistory.org/archives/index.html 502-564-8300, ext. 252
515-281-6200 Fax: 502-564-5773
The Kentucky State Archives is the central reposi-
The State Archives in Des Moines contains records tory for the permanent public records of Kentucky
created by state offices and agencies that have been state government and many of the Commonwealth's
determined to have permanent historical value. With local governments and judicial offices. Private materi-
the exception of a few confidential records series, the als are not collected. A Guide to the Holdings of the
State Archives is open for public use. Among the ma- Kentucky State Archives contains information on the
terials in this collection are the Secretary of State scope, content, and organization of state and local
Land Office's original land survey notes and plats of government records holdings. Also available is the
the state; Adjutant General's records of Iowa units Catalog of Kentucky State Archives Holdings, with
serving in the Civil War and the Spanish-American over 10,000 descriptions of records series and histo-
War; Supreme Court records; and Iowa governors' pa- ries of many of the government agencies that created
pers. Microfilm of some State Archives records are the records. These are indexed by title, by name of cre-
available in Des Moines and Iowa City. ating agency, by topic, and by record type, searchable
using both words and phrases http://cuadranew.kdla.
Kansas State Historical Society
Kansas History Center net/marcat.htm.
6425 SW Sixth Avenue Louisiana State Archives
Topeka,KS 66615-1099 P.O. Box 94125
http: //www. kshs. org/archive s/index .htm 3851 Essen Lane
785-272-8681, ext. 202 Baton Rouge, LA 70821-9125
Fax: 785-272-8682 http://www.sec.state.la.us/archives/archives/archives-
State archives holdings include the inactive, unpub- index.htm
lished records of state government with enduring
Fax: 225-922-0433
value. The state archives also collects local records
from Kansas counties and towns and is filming local The Louisiana State Archives maintains the follow-
government records. Finding aids are available for ing vital records: Orleans Parish birth records from
some record series, and an electronic, searchable in- 1790-1900; Orleans Parish marriage records from
ventory of archives holdings to the "series" level is 1870-1950; Orleans Parish death records from 1804-
online in the Archives only. Public access to some 1950; and statewide death records from 1911-
archives holdings is restricted because of state or fed- 1950. All marriage records outside of Orleans Parish
eral statutes or administrative regulations that prohibit are maintained by the clerk of court in the parish
or limit their disclosure. Major record series include where the marriage license was purchased. Records
territorial records, 1854-1861; Executive Department, are available from the following agencies or depart-
1854-1861; Legislature, 1855-1861; U.S. District ments: Attorney General, Education, Environmental
Court, 1854-1861; U.S. Surveyor General of Kansas Affairs, Health and Human Resources, Public Safety,
and Nebraska, 1833-1876; and Adjutant General Supreme Court, and Treasurer. Other state records in-
records about Kansas Civil War volunteer regiments clude colonial documents, economic development
and militia or national guard units prior to World War documents, legislative records, and military records.
I, selective service records, enrollments of veterans The earliest parish records on deposit date from the
Spanish colonial period with the largest collection Under each series title are listed the agency, date span,
being from the southwestern portion of the state called and series number. State agency histories and series
the Opelousas Post. The records contained within the descriptions are provided where available. Four other
collection begin in 1764 and continue into the mid- lists included in the "Guide" provide more detailed in-
1800s; however, only records from 1764 to 1803 are formation. The County Agency Series, the Municipal
indexed. Colonial records from the Avoyelles Post dat- Agency Series, and the State Agency Series are list-
ing from 1782 to 1803 are also available. ings of accessioned series from those jurisdictions.
Each lists agencies, series, date spans, and series num-
Maine State Archives
84 State House Station bers and includes original records, records on micro-
Augusta, ME 04333-0084 film, and records on electronic media. The Transferred
http://www.state.me.us/sos/arc/research/homepage.htm State & Local Series is a listing of series transferred to
207-287-5795 the Maryland State Archives which have not been
Fax: 207-287-5739 fully described through archival accessioning proce-
dures. Under each jurisdiction (county, municipality,
The permanently valuable records of state govern-
state agency) are listed agencies, series, date spans,
ment available in the Archives include bills introduced
series numbers, original records, and microfilm. All
in the Legislature; Governor's Executive Orders; elec-
adoptions occurring after May 31,1947 are sealed and
tion returns; deeds to and from the State of Maine;
can be opened only with a court order. Most adoptions
maps from the Land Office; vital statistics; federal
prior to June 1, 1947 are open and available to anyone.
census records from Maine up to 1920; county court
The Archives has birth records for the 23 counties
records dating back to the 1600s; military records
from 1898-1978 and for Baltimore City from
through World War I; Attorney General and State
1875-1978. Death records are available for Mary-
Supreme Court opinions; Marriage Index
land's 23 counties from 1898-1987 and for Baltimore
(1892-1967, 1976-1996); Death Index (1960 to
City from 1875-1987. The Archives has marriage
1996); and Partial Index to Court Records for Ken-
records from most local jurisdictions prior to 1914.
nebec County 1799-1804, Washington County
After that date there are both statewide and local
1839-1845, and York County 1695-1760. The
records, many of which can be found at the Archives.
Archives provides publications in paper and electronic
formats for the agencies of State Government,
Massachusetts Archives at Columbia Point
1820-1971, and other guides such as Black House Pa-
220 Morrissey Blvd.
pers—A Guide to Certain Microfilmed Land Records;
Boston, MA 02125
Counties, Cities, Towns and Plantations of Maine; archives@sec. state.ma.us
Dubros Times: Depositions of Revolutionary War Vet- 617-727-2816
erans; Land and Forests; and Maine and the Nation: A Fax: 617-288-8429
Select Bibliography. The Maine Legislative Index:
1820-1825, 1826-1830, 1831-1835, contains titles of Holdings include colonial charters, treaties, com-
all bills, acts, or resolves, whether they passed or not, pacts, and agreements with Indian tribes and with
indexed by keyword (an electronic version for other states; proceedings of state constitutional con-
1820-1855 is available). Maine Town Microfilm List: ventions; and state legal codes. Legislative records in-
Town and Vital Records, and Census Reports, is also clude files from 1629 to the present; enacted statutes
in an electronic version (see the Web site). and resolves, as well as legislation not enacted; House
and Senate dockets, roll calls, and journals; and com-
Maryland State Archives mittee and legislative commission hearing and back-
350 Rowe Boulevard ground files. State secretary records include
Annapolis, MD 21401 administrative files; initiative and referendum peti-
http://www.mdarchives.state.md.us/ tions; state and national election returns; state regu-
410-260-6400 lation files and register; lobbyist registrations;
Fax: 410-974-2525, in Maryland toll-free at 800-235-4045
municipal home rule charters and acceptances of local
The Web site provides a "Guide to Government option statutes; notices of appointment, lists, and
Records" and includes the Combined Records Series qualifications (oaths of office) of state and local offi-
List, a comprehensive listing of all series titles of gov- cials; census registers and returns; and returns of town
ernment records at the Maryland State Archives. vital records (1841-1905; indexes to 1971). Executive
records include: Governor (1802-present), Council, territorial period to the present day. Materials preserved
Administration and Finance, Consumer Affairs and in the State Archives come from the executive branch of
Business Regulation, Economic Development and state government, including the constitutional officers
Manpower Affairs/Labor, Education, Environmental and state departments, boards, and commissions; the
Affairs, Health and Human Services, Public legislative branch, including the Minnesota legislature
Safety/Adjutant General, Transportation and Con- and its committees, commissions, and officers; and the
struction, Treasurer records, Troy and Greenfield and judicial branch, including the supreme and appellate
other railroad financial records, Attorney General courts, 87 district courts, and antecedent probate, mu-
records, and State Ethics Commission designation nicipal, and justice of the peace courts. Local govern-
lists. Court records include: Supreme Judicial Court ment records include material from Minnesota
and predecessors, Superior and district courts by counties, cities, school districts, townships, and re-
county, and probate and naturalization records. Also gional government organizations. Records include cor-
available are special colonial and early state materials respondence, reports, minutes, memoranda, published
to 1800; transcripts of the Archives of the Plymouth records, maps, photographs, architectural drawings, mi-
Colony, 1620-1691, relating to Indian affairs, includ- crofilm, sound recordings, ephemera, and videotapes.
ing military, trading, and census records; and nine- Available online are informational leaflets on various
teenth-century records of the Guardians of Indians. records from townships, school districts, county super-
Witchcraft records include depositions, examinations, intendents of schools, municipalities, law enforcement
warrants, and other court documents. agencies, county auditors, public libraries, public health
care facilities, historic preservation commissions, wa-
Michigan State Archives of Michigan tershed districts, and soil and water conservation dis-
717 West Allegan Street tricts. The starting point for searching the archives
P.O. Box 30740 collections is the online catalog (PALS).
Lansing, MI 48909-8240
http://www.sos.state.mi.us/history/archive/index.html Mississippi Department of Archives and History
517-373-1408 P.O. Box 571
Fax: 517-241-1658 100 South State Street
Jackson, MS 39205-0571
More than 80 million state and local government http://www.mdah.state.ms.us/
records and private papers dating back to 1797, 601-359-6876
300,000 photographs and 500,000 maps, plus films Fax: 601-359-6964
and audiotapes are available for public research.
The Mississippi Department of Archives and His-
Records in the State Archives are particularly useful
tory collection documents the area known today as
for tracing genealogy; legislative history/intent; land
Mississippi from prehistory through contemporary
surveys; military service; and governmental policy on
times and includes 29,000 cubic feet of records of all
mental health, public health, education, labor, welfare,
type, such as government documents, bound volumes,
and corrections. Archives handout sheets identify all
maps and drawings, photographs, oral histories, and
records in its holdings on specific subjects. As new
video and audiotapes. Holdings include records that
records are received by the State Archives, these ac-
document Mississippi's colonial periods—French,
cessions are added to the handout sheets to keep the
Spanish, and English. Mississippi territorial records
circulars up-to-date. These are listed on the Web site
illustrate the development of American democracy on
along with indexes to naturalization records.
the frontier. State records are organized into 2,400 se-
Minnesota State Archives ries, including legislative records, governors' papers,
345 Kellogg Blvd. W. court documents, and state agency records. In 1998
St. Paul, MN 55102-1906 the records of the State Sovereignty Commission were
archives@mnhs.org made available. The Mississippi State Sovereignty
Commission was formed in 1956, two years after the
U S . Supreme Court outlawed legally imposed racial
segregation in public schools. The organization be-
The State Archives identifies, collects, and preserves came a notorious watchdog agency for maintaining
the historically valuable records of almost 4,000 units racial segregation in Mississippi (see Yasuhiro Kata-
of state and local government in Minnesota from the giri, The Mississippi State Sovereignty Commission,
University Press of Mississippi, 2001). Commission couraged to find repositories for their archival records
records can be viewed in electronic format in the in their locality; however, if such a repository cannot
Search Room and will soon be on the Web site. Copies be found, the records may be deposited with the Mon-
of records can be requested. The Name Index Search tana Historical Society. Currently, the local govern-
and the Folder Title List (both online) expedite re- ment records' strongest areas are marriage records and
search online. naturalization records from the district court clerk's
office and school census records submitted to the Of-
Missouri State Archives fice of Public Instruction by the County Superinten-
State Capitol, Room 208 dent of Schools. Since the Montana Historical Society
600 W. Main Street is in Lewis and Clark County, it has become the local
P.O. Box 1767 repository for that county's records.
Jefferson City, MO 65102
http://www.sos.state.mo.us/archives/ Nebraska State Historical Society
archref@mail.sos.state.mo.us Box 82554
573-751-3280 1500 R Street
Fax: 573-526-4903 Lincoln, NE 68501
More than 120 million pages; 100,000 photographs; http://www.nebraskahistory.org/
12,500 books; 55,000 rolls of microfilm; and 176,000 402-471-4785
microfiche documents comprise the collection. These Fax: 402-471-8922
records include Missouri's history under French and In 1905 the Nebraska legislature designated the His-
Spanish colonial rule, as a U.S. territory, and during torical Society as official custodian of all state and local
early statehood; Journals of the House and Senate; public records of historical value. The Society received
supreme court case files; state agency records; state the designation of state archives in 1969. The archives
government publications; local records inventory stores about 20,000 cubic feet of paper records and close
database (a searchable online database of the invento- to 50,000 rolls of microfilm. The records date from 1854
ries of local government records); and federal census to the present and are available for research in the Li-
schedules for Missouri from 1830-1920. Online in- brary/Archives reference room. The archives, in con-
dexes exist for military records of Missourians from junction with the Records Management Division and
the War of 1812 through World War I, county records each agency, ensures that the important records of state
on microfilm, and birth and death records. government are identified and kept safely for posterity.
Practically every state agency or commission dating
Montana Historical Society from 1854 to the present is represented in the holdings.
P.O. Box 201201 The state archives section works closely with county
225 N. Roberts government in the state. Marriages and divorces, taxes,
Helena, MT 59620-1201 elections, civil and criminal suits, naturalization pro-
http://www.montanahistoricalsociety.com/departments/ ceedings, property ownership, county board decisions,
archives/ and education all have impact and occur at the county
406-444-7482 level. The Archives has records from many of the coun-
Fax: 406-444-2694 ties either on microfilm or in original paper form. These
The Montana Historical Society was the unofficial provide evidence for county residents about taxes paid,
archives of Montana state government from 1865 to social security or insurance entitlements for a spouse,
1969, when it became the official state archives. In ad- property ownership, local ordinances, and many other
dition to the records of executive branch agencies and situations. Efforts to inform local officials of the impor-
elected officials, the State Archives includes records tance of their records have resulted in the acquisition of
of legislative sessions. Minutes of legislative commit- many records by the archives as well.
tees are available, including audiotape recordings of Nevada State Library and Archives
committee meetings from 1995 to the present. Unfor- 100 North Stewart Street
tunately, the legislature did not consistently keep com- Carson City, NV 89701-4285
mittee minutes until the 1960s, although scattered http://dmla.clan.lib.nv.us/docs/nsla/
material can be found even in the records of the earli- 775-684-3360, in Nevada toll-free at 1-800-922-2880
est legislative assemblies. Local governments are en- Fax: 775-684-3330
The State Archives program preserves the records New Jersey State Archives
that document the history of Nevada state govern- Division of Archives and Records Management, Depart-
ment dating back to 1851. It has custody of the his- ment of State
torical records of the territory and state as defined in 185 West State Street CN307
state statute, representing the three branches of gov- Trenton, NJ 08625-0307
ernment. There are more than 10,000 cubic feet of
Fax: 609-396-2454
territorial and state government records and over
10,000 images of Nevada people and places, provid- The division includes state government record
ing visual information that complements the groups. Also accepts county and municipal records
Archives' documentation of Nevada history. The and, selectively, materials relating to New Jersey his-
Archives keeps records arranged by the government tory. Holdings include the official archives of the State
office that created or received them in its course of of New Jersey, including record groups relating to the
business. Holdings include records from Carson executive, legislative, and judicial activities of the
County and Utah and Nevada Territories; Nevada government, and some county and municipal records.
Territorial Records; state officials; executive branch Major groups include military records from the colo-
agencies; licensing and regulatory boards and com- nial period to World War I; judicial records,
missions; special boards and commissions; Supreme 1681-1865; state censuses, 1855-1915; records of the
Court records; Governors; Lieutenant Governors; governors, 1878-1974; and colonial deeds and wills
Secretaries of State; Controllers; Treasurers; Attor- to 1900. Land, marriage, probate, and other records
neys General; and Surveyors General. Online guides for most counties to 1900 are available on microfilm.
are available on the Web site. These are supplemented by a small manuscript collec-
tion dealing with New Jersey history.
New Hampshire
Division of Records Management and Archives New Mexico State Records Center and Archives
71 South Fruit Street Archives and Historical Services Division
Concord, NH 03301 404 Montezuma
http: //www. state. nh .us/state/ Santa Fe, NM 87503
603-271-2236 http://www.nmcpr.state.nm.us/archives/archives_hm.htm
Fax: 603-271-2272 archives@rain. state.nm.us
The Division of Records Management and Fax: 505-476-7909
Archives, an agency under the administration of the
Secretary of State, houses several million archival The State Archives is mandated by law to collect,
items and more than 40,000 cubic feet of current pub- preserve, and make available to the public and all
lic records created by 200 state government agencies. branches of government permanent public records,
Holdings include Executive Records: Governors' mes- historical manuscripts, photographs, and other materi-
sages and letters, Executive Council correspondence als that contribute to the understanding of New Mexico
and minutes; Journals of House and Senate and Peti- history. All records are open for use except those spe-
tions and Acts; Secretary of State records: Corpora- cifically restricted by law. The Division offers refer-
tions, Railroads, Elections, and Miscellaneous; ence assistance on-site, by telephone, mail, or e-mail.
Secretary of the Treasury records; Court records: Su- Online finding aids that describe collections are avail-
perior Court, Court of Common Pleas, County Courts, able through this Web site and through the Online
and General Court Records from 1680 to the present; Archives of New Mexico Web site at archives@rain.state.nm.us
Provincial probate records; Provincial land records; elibrary.unm.edu/oanm/. Holdings include public
Town records: Municipal Records, Road and Highway records containing historical, legal, financial, and ad-
layouts; Land Surveyors' records; Architectural draw- ministrative information relating to New Mexico. In-
ings; Military records: Revolutionary War Rolls, Civil cluded are the Spanish and Mexican archives
War Papers, and Militia. Research aids include the (1621-1846), consisting of official records of govern-
Guide to the New Hampshire State Archives ing agencies and administrators, correspondence, de-
http://www.state.nh.us/state/guide.html. Inventories crees, ordinances, military records, and papers relating
and indexes to individual collections are available in to church matters; records of the territorial govern-
the research area, and some are available online. ment, 1850-1912; District Court Records; the official
papers of governors and elected officials; state agency judicial branch, entries are organized by the current
records; legislative journals and bills; and county major types of courts in the Unified Court System
records 1850-1912. Private papers and collections re- http://www.sara.nysed.gov/pubs/guideabs.htm.
lating to New Mexico history are also acquired.
North Carolina Division of Archives & History
New York State Archives 4614 Mail Service Center
Empire State Plaza 109 East Jones Street
Albany, NY 12230 Raleigh, NC 27699-4614
518-473-7091 archives@ncmail.net
Fax:518-473-7058 919-733-3952
http: //www. archives .nysed. gov/ Fax: 919-733-1354
sarainfo@mail.nysed.gov http://www.ah.dcr.state.nc.us/sections/archives/arch/
The New York State Archives has custody of leg-
islative, judicial, and executive agency records, which Holdings include General Assembly Session
include canals records; criminal trials, appeals, and Records, 1707-1974; Governor's Office Records,
pardons; electoral college; military service records; 1688-Present; Secretary of State's Office Records,
naturalization and related records; probate records; 1663-1959; Literary Board, Board of Education, and
and vital records (birth, death, and marriage). Records Superintendent of Public Instruction's Records; Attor-
Created by Individual State Agencies include those ney General's Office Records; Auditor's Office
from the Department of Correctional Services; the Records; Treasurer's and Comptroller's Office
Joint Legislative Committee to Investigate Seditious Records, ca. 1731-Present; Adjutant General's Office
Activities; the New York House of Refuge; the New Records; Supreme Court Records; and Court Records
York State Factory Investigating Commission; the including Colonial Court, district, and district superior
New York State Legislature; and the New York State courts. Archives Information Circular #9, "North Car-
War Council. Local records on microfilm date from olina Courts of Law and Equity Prior to 1868," in-
1650 to 1975, with the bulk in the 1800-1850 era and cludes details of early courts. A more detailed account
only a few after 1900. The geographical coverage of of North Carolina's courts is available in North Car-
the records is uneven. Most are public records, espe- olina Research: Genealogy and Local History by
cially those of towns. The nonpublic materials micro- Helen Leary (1996). Varying quantities of records cov-
filmed include church registers and minutes, store ering various dates are preserved for many other agen-
ledgers, business and commercial records, and cies of state: Administration; Agriculture; Commerce;
records from private educational institutions. The Community Colleges; Correction; Crime Control and
State Archives' online catalog, Excelsior, provides a Public Safety; Cultural Resources; Elections; Emer-
fully searchable index to all of the records series pre- gency Relief Administration; Ethics; Governor's Of-
served in the State Archives and includes the database fice; Governors' Papers; Human Resources; Insurance;
of the New York State Historic Documents Inventory Justice; Labor; Natural Resources and Community De-
http://www.sara.nysed.gov/holding/opac.htm. A pub- velopment; Revenue; Transportation; University of
North Carolina System; and various boards, such as
lished Guide to Records in the New York State
the Boards of Architecture, Dental Examiners, Medi-
Archives contains information on the complete
cal Examiners, Nursing, and Pharmacy. A Guide to Re-
records holdings of the State Archives as of December
search Materials in the North Carolina State Archives:
1991. There are separate parts for the executive, leg-
State Agency Records is available for purchase.
islative, and judicial branches. The executive branch
part contains an entry for each agency. The entry con-
sists of two sections: an administrative summary of North Dakota State Archives and Historical Research
the agency and a list of agency records, if any, in the State Historical Society of North Dakota
Heritage Center (located on the grounds of the State Capitol)
State Archives. The administrative summary provides
612 East Boulevard Avenue
a brief synopsis of the agency's functions and organi-
Bismarck, ND 58505-0830
zational history. Similarly, entries in the legislative
branch part are organized by the two houses—the as- 701-328-2668
sembly and senate—with a separate subdivision for Fax: 701-328-3710
joint legislative commissions and committees. For the Reference Desk: 701-328-2091
The State Archives and Historical Research Library Governor, Ohio High Speed Rail Authority, Industrial
division of the State Historical Society of North Commission and Bureau of Workers' Compensation,
Dakota is the official state archives and acquires and State Library, Lieutenant Governor, Ohio Veteran's
preserves all types of research materials relating to Children's Home, Ohio Veteran's Home, Public Utili-
North Dakota and the Northern Great Plains, includ- ties Commission, Board of Regents, Secretary of
ing manuscript collections, books, periodicals, maps, State, Treasurer of State; and the departments of Ad-
newspapers, audio and video materials, and photo- ministrative Services, Agriculture, Commerce, Devel-
graphs. The State Archives are the official records of opment, Education, Health, Highway Safety, Human
the state, territory, and political subdivisions pre- Services, Industrial Relations, Insurance, Liquor Con-
served for research purposes. Inventories exist for trol, Mental Health, Mental Retardation and Develop-
many series of records. Cataloged library-archives mental Disabilities, Natural Resources, Rehabilitation
holdings are included in the Online Dakota Informa- and Correction, Taxation, Transportation, and Youth
tion Network (ODIN). A listing of North Dakota Services.
Newspapers held by the State Historical Society is
also available on this Web site, as is a Guide to Manu- Oklahoma State Archives
200 NE. 18th Street
script Collections. The Guide to the North Dakota
Oklahoma City, OK 73105
State Archives, published in 1985, is out of print. A re- http://www.odl.state.ok.us/oar/
vised Guide is available in typescript form. Individual 405-522-3579, toll-free 1-800-522-8116
series of records are also cataloged through OCLC. Fax: 405-525-7804
Ohio Historical Society Holdings include records of most state agencies and
1982 Velma Avenue constitutional officers (i.e. those in the executive
Columbus, OH 43211
branch, such as the governor, lieutenant governor, and
http://www.ohiohistory.org/resource/statearc/index.html, or
http://www.ohiohistory.org/resource/archlib/index.html secretary of state). Among the records of the execu-
614-297-2350 tive, legislative, and judicial branches are official pa-
Fax: 614-297-2352 pers of the governor's office; house and senate bills,
joint resolutions, and concurrent resolutions; supreme
The Ohio Historical Society Archives/Library is, by court case files; secretary of state articles of incorpo-
law, the archives for the State of Ohio and collects, ration; and General Land Office survey records and
preserves, and makes available to the public docu- public land survey corner remonumentation filings.
ments pertaining to the operation of state and local Collections with access through the Web site include
governments. Materials include the Online Death the Index to Oklahoma's Confederate Pension
Index and Youngstown Center of Industry and Labor Records (downloadable as an Adobe Acrobat PDF
Archives/Library (online for 1913-1937). For guide- file), historical maps, index to aerial photographs, pa-
lines for off-site reference requests, see http://www. pers of the Territorial Governors, papers of Okla-
ohiohistory.org/resource/archlib/refemail.html. The homa's Governors, and Surveyors' Field Notes.
State Archives has digitized and made some historical
materials available online through the Ohio Vital In- Oregon State Archives
formation for Libraries (OVIL). Materials include: 800 Summer Street, N.E.
Projects War of 1812 Roster, Fundamental Docu- Salem, OR 97310
ments, Newspaper Index, National Registry of His- http://arcweb.sos.state.or.us/
toric Places, African American Experience in Ohio 503-373-0701
Fax: 503-373-0953
1850-1920, and United States President Rutherford
B. Hayes Diary and Letters. Records Series Finding Guides for documenting state agency records held
Aids (in print and online) are alphabetical by State of by the Archives can be searched online at the Web site.
Ohio Agency from which the records originated and Components include agency history, scope and con-
include records from the Adjutant General, Agricul- tent notes, record series descriptions, image slide
tural Research and Development Center, Attorney show, and Web links. The guides cover several agen-
General, Auditor of State, State Bank, Budget and cies, including the departments of Agriculture,
Management, Bureau of Employment Services, Envi- 1868-1996; Fish and Wildlife, 1901-1987; Forestry
ronmental Protection Agency, General Assembly, 1904-1998; the State Planning Board, 1860-1939; the
Division of State Lands, 1859-1989; and the Water under the agency of origin or under the governmental
Resources Department, 1852-1991. Online guides unit which may have inherited the records and func-
document county records held by the Oregon State tions of a predecessor agency. Records are often fur-
Archives, all 36 Oregon counties, and other reposito- ther classified by subgroups that correspond to
ries. The inventory for each county is arranged alpha- administrative units of the agency or defunct depart-
betically by series title. Because the organization of ments or commissions whose records and functions
offices and their functions, the contents of the records, were transferred to that agency. For purposes of ad-
or the format of records may vary from county to ministrative control, local public records transferred
county, notes have been included where necessary to to the State Archives are accessioned into three record
indicate these differences. In appropriate cases, links groups: Record Group 47, Records of County Govern-
are provided to the Genealogical Information Locator ments; Record Group 48, Records of Municipal Gov-
search page, which typically includes records such as ernments; and Record Group 55, Records of School
probate case files, divorces, and censuses. The Oregon Districts. The records of numerous state departments
State Archives also holds the records of Territorial and and agencies are available on microfilm. The Pennsyl-
State Governors and Legislative records. The Web site vania State Archives is an Affiliated Archives of the
provides searchable descriptions and container listings National Archives and Records Administration, which
of these records. allows them to hold federal records. Records of the
Pennsylvania Historical and Museum Commission National Archives of the United States, which are de-
P.O. Box 1026 posited at the State Archives on permanent loan, are
350 North Street maintained and described in accordance with designa-
Harrisburg, PA 17108-1026 tions established by the National Archives and
http://www.phmc.state.pa.us/bah/dam/overview.htm? Records Administration. The affiliated archives
secid=31/ records currently available for research at the Pennsyl-
717-783-3281 vania State Archives are Records of Brevet General
Fax: 717-705-0482 John Frederick Hartranft as Special Provost Marshal
Though primarily known as the official custodian of for the Trial and Execution of the Assassins of Presi-
the permanently valuable records (Record Groups) of dent Lincoln: National Archives, Record Group 393,
state government and its political subdivisions, the U.S. Army Continental Commands, 1821-1920
Archives is also, to a lesser extent, a repository for pa- http://www.phmc.state.pa.us/bah/dam/aa/rg393.htm.
pers (Manuscript Groups) and records of individuals
and families, businesses, and organizations that have Rhode Island State Archives
statewide historical significance. Included among the 337 Westminster Street
holdings of the Pennsylvania State Archives are more Providence, RI 02903
than 195 million pages of documents and manu- mailto:reference@archives.state.ri.us
scripts; 20,000 reels of microfilm containing some 22
million images of county deeds, wills, mortgages, es-
tate papers, and assessment books. For more informa- The repository maintains the original statewide
tion about the Pennsylvania State Archives, please manuscript filings for birth and marriage for the pe-
refer to the Pennsylvania Heritage magazine article riod 1852-1898 and deaths 1853-1948. Alphabetical
"A Treasure Trove of Historical Records: The Pennsyl- indices for these records include 1852-1900 (birth
vania State Archives" by Sharon Hernes Silverman and marriage) and 1853-1945 (deaths). Additionally,
http://www.phmc.state.pa.us/bah/archives/overview. there are original reported out-of-state deaths record-
htm. Records are arranged and listed by series within ings for the period 1900-1948 (alphabetical index
record groups. Though most of the records groups available) and records of delayed birth filings,
correspond to Executive Branch department-level 1846-1898 (index available). Aside from these origi-
agencies of State Government, groups were also cre- nal manuscripts, the archives also maintains an exten-
ated to describe the archives of the Provincial and sive collection of pre-1852 municipal vital record
Revolutionary governments, the General Assembly, filings (microfilm copies) dating from the earliest
Supreme and Superior Courts, and County and Mu- recordings in Providence, Westerly, Portsmouth, and
nicipal governments. The record series are listed other cities and towns.
South Carolina Department of Archives and History Tennessee State Library and Archives
Box 11669 403 Seventh Avenue, North
Capitol Station, 8301 Parklane Road Nashville, TN 37243-0312
Columbia, SC 29223 http://www.state.tn.us/sos/statelib/tslahome.htm
http ://www. state, sc .us/scdah/ 615-741-2764
803-896-6100 Fax:615-532-5315
Fax: 803-896-6198
Archives and manuscript collections at the Ten-
The South Carolina Archives is a collection of more nessee State Library and Archives generally fall
than 300 years of historical documents recording the within four categories: (1) Archives of the State of
rich and diverse history of the people and government Tennessee, organized as Record Groups; (2) Manu-
of South Carolina. The Archives contains almost all script Collections; (3) Governors' Papers; and (4) Mi-
known public records of South Carolina before 1785 crofilm Collections. For each category the Web site
and nearly complete records of the state government lists processed collections available in that category.
to 1950, as well as many more recent records. In- Follow hyperlinked collection titles for access to find-
cluded are all pre-1860 documents of permanent ing aids. Record Groups are numbered consecutively,
value, either in original form or on microfilm, from all and most are available on microfilm. An alphabetical
South Carolina counties. The department also has ex- listing of available Record Group finding aids is
tensive collections of post-1860 manuscripts and mi- searchable on the Web site. The Archives has papers of
crofilm records of South Carolina's 46 counties. every Tennessee governor beginning with the first ter-
ritorial governor. Most are available on microfilm, and
South Dakota State Historical Society the finding aids are available online. The Web site also
900 Governors Drive lists all records of state departments, agencies, com-
Pierre, SD 57501-2217 mittees, commissions, boards, and the legislature with
http://www.sdhistory.org/archives.htm links to the appropriate finding aids as well as infor-
Archref@state.sd.us mation on the dates covered, the size of the collection,
605-773-3804 and whether or not the records are available in the
Fax: 605-773-6041 originals and/or on microfilm.
As the official repository of state records, the State Texas State Library and Archives
Archives maintains and preserves the documents pro- Box 12927
duced by the executive, legislative, and judicial Austin, TX 78711
branches of South Dakota state government. Many http://www.tsl.state.tx.us/arc/
counties, municipalities, and townships have trans- 512-463-5467
ferred historical records to the State Archives. The Fax:512-463-5430
Archives collection also includes copies of federal Archival holdings representing the official history
records, such as censuses, land records, and files of of state government date as far back as the Spanish
the Bureau of Indian Affairs. Records are filed by se- colonial period and the Republic Era and document
ries according to the agency that created them and the activities of all three branches of Texas government.
date they were received. Most records are kept in The Archives Collection also includes books and
whatever file arrangement that existed when they ar- journals, private manuscripts, photographs, and
rived. Information and finding aids to collections are maps. Brief descriptions of finding aids are available
available on the archive's Web site. The State in the Library Catalog of Texas State Agencies. See
Archives is a member of the South Dakota Library Processed State Records for a list of finding aids to
Network and many of its resources are listed in the the processed records of Texas state agencies. Avail-
online catalog, available in many libraries in the state, able are searchable databases to the Map Collection,
and on the Internet http://sdln.net/. The catalog lists Republic Claims, Confederate Pension Applications,
books, newspapers, serials, and some of the govern- Adjutant General Service Records, and Confederate
ment and manuscript collections. The State Archives Indigent Families List. Records Available on Micro-
publishes information about collections and activities film include: 1867 Voters' Registration; Election
through the State Historical Society's quarterly jour- Registers; Executive Record Books; Nacogdoches
nal, South Dakota History, and its newsletters, His- Archives, which include a variety of records main-
tory Notes and Hoofprints. tained by national, regional, and local officials—
both political and military—of the Mexican govern- with the Public Records Division, the Archives has
ment from the mid-eighteenth into the early nine- some agency and department records, most notably
teenth century; and Texas Convict Record Ledgers records from Tourism and Marketing and its predeces-
and Indexes. For holdings of local records, an index sors and photograph collections from several agencies
of County Records on Microfilm is available online. and departments. The governors' records at the
Utah State Archives Archives contain interactions between the governor's
P.O. Box 141021 office and state agencies and departments. Holdings
Salt Lake City, UT 84114 include records of Attorneys General, boards and
http://www.archives.state.ut.us/ commissions, corporations, Elections, Governors, the
research@das. state.ut.us Legislature, Lieutenant Governors, Municipal char-
801-538-3012 ters, public buildings/state property, Secretaries of
Fax: 801-538-3354 State, and Surveyors. Also included are various
The Archives does not collect personal manuscript records on the Vermont Constitution, proposals of
materials, such as diaries. Government records in- amendment and referenda, 1777 to the present, and
clude annual reports, meeting minutes, legislative manuscript Vermont State Papers.
bills, city ordinances, birth and death records, natural- Virginia
ization records, incorporation records, court and pro- Library of Virginia, Archival and Information Services Di-
bate records, correspondence, publications, and other vision
agency mission-related record series. The Web site 800 East Board Street
gives a list of records in the Archives' permanent Richmond, VA 23219-8000
holdings that have been processed (arranged and de- http://www.lva.lib.va.us/whatwedo/archives/index.htm
scribed) for research use. Some have links to sample 804-692-3888
Fax: 804-692-3556
records for viewing. The online catalog
http://archives.utah.gov/catbegin.htm contains both The official repository for all state records, the
permanent and non-permanent records, but searches archives also accepts public records from the counties
may be limited to only permanent records in the and cities and a wide variety of manuscript materials.
Archives' holdings. The catalog allows a more ad- A comprehensive collection of published local history
vanced search, which includes links to all the possible and genealogy supplements the archives' extensive
agency names, titles, or subjects in the catalog. Most collection of surviving state, county, and city records
records held by the Utah State Archives are not in- and other manuscript holdings. County and city circuit
dexed. Some creating agencies may have indexed court records include original deeds, wills, order
record series, but frequently these are found as an books, case files, and loose court papers dating from
index at the beginning or end of an individual volume the 1600s through the 1940s. The archives provides ac-
or as a separate record series. Such indexes are then cess to the surviving records of Virginia's colonial and
available in paper or on microfilm. A few series are in- revolutionary-era governments, various constitutional
dexed electronically. The Web site lists holdings avail- conventions from 1776 to 1969, and the governor, leg-
able for searching online. islature and state judiciary. There is also an extensive
map collection focusing on Virginia. There is a catalog
Vermont State Archives of state and local government records, military
Redstone Building records, personal papers, family Bible records, ge-
26 Terrace Street, Drawer 09 nealogical notes and charts, church and cemetery
Montpelier, VT 05609-1103
records, business records, maps, and other archival and
http: //vermont-archi ves. org/
manuscript material. Some finding aids are available
Fax: 802-828-2496 online at http://eagle.vsla.edu/bible/virtua-basic.html.
The State Archives also contains the records of the
Holdings of the Archives can be accessed through Colonial and Revolutionary governments, records of
the online catalog ARCCAT http://www.state.vt.us/ the various constitutional conventions, and records of
vhs/arccat/. The Web site also provides a searchable independent state agencies http://www.lva.lib.va.us/
guide that has a summary of the holdings. New links whatwehave/gov/govhist.htm. Record series are di-
to descriptions are added as often as possible. While vided into 18 broad categories according to their
most agency and department records are deposited type and function. The categories are: Board of Super-
visors Records Bonds/Commissions/Oaths; Business When West Virginia became a state, records for the
Records and Corporations/Partnerships; Census Records; counties remained within each county. Microfilm
Court Records; Election Records; Fiduciary Records; Free copies of original county records are available. All
Negro and Slave Records; Justice of the Peace West Virginia counties are included; however, some
Records; Land Records; Marriage Records and Vital county records are incomplete. Records include births
Statistics; Military and Pension Records; Organization and deaths (since 1853), marriages, wills, deeds, sur-
Records; Road and Bridge Records; School Records; veys, estate records, and some circuit court records.
Tax and Fiscal Records; Wills; and Miscellaneous The only significant tax records available are land tax
Records. The Library of Virginia houses both loose books and personal property tax records. The land
and microfilmed county and city records. For more in- records, originally maintained by the State Auditor's
formation on the content of these records, consult the Office and prepared by county assessors, exist from
"Introduction to County and City Records" the date of the counties' formations to the 1930s, and
http://www.lva.lib.va.us/whatwehave/local/ for almost one-half the state's counties through 1959.
intro-county_city_recs.htm. Personal property tax lists for select West Virginia
counties through 1850 are available on microfilm. The
Washington Division of Archives and Records original tax lists are retained at The Library of Vir-
Management ginia, 800 E. Broad St., Richmond, VA 23219. Some
1120 Washington Street SE vital statistics, including death certificates
P.O. Box 40238 (1917-1970) and delayed and regular birth certificates
Olympia, WA 98504-0238 (c. 1880-1919) are available. Most West Virginia and
Virginia census records are available on microfilm
prepared by the National Archives. The census of Vir-
Fax:360-664-8814 ginia, which includes those counties now in West Vir-
ginia, is available for the years 1790 and 1810-1860.
The State Records Collections provide a vital ac- Also available are the Virginia census for 1870 and
count of public government in Washington State, be- slave schedules for 1850 and 1860. West Virginia cen-
ginning with the establishment of Washington sus records include the years 1870, 1880, 1900, 1910,
Territory in 1853 and continuing to the present. In- 1920, and the 1890 Special Census of Union Veterans
cluded among the collection are the papers of each and Widows. Records of service in the colonial wars,
governor, legislative records, court records, records the Revolutionary War, and the War of 1812 can be
from all state agencies, and all of the "official records" found in lists of pensioners and in printed sources.
of the state, including governors' proclamations, exec- The records and index to West Virginia Union troops
utive orders, election results, and the laws as passed (1861-1865) are available on microfilm. Confederate
and signed. Historical records of local governments records of Virginia and West Virginia, with index, are
are collected, preserved, and made available at five re- available on microfilm. Other records on microfilm in-
gional branch archives. These records document clude the veterans' burial file, containing information
county and city governments, special districts, and on servicemen interred in the state prior to 1936.
other local or regional state entities. The Main Records from the Adjutant General's Office provide
Archives branch is in Olympia. The following are re- muster information on men in the National Guard
gional branches: Northwest Region in Bellingham, from 1890 through World War I and other World War I
Southwest Region in Olympia, Central Region in El- enlistments. The Web site has online guides for
lensburg, Eastern Region in Cheney, and the Puget County Court Records on Microfilm, Naturalization
Sound Region in Bellevue. The Web site gives a link records, maps, newspapers on microfilm, and state
to each regional depository. government records.
West Virginia Archives and History Wisconsin Historical Society
The Cultural Center 816 State Street, Madison, WI 53706-1482
1900 Kanawha Blvd. East http://www.wisconsinhistory.org/archives/index.html
Charleston, WV 25305 608-264-6460
304-558-0230, ext. 168 Online access to catalog information on manu-
Fax: 304-558-2779 scripts and public records is available through the
Archives Computer Catalog (ArCat): http://www. Philadelphia; City Archives of Boston; City Archives
wisconsinhistory.org/archives/arcat.html. Holdings of Dallas; City Archives of Hollywood; City Archives
include the records of the governor's office; records of of Portland; City Archives of Richmond; City
state agencies that contain formal minutes of govern- Archives of Venice, Florida; Harris County Texas;
ing boards, committees, commissions, and task Hershey (PA) Community Archives; Irving (TX) Pub-
forces; legal opinions; administrative rulemaking and lic Library; King County (TX) Records and Archives;
legislative files; policy records; selected case files; Mobile (AL) Municipal Archives; Montgomery (AL)
narrative and statistical reports; special study records; City Archives; New York Department of Records;
and selected visual, audio, graphic, cartographic, and New Orleans Public Library, which houses the New
electronic records. Available also are records of local Orleans City Archives; Office of the City Clerk
governments, school districts, and courts, including (Nashua, NH); Philadelphia City Archives; Provi-
County Board proceedings, Common Council pro- dence (RI) Archives; Salt Lake City Records Manage-
ceedings, County and Municipal ordinances and reso- ment and Archives; Seattle Municipal Archives; and
lutions, probate case files, wills, court case files Troup County (GA) Archives. Public libraries and
(including criminal, civil, family, and divorce cases), local historical societies may also be the archival
naturalization records, school district and school repository for the records of the local government in
board reports, tax rolls, and land deeds and their town, municipality, city, or county. Some gener-
grantor/grantee indexes. Pre-1907 birth, death, and alizations can be made about the types of materials
marriage records are available in the Society Library these local government archives acquire, arrange and
and at Area Research Centers. describe, and make available. Most are responsible for
Wyoming Division of Cultural Resources the records of the governing elected body of the city
Barrett Building, 2301 Central or county as well as the records of the office of mayor
Cheyenne, WY 82002 or city/county managers. These governing bodies may
http://wyoarchives.state.wy.us/index.htm be titled county commissions, boards of commission-
307-777-7013 ers, city councils, city commissioners, or aldermen.
Fax: 307-777-3543 The records of such local government agencies in-
clude minutes of meetings, resolutions and ordinances
This unit collects and manages public records from
presented and adopted, correspondence, suits, and fi-
Wyoming state and local governments that have long-
nancial materials. Other local government records that
term administrative, legal, and historical value.
archives may maintain are the records of school
Records are filed under the office of origin. The
boards, police departments, parks and recreation de-
Archives also collects nongovernmental records of
partments, libraries, and local grants and contracts
historical value concerning Wyoming and the western
records. County clerks of courts records are often
United States. The Web site lists Wyoming counties,
sought by the general research public. Types of
State Governors, and Territorial Governors whose
records held by Clerks of courts are suits, civil and
records are available for research at the Archives. The
criminal files; probate records; marriage prenuptial
records from the Secretary of State's office include:
administrative; Wyoming constitutional convention; agreements and divorce settlements; and naturaliza-
legislative; election; appointments, commissions, tion and immigration records. Within the court and
oaths, and bonds; corporation and business records; probate records can be affidavits identifying familial
and executive criminal filings. relationships and the wills of deceased persons.
Locating local government records may be easy if a
LOCAL GOVERNMENT ARCHIVES researcher is only interested in one locality, in which
case a telephone call to the local public library or di-
Within the states many cities and counties have es- rectory assistance for the area will possibly locate an
tablished local government archives and records cen- archives. For researchers seeking information from
ters. Some examples of local government archives are: many different localities, no one method serves to lo-
Bedford (MA) Municipal Archives; Burlington (MA) cate all local government archives. The American As-
Town Archives; Cape May County Clerk's Office; sociation of State and Local History publishes a guide
East Baton Rouge (LA) Clerk of Court's Office; Cir- to State and local historical agencies in the United
cuit Court of Cook County (IL); City Archives and States and Canada, which gives detailed information
Records Division of Henderson, NV; City Archives of about the holdings of local government archives. Also
helpful are state archives, which may maintain links to Although it has not been updated since 1988, the
local government archives on their Web sites and may Directory ofArchives and Manuscript Repositories in
be able to answer questions regarding local govern- the United States (Oryx Press) is still a helpful guide
ment archives and their locations within the state to determining the location of various governmental
through U.S. mail. See the Society of American archives and the types of materials they make avail-
Archivists Web site http://www.archivists.org/. The able for research. Also helpful is the subscription elec-
National Association of Government Archives and tronic database Archives USA, either on CD-ROM or
Records Managers will answer limited inquiries about online, which begin in 1997. Archives USA can be
local government archives. found in research libraries and major university re-
search libraries.
MORE INFORMATION Useful Web sites for general information about repos-
The majority of the information in this chapter was itories holding American governmental records are:
compiled from the Web sites of the represented http://www.uidaho.edu/special-collections/Other.
archives and from archival guides. More information Repositories.html. The Special Collections Depart-
on American governmental records can be found in ment of the University of Idaho maintains an up-
various guides that also contain descriptions of other to-date geographical listing of government and
types of nongovernment archival materials. The Na- nongovernment archives in the United States and
tional Inventory of Documentary Sources (NIDS),
published by Chadwyck Healy Inc., was issued in
html. This is a selective guide to finding archives
paper and microfiche from 1982 to 1991. Included in and manuscript collections and includes a list of
Parts 1 and 2 (published in paper) is information on national archives and libraries, college and univer-
federal records, the National Archives, presidential li- sity collections, and historical society archives.
braries, and the Smithsonian Institution. Parts 3 and 4 http://www.archives.gov/. National Archives and
(published in microfiche) include information on Records Administration's Web site gives extensive
holdings of state archives as well as some local gov- and current information about the various depart-
ernment archives. Since 1992 NIDS has been issued ments of NARA, plus contact information and re-
on CD-ROM. The National Inventory of Documentary search procedures. The Web site also gives links to
Sources may not be found in small public libraries, but other agencies.
can usually be found in college and university li-
braries, as well as large public libraries.
Genealogical Archives
Russell P. Baker

The term genealogical archives, as used in the United collections draw researchers from a cross section of
States, has several different meanings. It can refer to our varied, polyglot people, whose ethnic and cultural
an archival institution, such as the Maryland State roots span the world. Although few of us can truly
Archives in Annapolis, Maryland, that collects and prove that European kings or African princes lurk in
maintains the kinds of historic manuscripts, public our family's past, we as Americans take an inordinate
records, publications, microfilm, and other materials pride in the many just plain folks who populate our
that are the principal sources of information for ge- family trees, be they English convicts, French trap-
nealogists and family historians. It also refers to a pers, or Cherokee maidens. Researchers looking for
large collection of genealogical material housed in an these populist ancestors fit into no single ethnic, cul-
institution such as the Genealogical Research Library tural profile, or age category. At any given time,
of the National Society of the Daughters of the Amer- archival search rooms and library stacks can be
ican Revolution in Washington, D.C. In fact, records crowded with patrons with ages ranging from preteens
of potential interest to genealogists can be found in al- to the elderly. Here the casually dressed tourist rubs
most any facility that houses historic records, be it a shoulders with the business-suited professional. Gen-
state archive, a local historical society, a public or pri- eration X'ers work side by side with baby boomers
vate library, or the basement of a local courthouse. and senior citizens. Unlike traditional academic re-
Genealogical archives, unlike more traditional searchers who may use a particular collection of pri-
archives that concentrate upon one or two major polit- mary source material once or twice during their
ical, economic, religious, or cultural figures, groups, professional careers, genealogical researchers, whose
or events, are much more broadly focused in what family history work is never done, often are daily vis-
they acquire. Genealogical records contain the infor- itors to the archives. In fact, many archival institutions
mation one needs to retell the lives of the quintessen- call upon these kinds of patrons when seeking volun-
tial American everyman and everywoman, regardless teers, fund-raisers, and goodwill ambassadors.
of their class, culture, or religion. They chronicle the
seemingly mundane everyday activities and family in-
terconnections that form the grist for the genealogist's WHAT IS IT—GENEALOGY?
mill. However, because genealogy is all about locating Genealogy, or family history (the terms are used in-
information relating to families and family connec- terchangeably), is a popular American hobby that is
tions, family researchers can be found clamoring for slowly evolving into an auxiliary historical discipline.
admittance at almost any archival institution. Its popularity has had an immense impact upon
Genealogical archives also differ from other public archives and libraries across the country. This is espe-
archives in the demographics of their patrons. Instead cially true for institutions that house large collections
of attracting academic researchers, college students, of biographical, religious, cultural, or ethnic material.
or professional historians exclusively, genealogical A clear understanding of the basics of genealogical re-
search coupled with some insight into the genealogi- houses, jargon, literature, Internet Web sites, national
cal mindset or paradigm will benefit both the potential conferences, and genealogical superstars.
genealogist and the genealogical reference provider. None of these events by themselves can account for
Such an understanding is essential for the successful the fact that hunting for one's ancestors has become a
completing of a genealogical research project. national obsession in the United States. However, col-
At its core, genealogy is an activity that seeks to lo- lectively, they convinced many people that their an-
cate, document, and preserve the story of one's ances- cestors also had a lost story worth finding, recording,
tors; or in Alex Haley's immortal words, one's "roots." and preserving. For the first time, Americans from all
Genealogists search through collections of primary lifestyles began to feel a vital connection with the
source materials seeking information on births, events that shaped the story of the past. Curiosity
deaths, and marriages within their families with a about one's ancestors continues to lead researchers to
view toward tracing direct descent from one genera- libraries and archives throughout the country. It has
tion to another. In the past, genealogists often ended spurred an unprecedented interest in the American
their research after producing pedigree charts and Civil War. It has spawned a growing awareness of
family group sheets on their immediate family. How- America's cultural and ethnic diversity and has given
ever, within the past few years, as genealogical edu- birth to the specialized subfields of African American
cation has improved and genealogists have become and Native American research. Organizations based
more sophisticated in their approach to understanding upon an ancestor's race, country of origin, religious
historic sources, many family historians have ex- affiliation, or prior military service attract thousands
panded their interests into a number of allied fields. of members annually. It is often said to be the second
More than just a few now seek to understand the lives most popular activity on the Internet.
of their ancestors in the cultural and historical context However, there is more to America's new fascina-
of the period in which they lived. Searching for one's tion with the past than just hunting for one's ancestors.
roots often serves as a springboard into an avid inter- It is a collective search for self-discovery, a quest for
est in military, religious, political, and cultural history. personal roots in a rootless society. It is a constant
More important than a textbook definition, is an un- seeking for answers to the question, "Who am I and
derstanding of the paradigm or the mindset of the ge- where did I come from?" For this reason, everyone in
nealogist. The "what makes the genealogists tick" the United States is a prospective genealogist. It is this
definition. Interest in one's ancestors is at least as old drive to establish a personal identity that creates for
as the Hebrew Bible and is a feature of many ancient genealogists and family historians an intensity of in-
and modern societies. During the Middle Ages, prov- terest and singleness of purpose that often perplexes
ing or disproving royal descent was one of the preoc- archivists, librarians, record keepers, and county offi-
cupations of noble families of Europe. Americans, on cials.
the other hand, have historically been too busy taming
the wilderness and establishing a new nation to devote HOW DO I DO GENEALOGICAL
much time to looking into the stories behind their own RESEARCH?
family's roots. However, this preoccupation with all
Unfortunately, not all patrons who show up at ge-
things present changed about four decades ago as the
nealogical archives are trained and experienced family
result of a series of events that caught the public's at-
historians. Many are researchers just beginning their
tention and focused it upon the nation's past. One was
journey in search of their roots. The following are a
the Civil War Centennial from 1961 to 1965, and the
few basic rules of the road designed to help budding
other was the American Revolution Bicentennial in
family historians prepare for the research experience.
However, it was an airing of the dramatic story
Charts and Forms
Roots that changed the face and character of American
genealogy. Based upon the family history research of Pedigree charts: The judicious use of pedigree
Alex Haley, Roots is the story of one family's journey charts and family-group sheets can aid both beginning
from slavery to freedom. What had been a quirky researchers and the reference staff members they call
hobby practiced by a few devotees suddenly mush- upon for assistance. Most archives and libraries with
roomed into a national mania that has since grown genealogical patrons keep a supply of these forms on
into a million-dollar industry, with its own publishing hand for patron use or for photocopying. Copies can
also be downloaded from genealogical Web sites or Computer genealogy programs: A number of ge-
printed from genealogical programs in commercial nealogy programs are currently on the market. Re-
computers. Pedigree chart, fill-in-the-blank forms searchers should compare several versions to see
with origins in Medieval Europe, are simple devices which meets their particular needs. The most expen-
that allow researchers to record information on each sive is not necessarily the best. Laptop computers
direct ancestor, generation by generation. They can be loaded with a genealogical program are useful tools
obtained in charts covering four, five, or more genera- for research trips. However, not all archives permit
tions. Using known information, researchers begin their use. Older facilities may not have electrical out-
their genealogy by recording data on themselves. They lets suitable for laptops. Getting them past security
then work backward trying to record the birth, death, checks at airport and in public buildings may also be a
marriage, and so on, for as many generations as possi- problem. The careful researcher always has pencil and
ble. Custom dictates that researchers record their pa- paper on hand as backup equipment.
ternal line at the top of the chart and their maternal
line at the bottom. After completing this chart, the re-
searcher can begin planning for the research needed to "WHERE DO I BEGIN?"
fill in the missing information. The most frequently asked question by beginning
Family-group sheets: A much more recent addition genealogists is "Where do I begin?" Since successful
to the genealogical arsenal of charts and forms is the genealogical research is based upon a systematic re-
family-group sheet. This is a device used to collect search plan, it is one of the most important questions.
expanded information on each couple recorded on the Unlike a typical historical research project, which is
pedigree chart. When it was introduced into the field preoccupied with the past, genealogical research is all
of family history after World War II, it brought about about connecting the present to the past and finding
a revolution in research by encouraging genealogists the connections between the researchers and their an-
to shift from collecting data on one individual ances- cestors. Thus, the correct place to begin is with one-
tor at a time to collecting data on the ancestral family. self, and the proper direction for research is from the
Unlike pedigree charts that more or less have a stan- present to the past. Avoid the mistake of trying to
dard form, family-group sheets come in a variety of begin with some assumed ancestor in hopes of finding
configurations, sizes, and shapes. Researchers should a link between the past and present. This approach
shop around for a style that meets their particular re- typically leads to frustration, disappointment, and a
search needs. Genealogical reference sections often search for a new hobby. A much more productive ap-
have a variety of styles for patrons to copy. The most proach is to begin with oneself, one's parents, one's
effective ones are those that provide space for record- grandparents, and so on, and then work backward. The
ing the source or documentation of each piece of in- old genealogical adage is correct, "the successful road
formation recorded on the form. See William to the past begins in the present."
Dollarhide's Genealogy Starter Kit for several inex- Lack of preparation is another mistake often made
pensive forms. by beginning genealogists. It is the leading cause of
The research log: One of the newer tools for the researcher disappointment and burnout. Unfortu-
family history researcher is the research log. This is a nately, many would-be genealogists arrive at an
simple form that allows the researcher to keep a run- archive without a clear idea of what they are seeking.
ning list of the records searched, the rolls of microfilm According to the Arlington, Va.: National Genealogi-
viewed, and the titles of publications scrutinized by cal Society's (2003) tips for beginners, http://www.ngs
day or by research trip. Keeping a good research log genealogy.org/edugetstart.htm "Getting Started...,"
can be a lifesaver when trying to identify a photocopy "Personal knowledge can form the first limbs of your
that has no source information or when trying to deci- family tree." A search of family sources usually turns
pher a strange notation on one's family-group sheet. It up family surnames, dates of births and deaths, and
can also save research time by preventing duplication other information that provide additional clues to in-
of research effort. There are several commercial ver- terfamily connections. Family Bible records, copies of
sions of research logs available or researchers can birth, death, and marriage certificates may also be lo-
make their own. Everton Publishers, Inc., at P.O. Box cated. Do not overlook obituaries, wedding invita-
368, Logan, Utah, 84323-0368, has a number of dif- tions, anniversary articles, and so on. Collections of
ferent styles of charts, group sheets, and research logs. photographs are also rich sources of genealogical in-
formation. This type of information can be used to tional network of record keeping, such as those of
begin the process of filling out pedigree charts and African American and Native American cultures.
family-group sheets. As the charts take shape, ques- Collections of historical oral material often find
tions will emerge that will help give direction to the their way into genealogical archives. Two excellent ex-
overall research. According to the Maryland State amples are the narrative biographies of ex-slaves
Archives in "The First Steps to Take," http://www. housed at the Library of Congress, now published in
mdarchives.state.md.us/msa/refserv/genealogy/html/ The American Slave: A Composite Autobiography
genstart.html, researchers should "analyze exactly (Westport, Conn: Greenwood Publishing Company,
what objects need to be achieved" with their research. 1972) series, and the reminiscent personal histories in
"What do I want to find out with this research?" is al- the Indian Pioneer History Collection at the Okla-
ways an appropriate question to ask. homa Historical Society. Information gleaned from
oral history, as useful as it might be, should always be
Networking with Family and Friends examined in the light of the historic record. Some
family stories may prove to be more fancy than fact.
Family members can also be a vital source of ge-
Others may attribute actions of one ancestor to some-
nealogical information. The National Genealogical
one else entirely.
Society suggests, "Contact family members" and "ask
questions about their lives and those of other family
members. Where did they live—what part of the coun-
Read a Good Book
try—what kind of dwelling? Did they move around There is currently an excellent selection of books
while growing up? When were their relatives born; about all aspects of genealogical research on the mar-
when did they die?" (National Genealogical Society ket. They range from those designed for the beginning
Web site). Ask family members about photographs, researcher to the works dealing with African Ameri-
old letters, and other memorabilia. Inquire if anyone can and Native American research. (See the bibliogra-
else in the family has already conducted genealogical phy at the end of this chapter for a selected list.)
research. Write letters, make telephone calls, and use Instructional videos and audiotapes are also available.
E-mails to ask questions about long lost family mem- One can also access instruction on family history re-
bers. Genealogical Web sites on the Internet, though search over the Internet. Many local historical and ge-
they should not be substituted for genuine genealogi- nealogical societies and community colleges have
cal research, often contain useful information for the periodic classes and workshops on the subject. The
beginner. Some popular Web sites are http://www. well-prepared researcher finds genealogy an absorb-
familysearch.org/, http://www.usgenweb.com/, and ing and fulfilling hobby. Time invested in doing one's
http://www.ancestry.com/. Some Web sites contain homework and learning the basics of research is time
free information, while others require the user to reg- well spent.
ister and pay a fee. Explore the free Web sites first.
Some cultures have a rich heritage of passing along
family history and family traditions through song, sto- Since most genealogists begin their research in
rytelling, and even dance. Such oral traditions can be local libraries, a first visit to an archival institution
a gold mine of genealogical data as they retell impor- often results in cultural shock. Although both libraries
tant positive events, such as marriages, births, emanci- and archives may have many collections of books and
pations, and so on, or significant negative events, such other publications, the two institutions can differ
as crime, incest, murder, hard times, and so on. Re- widely in their operating procedures. Archives, be-
gardless of the nature of such traditions, the family re- cause they deal with irreplaceable historical material,
searcher can ill afford to ignore them. The researcher are by nature more restrictive then some other institu-
must use these oral histories as positive signposts to tions. The regulations may also differ from archive to
important milestones in the family history and avoid archive. Genealogical patrons commonly complain
making moral judgements concerning an ancestor. about the restrictive nature of the policies in archives.
Oral history is especially useful in researching mem- This usually arises when the patron is not aware of the
bers of cultures that often operated outside the tradi- policies in advance. A very useful tactic on the part of
genealogists is "always know before you go." Infor- tions on photocopying original material, using com-
mation on rules, regulations, and procedures can eas- puters, using tape recorders, using personal copiers
ily be obtained through a telephone call, a letter, or an and scanners, and so on, without prior permission. A
E-mail to the institution at hand. A search on the Inter- simple telephone call, letter, or E-mail will save the
net is also an excellent way to obtain copies of potential patron countless hours of frustration and em-
archival policies. New patrons should always read all barrassment.
information carefully and ask for any clarifications or
exceptions in writing before they visit. Those who feel Use of Material
that archival restrictions are burdensome should pur-
sue their research interest elsewhere. Archival patrons are also often shocked to learn that
they cannot bring items such as boxes, bags, suitcases,
Registration and Security food, water bottles, hand-held scanners, laptops, and
pets into research areas. Such items, except for pets,
By the nature of their operations, archives are very usually must be stored in lockers provided by the
security conscious. Now, due to the threat of interna- archives. Items taken into the research area are usually
tional terrorism, security at all public facilities, in- subject to search afterward. There may be additional
cluding archives, has been heightened. Most archives restrictions on researchers wishing to use original
require all potential patrons to show a current driver's manuscript materials. Patrons may be required to use
license or a military identification, a valid passport, or pencils while taking notes. They may be required to
other photo identification before they enter any re- ask for staff permission before making photocopies.
search area. Patrons may also be required to complete In some instances, the researcher may be required to
a registration application, giving complete name, cur- wear gloves while handling original materials. Such
rent address, and telephone number. In some institu- restrictions are designed to protect the archives' hold-
tions, patrons are required to wear a photo ings and to prevent theft. Historians who are aware of
identification badge while in the facility. In many archives' policies and procedures in advance will have
places, bags, purses, briefcases, boxes, packages, and far fewer surprises during their research than those
so on, must be left in lockers outside of the research who do not.
area or be subject to search upon leaving the facility.
Firearms or weapons of any kind except those carried
Hours of Operations
by law enforcement officers or military personnel on
duty are usually not allowed. Most facilities do not Unlike academic archives that often tailor their
allow pets of any kind in the archives. schedules to fit the school year, most archives with ge-
nealogical collections are usually open throughout the
Availability of Collections and Prior year. However, some may operate on a split schedule,
Approval being open on weekends but closed on Mondays or
some other day during the week. Local historical soci-
One major difference between archives and libraries
eties and smaller archives may be open only one or
is the availability of collections. In libraries research
two days per week. State, federal, and local holidays
materials are usually available when the institution is
also affect archival operations. Public offices, includ-
open. Archives, on the other hand, often house manu-
ing archives, are closed on Columbus Day in Alabama
scripts, publications, photographs, or even microfilm
while those in Arkansas are open. It is a relatively sim-
collections that may not be available without prior ap-
ple matter for potential patrons to telephone before-
proval. While most traditional genealogical collec-
hand or check with the appropriate archival Internet
tions are usually unrestricted, use of other types of
Web site for hours of operation and holiday schedules.
archival material may be much more limited. Besides
prior approval, which may take the form of a letter of
application stating the purpose of the patron's research Orientation
or a letter of reference, some collections may require a Public research areas in genealogical archives are
signed release form from the original record holder. often divided into specialized work areas. There might
Patrons wishing to see a particular collection should be a section devoted to microfilm, an area for pub-
inquire about its availability before finalizing their lished material, another for manuscript items, and yet
travel plans. Researchers may also encounter restric- another for photocopying. Each area may have its own
finding aids, collection catalogues, indexes, and even writing, keep in mind that not all records are pub-
its own regulations. Other areas may be off limits to lished, abstracted, indexed, or are in a computer data-
all but staff members and specially authorized pa- base. The answers to some genealogical questions
trons. It is always appropriate to ask a staff member or may require years of devoted research.
a volunteer for an orientation tour of public research
areas, or at the very least, request a map that shows Fees and Photocopies
various research locations. It is also always appropri-
ate to ask about the location of rest areas, drinking Fees and the availability of photocopies vary from
fountains, restrooms, and so on. archive to archive. Some institutions have excellent
photocopying equipment. Others have antiquated
Special Needs Patrons equipment or none available at all. Patrons should
come equipped to copy material by hand if necessary.
Research patrons with special needs should always Some kinds of archival material may be copied while
contact the archive in advance of a visit. Most public other kinds may not. In some institutions, staff mem-
facilities built within the past two decades are bers make all the photocopies; in others, patrons make
equipped to meet the reasonable needs of all users. their own. In some archives, patrons must bring their
However, many genealogical collections housed in own change; others may have change machines. Some
older courthouses, on the upper floors of libraries, or archives, especially those operated by private and reli-
in the basements of churches are not equipped to meet gious organizations, may charge a daily or per-item
all special needs. Locating convenient handicap park- use fee. Some may also charge a research fee for staff
ing can also be a challenge, especially for older facili- assistance. Other fees may cover parking or locker
ties that have no on-site parking. Patrons with special use. It is always convenient to inquire about archival
visual needs should inquire in advance about the fees in advance.
availability of magnification lenses, enlargement
equipment, and so on. Patrons in wheelchairs or on
walkers should ask beforehand about available eleva-
tors, ramps, and handicap-accessible emergency exits. Most historic material used for genealogical re-
search is in the public domain. This includes records
Reference Requests created by federal, state, county, and local govern-
ments at the public expense, which are not subject to
Many archives with genealogical collections em- the copyright laws. However, genealogical researchers
ploy staff members who can answer patron inquiries should be aware of possible copyright restrictions if
in person or by telephone, letter, or in some cases they plan to use private manuscript collections that
E-mail or fax. However, the responsibility for doing contain twentieth- and twenty-first-century material.
the research rests primarily with the patron. Archival Usually copyright questions arise if patrons plan to
staff members cannot do extensive research for pa- publish sizable portions of a document or entire docu-
trons. In many cases, genealogical facilities can fur- ments. Questions about copyright issues should be ad-
nish out-of-town patrons with a list of professional dressed to the archival staff in advance.
researchers. Patrons who request information by tele-
phone or mail are more likely to receive a positive an-
swer if their request is in the form of a question. For
example, a researcher asking for "all the information An archive is not a place for casual chatter, family
you have on the Baker Family" will usually receive a visits, or disruptive horseplay. It is an institution de-
form letter referring the researcher to a professional voted to serious research. Noise from personal equip-
researcher. However, a specific question such as "Do ment should be kept to a minimum. Patrons with
you have the Arkansas Confederate Pension records of cellular telephones, laptops, tape recorders, or other
Patrick Henry Baker of Pike County?" usually elicits a electronic equipment should obtain permission in ad-
reply about the availability of such a record and the vance before using them in the archives. Research fa-
cost of receiving a photocopy. Patrons should also re- cilities are not usually equipped to meet the needs of
frain from bombarding genealogical archives with patrons with babies or small children. Some archives
lengthy letters containing numerous requests for in- only admit professional researchers to their search
formation. The best inquiry is a short inquiry. Before areas. Archival patrons should avoid loud and lengthy
conversations with other researchers, family mem- records of many Americans. Many state vital records
bers, or reference personnel. Archive users should en- bureaus also maintain Web sites. There are now sev-
deavor to keep a respectful demeanor toward staff eral published statewide death indexes available for
members and cheerfully comply with their requests. research. Death indexes tend to be much more acces-
Those who consistently violate posted rules and regu- sible than birth records. Internet Web sites such as the
lations may be asked to leave the archives. Patrons USGenWeb Project (http://www.usgenweb.com) can
witnessing disruptive behavior should report it to a yield additional information on state and local vital
staff member at once. records.

BASIC GENEALOGICAL SOURCES Social Security and Railroad Retirement

Archives in the United States are unusually rich in Records
genealogical source material. Researchers who sys- Genealogical researchers looking for present-day
tematically search through the following six categories vital records now have several additional resources
of historic records should find much of the information available to them. These records are kept by the Social
they need to conduct a successful and rewarding re- Security Administration and the Railroad Retirement
search. Potential archival patrons should inquire about Board. Within the past few years, the federal govern-
the availability of these kinds of records before plan- ment has released certain information from the files of
ning a research trip. A visit to the institution's Web site, deceased social security beneficiaries. It includes the
a telephone call, or a letter asking for a description of name, the date of death, the place of death, and the so-
genealogical holdings is always appropriate. cial security number of the deceased. These records
are accessible at many genealogical archives through
Vital Records search databases or on the Internet. More detailed in-
Vital records contain information about an individ- formation, including full name, date and place of
ual's birth, death, marriage or divorce, and in some ju- birth, names of parents, occupation, date and place of
risdictions, adoption. They are usually created and application, and so on, can be ordered from the Office
maintained by an agency of local, county, or state gov- of Central Records Operations in Baltimore, Mary-
ernment, such as a health department. Present-day re- land, 21201, by completing a form called "Social Se-
searchers are often surprised to learn that preserving curity Number Record Third Party Request for Extract
such records, now considered a necessity, was not or Photocopy." This is an especially useful tool for lo-
often practiced in the past. While New Hampshire has cating family members that are currently missing.
some vital records that date back to 1640, Georgia did However, researchers should keep in mind that the so-
not begin keeping them until 1919. Vital records from cial security system did not begin until 1936 and that
the past are often more incomplete than their modern not all Americans were required to participate in the
counterparts. Vital records relating to minority com- system until the 1960s.
munities may be very incomplete or nonexistent. In the twentieth century, an additional government
Unlike many European counties, there is no central retirement system, the railroad retirement system,
repository of vital records in the United States. Each similar in many respects to social security, began op-
state or locality has custody of its own records. Be- eration for the benefit of retired railroad workers. Files
cause of this, public access to such information varies for individual workers contain a gold mine of ge-
from state to state. In some areas, records are open to nealogical data. Contact the Railroad Retirement
all researchers. In others, their use is severely re- Board, 844 N. Rush St., Chicago, Illinois, 60611-
stricted or not permitted at all. In some cases, records 2092, for more information.
must be more than 50 years old before they can be
used for research. In some jurisdictions, duplicate U.S. Census Records 1790-1930
copies of vital records are kept at the local or county
level and may be used there. Copies of older records Population Schedules
may also end up in archival collections. Thomas Jay Since the quality and quantity of vital records vary
Kemp's International Vital Records Handbook (Balti- greatly from state to state, a much more consistent
more, Md.: Genealogical Publishing Company, many source for genealogical information within the United
editions) is an extremely useful tool for locating vital States is found in the records created by the decennial
U.S. Census Bureau. Individual and household infor- York and Kansas, also conducted state censuses be-
mation from these national enumerations, taken every tween the standard dates of the national census. For
10 years since 1790, is currently available through more information on state censuses, see Ann S. Lain-
1930. These records form the most widely available hart, State Census Records (Baltimore, Md.: Ge-
source of historical data in the country. Microfilmed nealogical Publishing Company, 1992).
copies of the census records are a major part of the
collections of most genealogical archives. Copies of Soundex Indexes
some census records are also available on CDs and on
the Internet. The census records that most genealo- A series of Soundex indexes were added to the U.S.
gists use are population schedules, which list family censuses during the 1930s that used a phonetic index-
information, such as names, ages, places of birth, as ing system. These indexes cover most states and terri-
well as others. These population schedules are re- tories for censuses that were taken from the years
markably complete, except for those from 1890, 1880 through 1920. The 1930 Soundex index covers
which were mostly destroyed in a fire in 1921. They only some southern states. While these indexes are
are arranged by territory or state, then by county, dis- often incomplete, they are very useful for locating
trict, or parish. In many cases, they are further subdi- families whose whereabouts are unknown, especially
vided into minor civil divisions (MCD) called those families with children. To use the Soundex in-
townships, districts, beats, or divisions. The publica- dexing system, the family surname is coded into an al-
tion of the first computer-generated indexes to these phanumeric number. For example, under this system,
records, beginning about 1970, revolutionized ge- the surname Bowen and several similar family names
nealogical research in the United States. In the 1990s become B500 and are listed under that code number.
additional census indexes began appearing on CDs Consult Bradley W. Stuart, The Soundex Daitch-
and on the Internet. Currently there are census indexes Mokotoff Reference Guide (Bountiful, Utah: Precision
available for most states from 1790 through 1870. Indexing, 1994) for information on coding names.
However, the genealogical researcher should note that
these indexes are often incomplete or distorted. Re- Special Schedules
cently, several Web sites have started to offer digital
copies and indexes of US. census records for a fee. In 1850, a number of special census schedules were
One such site is http://www.ancestry.com/ (MyFam- created along with the population schedule. Unfortu-
ily.com, Inc.). Unfortunately, the quality of many of nately, many special census schedules, except for
these digital copies leaves much to be desired. those from 1850 through 1880, have not survived.
These special schedules, available in many genealogi-
Early population schedules, those from 1790
cal archives, are agriculture, or farm census, the slave
through 1840, usually only listed the name of the head
schedules for southern states (1850 and 1860), the
of the house, the number of family members, age of
census of manufacturing, the mortality schedules,
persons, and the number of males, females, free per-
schedules entitled social statistics, among others. Of
sons of color, and slaves of the household. However, at
these, the two most important for genealogical re-
the beginning of 1850, census records began listing
search are the mortality schedules, a listing of persons
more detailed information about each individual of
who died the year the census was taken, and the agri-
each household. The list started to include the name,
culture census, an enumeration of farmers and farm
age, sex, race, and state or county of birth of each
operations. Check archival Web sites for information
household member. In 1880, additional information
on these special census schedules.
was added detailing the state or county of birth of both
parents. The 1900 schedules added information on the
month and year of birth for each individual. Schedules Newspaper Files
from 1900 to 1930 also contain important information U.S. newspapers date their beginnings back to 1690.
on immigration, marital status, home ownership, em- Many genealogical archives possess excellent files of
ployment, and so on. Tax or voter registration records state, regional, and local newspapers, usually on mi-
can often be substituted for missing or destroyed cen- crofilm. Searching these files most often produces
sus. For more information, see William Dollarhide, obituaries, birth announcements, marriage notices,
The Census Book (Bountiful, Utah: Heritage Quest, and other types of information rich in family connec-
1999). A number of individual states, such as New tions. Additional clues to family affairs are often
found in other sections of newspapers, such as legal of genealogical importance. Records relating to U.S.
notices, community news notes, and feature articles. military service are usually available at the National
The publication of abstracts and indexes to newspaper Archives in Washington, D.C. Most archives with ge-
files has become common in recent years. Religious, nealogical collections also have copies of service
professional, or fraternal publications should also be records relating to the men and women who lived in
consulted. Internet sources often provide researchers areas served by their institution. The Civil War con-
with information on an institution's holdings of news- federate pension records are usually held in state
papers and similar publications. archives in former confederate states. Local and state
archives may also house information concerning vet-
County and Local Records erans' organizations or inmates at local veterans'
homes. Lists of obituaries, death notices, and location
County and local records are other invaluable
of burial for veterans are also commonly available.
sources for genealogy and family history information.
See James C. Neagles, US. Military Records: A Guide
Records in this category usually include marriages,
to Federal and State Sources Colonial American to the
divorces, estate matters, deeds, tax records, court
Present (Salt Lake City, Utah: Ancestry, 1994). The
records, lawsuits, and so on. They can provide infor-
Internet is also a good source of information on mili-
mation useful in calculating the events of life such as
tary service information, unit histories, muster rolls,
death, marriage, and migration. They can also be used
and so on, especially for the Civil War.
to show interfamily relationships. Most genealogical
archives have collections of local county records
available on microfilm or in hardcopy Archives are ADDITIONAL SOURCES
usually more than willing to provide information on After searching through the basic types of records
their holdings of county and local records to potential available for research, family historians may wish to
patrons. Similar information may also be available on look for additional information on family history in
the archives' Web sites. more nontraditional source materials. The following
categories of such records are often available at the
Military Records genealogical archives. Potential researchers should in-
U.S. military service and pension records, which vestigate guides, shelf lists, central card catalogues,
began during the colonial period, are yet another po- finding aids, and possible Internet Web sites for possi-
tential treasure trove of information for the family his- ble holdings of this material. A telephone call, a letter,
torian. While most genealogists are familiar with at or an E-mail about the availability of certain kinds of
least some of the records relating to service in the records is always appropriate. Potential patrons should
Revolutionary War or the Civil War, many do not real- also keep in mind that some or all of these types of
ize that military service was much more common in material may require advance permission to use or it
the past than is often thought. Other U.S. wars include may otherwise be restricted.
the Indian Wars, the Mexican War, the Spanish-Amer-
ican War, and a number of others during the twentieth Local Business Records
century. Several different kinds of veterans' records
Genealogical archives, especially local historical
were created during these conflicts. One was the mili-
societies, often house records from local businesses in
tary service record. It usually contains information
their collections. Genealogists will be particularly in-
about the veteran, but it rarely contains information on
terested in those containing birth, death, burial, and
the veteran's family. However, it does contain infor-
relationship information. These include records of fu-
mation on the veteran's unit, company, battle service,
neral homes, cemeteries, general stores, orphanages,
military honors, and so on. The second potential
insurance companies, railroad and transportation
record is a military pension or bounty land applica-
companies, and large area employers, among others.
tion. Throughout the history of the United States, vet-
erans, and sometimes their widows, have received
postmilitary service benefits. Some obtained grants Ethnic Records
for public lands while others received pension pay- Archival records that help establish race or ethnicity
ments. These pension records, especially those deal- are as varied as the myriad of races and peoples who
ing with widows' pensions, often contain information make up our nation. Among the traditional sources
found in genealogical holdings for African Americans Photograph Files
and Native Americans are the US. census slave sched-
Searching for photographs and similar visuals is an
ules for 1850 and 1860 and the famous Dawes Rolls of
integral part of the genealogical research experience.
the Five Civilized Tribes. Other U.S. census records,
A picture of an ancestor's house, a church the family
newspaper files, county and local public records, pas-
attended, or the main street they strolled down, adds
senger lists, and religious records are all excellent
an entire new dimension to collecting dry family facts.
sources for ethnic research. Most genealogical
Most archives with genealogical records also have
archives with large collections of race-specific records
collections of photographs. These collections can be
have special guides and handouts to assist their patrons
arranged by name, location, or subject. Most archives
in using them. Traditional archives that serve culturally
have indexes, finding aids, or staff members to assist
diverse communities also maintain records of interest
patrons with their use. Resourceful researchers may
to the genealogists. A few examples are the large col-
find copies of these indexes or guides, or even copies
lections of records on European Jewry housed in Jew-
of the photographs themselves, on the Internet. Check
ish archives in the New York City area and the
with reference personnel for assistance in using this
Hispanic genealogical materials in the collections of
type of material.
the Family History Library of the Church of Jesus
Christ of Latter-day Saints in Salt Lake City, Utah.
Professional Records
Fraternal Records Genealogical archives may also house collections of
Many genealogical archives, especially local in- records relating to physicians, teachers, lawyers,
stitutions, often house collections of fraternal orga- judges, politicians, and other professionals. These col-
nizations such as the Odd Fellows, the Masonic lections can provide valuable clues to local commu-
Lodge, the Grange, Knights of Pythias, and the Mo- nity personalities and events. Physicians' records are
saic Templars of America, among others. Organiza- particularly rich sources of vital record information.
tional minutes, histories, reports, newspaper files, Teachers' records may contain the names and ages of
and other types of records often provide age, resi- students; records from lawyers' offices may contain
dency, death information, and may also give clues information on estates, adoptions, divorces, real-es-
to family relationships. See Alvin J. Schmidt, Fra- tate transactions, and so on. Check through archival
ternal Organizations (Westport, Conn.: Greenwood guides for this type of information; ask staff members
Press, 1980) for an exhaustive list of these organi- for assistance.
Private Manuscript Collections
Migration/Immigration Records
Genealogical archives may also hold collections of
Because the United States is a nation of immigrants, private manuscripts. Private manuscripts are collec-
archives located in communities with large immigrant tions of diaries, journals, letters, scrapbooks, legal
populations often house records relating to the cul- documents, contracts, postcards, scrapbooks, tax re-
ture, history, and genealogy of these groups. They ceipts, clippings, and so on, produced by private citi-
may include port of entry records, immigration infor- zens, families, businesses, or other nongovernmental
mation, records of public and private immigration so- entities in pursuit of their day-to-day activities. Al-
cieties, materials relating to cultural and religious though not usually created with a genealogist in mind,
institutions, foreign-language newspapers, books, they can contain substantial family history informa-
pamphlets, and other non-English publications, as tion. Researchers lucky enough to find such a collec-
well as manuscript collections, diaries, journals, and tion may find a collection of Civil War letters or the
correspondences. Such archives may also have large journals of a pioneer family crossing the Great Plains.
collections of materials relating to the old country. Pa- Most private manuscript collections have guides or
trons may need a reading knowledge of a foreign lan- finding aids that will assist the genealogical re-
guage to access these records. Some types of records searcher. See Library of Congress Catalogues, Na-
may also be restricted. Web sites operated by particu- tional Union Catalogue of Manuscript Collections
lar ethnic, religious, or cultural groups can supply ad- [NUCMC] (Shoe String Press, Inc., Hamden,
ditional information. Conn.,—) and Index to Personal Names in the Na-
tional Union Catalog of Manuscript (NUCMC) also served as ports of entry for countless immigrants
Collections, 1959-1984, 2 vols. (Alexandria, Va.: whose wanderings eventually took them elsewhere.
Chadwyck-Healey, 1987). Fortunately, U.S. cities and urban areas are also rich in
archives with religious, cultural, and ethnic genealog-
Religious Records ical collections. Larger city libraries, historical soci-
eties, and archival agencies house materials that will
Records relating to local churches and religious or-
greatly assist the urban genealogical researcher.
ganizations, often found at genealogical archives,
Larger cities themselves often create many of the
form one of the more useful categories of genealogi-
same kinds of records that are usually associated with
cal material. This can include parish registrars, church
county governments. These may include marriages,
books, religious newspaper files, and congregational
divorces, adoptions, deeds, court cases, voter registra-
histories. It might also include records of church-
tion lists, naturalizations, maps, lists of city cemetery
owned cemeteries, religious schools, denominational
interments, and records relating to businesses and pro-
publications, biographical sketches of local clergy,
fessions and may include birth and death records.
and even copies of their journals. Check with refer-
One of the most useful urban research tools is the
ence personnel about availability and restrictions be-
city directory, which began in New York City in 1665.
fore visiting the archives. Many larger U.S. religious
These publications can be found in most urban
denominations maintain their own archival agency.
archives and libraries. Though often confused with
Most of the time, these institutions offer assistance to
telephone directories, they contain information on
genealogical researchers. However, they may charge a
names, addresses, occupations, names of spouses,
fee for their services and some of their records may
ownership of homes, and in some cases, race. City di-
not be available for public use. Check denominational
rectories often also have crisscross reference sections
Web sites for additional information. Good examples
that list similar information by street address or by
of religious collections are the Quaker records at the
telephone number. When used in conjunction with
Friends Historical Library, Swarthmore College,
U.S. censuses, city directories make genealogical re-
Swarthmore, Pennsylvania, and the church and orga-
search in heavily populated urban areas easier then it
nizational records housed at the Historical Foundation
would be otherwise. Foreign city directories and tele-
of the Presbyterian and Reformed Churches in Mon-
phone books can also be found in some urban ge-
treat, North Carolina. Different languages and strange
nealogical archives. Urban archives also usually house
social or religious customs may complicate the use of
files of city newspapers and may have the morgues or
these records. Ask the reference staff for assistance.
clipping and photograph files of existing or defunct
publications. They may also have files of Sanborn Fire
School Records Insurance or other maps showing business and resi-
Materials relating to schools and school-aged chil- dential locations. Many have extensive collections of
dren often find their way into archives with genealogi- biographical and historical material, as well as U.S.
cal collections. They may include information on and local census records, immigration and migration
private, religious, or industrial schools, as well as de- records. See City Directories of the United States
funct colleges and universities, and may include 1860-1901: Guide to the Microfilm Collection
records of individual schools or school classes, (Woodbridge, Conn.: Research Publications, 1983)
school-board minutes, records of defunct school dis- and Estelle M. Guzik, ed., Genealogical Resources in
tricts, and school census records. Current records kept the New York Metropolitan Area (New York: Jewish
by active schools and school districts are not usually Genealogical Society, 1989).
available for public use. Even those in archival cus-
tody may be restricted. Check with reference person- The Internet, the World Wide Web, and
nel for additional information. the Computer
The virtual world of the computer and online ge-
Urban Sources
nealogy is in the process of changing the face of
America's many large urban areas have always been American genealogy. These services are a gold mine
a melting pot of race, language, culture, religion, and of information for the armchair family historian. Re-
political outlook. Beginning in colonial times, they searchers can use them to purchase a genealogical
book or find a long lost ancestor. They often provide American Revolution, Washington, D.C., 1983-1986).
the genealogical researcher with instant information Works that should be used in connection with the Li-
on an ancestor. They can also be used to locate local brary of Congress lists of genealogies.
and county source materials or the hours of operation Schreiner-Yantis, Nettie, compiler. Genealogical and Local
of state archival agencies. Most archival Web sites and History Books in Print. 4th edition. Springfield, Va.: N.
Schreiner-Yantis, 1985. Another source of published ge-
some genealogical sites are free. Others are available
nealogical data. Updated frequently. Features book, mi-
only by subscription. Not all family history informa-
crofilm, and microfiche.
tion, especially ones taken from other researcher's Szucs, Loretto Dennis, and Sandra Hargreaves Luebking,
pedigree charts, is necessarily correct. The researcher eds. The Source: A Guidebook of American Genealogy.
should look critically at this information as well as in- Rev. ed. Salt Lake City, Utah: Ancestry Publishing,
formation obtained from traditional genealogy publi- 1997. Long a mainstay for genealogical source informa-
cations, census records, or county histories. Check for tion, this revised edition is a masterpiece.
information in Cyndi Howells, Cyndi s List: A Com-
prehensive List of 70,000 Genealogy Sites on the In-
Guides and Directories
ternet (Baltimore, Md., Genealogical Publishing
Company, 2001). However, remember that virtual re- Bowker, R. R. American Library Directory: A Classified
search, no matter how useful and convenient, cannot List of Libraries in the United States and Canada, with
take the place of an actual on-site research. Personnel and Statistical Data. 55th edition. New York:
R.R. Bowker, 2002/2003. Although primarily a direc-
tory of libraries, it also contains a significant amount of
SELECTED BIBLIOGRAPHY information on local, regional, and state archival facili-
ties. Researchers can use it to ascertain the extent of ge-
General Genealogical Works nealogical holdings of many local institutions.
Allen County Public Library, PERSI: Periodical Source Cerny, Johni, and Wendy Elliott. The Library: A Guide to the
Index. Fort Wayne, Ind.: Allen County Public Library LDS Family History Library. Salt Lake City, Utah: An-
Foundation, 1997. An index to published family history cestry Publishing, 1988. A comprehensive look at records
information found in local and regional genealogical pe- found in the world's largest genealogical collection at the
riodicals. Also available on CD-ROM. The Allen County LDS Family History Library, Salt Lake City, Utah.
Public Library, Fort Wayne, Indiana, has also published a Darnay, Brigette T., ed. Directory of Special Libraries and
leaflet series entitled "Path Finder" designed for the be- Information Centers. 26th edition. Detroit, Mich.: Re-
ginning genealogist with titles such as "Sources for 20th search Co., 2001. Institutions are listed by name.
Century Research," "Newspaper Research," etc. Contact Dollarhide, William, and Ronald A. Bremen America s Best
the library for copies. Genealogical Resource Centers. Bountiful, Utah: Heri-
Everton, Walter M., et al. The Handy Book for Genealo- tage Quest, 1998. Useful for planning a research trip.
gists: United States of America. 10th edition. Draper, Filby, P. William. Directory ofAmerican Libraries and Ge-
Utah: Everton Publishers, 2002. An extremely useful nealogical and Local History Collections. Wilmington,
tool for anyone doing genealogical research, and espe- Del.: Scholarly Resources, 1988. Now a little dated but
cially helpful when using U.S. Census records. still a useful tool for locating genealogical collections.
Harris, Maurine, and Glen Harris. Ancestry s Concise Ge- Grundset, Eric G., and Steven B. Rhodes. American Ge-
nealogical Directory. Salt Lake City, Utah: Ancestry nealogical Research at the DAR, Washington, D. C. Wash-
Publishing, 1989. Useful work for definitions of obso- ington, D.C.: National Society, Daughters of the American
lete, unused, and forgotten family history terms. Revolution, 1997. A discussion of one of Washington,
Herbert, Miranda C , and Barbara McNeil. Biography and D.C.'s often overlooked major genealogical collections.
Genealogy Master Index. 2nd edition. Detroit, Mich.: Library of Congress Catalogues. Index to Personal Names
Gale Research Co., 1980. Index to many published bio- in the National Union Catalog of Manuscript [NUCMC]
graphical dictionaries. Collections, 1959-1984. 2 vols. Alexandria, Va.: Chad-
Kaminkow, Marion J. Genealogies in the Library of Con- wyck-Healey, 1987. NUCMC is a good place to begin
gress: A Bibliography. 5 vols. Baltimore, Md.: Ge- looking for manuscript collections that contain family
nealogical Publishing Company, 2001. A very useful history information. However, keep in mind that it does
source for locating published family histories. not contain a complete listing of such records in the
National Society of the Daughters of the American Revo- United States.
lution. [DAR] Library Catalogue Family Histories and . National Union Catalogue of Manuscript Collec-
Genealogies, and State and Local Histories and tions. Ann Arbor, Mich.: J.W. Edwards, 1962-1993. See
Records, 4 vols. (National Society of Daughters of the above.
National Archives and Records Service. Guide to Ge- 2000. An important guide to vital records in the United
nealogical Research in the National Archives. Washing- States and other countries.
ton, D C : National Archives and Records Service, 1982. Rose, Christine, and Kay Germain Ingalls. The Complete
An excellent introduction to family history research Idiot's Guide to Genealogy. New York: Alpha Books,
using sources from the National Archives in Washing- 1997, chapter 8.
ton, DC. Szucs, Loretto Dennis, and Sandra Hargreaves Luebking,
Neagles, James C. The Library of Congress: A Guide to Ge- eds. The Source: A Guidebook of American Genealogy.
nealogical and Historical Research. Salt Lake City, Rev. ed. Salt Lake City, Utah: Ancestry, 1997, chapter 3
Utah: Ancestry Publishing, 1990. A must-have guide for and appendix F.
genealogical researchers visiting this institution.
Schaefer, Christina Kassabain. The Center: A Guide to Ge-
nealogical Research in the National Capital Area. Balti- Census Records
more, Md.: Genealogical Publishing Company, 1996. A The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-Day Saints. Family-
short but excellent guide to genealogical sources in and search 1880 United States Census and National Index.
around Washington, D.C. Salt Lake City, Utah: Intellectual Reserve, 2001. A
Szucs, Loretto Dennis, and Sandra Hargreaves Luebking, searchable CD database of abstractions made by LDS
eds. The Archives: A Guide to the National Archives Church members from the 1880 U.S. Census.
Field Branches. Salt Lake City, Utah: Ancestry Publish- Dollarhide, William. The Census Book: A Genealogist's
ing, 1988. A very good introduction to sources available Guide to Federal Census Facts, Schedules and Indexes.
at National Archives branches across the country. Bountiful, Utah: Heritage Quest, 1999. An especially
useful guide for anyone using U.S. Census records.
How-to Books Everton, George B. The Handybook for Genealogists:
United States of America. 10th edition. Draper, Utah:
Dollarhide, William. Genealogy Starter Kit. 2nd ed. Balti-
Everton Publishers, 2002.
more, Md.: Genealogical Publishing Company, 1994. A
Greenwood, Val D. The Researcher's Guide to American
brief introduction with sample charts.
Genealogy. 2nd edition. Baltimore, Md.: Genealogical
Greenwood, Val D. The Researchers Guide to American
Publishing Company, 1990, chapters 11 and 12.
Genealogy. Baltimore, Md.: Genealogical Publishing
Lainhart, Ann S. State Census Records. Baltimore, Md.:
Company, 1973. An excellent manual for the genealogi-
Genealogical Publishing Company, 1992. A very useful
cal researcher.
source for locating nonfederal census records.
Rose, Christine, and Kay Germain Ingalls. The Complete
Rose, Christine, and Kay Germain Ingalls. The Complete
Idiot's Guide to Genealogy. New York: Alpha Books,
Idiot's Guide to Genealogy. New York: Alpha Books,
1997. Its title says it all. A must-have book for the be-
1997, chapters 9 and 10.
ginning family historian.
Szucs, Loretto Dennis and Sandra Hargreaves Luebking,
Schaefer, Christina Kassabain. The Hidden Half of the
eds. The Source: A Guidebook of American Genealogy.
Family: A Sourcebook for Women's Genealogy. Balti-
Rev. ed. Salt Lake City, Utah: Ancestry, 1997, chapter 5.
more, Md.: Genealogical Publishing Company, 1999.
Thorndale, William, and William Dollarhide. Map Guide to
Contains a state-by-state directory of sources for
the US. Federal Census, 1790-1920. Baltimore, Md.:
women's history and genealogy.
Genealogical Publishing Company, 1987. A must-have
Stevenson, Noel C. Genealogical Evidence: A Guide to the
source of using census records.
Standard of Proof Relating to Pedigrees, Ancestry, Heir-
ship and Family History. Rev. ed. Laguna Hills, Calif.:
Aegean Park Press, 1989. Written by a lawyer who is County/Local Records
also a genealogist.
Bently, Elizabeth Perry. County Courthouse Book. 2nd ed.
Baltimore, Md.: Genealogical Publishing Company,
Vital Records 1995. A useful tool for planning a genealogical road trip.
Cerny, Johni, and Wendy Elliott, eds. The Library: A Guide Cerny, Johni, and Wendy Elliott, eds. The Library: A Guide
to the LDS Family History Library; Church of Jesus to the LDS Family History Library; Church of Jesus
Christ of Latter-Day Saints Family History Library. Salt Christ of Latter-Day Saints Family History Library. Salt
Lake City, Utah: Ancestry, 1988, chapters 4-13. Lake City, Utah: Ancestry, 1988, chapters 4-13.
Greenwood, Val D. The Researcher's Guide to American Greenwood, Val D. The Researcher's Guide to American
Genealogy. 2nd edition. Baltimore, Md.: Genealogical Genealogy. 2nd edition. Baltimore, Md.: Genealogical
Publishing Company, 1990, chapter 10. Publishing Company, 1990, chapters 13-19.
Kemp, Thomas Jay. International Vital Records Handbook. Hone, E. Wade. Land and Property Research in the United
Baltimore, Md.: Genealogical Publishing Company, States. Salt Lake City, Utah: Ancestry, 1997. Excellent
guide to using deed and property records in genealogical National Archives and Records Service. Guide to Ge-
research. nealogical Research in the National Archives. Washing-
Rose, Christine, and Kay Germain Ingalls. The Complete ton, D.C: National Archives and Records Service, 1982,
Idiot's Guide to Genealogy. New York: Alpha Books, chapters 4-9.
1997, chapter 13. National Archives Trust Fund Board, National Archives and
Szucs, Loretto Dennis and Sandra Hargreaves Luebking, Service Administration. Military Service Records: A Se-
eds. The Source: A Guidebook of American Genealogy. lected Catalogue of National Archives Microfilm Publi-
Rev. ed. Salt Lake City, Utah: Ancestry, 1997, chapters cations. Washington, D.C: National Archives Trust
6-8. Fund Board, 1985. An exhaustive listing of microfilmed
records relating to American military activity, especially
Newspaper Files during the Civil War.
Neagles, James C U.S. Military Records: A Guide to Fed-
Greenwood, Val D. The Researcher's Guide to American eral and State Sources Colonial American to the Present.
Genealogy. 2nd edition. Baltimore, Md.: Genealogical Salt Lake City, Utah: Ancestry, 1994. Contains a useful
Publishing Company, 1990, chapter 9. listing of state resources.
Henritze, Barbara K. Bibliographic Checklist of African Rose, Christine, and Kay Germain Ingalls. The Complete
American Newspapers. Baltimore, Md.: Genealogical Idiot's Guide to Genealogy. New York: Alpha Books,
Publishing Company, 1995. A state-by-state listing of 1997, chapter 16.
African American newspapers. Szucs, Loretto Dennis and Sandra Hargreaves Luebking,
Library of Congress. Library of Congress Catalogs News- eds. The Source: A Guidebook of American Genealogy.
papers in Microform United States, 1948-1983. 2 vols. Rev. ed. Salt Lake City, Utah: Ancestry, 1997, chapter 9.
Washington, D.C: Library of Congress, 1984. A dated
but still valuable listing of microfilmed American news-
paper files. Migration and Immigration
Rose, Christine, and Kay Germain Ingalls. The Complete
Angus Baxter, In Search of Your European Roots: A Com-
Idiots Guide to Genealogy. New York: Alpha Books,
plete Guide to Tracing Your Ancestors in Every Country
1997, chapter 15.
in Europe. 3rd edition. Baltimore, Md.: Genealogical
Sumner, Jeff, ed. Gale Directory of Publications and
Publishing Company, 2001. Standard how-to book on
Broadcast Media (Formerly Ayers Directory of Publica-
European research.
tions). 135th edition. Detroit, Mich: Gale Group, 2001.
. In Search of Your British and Irish Roots: A Com-
Standard reference for American newspapers.
plete Guide to Tracing Your English, Welsh, Scottish, and
Szucs, Loretto Dennis and Sandra Hargreaves Luebking,
Irish Ancestors. 4th edition. Baltimore, Md.: Genealogi-
eds. The Source: A Guidebook of American Genealogy.
cal Publishing Company, 1999. Standard how-to book
Rev. ed. Salt Lake City, Utah: Ancestry, 1997, chapter 12.
on European research.
. In Search of Your Canadian Roots. Baltimore, Md.:
Military Records Genealogical Publishing Company, 2000. Standard how-
Brown, Brian A. In the Footsteps of the Blue and Gray: A to book on Canadian research.
Civil War Research Handbook. Shawnee Mission, Kans.: Cerny, Johni, and Wendy Elliott, eds. The Library: A Guide
Two Trails Genealogy Shop, 1996. An excellent how-to to the LDS Family History Library; Church of Jesus
book for the Civil War genealogical researcher. Christ of Latter-Day Saints Family History Library. Salt
Greenwood, Val D. The Researcher's Guide to American Lake City, Utah: Ancestry, 1988, chapters 14-27.
Genealogy. 2nd edition. Baltimore, Md.: Genealogical Dollarhide, William. Map Guide to American Migration
Publishing Company, 1990, chapters 22-23. Routes. Bountiful, Utah: AGLL, Heritage Quest, 1997.
Hewett, Janet B. The Roster of Confederate Soldiers, Especially useful for migration routes east of the Missis-
1861-1865. Wilmington, N.C.: Broadfoot Publishing sippi.
Company, 1995-96. Basic source for Confederate mili- Filby, P. William, and Mary K. Meyer. Passenger and Immi-
tary service records. gration Lists Index. Detroit, Mich.: Gale Group, 2000. A
. The Roster of Union Soldiers, 1861-1865. Wilm- basic source for immigrants to the United States.
ington, N.C.: Broadfoot Publishing Company, Greenwood, Val D. The Researcher's Guide to American
1997-2000. Basic source for Union military service Genealogy. 2nd edition. Baltimore, Md.: Genealogical
records. Publishing Company, 1990, chapter 21.
. "United States Colored Troops." In The Roster of Herber, Mark D. Ancestral Trails. The Complete Guide to
Union Soldiers, 1861-1865. Wilmington, N.C.: Broad- British Genealogy and Family History. Baltimore, Md.:
foot Publishing Company, 1997. Basic source for Union Genealogical Publishing Company, 2000. An excellent
military service records. new guide to research in the British Isles.
National Archives and Records Service. Guide to Ge- Fund Board, 1984. An excellent guide to ethnic material
nealogical Research in the National Archives. Washing- available on microfilm from the National Archives.
ton, D.C: National Archives and Records Service, 1982, . Black Studies: A Selected Catalog of National
chapters 2-3. Archives Microfilm Publications. Washington, D.C: Na-
Newman, John J. American Naturalization Records, tional Archives Trust Fund Board, 1984. An excellent
1790-1990. Baltimore, Md.: Genealogical Publishing guide to ethnic material available on microfilm from the
Company, 1998. An update of a standard work. National Archives.
Szucs, Loretto Dennis and Sandra Hargreaves Luebking, Smith, Jessie Carney, ed. Ethnic Genealogy. Westport,
eds. The Source: A Guidebook of American Genealogy. Conn.: Greenwood Press, 1983. A very scholarly treat-
Rev. ed. Salt Lake City, Utah: Ancestry, 1997, chapter 13. ment of the subject.
Szucs, Loretto Dennis and Sandra Hargreaves Luebking, eds.
The Source: A Guidebook of American Genealogy. Rev.
Urban Genealogy ed. Salt Lake City, Utah: Ancestry, 1997, chapters 14-17.
City Directories of the United States, 1860-1901: Guide to
the Microfilm Collection. Woodbridge, Conn.: Research Computer Genealogy
Publications, 1984. Arends, Martha. Genealogy Software Guide. Baltimore,
Guzik, Estelle M., ed. Genealogical Resources in the New Md.: Genealogical Publishing Company, 1998. A useful
York Metropolitan Area. New York: Jewish Genealogical tool for the computer genealogist.
Society, 1989. Howells, Cyndi. Cyndis List: A Comprehensive List of
Szucs, Loretto Dennis and Sandra Hargreaves Luebking, 70,000 Genealogy Sites on the Internet. Baltimore, Md.:
eds. The Source: A Guidebook of American Genealogy. Genealogical Publishing Company, 2001. A guide to
Rev. ed. Salt Lake City, Utah: Ancestry, 1997, chapter 19. finding genealogy and family history information on the
World Wide Web.

Ethnic Genealogy Selected Publishers of Genealogical

Burroughs, Tony. Black Roots: A Beginners Guide to Trac- Material
ing the African American Family Tree. New York: Fire-
side Book/Simon & Schuster, 2001. An excellent new
P.O. Box 990
book on the African American genealogical experience.
Orem, UT 84095
Byers, Paula K., ed. African American Genealogical
Sourcebook. New York: Gale Group, 1995. This guide
http: //www ancestry, com/
offers the beginning researcher basic information on eth-
nic genealogy.
Broadfoot Publishing Company
. Asian American Genealogical Sourcebook. New
1907 Buena Vista Cir.
York: Gale Group, 1995. This guide offers the beginning
Wilmington, NC 28411
researcher basic information on ethnic genealogy.
. Hispanic American Genealogical Sourcebook. New
York: Gale Group, 1995. This guide offers the beginning
researcher basic information on ethnic genealogy.
Chadwyck-Healey Inc.
. Native American Genealogical Sourcebook. New
1101 King St.
York: Gale Group, 1995. This guide offers the beginning
Alexandria, VA 22314
researcher basic information on ethnic genealogy.
http: //www. chadwy ck. com/
Mooney, Thomas G. Exploring Your Cherokee Ancestry: A
Basic Genealogical Research Guide. Tahlequah, Okla.:
CIS UPA Lexis-Nexis Universe UPA
Cherokee National Historical Society, 1987. An excel-
Congressional Information Service, Inc.
lent case study on American Indian genealogical re-
(Formerly UMI)
4520 East-West Highway
National Archives and Records Service. Guide to Ge-
Bethesda,MD 20814-3389
nealogical Research in the National Archives. Washing-
ton, D C : National Archives and Records Service, 1982,
chapters 11 and 12.
National Archives Trust Fund Board. American Indians: A
Selected Catalog of National Archives Microfilm Publi-
Clearfield Company
cations. Washington, D.C: National Archives Trust
200 East Eager St.
Baltimore, MD 21202 Higginson Book Company
http: //www. genealogical. com/ 148 Washington St.
Salem, MA 01970
Everton Publishers, Inc. http: //www.higginsonbooks .com/
P.O. Box 368
Logan, UT 84323-0368 Morningside Book Store
800-443-6325 P.O. Box 1087
http: //www. everton .com/ Dayton, OH 45401
Family and Church History Department
LDS Church National Historical Publishing Company
50 East North Temple St. P.O. Box 539
Salt Lake City, UT 84150-3400 Waynesboro, TN 38485
http: //www. family search, org/
New England Historical Genealogical Society
Frontier Press 101 Newbury St.
P.O. Box 126 Boston, MA 02116-3007
Cooperstown, NY 13326 888-286-3447
800-772-7559 http://www.newenglandancestors.org/
Scholarly Resources Inc.
Gale Group 104GreenhillAve.
P.O. Box 9187 Wilmington, DE 19805-1897
Farmington Hills, MI 48333-9187 http ://www. scholarly.com/
http: //www. gale .com/
Southern Historical Press
Genealogical Publishing Company P.O. Box 1267
1001 N. Calvert St. Greenville, SC 29602-1267
Baltimore, MD 21202
800-296-6687 Tuttle Antiquarian Books Inc.
http ://www. genealogical. com/ 28 S. Main St.
Rutland, VT 05701
Heritage Books, Inc. http: //www. tuttlebooks .com/
1540 Pointer Ridge Place
Bowie, MD 2071
http ://www.heritagebooks.com/

Heritage Quest
P.O. Box 540670
North Salt Lake City, UT 84054-0670
Science Archives
Elisabeth Buehlman

INTRODUCTION The development of scientific archives was caused

by three main things. First, institutions, deliberately or
In 1912, just before World War I, Frenchman George
in connection with their retired or famous staff,
Sarton emigrated to the United States and founded a
wanted to enhance their patrimony and appear presti-
review entitled 7575V revue consacree a I 'histoire et a
gious. The opportunity to advance such an agenda can
Vorganisation des sciences. After the war Sarton tried
be an anniversary or the celebration of the institution's
to develop his new discipline at the Carnegie Institu-
staff. For example, the European Organization for Nu-
tion of Washington. But it was only during the 1930s
clear Research (CERN) established its archives ser-
that a new discipline appeared at Harvard Univer-
vices when a history study group was created in order
sity—a doctorate in the history of science. Even
to publish CERN's history on its 40th anniversary.
though science and technology are as old as human-
Secondly, institutions must keep track of documents
kind, the study of their evolution dates to the begin-
for legal reasons. Many professional archivists take the
ning of the social history movement in the twentieth
opportunity to develop a complete archives service,
century. In earlier times, histories were often written
which preserves traces of all activities of the institution.
by non-historians. In the case of science, they were re-
The third cause is relatively new and comes from
tired scientists and researchers who were proud of
cognitive science and its application in corporate envi-
their work and wanted to share their knowledge of the
evolution of the discipline or to explain the origins ronments: knowledge management. The idea that past
and consequences of advances in science and technol- history can be reused in the future to increase the effi-
ogy. Just after the Second World War in France, ciency and professionalism of an institution requires
Frederic Joliot-Curie published in collaboration with that the institution reference a past that is stored in the
other colleagues the whole history of their research archives.
concerning nuclear energy and its military use. Histo- Due to the plethora of motivations for the establish-
rians gradually became interested in the history of sci- ment of archival services, historians should keep in
ence and technology because of its impact on the other mind that they will have to deal with various types of
domains of history and the general trend toward see- archives governed by differing national rules, espe-
ing the world in scientific terms. cially if services are not geared to the public. That is
why, before listing all the fruitful places to find pri-
For writing history, arguments should be based on
mary sources related to a subject, the relation of histo-
facts and tangible proofs, implying the use of primary
rians of science and technology to their archival
sources. The French say "depouiller des archives,"
material must be studied in depth. What should the his-
meaning "to denude or skin." In other words, the themes
torian take into account before going through primary
that reflect the evolution of a subject are extracted from
sources? Which are the likely possibilities for finding
the sources. It was expressly because of their utility that
out the location of primary sources relevant to the sub-
scientific archives services were created in institutions.
ject? Historians who know where to go and are aware for the research. Like other modern historians, histori-
of the various situations they could encounter will be ans of science must be able to decipher what is in the
far more efficient at finding needed documents in the sources. There may be a paleography issue, as scien-
jungle of information available. They will also be able tists are famous for their unreadable handwriting.
to extract greater value from the accessed documents. There could be a knowledge issue, which hinders the
researcher in his or her quest. In scientific archives,
HISTORIANS OF SCIENCE AND THEIR various types of documents can be found and used in
SOURCES different ways. The famous laboratory notebook,
which contains information in serial form, can be
Preparing a research report through the study of
processed with methods and tools used to make a
archival material is generally a time-consuming process,
quantitative history. Working papers and linked biblio-
as primary sources are rougher than published material,
graphic documentation can be useful for the compre-
in which information is processed and arranged. One of
hension of the process, which is suggested by the
the first issues that will impact research is whether the
notebooks. Letters, articles, books, lectures, and docu-
scholar is dealing with a person or a process.
ments written to be published, whether widely or not,
Studying a famous character in science implies recon-
can either act as a good synthetic communication of
structing the entire contacts network of the person stud-
the ideas of scientists or an explanation of a specific
ied. For scientists, however, the network is commonly
point. But their contents are not always easily usable
wide, so scholars have to navigate between many
and interesting. Instruments, experiments, and sam-
sources. Thus researching a person will require mobility.
ples in applied sciences and technology have value for
It is also very rare for a scientist to remain in the same
illustrating research, as they can be a tangible way to
place for an entire career because of both professional
understand a theoretical explanation or description
and political issues. This is typical for contemporary Eu-
that might otherwise remain abstract by reading only
ropean scientists who migrated to the United States be-
fore and during World War II.The Albert Einstein
A history of science that is developed using scien-
Archives at http://www.albert-einstein.org/archives2.
tific archives is an extensive work requiring a clearly
html are a good example of all the possible moves of
defined scope of study. Scholars should be aware that
archives between several continents. Both Einstein him-
going through primary sources can be very time-con-
self and the archives documenting his life traveled
suming and they should adopt a strategy for accessing
around. Scholars who are focusing on medieval and
sources without neglecting articles and correspon-
modern history of science face the same problem, be-
dence, which are often a way for scientists to share in-
cause most of the sources are near the locations where
formation, progress in experiments, and theory. The
they were created.
following table presents the various types of sources
If a process or an experiment is to be studied, then
and their potential uses.
archival material is more likely to be located in one or
two places, because experiments commonly take place
at one or two focal points. Added to this concentra-
tion, an important part of the research is likely to be
widely published in the scientific literature. Additional Scattered or Concentrated Primary
material may be available as circulated manuscripts Sources?
with attached comments from peers. The scientific
Based on the scope of the research and the defined
habit of sharing knowledge allows duplication and
accurate sources on which to base the study, scholars
dissemination of information that may render archive
must find the location of sources. As explained earlier
material more accessible. However, locating the
in this chapter, sources are often scattered in distant
sources is not enough. The scholars must also be able
places. Scholars should therefore think about the cen-
to understand them.
tral location of their research and the opportunity to
consult sources located elsewhere. If it is necessary to
CRITICAL AND ASSESSMENT OF consult remote sources, scholars must consider the
PRIMARY SOURCES relevant expenses in terms of both time and money.
Before diving into the sea of information contained Scholars have two choices in reviewing remote origi-
in primary sources, scholars should assess the quality nal sources. One is to visit the materials. The other is
of archives and their potential interest and relevance to seek reproduction of the documents by the institu-

Type of Type of Comments and

document - name contents Contents observation
Laboratory notebook Formal Very technical data. Require understanding
and assimilated Observations on the spot. of experimental process.
Can be difficult to read
and in bad condition.
Working files Half-formal Research and working notes. Chronological or thematic filing.
Bibliography and literature. Illustrate intellectual progress.
Can contain administrative papers.
Can be very time-consuming to go
Articles and books Formal Synthetic documents. Reveal publication rhythm of the
Can help to understand raw
material: valuable for working
backward through the scientist's
career: i.e., start from his or her
publications and work back to
unpublished material.
Lectures and courses, Formal Pedagogical documents. Same use as published material.
teaching material Can have less value if only for
general public.
Correspondence Half-formal Hypothesis and conclusions. Mix of trivial and scientific
Trivial subjects. subjects can make study of
the sources very time-consuming.
Can be very valuable if scientist
often uses this method to
communicate and share information.
Instruments, samples Formal or Instruments used for If kept but not cataloged source
of experiments informal experiments. may be unusable.
Samples, results of Illustration role.
experiments. Explanation role.
Administrative files Formal Budget, accounting, Either chronological or
human resources, orders. subject filing.
Can help to understand research
rhythm (budget aspects).
Give essentially contextual elements.
General archives of experiments Formal Administrative, scientific, Give essentially contextual elements.
and institutions and technical documents. Position and role of experiment/
scientist in the institution
(integration or not, etc.).
Oral history, interviews Half-formal Either vulgarization or Reminder of chronology of facts.
very technical. Can be very subjective, but gives
potential new views on the subject.
Knowledge management Half-formal Technical and scientific Focused on explanation
interviews documents. of phenomenon.
Very technical, as target is
successor in the position.

tion housing them. If they wish to consult the docu- to protect users from radiation. Sometimes archives
ments themselves, they should consider the following are not yet sorted, and archivists may deny access to
issues: them until they are processed. The historian may be
able to negotiate access by offering to organize the
• When is it most appropriate to go through these material or to at least create a basic finding aid in col-
sources? laboration with the archivist.
• Should the scholar return to the sources several The status of archives suggests the type of work and
times during different stages of the research?
the time scholars will spend on them. As finding aids
• What alternative possibilities provide the same out-
are theoretically based on the original filing pattern,
come? If archives are abroad, is there a possibility to
copy documents or to have contacts there to help? If the structure of the document itself can suggest the
the remote sources are of great interest, the scholar general state of mind of the scientist or the experimen-
may have the opportunity to ask other researchers or tal team. This structure also reveals the type of docu-
archivists in the institution or freelance historians to ments scholars will find in the collection and the type
do the research. In any case, scholars must consider of work needed to extract value from the archive ma-
the option of requesting assistance before choosing terial.
any solution.
Conclusions to Parts Dedicated to
Public Domain Collections or Not?
It is crucial to keep in mind every aspect mentioned
Other difficulties for the historian of science are in the last two sections before starting research be-
communication and copyright issues, which could in- cause they are mandatory conditions of a successful
terfere with the advancement of his or her research. research project. If the documents are difficult to ac-
For institutional, national, and assimilated archives
cess, scholars must ask whether there are accessible
services, the 30-year limitation on public disclosure
duplicates elsewhere. If there are not, scholars should
applies. However, private and corporate archives ser-
discuss with colleagues whether the research has
vices are not always obliged to follow national rules,
enough interest to justify the predicted difficulties of
and obtaining access to files in those locations can be
dealing with sources. History of science is large
tricky. For scientific questions linked to military appli-
enough to allow a withdrawal strategy even if there is
cations, confidentiality (national security) is also a
associated disappointment. There is no value in con-
roadblock to accessing the documents. If the family or
tinuing if difficulties already exist at the access level
the firm intends to publish the sources on their own,
of primary sources.
then use of material may be restricted even if it is
made available for consultation. Those issues should
be dealt with at the very beginning of the research, be- MASS WEB SEARCH FOR PRIMARY
cause they can radically interfere with the project. SOURCES IN HISTORY OF SCIENCE
Note: unless otherwise stated, all Web pages de-
Accessible Collections or Not? scribed in this subchapter are free of charge.
After having resolved the issues of confidentiality
and copyright, scholars may come up against another General Research
problem, that of physical access to the sources. Access Having chosen a subject, most scholars already
has both physical and intellectual implications. Physi- know the location of the main corpus of relevant
cally, the sources may be very fragile due to aging and sources. If they do not, they can still proceed by suc-
climate effects or insect damage, and the archivist can cessive refinements using all available tools. The ex-
block access to documents that may disintegrate with ponential increase of Web pages since the middle of
inexperienced handling. Conversely, sometimes the the nineties means that the Internet is a good place to
archival material can be harmful to the researcher. For start for general searching. It is probably more pro-
example, documents held by nuclear physicists in the ductive than searching a basic university library cata-
beginning of the twentieth century are frequently log. But success remains uncertain even if the main
hyper-radioactive. All the instruments and notebooks corpus of sources appears in the top results. At least
of Pierre and Marie Curie are kept under leaden glass one can assess the general interest in a subject by ana-
lyzing the answers rate and type of results received. searcher must use the right one to achieve good re-
Because of its method of listing and ranking the re- sults. Directories have the advantage of allowing ex-
sults, Google http://www.google.com/ is probably the tremely fast refinement of the research by only
most valuable product for getting results that can be crawling through categories. But categories may have
browsed in depth in the continuation of the research. the disadvantage of being arbitrarily defined by people
Google also offers the possibility of browsing an open inexperienced in the subject area. This is especially
directory by naming the category where the engine true for history of science, as the scholar must choose
has found the most accurate results (for comments on among science, history, and references categories. In
open directory, see Browsing the Web). In order to en- fact, one has to browse all three categories to assess
sure relevant results, the word "archives" should be ig- their potential interest. But directories always give the
nored, as it generates much noise in the results possibility of searching the directory instead of
(mailing list archives, Web page archives, etc.). The browsing it. Google offers resolution by compiling
term "manuscripts" is far more effective. This applies searching and browsing features. Among the directo-
to all search engines and other similar Web resources. ries, the most valuable for scientific archives are those
produced by dmoz and Yahoo!
Focused General Research
Open Directory Project
In researching scientific archives, scholars should
know that they may use specific scientific search en-
gines, which may have some advantages. Begun in 1998, Open Directory Project is a general
catalog for the Web, maintained by groups of editors
http://www.scirus.com/ focused on more than 400,000 categories and subcate-
gories. Many search engines are based on this direc-
The well-known and respected Scirus, produced by tory, which contains more than 3.8 million sites. The
Elsevier Science, is a search engine containing ap- dmoz catalog also can be immediately refined by geo-
proximately 69 million institutional, educational, and graphical area.
private Web pages with scientific content as of Spring
2002. It is free to submit a page, though Elsevier re-
tains the right to reject submissions. This allows a http://www.yahoo.com/
large panel of potential sites and ensures that only sci-
entific sites are listed in the database. The results rank- "Yahoo" is the acronym for Yet Another Hierarchi-
ing is the same as for Google, as it analyses the cal Officious Oracle. Started in 1994, it is the oldest
frequency of hits of the keywords searched and the directory on the Web. The firm changed the algorithm
number of Web pages referring to that page. of research in October 2001, and the tool has in-
creased its capacity by integrating Google technology
and analysis of keywords in title and URL metadata
and also by more general reworking of the directory.
Search4Science is a Norwegian product under de- The number of sites listed is not directly available, but
velopment that intends to offer access to the most ac- it is probably around 2.5 million. The search is pow-
curate information on science. A feature called ered by Google and lists the related category in the
"dynamic search" allows a search using specific sci- Yahoo directory if there is one. The general structure
entific and technical terms or concepts. The site is cur- of the directory is the same as dmoz.
rently down because the development team is seeking
financing. It is uncertain whether they will complete Sciseek
the site. http://www.sciseek.com/
Created in 1998 by Magnolia Scientific Services,
Browsing the Web
Sciseek is a directory using Hyperseek as a search en-
One issue that has divided Internet researchers for a gine. The scope has scientific information online and
long time is whether it is better to browse or search the the directory is divided by the main subjects of sci-
Web. For scientific searches, general directories have ence. Regarding archives and other sources, it allows
the same accuracy as search tools. As usual, the re- narrow searches.
New Generation of Search Engines also benefit from such tools. At the macro-level, inter-
national professional associations of archivists and
With the exponential increase of Web pages, com-
preservation specialists and groups of people who
puter engineers have tried to develop intelligent search
specialize in compiling information about science and
engines, the so-called Web meta-search engines, com-
history of science create these tools.
piling various approaches of searching and displaying
results. Although the researcher, using basic search en- Echo
gines, analyses the various results he or she gets, meta- http://echo.gmu.edu/
search engines may provide a new approach to the list
Echo, which stands for Exploring and Collecting
of hits. On the other hand, if the subject is unknown,
History Online, is an initiative funded by the Alfred P.
the Web meta-search engine compiles results of other
Sloan Foundation. The aim is to ensure the preserva-
independent search engines and thus widens the panel
tion of contemporary history. Among other resources
of indexed Web pages searched.
for historians of science, they have developed a virtual
Kartoo center that contains links to digitalized archives in
http ://www.kartoo. com/ technology and applied science. A search engine en-
Kartoo, developed by a French firm, is a product sures easy access to the directory and the results are
based on a cognitive approach. As opposed to Google, displayed in a list with the following pieces of infor-
which offers the one step search with the "I'm feeling mation: the URL, the name of the person or organiza-
lucky" button that directly routes the Internet searcher tion that created the page, and a qualitative description
to the most accurate URL hit found, Kartoo displays a of the context, contents, and organization.
series of results schemes linked by keywords and cus- HSSOnline
tomizes in various ways new keywords in the search http://www.hssonline.org/teach_res/resources/archives.html
sentence or increases the importance of certain key-
The History of Science Society, founded in 1924 by
words found in the hit set. With such engines the re-
George Sarton, is probably the largest association of
sults are already analyzed and integrated in a context.
the history of science. They have a database accessible
This is a typical systemic approach. This product is
to society members that includes all bibliographic and
very useful to trace a route of archives or see where
information resources on the history of science. The
the main nodes of a subject are located. A small de-
resources pages list archives and famous collections
scription of each site appears when an URL in the
under the following categories: archives and collec-
scheme is highlighted.
tions, organizations and societies, and papers and
Ixquick manuscripts of noted scientists.
Ixquick, developed by a Dutch firm, is a one-step http://www.uidaho.edu/special-collections/iil.htm
meta-search engine searching ten of the biggest world This is a main reference for lists of primary sources.
search engines. The results are listed like any other Created in 1995, it contains at present 4,500 links to
search engine, but it also lists the search engine where
archival repositories and lists of archives. URLs are
the result was found and gives an accuracy rate with
classified by geographical area and country, but there
stars. The search cannot be refined. However, for a
are also additional lists by institution type. One is spe-
very precise search this tool is the most appropriate.
cifically dedicated to the history of science, but the
URLs are listed by location without distinction by
SOURCES FOR GENERAL HISTORY OF state. The URLs are rarely described. The Web site is
SCIENCE (MACRO-LEVEL) constantly updated and allows access to more specific
Thematic Sites: Guide of Primary directories, such as physics or astronomy.
Sources, Guide for Historians of Science
Professional Sites
Historians since Herodotus have experienced the
difficulty of obtaining and studying valuable primary At the macro-level, the international cooperation of
sources. Scholars have developed tools to help them historians, archivists, and preservation specialists has
locate these materials, and historians of science can led to the creation of directories that detail the net-
work and act as a list of contacts. These directories for historians of science (see STAMA, Science, Tech-
may be very useful to the historian of science to the nology and Medicine Archives working group
extent that scientific archival repositories are not as http://www.asap.unimelb.edu.au/asa/stama/stama_int/
visible as national archives. intstama.htm). Note also that the CASE directory is
UNESCO Archives portal hosted by NCUACS, a reference for history of science
http://www.unesco.org/webworld/portal_archives/ in the United Kingdom (see below under Resources
by Country, United Kingdom).
At the end of the 1990s, UNESCO (United Nations
Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization) cre- Resources by Country
ated a directory listing archival services by types of in-
stitution. The directory allows basic searching and At the country level, there are various avenues to
gives results with a description of the repository and its finding primary sources. First, there are institutional
position in the UNESCO Archives directory. The newly archives. National or state archives often keep scien-
created category "archives of Museums" has 161 links tific archives. Material for the history of science can
sorted by geographic area and country. This may be also be found in the institutions such as academies of
useful for historians of technology and of natural sci- science, engineering schools, universities and re-
ences. A new section titled "primary sources online" search institutes, laboratories, and museums. In some
lists 326 links of online finding aids and exhibits. They countries, scientific archivists and librarians have cre-
are classified by geographical region and each category ated groups and directories of resources for history of
primarily contains links to national archives. There is a science. But professional sites are not the only route to
specific section for international organizations. access resources. Amateur historians and retired sci-
entists and engineers may create societies and associa-
Library of Congress, portals to the world tions to collect, preserve, and promote sources for the
http://www.loc.gov/rr/international/portals.html history of science. It is a huge task to list all the poten-
The largest library in the world has also created a tial locations of material for history of science every-
gateway to Internet resources. Each country listed where in the world. However, each historian of science
contains a section titled "libraries and archives" which should keep in mind the variety of places where
lists and briefly describes main links in the country. A sources for his or her work may be found. The follow-
map with the listed locations allows users to see loca- ing list presents links and references to find accurate
tions of repositories. If there are online searchable primary sources and gives examples of potential re-
databases for primary sources in the country, they are sources that can be found on the Web.
linked in the description. This is not a specific tool for
finding scientific primary sources but can be very use- Australia
ful in finding associations that are dedicated to history Australia is a typical location of projects initiated
of science at the country level. by academics suffering from lack of physical access to
CASE sources.
http://www.bath.ac.uk/Centres/NCUACS/esearch.htm Bright Spares
In 1998, on behalf of the International Council of
Archives (ICA-CIA), a working group known as In 1985, the Department of Philosophy and History
CASE (Cooperation on Archives of Science in Eu- of Science at the University of Melbourne founded the
rope) was created to develop and promote interest in so-called ASAP, or Australian Science Archives Pro-
scientific archives in Europe. The final aim is to offer a ject, in order to identify scientific archives in Australia
gateway on this subject. For the time being, they have and to ensure their preservation and promotion. In
put online a list of scientific archives sorted by coun- 1999 the ASAP created the Australian Science and
try. For each site there is a short description of the Technology Heritage Centre and developed a search-
general collections of the repository and the contents able and browsable resource for historians of science
of the Web site. In 1996, a more generic group for sci- called Bright Spares. This resource contains more
entific archives had been created with the same goal, than 4,000 entries on major figures in Australian sci-
but it has not yet produced any sustainable document ence since the eighteenth century. For each person, the
list of archives locations is linked with a complete de- Summers, Anne. How to Find Source Materials:
scription: place, range date, description of contents, British Library Collections on the History and
size of collections, and place and name of repository. Culture of Science, Technology and Medicine.
The search can be simple, with the name only, but the London: The British Library, Science Reference
directory can also be browsed by functions (such as and Information Service, 1996.
"agricultural engineer") and genre with sort options. As the title clearly states, this book presents each
For finding aids that could not appear on Bright department's scientific collections in the second
Spares, ASAP also published guides to primary largest library in the world. It also lists finding aids
sources (see http://www.asap.unimelb.edu.au/pubs/ and other useful reference tools.
asap_pub.htm). A mailing list is available to contact
The Royal Commission on Historical Manuscripts.
members of ASAP if needed.
The manuscript papers of British scientists,
1600-1940, Guides to sources for British history,
Germany 2. London: Her Majesty's Stationary Office, 1982.
Kalliope, Verbundinformationsystem Nachlasse In the digital age, inventories and printed guides are
und Autographen losing ground to online finding aids. This catalog has
http://kalliope.staatsbibliothek-berlin.de/ been replaced by the NCUACS, available online and
Kalliope is the German part of the integrated Euro- presented below.
pean network project on autographs and manuscripts
collections (Malvine). It compiles collections kept by http://www.bath.ac.uk/Centres/NCUACS/lists.htm
150 institutions in Germany. The search tool is avail-
able in German only but allows a large panel of The National Cataloguing Unit of Archives of Con-
searches by name, dates, function, and location. A temporary Scientists was begun in 1987, succeeding
search tool specific to correspondence between people the Contemporary Scientific Archives Centre in Ox-
and institutions can be very useful for detailed searches. ford in its mission of identifying, collecting, pre-
serving, and promoting the history of British science.
NCUACS, which at first published a catalog in hard-
copy only, now offers a detailed browsable online cata-
The Russian State Archive of Scientific and Technical log listing in alphabetic order scientists and their
Documentation (RGANTD) archival collections. The catalog can be accessed by
http://www.mssianarchives.com/rao/archives/rgantd/coll.html name, discipline, repository, and date of compilation.
Issued from a U.S.-Russian project of digital A complete description for each scientist includes
archives, Russian Archives Online started in 1997 name; dates; function; archival description (reference
with the aim of allowing worldwide access to repre- codes, repository, title of collection, date of material,
sentative cultural elements of Russia. RGANTD is level of description, and extent); context information,
one of the catalogs available in this gateway. For the such as biography; custodial history; content informa-
time being, only samples are available in English; the tion, such as scope, arrangement, conditions of access
rest of the collection is described in Russian only. The and use; access; language; finding aids; and allied ma-
archive has collected historical documents concerning terial. This is the ultimate source for accessing material
energy and space program development in Russia on contemporary British scientists.
from entities such as the famous laboratory Baikonour
Archives Hub
Space and Launch Complex. http://www.archiveshub.ac.uk/

United Kingdom The Archives Hub, as part of the United Kingdom's

national archives network, offers access to descrip-
The following works and links show how national tions of collections held by institutions of higher edu-
archives can develop tools to ensure access to sources. cation in the United Kingdom. The catalog of
If scholars do not find at the country level an organi- collections is searchable and browsable in the same
zation dedicated to sources in history of sciences, they way as NCUACS. This can be useful for finding per-
should check the state holdings for possible links to sonal papers of professors, whose collections are not
specific scientific archives. mentioned in NCUACS list.
Access to Archives (A2A) Digital Archives Projects
British Columbia
A2A is part of the United Kingdom's national http://bcdlib.tc.ca/links-subjects-science_tech.html
archives network. The searchable database contains The British Columbia digital library is compiling
more than 20,000 collections from 251 records cen- links to online collections of primary sources. In the
ters, including scientific societies like the London science and technology area, links are mixed and
Geological Society. The search, which can be simple Linne correspondence is listed at the same level of
or advanced, is done at the file level. When accessing a high-energy physics conferences proceedings. Schol-
hit, it is possible to go to the collection level and ac- ars should know that more and more collections of
cess the table of contents. common interest will be published over the Internet
and they should not be surprised to find material in
United States such digital libraries.
Rider, Robin E., and Henry E. Lowood, eds. Guide to
the Sources in Northern California for the History National Archives and Similar Institutions
of Science and Technology. Berkeley: Office for
the History of Science and Technology, University Germany
of California, 1985. http://www.bundesarchiv.de/bestaende_search.php/
When searching for private collections, keep in
This book lists and describes over 1,000 collections
mind that state archives may have collected archives
of manuscripts in northern California.
of both scientists and scientific associations or state
Society of American Archivists (SAA) offices. The German State Archives allows online
http://www.hunterinformation.com/corporat.htm searching in their holdings, which are kept in various
locations in Germany. Collections are described ac-
After having searched the Library of Congress cording to archival standard with reference code,
catalog and the National Archive and Records Ad- dates, extent, location, history and contents of the col-
ministration collections, scholars can turn to profes- lection, finding aids available, and allied sources.
sional listings such as this one, which is constantly
updated by the Society of American Archivists. The Italy, Tuscany region
directory is accessible by geographical area, name of http://www.cultura.toscana.it/bibl/cataloghi/cafos/cafos 1 .html
the archivist, and corporate name. It applies to cor- In this case we see a regional initiative to list all sci-
porate archives in the United States and Canada. entific collections available in Tuscany in every possi-
Each entry contains the address, names of contacts, ble type of institution. The catalog is an OPAC (Online
and hours of service. A short description lists the Public Access Catalog) and allows standard searches
type of holdings, their extent, and any conditions of by name, subject, title, and dates.
American Association for Advancement of Science (AAAS) Science Academies
Many countries have their own science academies,
The AAAS can be valuable when searching for in- which are divided into various disciplines. As acade-
formation on history of science. Their list of links is mies often receive private papers of famous scientists
quite short but has the advantage of routing the and rare manuscripts in the history of national science,
searcher to the most common known repositories of they house interesting collections for the historian of
scientific archives in the United States. science and should not be forgotten during a search for
primary sources. Not all have an online catalog, but
most of them describe their collections and give links
Locations of Sources within a Country to their allied offices (see U.S. example).
Be aware that searching these sites generally re- Royal Society of London. Catalog of Scientific Pa-
quires knowledge of the native language where the pers, 1800-1900. Metuchen: Scarecrow Reprint
finding aids were developed. Corp., 1968.
An accompanying subject index published by the California Institute of Technology (CALTECH)
same author and editor is also available to help schol- http://archives.caltech.edu/collections.html
ars searching the holdings of the Royal Society. CALTECH holds multimedia collections about its
Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic members and projects. Most of the material is de-
http ://www. cas. cz/ scribed in a searchable online catalog and a directory
list of collections. A basic search returns descriptions
The Czech Academy of Sciences in Prague holds
that contain in their detailed views the following
large collections of both institutional and personal pa-
pieces of information: title, date, bibliographical note,
pers in mathematics, physics and astronomy, astro-
extent, short description of type and subject of
physics, and biology The collections are listed in a
archives, and finding aid availability. At that point the
directory A brief description is given for each collec-
researcher can automatically narrow his or her search
tion, including bibliographical note, collection extent,
to the pictures database or get a list of material related
dates, and type of finding aid.
to the described item.
Australian Academy of Science—Basser Library
http://www.science.org.au/academy/basser/bass_lis.htm Cornell University
The Basser library, located in Canberra, lists all col-
lections by reference number. For each reference num- Cornell University in New York has a "rare and man-
ber, the creator (people or institution), dates, and uscripts collections" division which also hosts the Uni-
extent are given. Clicking the reference number link versity Archives. The section dedicated to history of
accesses a brief history of the collection and items in- science holds a fine collection of books and scientific
cluded. For items with a generic title, a comment on papers related to chemistry, physics, medicine, or-
the contents is added. nithology, and botany since the sixteenth century. A
small but fine collection of material on civil engineer-
United States National Academies Archives collections ing is also preserved by the university library. A search-
http://www7.nationalacademies.org/archives/collections.html able online catalog groups most of the collections,
This site allows access to the holdings either by except for a few descriptions that are only accessible on
using a simple search engine or by browsing the direc- a subject card catalog in the library. The library offers
tory. The directory is sorted by functions: council, an inquiry service that will answer remote questions on
projects, and small collections. Each collection has a holdings. Finding aids have not been digitalized yet, but
short historical introduction and a listing of files de- the online catalog gives a good overview of each collec-
scribed by a title and a date. tion. The online description contains the following in-
formation on the collection: title (producer name),
dates, extent, and typology and subject.
Higher Education, Research Institutes, and
Laboratories Harvard University
As previously mentioned, sources are generally lo-
cated where they have been produced. Universities or Harvard University created OASIS, the Online
institutions with a long history or famous research in- Archival Search Information System, to allow remote
stitutes often pay attention to their patrimony and pre- research on sources belonging to archives and reposi-
serve archives that document their history Depending tories at Harvard. The search can be focused on indi-
on the structure of higher education in the particular vidual repositories or broadened to include contents of
country and the particular institution's private or pub- all finding aids using various indexes to narrow the
lic status and celebrity, archives may be kept in the in- search (date, name, keyword, subject, genre, etc.). The
stitution itself or in national archives. In the United finding aids are put online in a very complete form
States especially, well-known colleges and universi- using Encoded Archival Description (EAD). This al-
ties centralize their historical collections in their li- lows an excellent preparation of sources to be read be-
braries, which act as a manuscripts repository. As fore going through the primary material itself.
these primary sources are kept by information man- However, scholars must keep in mind that not all
agers they are often well described and can be found repositories are participating in the EAD project and
under the section called "rare and manuscript collec- should not consider the results of their search as being
tions" or "special collections." complete for all material at Harvard.
Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) Museums
list-a-f.html In addition to academic institutions, scholars who
are researching the history of science should not for-
MIT holds institute archives with official records, get museums. Technical museums, museums of natu-
professional and personal papers from staff and stu- ral history, and museums of natural sciences are often
dents in MIT, and external collections related to the repositories of major archival collections.
history of science. Three online catalogs allow access
to the collections: Deutsches Museum Archives
• The RLIN-NUCMUC catalog The Deutsches Museum holds the largest collec-
• The AIP catalog for collections related to physics
tions in the history of science and technology in
(see below in sources for physics)
• Alphabetical list of collections with bibliographical Europe. Located on an island over the Isar in Mu-
note, extent, and scope and content note (type and nich, the museum preserves museological and
subject of archive material) archival material related to physics, chemistry, and
technology No online catalog is available. For each
Complete finding aids, with the exception of the type of collections a list of available finding aids is
one related to physics, are for sale or made available in given. For some of the collections (private papers,
the archives reading room. etc.), an alphabetical directory has been put online.
It contains a short description with name, dates,
short bibliographical note, short description of
Polytechnic Schools type of archives, and sometimes a mention of allied
archives. However, the archives service welcomes
In countries such as Switzerland and France, there
external requests on holdings and copies of mate-
are prestigious technical high schools that contain
their own archives, institutional archives, collections
of gifts to the state, and papers of members of the in-
Technisches Museum Wien—Library and Archives
stitution. Unless they have a strong public outreach,
remote and even direct access are not easy and require
specific recommendations. But as these schools are an
The Technisches Museum in Vienna, Austria,
inevitable gateway to their disciplines, scholars should
holds a large collection of archives related to the his-
not hesitate to inquire in this area.
tory of science and technology. Its strength is in
technical and engineering collections as well as in
French Polytechnic School
natural history archival material produced by its
collections/historique.html members or obtained by donation. There is no online
catalog, but requests on holdings can be sent to the
"L'ecole polytechnique," located in Palaiseau near institution.
Paris, compiles in its library over 200 years of museo-
logic material and notebooks inherited from the National Air and Space Museum—Smithsonian Institution
French Academy of Science and State Treasure. http://www.nasm.si.edu/nasm/arch/archdiv.htm
Swiss Polytechnic School—Zurich (Switzerland) As its title suggests, the National Air and Space
http://www.ethbib.ethz.ch/eth-archiv/nachlaesseb_e.html Museum Archives in Washington, D.C, seeks to pre-
The famous "Polytechnikum" where Einstein and serve archival material in air and space flight. Its
Jung taught holds in its library large collections of pa- strength is in photographs, motion picture film, and
pers of scientists, professors, and visitors to the school. technical drawings. A few finding aids and graphic
A list of collections of personal papers is available on- archives can be accessed online. The finding aids are
line with name, dates, function, and reference code. The professionally structured, listing origin, scope and
reference code is a hyperlink to the NEBIS catalog content note, extent, dates, bibliography, and related
(German or French only), which briefly describes the collections. For some of them, other appendices are
collection by its type, extent, and availability. added, such as listing of officers.
Conclusions on Locations of Sources at Scholars can access short descriptions of the collec-
the Macro-Level tions by name of scientist. A search in the correspon-
dence archives by subject or content keywords and
The search for sources in history of science can be
name is also available.
broken down in various ways, from wide sweeping re-
search to timely geographical research. Archivists and Royal Greenwich Observatory
records managers have created groups specializing in http://www.lib.cam.ac.Uk/Handbook/D 12.html
scientific archives or corporate archives. Such groups The Cambridge University Library preserves the
often publish an international or national contact list, Royal Observatory Archives. The collections contain
which may be very useful for scholars in locating personal papers and a few institutional records. The
sources. Even if contemporary science is largely de- Web page presents the collections and lists all potential
veloped by the private sector, scholars should not omit restrictions to access, such as no finding aid available,
consulting national archives catalogs, as they may restricted access due to legal provisions, and so on.
have major collections from national institutes or lab-
oratories, scientific academies, and private gifts from Biology
great scientists' families. The difficulty with univer-
sity libraries, private research institutes, laboratories, Florida Museum of Natural History
and corporations is the lack of organization and publi-
cation of their collections. Scholars should not forget The Florida Museum, located in the University of
museums and other exhibitions if they want to illus- Florida campus in Gainesville, holds large collections
trate their work or make it more lively. on zoology: birds, butterflies and moths, fishes, mam-
mals, mollusks, reptiles, and amphibians. For each
SOURCES BY DOMAIN OF SCIENCE type of collection, there is a description online. Exam-
AND TECHNOLOGY (MICRO-LEVEL) ination of specimens is by request even if virtual exhi-
bitions have been designed for some themes (birds,
In this section, examples of reference tools are
butterflies, etc.). The Florida Museum also preserves
listed in alphabetical order by subject area and institu-
collections on anthropology and paleontology that
tion name. As in the former section of this chapter,
may be of interest for scholars researching evolution.
printed reference publications appear before Web
links. This list is based on commonly accepted distinc- Institut Pasteur
tions of scientific disciplines. http://www.pasteur.fr/infosci/archives/
Astronomy The French Pasteur Institute, located in Paris, keeps
in its holdings all the scientific collections of the Pas-
Astronomical Institute of Bonn University (Germany)
teur laboratory and satellite or linked institutions and
ha_arch.html personal papers relating to Louis Pasteur and
Theodore Monod. On the Web site scholars can search
A different update of this page is also available at by subject or name or can access the detailed inven-
the University of Idaho, in the History of Astronomy tory of the collection (professional archivist standard
subsection under the Additional Lists section ISAD-G).
The list enumerates most individual archives and li- National Wildlife Research Center (NWRC)
braries on astronomy located in the world. For some http://www.aphis.usda.gov/ws/nwrc/is/archives.html
links, a short note describes the type of collections The NWRC, located in Fort Collins, Colorado, is a
held. As the list is alphabetical, it is difficult to see the research and information center within the U.S. Depart-
volume of archives owned at a country level. ment of Agriculture's (USDA) Animal and Plant Health
Lowell Observatory Archives Inspection Service's (APHIS) Wildlife Services (WS)
http://www.lowell.edu/Research/library/paper/archive program. The archives of NWRC preserve all records
_home.html of the research center's activities, as well as archival
This observatory was founded in 1894 and is lo- materials related to studies conducted by the Federal In-
cated in Flagstaff, Arizona. The Archives hold com- secticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act (FIFRA)
plete collections of Lowell Observatory members. Good Laboratory Practice Standards and pesticide reg-
istration files. There is an online searchable database of aids for each collection are available online in alpha-
all NWRC's published and unpublished reports. betical format. A simple subject search is also avail-
able. Each collection is precisely described according
Chemistry to the following criteria: archives format, creator,
processor, acquisition, access rules and copyright, his-
Tselos, George D., and Colleen Wickley A Guide to torical note, scope and content of collection, arrange-
Archives and Manuscript Collections in the History
ment of the collection, and related collections in the
of Chemistry and Chemical Technology. Philadel-
phia: Center for History of Chemistry, 1987. CBI. The CBI has also published sourcebooks for col-
lections related to history of computing (see Bruce
Focused on American collections, this book com- Bruemmer, Resources for the History of Computing: A
piles all types of sources, from personal papers to in- Guide to U.S. and Canadian Records, 1987). Finally,
stitutional records on history of chemistry. the CBI Web site contains a directory of links to other
Classic Papers in Chemistry relevant institutions and resources.
http ://webserver. lemoyne. edu/faculty/giunta/ Computer History Museum
http://dbhs.wvusd.kl2.ca.us/Chem-History/Classic-Papers- http ://www.computerhistory.org/
This Museum is still developing its Web site,
These two sites consist of a virtual library of major though it has been around since the late seventies.
texts in the history of chemistry since the sixteenth Scholars are able to look through the artifacts collec-
century. Documents can be browsed by author's name tion online database using a simple search form. The
or subject. museum also offers remote searches in the other cata-
Royal Society of Chemistry Library logs for media, documentation, and archives that are
http://www.rsc.org/lic/histuk.htm not available online via an e-mail address. The mu-
seum itself is located in the heart of Silicon Valley, in
This page lists institutions in the United Kingdom
Mountain View, California.
where archival collections on chemistry are located.
Each entry is described with name, URL, contact ref- National Archive for the History of Computing
erences, type of collections held, and access rules. http://www.chstm.man.ac.uk/nahc/catalog.htm
The University of Manchester in the United King-
Computing dom hosts the national archive for the history of com-
Cortada, James W, ed. Archives of Data-Processing puting. The collections consist of public, academic,
History: A Guide to Major U.S. Collections. New and private archives. A catalog of manuscripts is avail-
York: Greenwood Press, 1990. able online. It contains a detailed description of each
collection that includes summary, provenance, items
This book provides a short description of major descriptions, and bibliographic references.
archival collections housed in the United States.
Scholars can also find practical information on ac-
cessing these collections. The book is arranged by Engineering
area of interest (hardware, software, information pro- Academy Francois Bourdon
cessing industry, etc.), but it can also be accessed by http://www.afbourdon.com/frame_consultfonds.htm
author and subject.
This French society is collecting papers from com-
Charles Babbage Institute (CBI)—Center for the History panies located in the major industrial area of Le
of Information Technology Creusot, France. The main collection is the fonds of
http://www.cbi.umn.edu/collections/archmss.html Schneider Electric S.A., a firm that existed from 1836
This archive and research center of the University of to 1967. Historical notes are presented for each col-
Minnesota was founded in 1978 to promote the study lection, and each finding aid is available online in PDF
of history of information technology and information format.
processing. With a strong policy of collecting archival Bedi, J.E., R.R. Kline, and C. Semsel. Sources in
material, the CBI keeps in its holdings an ever-increas- Electrical History: Archives and Manuscript Col-
ing number of collections from various sources: insti- lections in US. Repositories. New York: Center for
tutional, academic, personal papers, and so on. Finding the History of Electrical Engineering, 1989.
This book, issued by the IEEE, describes more than Mathematics
1,000 archival repositories that hold primary sources
Albree, Joe, et al., eds. A Station Favorable to the Pur-
in electrical history Three indices by name, subject,
suits of Science: Primary Material in the History of
and geographic location allow access to this catalog, Mathematics at the United States Military Academy.
which has been made available online at http:// Providence: American Mathematical Society, 2000.
research_guides/sources 1/sources l_menu.html. This book is dedicated to mathematical archival
material in the West Point collection. After a chapter
Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Inc. introducing the collection and giving historical back-
History Center ground information, the catalog lists all available col-
http: //www. ieee. org/organizations/hi story_center/ lections in chronological order. As there is no index,
scholars may have difficulty retrieving information re-
The History Center of the IEEE, located in New lated to their subjects.
Brunswick, New Jersey, has created a virtual library
AMS-MAA Joint Archives Committee
and a clearinghouse of information, both online and
printed, for researchers in electronic engineering.
The Web site of the American Mathematics Society
The Science Museum contains an alphabetical list of archival collections of
http://www.sciencemuseum.org.uk/library/archive.asp/ mathematicians in Northern America. Each entry
gives the name and dates of the mathematician, the lo-
The British Science Museum, located in London, cation of the collection, and reference to related col-
keeps in its repository large collections relating to fa- lections. The list is not cross-referenced.
mous engineers and scientists, as well as industrial
and company records. Collections can be searched by Medicine
item in the Web catalog at http://www.lib.ic.ac.uk/
catalog/cataccess.htm by using the complex search Tunis, Elizabeth. A Directory of History of Medicine
function and selecting archives as the format. Collections. Bethesda: U.S. Department of Health
and Human Services, 1997.
This directory, which lists archival repositories by
Geology geographical locations, has been made available
American Heritage Center—University of Wyoming online at http://www.nlm.nih.gov/hmd/directory/
http://uwadmnweb.uwyo.edu/AHC/depts/reference/ directoryhome.html. Each institution is briefly de-
anaconda.htm scribed with a historical note, a contact address, and
the contents and extent of its holdings. If the institu-
The Anaconda Copper Mining Company donated its tion has a Web site, the directory has a link to it.
entire collection of geological archives to the Univer- There are associations and societies that are dedi-
sity of Wyoming in 1987. This collection contains more cated to general history of health sciences or to a spe-
than 1.8 million documents on prospecting and analy- cific domain. They may be a contact resource when
sis, studies, and reports on American and worldwide lo- searching for primary sources.
cations. Scholars may search the collection online at no
cost by completing a request form, but there is a charge American Association for the History of Medicine
for physical access. Students and academic researchers http://www.histmed.org/
are charged a preferential rate of $15 per annum.
History of Dermatology Society
Bundesanstalt fur Geowissenschaften und Rohstoffe http://www.dermato.med.br/hds/
History of Anesthesia Society
The German Federal Office for Geology, located in http://www.histansoc.org.uk/
Hannover, holds a major collection of reports and
maps on German geology. Some thematic catalogs Archivists and Librarians in the History of the Health
(themes, subjects) are available online, but the catalog Sciences (ALHHS)
ORBIT that allows searches in all manuscript collec- http://www.library.ucla.edu/libraries/biomed/alhhs/
tions is internal only. iresources.htm
This is a general list of online resources related to Medical Library Association—History of the Health
the history of medicine. This can be a starting point Sciences section
for scholars looking for archives on the subject. http://www.mla-hhss.org/histloca.htm

Dittrick Medical History Center This directory lists by state and country or by insti-
http://www.cwru.edu/artsci/dittrick/archives.htm tutional name large collections on history of health
sciences. Many links for the United States are to aca-
Based on material collected by the Cleveland Medi- demic collections. There is no description of collec-
cal Library Association, Dittrick Medical History tions given, but the name of the repository is provided.
Center tries to centralize and preserve the medical
heritage of Northern Ohio. Each collection is listed by National Library of Medicine (NLM)
type and subject and is shortly described with a note http://www.nlm.nih.gov/hmd/manuscripts/asaio/index.html
about its origin, extent, and dates.
In collaboration with the Smithsonian Institution
Dundee University Archives and the American Society for Artificial Internal Or-
http://www.dundee.ac.uk/archives/a-thb.htm gans, the United States Library of Medicine in
Bethesda, Maryland, has developed "a guide to collec-
In the United Kingdom, the University of Dundee tions relating to the history of artificial organs." In al-
keeps collections of the Tayside Health Board dating phabetical order, this guide lists worldwide
to the middle of the nineteenth century. Each institu- repositories of archives, literature, and specimens. The
tional collection is composed of administrative mate- Web page allows direct access to major collections. At
rial (minutes, reports, and registers), manuscripts, an upper level in the library and archives section of the
project papers, and statistics. A simple search allows Web site, the NLM provides a descriptive list of large
online access to short descriptions of collections in- resources in the history of medicine.
cluding types of documents and dates. The archives
service also welcomes online inquiries. This collec-
tion includes an exhaustive set of document types that Natural Science
scholars can retrieve in medical institutions.
British Museum Library. Catalog of the Books, Man-
French National Academy of Medicine uscripts, Maps and Drawings in the British Mu-
http://www.academie-medecine.fr/bibliotheque/ seum (Natural History). London, 1992.
bibliotheque3 .asp/ This catalog describes personal papers and collec-
tions held by the Museum of Natural History. It is
The French National Academy of Medicine, located
available online at http://www.nhm.ac.uk/library/
in Paris, preserves in its holdings archival material dat-
index.html (select Catalog). The catalog is a search
ing from the eighteenth century. Collections come from
tool that allows access to comprehensive descriptions
French academies and societies, academicians' personal
of collections.
papers, and donations. Each collection is shortly de-
scribed with a note on its origin, general structure, and Linnean Society of London Library Catalog of the
dates. A small online database, HISTMED, allows a Manuscripts in the Library of the Linnean Society.
simple name search. The results given correspond to the London: Linnean Society, 1934^48.
type of holdings (papers, graphics, sculptures, etc.) kept
by the Academy http://www.academie-medecine.fr/ This catalog lists the Smith and Ellis papers and
base.htm. part of the Linne papers retained by the society.
International Network for History of Occupational and Phillips, Venia T, and Maurice E. Phillips. Guide to
Environmental Prevention (INHOEP) the Manuscript Collections in the Academy of Nat-
http: //users .unimi. it/~netprev/sugl/sugl. htm ural Sciences of Philadelphia. Philadelphia: Acad-
emy of Natural Science, 1963.
This Milanese Web page is divided into three parts:
generic links, health sciences museums, and historical This book lists alphabetically collections kept by
archives. It gives major resources for each theme and the academy. There are indexes by subject and authors
is geared toward Italian institutions. (originator or recipient of documents).
Physics physical sciences: physics, astronomy, chemistry, and
earth sciences. It has the advantage of focusing on
Curie Museum
physical sciences and gives detailed descriptions of
Web sites included in the catalog.
The Curie Museum in Paris contains the archives of Wheaton, Bruce R. Inventory of Sources for History
the Curie Laboratory dating from its creation in 1914. of Twentieth-Century Physics: Report and Micro-
It contains part of the Pierre and Marie Curie collec- fiche Index to 700,000 Letters. Stuttgart: Verlag fur
tion, Frederic and Irene Joliot-Curie collections, Geschichte des Naturwissenschaften und der Tech-
archives from their collaborators, and the library of the nik, 1993.
laboratory. The finding aid is available only in hard-
This microfiche index is arranged by name, and its
copy, and access to the archives is by appointment.
guide contains citations of correspondence and hold-
ICOS Database ing information for approximately 6,000 physicists'
http://libserv.aip.org/webpac-bin/wgbroker?new+- papers worldwide. It has also been published as a CD-
access+top.icos/ ROM with an additional index by collections.
ICOS, the International Catalog of Sources for His-
tory of Physics and Allied Sciences, maintained by the Telecommunications
American Institute of Physics (AIP), is the reference
resource for locating primary sources in physics and Bracken, J.K., and C.H. Sterling. Telecommunica-
tions Research Resources: An Annotated Guide.
related disciplines since 1890. A basic search gives ac-
Mahwah, N.J.: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates,
cess to a complete description of the collection, includ-
ing title, repository name and location, archival
organization, item size, content summary, notes, and This is a comprehensive book listing and describing
access rules. A subject field with related names allows sources available in the United States for scholars
a direct search to names throughout the catalog. studying telecommunications. With several indices,
this handbook compiles background information on
Max Planck Society the history of telecommunications and provides a bib-
http://www.mpg.de/deutsch/general/archiv.html liography and list of primary and secondary sources
on the subject.
The archives for history of the Max Planck Society,
located in Munich, Germany, preserve all collections International Telecommunication Union (ITU)
related to the history of the institution and papers of http://www.itu.int/
its members. The society holds collections of famous The oldest international organization, founded in
physicians and Nobel Prize winners such as Otto 1865, keeps in its holdings historic material and a
Hahn, Max von Laue, and Werner Heisenberg. There large collection of worldwide maps of telecommuni-
is no catalog online, but requests on holdings may be cation networks up to the development of satellite net-
sent to the archives services. works (1960). There is no open access finding aid, but
the archives, located in Geneva, Switzerland, can be
Niels Bohr Archive contacted in preparation for research.
http: //www. nbi. dk/NB A/webpage. html
Telecommunications History Group
This archive holds all surviving material from Niels http://www.telcomhistory.org/
Bohr: his correspondence and manuscripts and exter-
nal resources such as newspaper clippings, interviews, The Telecommunications History Group in Denver,
and so on. The archive also preserves collections cre- Colorado, has compiled a list of telecommunications
ated by other physicists. All collections may be archives and resources. For each institution, address,
searched in ICOS or browsed directly from the Niels contacts, structure of collections, access rules, and hy-
Bohr Archive Web site. perlinks are provided. The list is available upon re-
quest at the group's Web site. This group should not be
PSI Gate: Physical Sciences Information Gateway confused with the British Telecommunications Heri-
http: //www.p sigate. ac .uk/homenew.htm tage Group, which provides in its Web site a directory
This gateway to science information was launched of links on the history of telecommunications: http://
in September 2001. It is a basic search engine for the www.thg.org.uk/.
CONCLUSION far too numerous and uneven. Primary sources are
vital for historians of science, and the reference tools
In contrast to some other history disciplines, the his-
presented in this chapter should aid in the quest. To
tory of science requires broadminded scholars to ac-
avoid primary sources is a mistake, and historians of
cess sources that consist of extremely varied types and
science must discover the key points in the area of their
origins. Archival material is often scattered because of
research's subject. This will be scholars' main reason
the professional mobility of scientists and their tradi-
for selecting the most accurate sources for their study.
tion of sharing information with colleagues. These
sources need specific treatment, and scholars should be
able to limit their focus to relevant items and to read
and understand the sources. The study of technical data Amstrong, J. "An Introduction to Archival Research in Busi-
in notebooks and an analysis of scientists' correspon- ness History." Business History 33, no. 1 (1991): pp. 7-34.
dence can be very beneficial but are also very time- Amstrong, J., and S. Jones. Business Documents: Their Or-
consuming. Scholars must be aware of that before igins, Sources and Uses in Historical Research. London
and New York: Mansell, 1987.
diving into the vast sea of resources. Scholars can also
Bedford at St. Martins. "Science: Finding Sources."
easily encounter other problems, such as access and
copyright restrictions. Most of the time the 30-year sciences/general.htm.
rule is applied even in the private sector. If access is Bracke, Marianne Stowell, and Paul J. Bracke. "Science and
limited because the collection has not been processed, Technology Resources on the Internet. Selected Web Re-
scholars can negotiate access on the condition that they sources in the History of Science." Issues in Science and
help to create a finding aid or index. As in any other Technology Librarians hip, no. 21, winter (1999).
discipline, the success of historical research is based Brown, Pr. "Good Science/Bad Science. Resources for Re-
on the responsibility and awareness of the researcher search." In EARS, Winter Term 2002. http://www.
with regard to issues underlying the process of study dartmouth.edu/~krescook/instruct/ES7.W03.html.
and use of background materials. An understanding of Butler, Declan. "Search Engine Metadata Science." Nature
the issues will help the scholar in negotiating access or 405, 11 May 2000, pp. 112-115.
publication rights for archival material. Columbia University. "Archives and Manuscripts Collec-
tions." Columbia University Web Site. http://www.
There are some specific search engines and directo- columbia.edu/cu/lweb/eguides/specol.html.
ries on the Internet specializing in scientific informa- Conant, James B. On Understanding Science. New Haven,
tion. Scholars can use such tools to limit their search Conn.: Yale University Press, 1947.
and access references that may be invisible using com- Crowe, Michael J. "The History of Science. A Guide for
mon search engines. As researchers become increas- Undergraduates." Homepage of Robert T. Hatch.
ingly interested in science, thematic guides on science http://www.clas.ufl.edu/users/rhatch/pages/02-Teaching
and history of science are multiplying. However, one Resources/crowe/crowe.html.
should take into account that some guides are pay-per- Direction des Archives de France. Les archivespersonnelles
view directories. Museums that develop virtual exhibi- des scientifiques, Paris: Archives Nationales, 1995.
tions are also a valuable source of information. With Fordham University. "Internet History of Science Source-
the exception of physics and allied sciences and health book." Fordham University Web Site. http://www.
sciences, there are few guides on primary sources for
Harvard University. Sources Books in the History of Sci-
particular scientific disciplines. In fact, the applied sci-
ence Series. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University
ences are much more described than pure sciences Press, 1929.
such as mathematics. There is clearly an opportunity Highwire. Library of the Science and Medicine, http://
for historical research in these subjects. Even if there is high wire. Stanford .edu/.
a trend to place finding aids online, the consultation of Horus Publications. "Beginner's Guide to Research in the
catalogs in the library or archives remains mandatory, History of Science." Horus Publications Web site.
especially when the extensive work of describing the http://www.horuspublications.com/guide/bi 103 .html.
collection is difficult to put online. If archives do not Hurt, C D . "Information Sources in Science and Technol-
have a strong public outreach, they may not have a ogy." Englewood, Colo.: Libraries Unlimited, 1998.
large presence in the institution's Web site and are International Council of Archives (ICA). "Archiving the
Records of Contemporary Science." Summary of pro-
therefore unlikely to publish their finding aids.
ceedings of meeting in Liege, 1996. ASAP Web site.
The aim of this chapter is not to list all primary
sources available for historians of science, as they are liege96/.
Krige, John, and Dominique Pestre, eds. Science in the Raymonds Walters College Web site, http://www.rwc.
Twentieth Century. Amsterdam: Harwood Academic uc.edu/library/pathfinders/primary.html.
Publishers, 1997. Stewart, Doug. "Reference Sources in History of Science
McClung, Patricia. "Access to Primary Sources: During and Science Studies." Doug Stewart Web site.
and After the Digital Revolution." Keynote address for http://www.wsulibs.wsu.edu/hist-of-science/.
the Berkeley Finding Aids Conference, April 1995. University of Adelaide Library (Australia). "Science, His-
Berkeley Digital Library SunSITE. http://sunsite. tory, Philosophy and Education." University of Adelaide
berkeley.edu/FindingAids/EAD/ucb3.html. Web site, http://www.library.adelaide.edu.au/guide/
Members of the Clever Project. "Hypersearching the Web." sci/Generalsci/histsci.html.
Scientific American, June 1999, pp. 54-60. http://www. University of California, Berkeley. "Library Research
sciam.com/. Using Primary Sources. Primary Sources on the Web."
National Digital Archive of Datasets (UK NDAD). "Links University of California, Berkeley Web site.
and Resources. Links to Other Archives and Information http://www.lib.berkeley.edu/TeachingLib/Guides/
Resources." http://ndad.ulcc.ac.uk/links/other_links.htm. PrimarySourcesOnTheWeb.html.
Olby, R.C. Companion to the History of Modern Science. University of Chicago "Special Collections Research Cen-
London and New York: Routledge, 1990. ter." University of Chicago Web site. http://www.
Parker, Sybil P., ed. The MacGraw Hill Encyclopedia of lib.uchicago.edu/e/spcl/linkwrld.html.
Science and Technology. New York: McGraw Hill, 1997. University of Jussieu Library (France). "Ressources Inter-
Porter, R., and M. Ogilvie. The Biographical Dictionary of net. Science et Societe." University of Jussieu Web site.
Scientists. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2000. http:/Meuet.bius.jussieu.fr/intsts.html.
Raymond Walters College Library. "Historical Documents
Online: Internet Sites for Primary Source Material."
Religious Archives
Alan Delozier


The spirit and substance of religious archival research
can be a revelation in many profound respects. This is The foundation of organized religious thought and
the case when it comes to seeking an understanding of doctrine in written form comes in the presence of a
historical information from both a sacred and temporal holy book which serves as the wellspring of its adher-
viewpoint as the printed word and image found within ents and respective concept of God whether it be the
the realm of theological-based scholarship takes on dif- Torah in Judaism, the Christian Bible, the Qur 'an of
ferent meanings depending upon the informational Islam, or any other source from which archival docu-
focus of the researcher and the religious discipline rep- mentation can directly or indirectly trace as its lineal
resented. The very essence and value of creating and origin. From this foundation, other key works were
preserving a spiritual record is captured by John Corri- created in line with the human concept of theological
gan who wrote the following passage in his book interpretation through the past several centuries in-
Archives: The Light of Faith about archival illumination cluding the Letters of St. Paul, Martin Luther's Thesis
in this regard: "The historical development of archives of Christianity, the Jewish Talmud, the Baltimore Cat-
in general and those of the church in particular had and echism, or the Dead Sea Scrolls for instance. The writ-
still have as their primary function, the preservation of ten output of religious-oriented works has proliferated
records of the past for informational and scholarly re- ever since, and countless variations have been pre-
search. Each local church, each religious community served for the benefit of all interested adherents and
and institution in establishing archives can do no less in students of religious thought.
preserving the history of the church, the people of God, In addition to famous primary source documents,
for future generations." (Corrigan, 1980) With this in there are several other types of texts that were pro-
mind, anything from the actual scripture related to one's duced in line with a philosophical or functional need
faith to commentary on religious practice and the of the writer and advocate on a denominational, dioce-
chronicle of rituals performed are just a few of the san, parish/synagogue, or personal level. Records of
countless types of informational illumination sought by this nature might include administrative records (in-
both the religious archivist and the research commu- cluding incorporation deeds, financial/business
nity. Therefore, this particular chapter is not designed to ledgers, seminary books, and so on); clergy papers
be a comprehensive study, but rather an introduction to (such as liturgy and sermon transcripts, correspon-
some of the more prolific denominational archival dence to and between bishops, pastors, parishioners,
repositories found throughout the United States. This and so on); and religious community information
survey will also attempt to promote initial and more de- (which feature church bulletins, anniversary books,
tailed search options related to the field of religious appointment ledgers, and so on). Or it can be found in
studies in each of its varied and inspirational forms out- other relevant forms such as prayer books, hymnals,
lined in the text below. spiritual journals, broadsides, and similar examples.
Consequently, the focus and mission of the religious devised by those responsible for the ultimate decision-
archivist is capsulized by August Suelflow who wrote making process. The most prominent advocate of
in his excellent volume, Religious Archives: An Intro- church record preservation is the Church of Jesus
duction, that "A religious body or organization has the Christ Latter-day Saints (Mormons) which by rule is
obligation to preserve those records and resources required to microfilm church records regardless of
necessary to continue its operations, to meet its legal faith, making it a truly universal aid to the archival
requirements, and to provide for its historical continu- profession and research community. In other cases,
ity." (Suelflow, 1980) strategies vary in degree from the Reformed Church
Another value of archival resources comes in the in America and the Episcopalian Church, which
cyclical nature of their usage. Books and journals are mainly have centralized systems, to the Catholic
often used as the guidepost for an idea, and they are Church, which is organized primarily on a diocesan
also the end product of the research and written level, to the Moravian Church, which is divided by
odyssey, making it the alpha and omega of religious province and region.
enlightenment for the professional and the amateur re- Once the basic collecting parameters, mission, and
searcher alike. Even with the presence of unique focus is determined, the researcher can perform a
archival resources, the most widely utilized resources more concentrated search for appropriate materials
in the field of theological scholarship still tend to whether it be at a traditional archival repository or via
come from the text of religious lectures relating to the the World Wide Web, which has revolutionized the
nature of faith and inspiration, teaching notes, or field of historical scholarship by its convenience and
mainstream books, including biographical studies on accessibility. Counted among the most powerful
saints from Aaron to Zynovij and prominent church search engines and tools devoted to location of the ap-
figures, such as Henry Ward Beecher, Fulton Sheen, propriate archive are the National Union Catalog of
John Wesley, and Isaac Mayer Wise. Manuscripts (NUMC), Research Libraries Informa-
On a personalized level, the most popular form of tion Network (RLIN), and Archives USA. These Web
religious record research relates to the field of ge- sites are not exclusively religious in focus, but contain
nealogical inquiry. The quest for uncovering family substantial amounts of information related to the field
information from a sacred perspective provides a at large. Christianity and Judaism are among the most
means of learning about the spiritual orientation of an- prolific denominations in the United States when it
cestors, which often mirrors civil records (which comes to membership numbers, but all religious tradi-
sometimes might contain information about religious tions, regardless of size or value system, have signifi-
affiliation), but mainly through the rites of passage as- cant resources worth further study. Conversely,
sociated with personal beliefs from birth through various secular-operated archival centers, including
death. Counted among the most important ceremonies the Library of Congress Manuscript Division and the
are baptism, christenings, confirmation, bar mitzvahs, National Archives and Records Administration, are
marriage vows, and other comparable milestones. among the best sources in the United States on materi-
Each ceremony is often documented either in a special als related to Islam, Hinduism, Buddhism, and many
ledger or a certificate form, but most individuals also other faiths as well. Along with federal repositories,
record events independently in family bibles or prayer state archives are of prospective benefit especially
books. Additional citations can be found in newspaper when it comes to exploring the earliest vestiges of re-
clippings (notably a community events page or obitu- ligious settlers in a particular region such as the Soci-
ary section), mass cards, testimonial letters, cemetery ety of Friends in Pennsylvania, Catholicism in
records, or other like items which are commonly cre- Maryland, the Lutheran Church in Missouri, Mormon
ated and consulted for the sake of divine posterity. settlement throughout Utah, and so forth.
When it comes to setting policy on what a religious In tandem with traditional archival sources, the cre-
research center keeps and maintains is set by a partic- ation and utility of the Internet has been a boon for
ular governing body on a national level or by a viewing documents in electronic form or by finding a
bishop/district leader on a diocesan or sectional scale specific research center via the search engine route.
or by the director of each facility on a daily basis. With the presence of convenience, a measure of cau-
However, at the present time there are no uniform tion should also be observed and weighed when it
guidelines for record retention, but rather it varies comes to testing the validity of any information of-
from denomination to denomination and initiatives fered on a public Web site, even those dealing with re-
ligious themes. Major denominational homepages Protestant Church, are broken down by sect, and each
proper and those connected to archival endeavors has their own unique customs and ceremonies featur-
(such as those listed below) are usually on the square ing printed documents of various format type and sub-
and provide detailed, methodical, and genuine data to ject matter focus providing enlightenment on these
the viewing public as a matter of course. rituals.
Selected sites are featured elsewhere in this chapter, There are several different repositories that house
but there are also special Web areas that include gen- Protestant-related materials of note including the Billy
eral introductory facts on various religious disciplines Graham Center Archives at Wheaton College, Illinois,
such as historical outlines and doctrinal texts. founded in 1975. It contains the papers obtained from
Counted among the most detailed Internet research one of the most influential clerics of the twentieth cen-
tools currently available is http://www.Adherents. tury The mission statement of this repository also re-
com/, which features more than 41,000 statistics and flects the professional and generous manner in which
religious geographical citations on more than 4,200 most general and religious-oriented history centers
different sects throughout the world. Another useful typically operate. "The Archives gathers, preserves
resource is the Material History of American Religion and makes available for use unpublished documents
Project, which provides an individual with insights on on the history of North American nondenominational
the historical nature of religious life in the United Protestant efforts to spread the Christian Gospel. Al-
States. The Religious and Sacred Texts highlights var- though anyone may come and use the collections,
ious theological documents from a number of differ- these materials are especially intended as a resource
ent faith perspectives including many Christian for the evangelistic mission of the church." (Billy Gra-
favorites along with such specific articles as the Bha- ham Center Archives Home Page, 2002)
gavad Gita, Egyptian Book of the Dead, Urantia When searching for information on the Baptist
Book, and many others. The American Religion Data Church, especially in regard to the study of denomina-
Archive includes maps and reports on the national re- tional history, there are various prominent centers of
ligious landscape between 1980 and 1990 combined note including the American Baptist Historical Soci-
with quantitative data on church administration, mem- ety in Pennsylvania (which features manuscript col-
bership, professional activities, and group dynamics lections and reports tracing the evolution and
among other topics. When it comes to specifics on development of the American Baptist Church), United
local congregations, family history, and manuscript American Free Will Baptist General Conference, and
information Cyndi Howell's Cyndi s List of Religion Danish Baptist General Conference of America. In ad-
& Churches is an extremely well-detailed and useful dition, the Samuel Colgate Historical Library of
Web site that features thousands of entry links that are American Baptist History contains materials related
broken down by category and denominational type. to the historical legacy of the Baptist Church with over
These are just a few examples of how the new tech- 80,000 bound volumes, 500 original church record
nology provides timeless information related to reli- texts, and 400 manuscript collections including an-
gion in all of its diverse and precious forms. nual reports of associations and conventions amassed
from various ministers and other spiritual sources. The
OVERVIEW OF VARIOUS PRINT AND Southern Baptist Historical Library and Archives is
ELECTRONIC RESOURCES (BY another research facility with depth in the form of
DENOMINATION) over 71,000 annual reports and relevant newspapers,
Protestantism audio/visual resources, pamphlets, and 16,000 reels of
microfilm containing various Baptist-related historical
Archival resources related to the development of papers among other documentation of note.
Christianity in the United States have a long-standing The Archives of the Episcopal Church, USA located
place in the written historical memory of America as in Texas is one of the most organized and prolific re-
evident in the rich tradition of Protestant-centered search centers in the country. This archival Web site is
thought from the seventeenth century to the present devoted to the collection and maintenance of special
day. Denominational branches are typically repre- materials related to Episcopalianism, including those
sented by national governing bodies and organiza- connected to the General Convention and Missionary
tional structures such as the assembly, diocese, and Societies (both foreign and domestic), along with the
synod. Archival repositories, which represent the papers of key leaders (both religious and lay) among
other relevant record types. Along with a national an administrative, legal, and historical standpoint. The
archive and records management center, the Episcopal society is dedicated to housing materials that date
Church also encourages record keeping to be done at a back to the 1600s and contains over 1,500 cubic feet
local level. Informative manuals, such as the Records worth of documentation related to the Presbyterian
Management for Congregations: Financial and Com- ministry, specific church bodies, and many other
mon Business Records, along with microfilm, preser- prime aspects of the faith and its presence in the
vation, and proper storage advisement programs have United States. Another historical center related to the
been successfully implemented by church officials Presbyterian Church is located in Missouri and is de-
and the general public alike. The Episcopal Historical signed to assist researchers on various aspects of the
Society is an organization that is devoted to the usage creed and its place in history.
of archival resources and promoting the history of the Each of the aforementioned religious traditions has
Church proper within the context of the American so- their theological roots in Europe, but arose to promi-
ciety at large. nence through the efforts of their faithful and subse-
Archival records representing the Lutheran Church quent search for spiritual freedom and expression in
and its different branches are situated in various loca- America. Other denominations that followed this path
tions across the country The Missouri Synod, founded include the Congregational Church, which empha-
in 1847, had from its very beginning produced impor- sizes leadership in the form of government as elected
tant documents that are now housed at the Concordia by the membership. This particular approach helps to
Historical Institute in St. Louis. Concordia has also generate a steady stream of administrative paperwork,
been designated as the official archival repository for and the Congregational Library and Archives located
the denomination and also features a substantial li- in Massachusetts is the main focal point devoted to
brary on the history of Lutheranism in North America this religious tradition, especially from nineteenth
from 1959 onward. Traditional types of materials rep- century onward. The Reformed Church in America
resenting the Evangelical Lutheran Church in Amer- Archives located in New Jersey is a centralized repos-
ica (ELCA), founded in 1987, include the personal itory that houses the records of more than 240 differ-
papers of prominent church leaders, oral history mate- ent congregations and records related to the faith in
rials, parish records, and various types of genealogical the form of official documents produced by the
documents. Church, local parishes, and missionary field from
Wesleyan Theology has a strong archival tradition 1630 to the present. Among the oldest archival records
as found in the presence of the official United related to American religion are found at the
Methodist Church General Commission on Archives Huguenot Historical Society Library and Archives sit-
located at Drew University in New Jersey. For exam- uated in New York. This center contains materials
ple, this repository contains the records of denomina- dealing with family genealogies, cemetery lists, bible
tional agencies, personal papers donated by a records, census rolls, and other related information
distinguished array of missionaries and bishops, and dating from 1582 onward.
annual conference journals dating from 1796 to the Other American religious movements are also well
present. Representation from different branches of the documented through the establishment and operation
Methodist Church are also conserved as shown in of denominational archival repositories. The Salvation
the contents of papers from those who built and up- Army Archives and Research Center located in Vir-
held the teachings of such spiritual branches as the ginia collects, preserves, and makes their records
Methodist Episcopal Church (1784-1939), Methodist (which date back to the start of the religious move-
Protestant Church (1828-1939), United Brethren in ment in 1880) available to researchers upon request.
Christ (1800-1946), United Evangelical Church The Church of the Brethren Library and Archives
(1894-1922), and Evangelical Church (1922-1946), (also known as the German Baptist Brethren or
among others. Dunkers) founded in 1936 is located in Illinois and
Presbyterianism is another Protestant denomination contains various congregational records, family his-
that has a solid archival program as found in the Pres- tory research aids, and various internally-produced
byterian Historical Society located in Pennsylvania manuscript guides including the Brethren Historical
(with a regional office in North Carolina). This depart- Library and the Archives and Guide to Research in
ment is a part of the Office of the General Assembly Brethren History among others. Founded in 1970, the
and is designed to serve all levels of the Church from United Brethren Historical Center focuses upon the
history of the denomination in various traditionally data areas utilized are infant blessings, baptisms, con-
documented forms. The Assemblies of God Flower firmations, marriages, and death records. The LDS
Pentecostal Heritage Center located in Missouri is a seeks to preserve printed records and are concerned
repository that not only devotes its collection focus to with the preservation of each individual record
the faith and its history but also to the study of Pente- through the practice of obtaining authorization to mi-
costal, charismatic, and evangelical traditions from crofilm any available original ledger book, parchment,
the late 1800s to present times. or associated format for later usage by church officials
The Disciples of Christ is a sect that has an active and the research community at large. Not only are mi-
archival presence, and the Historical Society that rep- crofilmed sacramental register records available
resents them has a collection of more than 35,000 vol- through LDS centers, but extra copies are also avail-
umes and 50,000 subject files, including personal and able through purchase by an originating parish, dio-
institutional records of note. The Church of Nazarene cese, or other entity for their own usage. In addition,
Archives has a collection with early historical ties to within the past two years, the LDS has published
Methodism and contains records of general assem- many of their family records on the Internet, which
blies, chronicles, and information files on important features a search engine that can be used by finding
people of the Church. The Seventh-Day Adventists matches according to surname making accessibility
General Conference Archives found in Maryland fea- more convenient for interested users.
tures sections devoted to administrative records, per-
sonal collections, published records, periodicals, and Society of Friends (Quakers)
other types of formats measuring more than 10,000
linear feet in depth. These and several other prolific The Religious Society of Friends in America is
repositories house important documents related to known for religious tolerance and topnotch scholar-
various branches within the Protestant religious expe- ship, which has resulted in the maintenance and
rience. preservation of records related to the faith from the
mid-seventeenth century to the present day. The Quak-
ers have one of the most structured record-keeping
Church of the Latter-day Saints
systems of any denomination in existence. Personal
(Mormons) information is usually included in most Quaker
The Church of the Latter-day Saints is a unique reli- records and typically features birth, marriage, and
gious tradition that has its roots in nineteenth-century congregational details. This brings structure to their
America, and the work of their followers has been membership rolls and provides significant data for
beneficial to the historical community and praised present ledger-notation system within the Quaker
widely by archivists and family historians alike. Meeting (a religious service held on a monthly basis)
Within the Mormon faith proper, the LDS Family His- itself, especially when it comes to those who joined ei-
tory Library located in Utah features newspapers, pe- ther from birth or converted later in life. The proceed-
riodicals, temple, membership and missionary ings of each Quaker Meeting including statements
records, journals, personal accounts of church history, from those who speak as the spirit moves them are
and the church file, which traces the lineage of the transcribed for future reference and serve as a record
Latter-day Saints from 1840 through 1941. for future generations to review. The monthly Meeting
The Mormon Church is ecumenical when it comes features a myriad of information that is recorded
to genealogical outreach as well. As a rule they have along with the minutes and often includes biographi-
established more than 3,400 Family History (or LDS) cal data, birthright particulars, family name, marriage
Centers nationwide from which patrons have a choice and witness lists, burial, and other relevant particulars
of viewing more than two million rolls of microfilm such as those who attended non-Quaker services, mil-
(featuring information on more than two billion peo- itary enlistment, and other significant acts of note.
ple) by special request. Through this endeavor, indi- Quaker Meeting Houses or specially designated
viduals, regardless of religious orientation, can view repositories hold the majority of Meeting records and
sacramental records from a wide-range of denomina- other important documentation related to the develop-
tions, which is part of the LDS mission to save per- ment of the Society of Friends. However, institutions
sonal information regardless of one's spiritual of higher learning affiliated with the Society of
direction. Included among the most popular personal Friends tend to have the largest and most comprehen-
sive set of records on Quakerism available to the re- diocese properly arranged and diligently secured, are
search community. The prominent collections at to be safeguarded...." (Corrigan, 1980). By 1974,
Haverford and Swarthmore Colleges, both located documents produced within the Church were the re-
outside of Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, are also very sponsibility of each bishop who in turn was strongly
prolific in the area of Friends records. Swarthmore has encouraged to appoint a diocesan archivist to look
one of the most substantial collections of Quaker- over the safeguarding of their permanent records
related archives in the country and holds the official while encouraging parishioners to become more ac-
records for both the Philadelphia and Baltimore Yearly tive and glean an appreciation of American Catholic
Meetings, which are among the oldest and largest in history in the process. The same dedication to preser-
the country. Haverford has an equally impressive vation technique goes for religious orders such as the
amount of Quaker resources of more than 32,000 Franciscans, Jesuits, and Augustinians who usually
printed titles and 250,000 items on the Friends cur- have their own archival collections situated within a
rently available to researchers. The Earlham College province or community house represented and sepa-
Archives has more than 12,000 books and pamphlets rate from diocesan control.
along with relevant manuscripts that have been As per archival jurisdiction on the diocesan level,
amassed since the 1890s, which help in making the the Catholic Church has several repositories that have
Society of Friends one of the best represented of reli- thriving programs including the larger archdioceses,
gious faiths in the United States. such as Baltimore, Boston, and Newark, which had
been at the very forefront of American Catholicism
during the late eighteenth and nineteenth centuries.
Catholicism Counted among the most prominent is the Archdio-
The largest single denomination in the United cese of Chicago's Joseph Cardinal Bernardin Archives
States is the Roman Catholic Church, which has a tra- and Records Center, which was founded in 1966 and
dition of detailed record keeping on the religious pas- is very active in terms of collection and storage of
sages and spiritual mysteries of life. When it comes to business files and spiritual papers. Included in this
material substance related to the Catholic Church, the repository are informational services for genealogy,
printed output usually comes in different forms with sacramental records, and other areas of related inter-
sacramental, ecclesiastical, or administrative being est. This center covers more than 8,000 cubic feet,
the main types found. The sacramental record is one making it one of the largest centers of its class in the
that the family historian is most familiar with, and world. The Philadelphia Archdiocesan Historical Re-
there are seven different types within the Catholic search Center is another important repository that
Church. Most times baptism, marriage, and death contains numerous records accumulated by the Amer-
records are the most commonly recorded in a desig- ican Catholic Historical Society including more than
nated parish register. In addition, first Communion 100 manuscript collections and several thousand
(Holy Eucharist) and confirmation (official ritual of volume-book collections, which represents one of the
joining the Church) are also a record of ordination if a largest and oldest Episcopal Sees in the nation.
relative joins the priesthood (Holy Orders). The The other major source of Catholic archival docu-
amount of data along with the corresponding detail of ments comes at the college and university level. The
the entry in a ledger varies by church and the recorder American Catholic History Research Center and Uni-
of information, which is usually taken down by the versity Archives located at the Catholic University of
priest performing a particular ceremony. This leaves a America was established in 1948 and renamed in July
permanent record for future generations to reference 2002. This research center includes the United States
and reflect upon. Conference of Catholic Bishops and Catholic Chari-
On a more official level, documentation related to ties, USA papers among other important resources.
the Catholic Church is typically earmarked for protec- The University of Notre Dame Archives features more
tion according to Code 486.2 of Canon Law, which than 700 collections concerning the history of the
features the necessity of an archive on both the parish Catholic Church in the United States in the form of
and diocesan levels which states in effect that manuscript, book, artifact, and audio-visual among
" . . . there is to be established in a safe place a diocesan others from 1576 to the present. Georgetown Univer-
archive in which the instruments and writings which sity, the first Catholic institution of higher education
refer to both the spiritual and temporal affairs of the in the United States, had its university archives set up
through a resolution made by the board of directors in are thousands of different information centers, church
1816, and a modern-day Special Collections model archives, and other unique places across the world that
arrived in 1970 to handle the nearly 300 collections feature religious-oriented documentation of interest to
related to the Catholic experience found on this cam- the curious American scholar and genealogist. Per-
pus. haps the best place to start is tracing the origin of
one's religious faith or the land from which an ances-
Judaism tor emerged when it comes to genealogical study.
Elsewhere in North America, Canada is home to a
As one of the oldest religious traditions on the globe,
wide range of well-organized religious archival reposi-
the archival legacy of Judaism is alive and thriving.
tories that represent each major faith and are especially
Unlike Christianity, the life records associated with
useful for those living in nearby northern U.S. states,
Jewry feature written birth and marriage records usu-
such as New England and New York. Europe is another
ally not produced even with the occurrence unique
prime location for primary source inquiry. The Vatican
events. However, oral and lineal information can often
Secret Archives is perhaps the most famous home for
begin with parents and grandparents who have a
Catholic records in the world, but others such as the
wealth of knowledge in regard to family tradition and
National Archives (and governing church bodies) of
custom. Marriage in a Jewish Synagogue includes a
France, Ireland, Italy, and Spain are worth investiga-
written document between the couple and a Rabbi
tion. Various Protestant institutions such as the Church
called a Ketubah, which is not in the form of a register.
of England (Anglicanism), Church of Scotland (Pres-
For deaths, tombstones have the information of the fa-
byterianism), Netherlands (Dutch Reformed), and
ther of the deceased, and the written notices are sent to
Germany and Scandinavia (Lutheranism) also have
the congregation, a record that is not always required.
their own special historical record centers as well.
Another group that serves to aid in genealogical terms
The Central Archives for the History of the Jewish
is the Landsmanshaft Societies, which is "based on
People located in Jerusalem is another important site,
towns of ancestry" and produces records on events ger-
and a major one devoted to Judaic scholarship. Sev-
mane to Jewish ritual and custom.
eral other religious denominations including those de-
The Jacob Rader Marcus Center of the American
voted to Buddhism, Islam, and Hinduism situated in
Jewish Archives founded in 1947 is a repository that
Africa, Asia, Central and South America, or Oceania
includes representation on the religious, social, and
can be found via the Internet as well as through
cultural aspects of the Hebrew experience as shown in
printed source guides and books containing data on a
the presence of more than 10 million pages of records
particular nation, language, and spiritual preference.
and 650 major and 14,000 smaller individual collec-
tions covering all aspects of Jewish life. The American
Jewish Historical Society, founded in 1892, is another
key location for documentation on the faith and is of- BIBLIOGRAPHY
tentimes referred to as the national archives for Amer- Adherents.com. http://www.adherents.com/.
ican Jewish life, which spans the ages from the American Baptist Historical Society. http://www.abc-usa.
sixteenth century to contemporary times. The Yivo org/abhs/.
Archives and Library of Jewish History has more than American Baptist Historical Society. Samuel Colgate Li-
22 million documents in its collection and relates to brary of the American Baptist Historical Society.
the history and cultural life of Eastern Europe, the http: //www. crds. edu/abhs/default. htm.
American Catholic History Research Center & University
Holocaust, Jewish genealogy, and several other related
Archives. Catholic University of America, http://
topic areas in document, photographic, audio, and libraries.cua.edu/archives.html.
other forms of expression. American Jewish Historical Society, http://www.ajhs.org/.
American Religion Data Archive. http.V/www.theards.
ARCHIVES Archdiocese of Chicago Archives. Joseph Cardinal
Bernardin Archives & Records Center. http://www.
The main focus of this chapter is on American reli-
gious archival repositories, but the importance of Billy Graham Center Archives. Billy Graham Center
global perspective should also be kept in mind when Archives ofWheaton College, http://www.wheaton.edu/
contemplating a well-rounded research project. There bgc/archives/archhp 1 .html.
Brandon, Samuel George Frederick, ed. A Dictionary of Jacob Rader Marcus Center of the American Jewish
Comparative Religion. New York: Scribner, 1970. Archives, http://www.americanjewisharchives.org.
Brethren Historical Library & Archives. Church of the Levinson, David. Religion: A Cross-Cultural Encyclopedia.
Brethren Historical Library & Archives. http://www. Santa Barbara, Calif.: ABC-CLIO, 1996.
brethren.org/genbd/bhla. Lutheran Church—Missouri Center Archives, http://
Central Archives for the History of the Jewish People. chi.lcms.org/.
http://sites.huji.ac.il/archives/. Material History of American Religion Project. Vanderbilt
Church of the Nazarene Archives. http://www.nazarene. University Divinity School—American Religion Project.
org/archives/index.html. http://www.materialreligion.org/.
Congregational Library & Archives. http://www. Melton, J. Gordon, ed. American Religious Creeds. New
14beacon.org/. York: Triumph Books, 1991.
Corrigan, John T., C.F.X. "Archives: The Light of Faith." Philadelphia Archdiocesan Historical Research Center.
Catholic Library Association Studies in Librarianship http ://www.rc .net/philadelphia/pahrc/.
No. 4. Haverford, Penn.: Catholic Library Association, Presbyterian Historical Society, http://history.pcusa.org/.
1980. Quaker & Special Collections. Haverford College Quaker
Cyndi's List—Religion & Churches List. http://www. & Special Collections and Friends Historical Associa-
cyndislist.com/religion.htm. tion. http://www.haverford.edu/library/special/.
Disciples of Christ Historical Society. http://www. Reformed Church in America Archives, http://www.rca.
dishistsoc.org. org/welcome/history/.
Episcopal Church, USA Archives. Archives of the Episco- Salvation Army National Archives & Research Center.
pal Church, USA. http://episcopalarchives.org/. http://salvationarmyusa.org/www_usn.nsf/vw_
Evangelical Lutheran Church in America Archives. sublinks/EC6B8F906C5D268585256B92005517CD?
http://www.elca.org/os/archives/intro.html. openDocument.
Family History Library of the Church of the Latter-Day Seventh-Day Adventists Archives. General Conference of
Saints. http ://www. family search, org/. the Seventh-Day Adventists Archives. http://www.
Friends Collection & College Archives. Earlham College adventistarchives.org.
Friends Collection & College Archives, http://www. Southern Baptist Historical Library & Archives, http://
earlham.edu/%7Elibr/quaker/. www.sbhla.org/.
Friends Historical Library. Swarthmore College Friends Suelflow, August R. Religious Archives: An Introduction.
Historical Library. http://www.swarthmore.edu/ Chicago, 111.: Society of American Archivists, 1980.
Library/friends/index. html. United Methodist Church Archives. General Commission
Georgetown University Library, Special Collections Divi- on Archives and History of the United Methodist
sion. http://gulib.lausun.georgetown.edu/dept/speccoll/. Church, http://www.gcah.org/.
Greenwood, Val D. The Researchers Guide to American Ge- University of Notre Dame Archives, http://www.nd.edu/
nealogy. Baltimore, Md.: Genealogical Publishing Co., ^archives/.
Inc., 1977. Vatican Secret Archives, http://www.vatican.va/library_
Hinnells, John R., ed. The Penguin Dictionary of Religions. archives/vat_secret_archives/.
Middlesex, England: Penguin Books, 1984. Wiley, David. "Religious & Sacred Texts." http://david
Historical Society of the Episcopal Church. http://www. wiley.com/religion.html.
hsec-usa.org. Yivo Institute of Jewish Research, http://www.yivo
Huguenot Historical Society Library & Archives, http:// institute.org/archlib/archlib_fr.htm.
Women's History Archives
Wendy Chmielewski

Until the 1960s the study of the history of women in grown in sophistication and influence on the field in
the United States was mainly limited to the story of general.
the women's rights movement from the convention in As scholars continued to research and write the his-
Seneca Falls, New York, in 1848 to the passage of the tory of US. women, they combed the archives looking
Nineteenth Amendment to the Constitution in 1920, for the documents from which to create a broader and
which granted all women the right to vote.1 In addition deeper interpretation of the role women had played. Be-
to this history, there were biographies of some elite fore the 1970s it was often difficult to find even the
public women, especially those who were married to archival resources on women and women's issues that
prominent male politicians. A close investigation of had been collected. Collections of the papers of a few
the historiography of women's history will note ex- individual women, especially publicly active and elite
ceptions to this, but for the most part this body of women, such as Eleanor Roosevelt, or women's organi-
work made little use of archival sources.2 It was com- zations like the National American Woman Suffrage
monly believed that women as a group had had little Association were sometimes recorded and listed in gen-
part or significant influence in the public realm of pol- eral archival guides. However, even some well-known
itics, the economy, or other aspects of civic life in the women were subsumed under the papers of their family
United States. In the 1960s, with the revitalization of or under their husband's name. This made it extremely
feminism, the expansion of the women's liberation difficult to find individual women, even when one knew
movement, and the advent of the burgeoning scholarly their names. It was almost impossible to survey archival
and popular interest in social history—the history of resources on nonelite women or women as a social
ordinary people, outside of elite institutions and cir- group. Institutions such as the Library of Congress, the
cumstances—the history of women's role in the story Arthur and Elizabeth Schlesinger Library on the His-
of the United States became a topic of enormous inter- tory of Women in America at Radcliffe College, and the
est as well. Historians of women, half the U.S. popu- Sophia Smith Collection at Smith College were known
lation, began to question the assumption that women for their collections on women.
had no influence on the development of the country. As archivists, librarians, historians, and women's
Some scholars also examined the accepted periodiza- studies scholars turned their attention to looking for
tion of U.S. history, suggesting alternative, and impor- materials on women in archival collections, they dis-
tant, markers for change based on the experience of covered that the resources had been deposited over
women.3 Much of this early work focused on the role time. New methodologies and new ways of reading
of white middle-class women.4 Since that time the the archival resources often revealed vast amounts of
field of women's history and the investigation of U.S. information about women and their lives in the public
history from the point of view of women has broad- and private areas of American life. Even when re-
ened in scope and diversity of populations studied and searchers suspected the archival resources must be
available, there was no systematic way to access them, branch of the WCWA, actively collected the papers of
nor were they easy to find. Archivists and librarians prominent New Jersey women between 1937 and
interested in the new field of women's history and 1940.8
women's studies were responsible for creating the first By the end of the decade, the approaching war, lack
guides and bibliographies to the archival resources. In of funding, and some internal disagreements had all
partnership with scholars and researchers, these pro- worked to end the WCWA. Mary Beard resigned from
fessionals work to make sure the archival resources on the board in 1940. Materials already collected were
women are available and accessible. returned to the original owners or deposited with col-
leges that had a nascent interest in these materials,
such as Smith, Radcliffe, Hunter, and Swarthmore.9
However, the WCWA project inspired others and con-
In the mid-1930s historian Mary Beard was instru- vinced other institutions of the importance of women's
mental in organizing the World Center for Women's documents and women's history. For example,
Archives (WCWA), an institution that would collect Dorothy Porter, representative of the National Council
the documents on the history of women, the first of its of Negro Women (NCNW) on the WCWA board,
kind in the United States. Beard, an early scholar of served as chairman when the NCNW formed their
U.S. women's history, recognized that the archival own archives in 1940. This became the National
documents were crucial to preserving and understand- Archives for Black Women's History in 1979.10 Other
ing the role of women in the history of the United institutions such as the Sophia Smith Collection at
States: Smith College and the Schlesinger Library at Rad-
cliffe College are some of the famous successors to
What documents, then, have women? What history?...
women may be blotted from the story and the thought about the WCWA. In the present many institutions have dis-
history as completely as if they had never lived But what covered that their collections contain important mate-
do the women of today know about the women of yesterday rial on the history of women. In many instances they
to whom they are so closely linked for better or for worse? have initiated practices that emphasize women's his-
What are the women of tomorrow to know about the tory topics in their already established collections.
women of today?5 Other institutions have begun new collecting practices
to include the papers of women and women's organi-
"No Documents, No History," was the motto of the
zations. The following sections detail the biblio-
WCWA. Beard, with other activist women, such as
graphic resources available to assist in locating
suffragist Inez Hayes Irwin, held the first meeting of
archival materials on women.
the WCWA in October 1935. An early pamphlet stated
their mission:
To make a systematic search for undeposited source materi- PRINTED RESOURCES
als dealing with women's lives and activities To repro- Until the mid-1990s and the advent of the World
duce important materials, already deposited elsewhere, by Wide Web, there were few published archival finding
means of microfilming and other modern processes to
aids to collections focused on women. Many bibli-
encourage recognition of women as co-makers of history.6
ographies and specialized resource guides on women
By the middle of the twentieth century women histori- covered published materials such as books, maga-
ans, archivists, activists, politicians, and women with zines, articles, periodicals, and government publica-
public lives recognized the importance of preserving tions on a wide variety of topic areas related to women
the documents of their own history. For several years all over the world. There were exceptions in the
Beard and the WCWA board worked to locate and archival field, and this section will survey the printed
record these materials. Correspondence with literature. While the Web has increased access to
archivists such as Ellen Starr Brinton, the curator of archival resources on women many thousand-fold, re-
the Swarthmore College Peace Collection, reflect both searchers should still consult some of the guides avail-
the search for materials and the excitement of this im- able in paper to make sure the entire subject area has
portant project to preserve the archival resources of been covered.
women's history7 The idea of collecting and interest In 1972 a group of historians and archivists spon-
in these materials quickly spread. The New Jersey sored a session on the "grand manuscripts search" to
Center for Women's Archives, which began as a help identify "little-known archival sources to support
the growing field of women's history" at the annual spring/summer 1986), includes essays authored by li-
conference of the Organization of American Histori- brarians and archivists on the history and develop-
ans.11 Due to the enthusiasm of the audience at that ment of collections focused on women. Oddly this
conference, Andrea Hinding and Clarke Chambers of volume includes no mention of the monumental
the Social Welfare History Archives at the University Women s History Sources when describing the devel-
of Minnesota, with the support of historians and opment of women's history, the collecting of archival
archivists, decided to survey archival holdings on material on women, and the access to those collec-
women at institutions around the United States. They tions. Hildenbrand, the general editor of Women s Col-
received major funding, first from the Rockefeller lections, clearly links the political shifts in the history
Foundation and then the National Endowment for the of feminism in the twentieth century to interest, sup-
Humanities and the University of Minnesota, to com- port, and advancement of these collections. Descrip-
plete a nationwide survey of more than 11,000 tions of nine different institutions as well as an essay
archives and manuscript repositories. This was an im- on access issues for material on women and feminism
mense project conducted by a large and dedicated are included. A bibliographic essay on minority and
staff over a four-year period. The result was Women s third world women covers a wide range of publica-
History Sources: A Guide to Archives and Manuscript tions, but most appear to include secondary published
Collections in the United States, edited by Andrea resources, rather than archival material. An appendix
Hinding and Suzanna Moody, index editor. It contains at the end of the book includes a list of U.S. and inter-
descriptions of 18,026 collections of papers in more national institutions with collections on women.
than 1,500 repositories. The guide is divided into two
volumes. The first volume contains a descriptive list of
Biographical Dictionaries
manuscript collections on women and women's orga-
nizations within specific institutions. The listing of In 1971 a three-volume encyclopedia, Notable
repositories is arranged geographically by state and American Women, was published by Harvard Univer-
city. The second volume is an index of names and sub- sity Press in cooperation with the Arthur and Eliza-
ject areas that leads to the descriptive listings in vol- beth Schlesinger Library on the History of Women in
ume one. Each listing contains the title, linear feet, America at Radcliffe College. More than 1,300 schol-
dates, and a brief description of a collection of an in- arly and biographical essays on women who were pub-
dividual woman's papers or the records of a women's lic, influential figures in U.S. society and who had
organization. Neither finding aids nor inventories of died before 1950 were included. Whenever possible
the individual collections are included. The greatest the authors included information at the end of each
limitation of this resource is that it does not include essay on where the papers of these women might be
archival collections that contain information on found. For example, one learns that the papers of
women but are not listed under the name of an indi- Mary Ware Dennett, an early-twentieth-century sex
vidual woman or a women's organization. However, education advocate, may be found at the Sophia Smith
more than two decades after its publication, Women s Collection at Princeton University and at the New
History Sources remains the most complete guide to York State Department of Health.
U.S. archival repositories and collections on women. In 1980 a fourth volume, Notable American Women,
It is now clear that archivists have always collected the Modern Period, was published, edited by Barbara
materials on women and women's activities.12 How- Sicherman, with the same format, for women who
ever, that material was not as accessible as it should died between 1951 and 1975. A fifth volume, edited
have been. The vast resources on women's collections by Susan Ware, containing essays on notable women
found and published in Women s History Sources far who died between January 1, 1976, and January 1,
exceeded the expectations of even the most knowl- 2000, is currently in process, with an expected publi-
edgeable archivists and historians at the time.13 The cation date of 2004.
editors of Women s History Sources correctly assumed Two other notable publications, following a similar
that their publication was only "the beginning of a format but covering special areas on women, are
new era of research into women's lives."14 Women Building Chicago, 1790-1990: A Biographical
Women s Collections: Libraries, Archives, and Con- Dictionary, ed. Rima Lunin Schultz et al. (Blooming-
scientiousness, edited by Suzanne Hildenbrand (origi- ton and Indianapolis: University of Indiana Press,
nally published as Special Collections vol. 3, no. 3/4, 2001) and Black Women in America: An Historical En-
cyclopedia, ed. Darlene Clark Hine and associate eds. The Schlesinger Library also published two other
Elsa Barkley Brown and Rosalyn Terborg-Penn noteworthy sets of guides to their holdings in specific
(Brooklyn, N.Y.: Carlson Pub., 1993). Both publica- areas:
tions followed the Notable American Women format of Hill, Ruth Edmonds, ed. The Black Women Oral His-
biographical essays with primary and secondary tory Project: From the Arthur and Elizabeth
sources noted at the end of each entry when available. Schlesinger Library on the History of Women in
Black Women in America also includes a "Bibliogra- America, Radcliffe College. 10 vols. Westport,
phy of Basic Resources" with a subsection of "Major Conn.: Meckler, 1991. (This guide includes the
Research Collections of Primary Materials." Eighteen oral histories.)
academic institutions are listed with their mailing ad- von Salis, Susan, compiler. Revealing Documents: A
dresses and a selection of manuscript collections. Guide to African American Manuscript Sources in
Many other biographical dictionaries on women the Schlesinger Library and the Radcliffe College
have been published, but few of them list primary Archives. Boston: G.K. Hall, 1993.
sources or locations of archival collections.
Library of Congress
Selected Institutional Publications The Library of Congress has one of the most exten-
Arthur and Elizabeth Schlesinger Library sive collections of resources on women in the country,
and Sophia Smith Collection and specialists on staff have produced a magnificent
guide to the published and unpublished holdings on
Two major archival repositories on the history of women at that institution. American Women: A Library
women in the United States, the Schlesinger Library of Congress Guide for the Study of Women s History
and the Sophia Smith Collection at Smith College, and Culture in the United States, edited by Sheridan
both published inventories of their manuscript collec- Harvey et al., introduction by Susan Ware (Washing-
tions in the early 1970s. The Schlesinger Library first ton, D.C: Library of Congress, 2001: For sale by the
published Arthur and Elizabeth Schlesinger Library Supt. of Docs., U.S. G.P.O.; Hanover, N.H., distributed
on the History of Women in America: The Manuscript by University Press of New England) This guide is
Inventories and the Catalogs of Manuscripts, Books, jam-packed with information about the holdings in
and Periodicals, Radcliffe College, Cambridge, Mas- the various divisions of the library. There is a helpful
sachusetts (Boston: G. K. Hall), an inventory of their introductory essay by Susan Ware on the historiogra-
catalog, in 1973. Volume three of that publication con- phy of women's studies and women's history and the
tained information on Schlesinger manuscript collec- current state of the field. This guide is divided into 12
tions. A second and enlarged edition was issued in chapters, each written by a specialist from the Library
1984. Both editions contain reproductions of the of Congress, describing the different holdings of ma-
Schlesinger Library's card catalog, with collection- terials on women in their division. Each chapter de-
level descriptions of manuscript collections and cards scribes the holdings, subject areas that could be
for some individual documents. Almost all of the in- researched, and tools available for using the materials
formation on the holdings in these volumes has been in that division. Special attention is paid to collections
placed in the Harvard University online catalog. of family papers or organizational records or other
In 1975 the Sophia Smith Collection at Smith Col- collections that are not obviously by or about women
lege followed suit and published an inventory of their but in fact do contain significant material on women.
holdings on women: Smith College. Library Catalogs Some examples of this include the papers of architect
of the Sophia Smith Collection: Women's History William Thornton, which contain the correspondence
Archive (Boston: G.K. Hall, 1975). These volumes of his wife Anna Maria Brodeau Thornton, a major
contain pages of reproduced catalog cards from the source on nineteenth-century social life in Washing-
Smith Collection. Some individual letters and other ton, D.C; the Armed Forces Radio and Television Ser-
items in the Sophia Smith Collection are only listed in vices Collection, which includes programs, sound
the G. K. Hall publication. Neither the Schlesinger Li- recordings, advertisements, and so forth on the role of
brary nor the Sophia Smith Collection have issued women in the military; and the records of the National
further editions of these publications. Association for the Advancement of Colored People
(NAACP), with materials that document the part College of Pennsylvania, Ericka Thickman Miller
women played in the formation and ongoing work of (Philadelphia: The College, 1987).
that organization and in the twentieth-century civil Guide to Manuscript Collections Documenting
rights movement. Women in Society: A Descriptive List of Holdings,
For each division of the library, there is a concise introduction by Hilary Cummings, ed. Amy Joy
Talbot, compiled by Amy Joy Talbot, Sue Wright,
description of the collection, a list of rules about its
and April Minnich (Eugene, Or.: Knight Library,
use, and access information. Contact information in- University of Oregon, 1989).
cludes mailing address, telephone number, fax num- A Guide to Materials on Women in the United
ber, and Web site address. An effort is made by the Methodist Church Archives, Kristen D. Turner
general editors to make this information consistent (Madison, N.J.: The Commission, 1995).
and accessible to researchers of all levels. Detailed as Guide to Sources on Women in the Swarthmore Col-
this guide is, users should contact the appropriate divi- lege Peace Collection, ed. Wendy E. Chmielewski
sion^) for further information about their research (Swarthmore, Penn.: Swarthmore College, 1988).
topic. The volume does not include finding aids to in- A Guide to the Women s History Archives at Rutgers
dividual manuscript collections. (New Brunswick, N.J.: Rutgers University Li-
Almost all of the 12 chapters are of interest here as braries, 1990).
having archival or primary source material on women. Guide to Women s History Resources in the Delaware
Valley Area, ed. Trina Vaux, foreword by Mary
Rare Books and Special Collections, Manuscript Divi-
Maples Dunn (Philadelphia: City of Philadelphia,
sion, Prints and Photographs Division, Music Division, 1983).
Recorded Sound Section, Moving Image Section, A Guide to Women s History Resources in the East
American Folklife Center, and the Area Studies Collec- Carolina Manuscript Collection,Mmrice C York
tions have especially strong collections. For example, (Greenville, N.C: East Carolina Manuscript Col-
the Manuscript Division offers the description of the lection, J. Y. Joyner Library, East Carolina Univer-
most extensive holdings. Holdings are especially strong sity, 1982).
on women who were involved in the suffrage and aboli-
tion campaigns, the papers of first ladies, women who Selected Nontraditional Repositories
were pioneers in fields traditionally male dominated,
women's reform organizations, and voluntary associa- In the 1980s archivists and historians began to look
tions. There are also significant holdings on women's at subject areas and repositories originally thought to
health, women pioneers in the field of psychology, Con- contain little material on the history of women. As
gressional collections, and other government agencies. Glenn Porter, director of the Hagley Museum and Li-
This volume demonstrates just how extensive the role brary, noted: "Fields that had long found little place for
of women in U.S. history has been and how well women's history today give it abundant attention....
archivists have collected the materials that record it. The very landscape of evidence from the past has been
Information on the American Memory online digital reexamined and rearranged, revealing its pertinence to
collection from the Library of Congress is described women's history."15 In 1997 Lynn Ann Catanese edited
below. Women s History: A Guide to Sources at Hagley Mu-
seum and Library (Westport, Conn.: Greenwood Press,
Other Printed Guides—A Selection 1997). The collections at the Hagley focus on eco-
nomic history and the history of business and technol-
Documenting Women s Lives: A User s Guide to Man- ogy, areas in which it was long thought women had
uscripts at the Virginia Historical Society, Gail S. little influence. However, Lynn Ann Catanese includes
Terry (Richmond, Va: Virginia Historical Society, nearly 300 manuscript, archival, and pictorial collec-
tions in her guide. These collections contain informa-
The Florida State Archives: Collections Pertaining to
tion on such issues as "gender and the workplace,
Women s History and Women s Issues. (Tallahas-
see, Fla.: Florida Dept. of State, Division of Li- domesticity, female entrepreneurs,... the culture of
brary and Information Services, Bureau of consumption, and fashion and technology in the
Archives and Records Management, 1996). women's clothing industry."16 The Hagley contains
Guide to Collections in the Archives and Special Col- some of the personal papers of the elite du Pont family,
lections on Women in Medicine at the Medical with important collections of du Pont women, espe-
cially from the eighteenth through twentieth centuries. Encyclopedia of Women's Associations Worldwide: A
This guide also includes information on the role of Guide to Over 3,400 National and Multinational
women within nineteenth-century domesticity, reli- Nonprofit Women s and Women-Related Organi-
gious associations, and politics. The Hagley's artifact zations, ed. Jacqueline K. Barrett, and Jane A.
collections contain resources useful for material cul- Malonis, associate ed. (London, Detroit: Gale Re-
ture studies, especially on household furnishings and search, 1993).
Women s Movements of the World: An International
decorative arts. Following this tradition, the Harvard
Directory and Reference Guide, ed. Sally Shreir,
Business School (HBS) launched the Web site Un- contributors F. John Harper et al. (Phoenix, Ariz.;
heard Voices: Women in the Emerging Industrial and Harlow, Essex, England: Longman, 1988: Distrib-
Business Age (http://www.library.hbs.edu/hc/wes.) in uted in the US. and Canada by Oryx Press). This
January 2001. In the second phase of this project, HBS publication includes the addresses of women's
launched Women, Enterprise and Society: A Guide to groups and in some cases lists the location of their
Resources in the Business Manuscripts Collection at archives.
Baker Library (http://www.library.hbs.edu/hc/wes.) to U.S. Women s Interest Groups: Institutional Profiles,
"document women's participation in American busi- ed. Sarah Slavin (Westport, Conn.: Greenwood
ness and culture from the eighteenth through the twen- Press, 1995).
tieth century"17

Guides to Organizations MICROFORMS

Some women's organizations have formally estab- There is no one single resource that lists all of the
lished archives run by their own professional library archival and manuscript collections transferred to mi-
and archival staff. For example, the General Federa- croform concerned with individual women, women's
tion of Women's Clubs (GFWC) has a collection, the organizations, or topics that might be of interest to
Women's History and Resource Center Library, at women's studies researchers. The microfilming of
their headquarters in Washington, D.C This extensive archival materials has been especially helpful in pro-
library contains GFWC archives from the 1890s to the viding access to the actual documents and papers of
present and has a special emphasis on women in vol- individual women and women's organizations. By the
unteerism. A Guide to the Archives of the General 1970s publishers of microform realized there was a
Federation of Women s Clubs (in print) is available market for the sale of archival collections. As one such
from the organization. Soroptimist International of the publisher, Primary Source Microfilm, states: "Our
Americas, a women's volunteer organization, also purpose has been to provide access to rare, valuable
maintains its own archives. The Soroptimists have not research materials for libraries, scholars, faculty and
published a printed guide to their collections, but a de- students."18 With the increase in popularity of
scription of their archives, collections available, and women's history and women's studies, there is a grow-
access information is available on their Web site at ing demand for access to resources on women. Some
http://www.soroptimist.org/archives.htm. major academic institutions with major holdings in
Many organizations have neither deposited their women's archival sources undertook filming projects
archives or historical documents in an archival institu- beginning in the 1960s and 1970s. They considered
tion nor do they have an established archival program this filming as a preservation and access technique for
of their own. Their resources may continue to reside in their most important and/or fragile archival collec-
organization offices. This may be especially true of cur- tions. Some microfilm collections have an accompa-
rently active or recent groups. The following print pub- nying printed guide or inventory of material.
lications list some of the many women's organizations Researchers should always contact the originating in-
and contact information. Only a few of these publica- stitution to learn if there are additional materials in the
tions list the location of organizational archives. collection that are not included in the microfilmed set.
The following list includes only a selection of institu-
Where Women Stand: An International Report on the
Status of Women in over 140 Countries, 1997- tions that have microfilmed some of their archival col-
1998, Naomi Neft and Ann D. Levine (New York: lections. Collections in microform that are available
Random House, 1997). from commercial publishers are listed separately.
Selected Institutional Microform children; and dates of births, marriages, and deaths
Collections within the family.

Women's History Research Center Other projects have been collaborations between in-
stitutions when archival holdings surrounding an or-
Examples: ganization or person were divided among several
The Women and Health/Mental Health Collection, places. Some published microfilm products include
Women's History Research Center (Berkeley, artificial collections of special subject areas, such as
Calif.: The Center, 1975). women's studies, with materials originating at several
Women and Law, Women's History Research Center different institutions. The following list includes the
(Berkeley, Calif.: The Center, 1975-76). major publishers of microfilm with examples of their
collections about women currently available on micro-
State Historical Society of North Dakota film. Publishers often provide printed guides to the
microfilmed collections.
Congregational Church Records, (1886-1972) series
10414, one roll microfilm. The collection consists Selected Commercially Published
of a church record book providing rosters of pastors, Microform Collections
deacons, church committees, and membership; min- Pro-Quest (Now Includes Chadwyck-Healey,
utes of church organizations; baptism, marriage,
University Microfilm, Inc., and Bell and
and death records; worship attendance records; and
records of contributions. (Oberon, North Dakota) Howell)

Chadwyck-Healey, Inc.
University of Missouri/State Historical Society Examples:
of Missouri, Western Historical Manuscript The Emma Goldman Papers: A Microfilm Edition
Collection (Chadwyck-Healey, Inc., 1991) and Emma Gold-
Examples: man: A Guide to Her Life and Documentary
Sources (Chadwyck-Healey, Inc., 1995).
New Directions for Women, records, 1971-1993
Papers of Sylvia Porter, 1913-1991 University Microfilm, Inc.
National Archives and Records Papers ofJaneAddams (Ann Arbor, Mich.: University
Administration Microfilms, Inc., 1984). A printed index, The Jane
Addams Papers: A Comprehensive Guide, eds.
Examples: Mary Lynn McCree Bryan et al. (Bloomington: In-
Records of the Bureau of Refugees, Freedmen, and diana University Press, 1996), is essential to using
Abandoned Lands (record group 105). The col- the papers of Jane Addams.
lection contains records of all affairs relating to Smith-Towns endFamily Papers, 1670-1892 (Ann
refugees, freedmen, and freedwomen and corre- Arbor, Mich.: University Microfilm, Inc., 1977).
spondence with subordinate officers and teach- There are numerous letters of Abigail (Smith)
ers in the field concerning funds, buildings, and Adams, wife of President John Adams, in this col-
supplies. Letters to teachers also relayed proce- lection.
dural instructions and occasional reprimands. American Association of University Women: Archives,
Many teachers employed by this bureau were 1831-1976; A Guide to the Microfilm Edition, ed.
women. Barbara A. Sokolosky (Ann Arbor, Mich. Univer-
Records of Revolutionary War Soldiers (especially sity Microfilm, Inc., 1980).
"claims for bounty land and pensions"). Applica- Bell and Howell
tions for these bounty land warrants and pension
files may contain a great deal of personal informa- Examples:
tion about a veteran and his family. The files may Papers of the Association of Southern Women for the
show the veteran's name, age, and residence at the Prevention of Lynching, 1930-1942 (Bell & How-
date of the application; the names of his wife and ell Information and Learning, 1983).
Scholarly Resources, Inc. scholars that has created the voluminous amount of
Examples: information now available on women's archival
National Association of Colored Graduate Nurses sources.
Records, 1908-1951 (Wilmington, Del.: Scholarly In the 1980s librarians, especially those working with
Resources, Inc., n.d.) special collections, and archivists together began to cre-
Women s International League for Peace and Free- ate standardized catalog records for archival materials.
dom, U.S. Section, 1919-1959 (Wilmington, Del.: These catalog records were included in the two major
Scholarly Resources, Inc.. 1988) national utilities—OCLC and RLIN—and the informa-
The Papers of Emily Greene Balch, 1875-1961 tion about these formerly not easily accessible collec-
(Wilmington, Del.: Scholarly Resources, Inc., tions became available to researchers through public
1988). and institutional libraries. Along with many other sub-
FBI File on Eleanor Roosevelt (Wilmington, Del.: ject areas, collections containing resources on women
Scholarly Resources, Inc., 1996). could be searched through these electronic resources.
Primary Source Microfilm These catalog records remain a major online resource,
Examples: even with the advent of the World Wide Web. Catalog
records usually contain pertinent information about a
Women s Trade Union League and Its Leaders (Wood- collection, such as author, title, amount of material,
bridge, Conn.: Primary Source Microfilm, n.d.). date(s) of the collection, subject headings, and some-
times an abstract or description of the archival materi-
University Publications of America als. However, researchers should be aware that these
Examples: might not contain information about individual women
Records of the National Association of Colored or about women's issues, even when there are important
Women's Clubs, 1895-1992 (Bethesda, Md.: Uni- resources in the collection described. In large collec-
versity Publications of America, 1993). tions of material, women's studies topics may form a
Women s City Club of New York, 1916-1980 minor area and thus cannot be described in the brief
(Bethesda, Md.: University Publications of Amer- catalog record. In addition, the archivist cataloging the
ica, 1989). collection must be aware of the major issues in
Readex women's history and women's studies to consider not-
Example: ing this in the catalog record. Examples of collections
with substantial information about women, but with lit-
American Women s Diaries (Readex, a Division of tle or no information in their catalogs, are given below.
Newsbank, Inc.). Includes diaries from New En-
gland women, Southern women, and Western Institutions that do not have a Web site, or that
women from the colonial period through the turn have only a minimal presence on the Web, might
of the twentieth century. very well have created catalog records for their
archival collections. These records are located in in-
stitutional databases that are usually accessible over
WEB SITES, DIGITAL COLLECTIONS, the World Wide Web, but these records are not in-
AND OTHER ONLINE RESOURCES cluded in the searches performed by the main search
With the advent of the Internet and the World Wide engines, such as Google or Yahoo. For example, a
Web, resources available for finding archival infor- search for the papers of Zelda Fitzgerald on Google
mation on women have exploded. This has been receives 369 hits. Very quickly the searcher learns
driven by three developments: the technology of that there is a collection of papers under her name in
electronic resources, the desire of archival profes- the Special Collections Department in the Firestone
sionals to highlight the materials on women in their Library at Princeton University. The papers of her
institutions, and the continued work of scholars with husband, F. Scott Fitzgerald, also at Princeton, con-
interest in women. Archival professionals and schol- tain materials on Zelda as well. However, the
ars interested in women have created and expanded searcher will not find mention in this search of the
new methodologies of scholarship that have illumi- Web of a third collection at Princeton, "John Biggs
nated the resources on women in the archives. It is collection of F. Scott Fitzgerald estate papers,
the work and interest of these professionals and 1936-1978," which also contains letters by Zelda
Fitzgerald. The Biggs collection may be found under lection finding aids are also available. ArchivesUSA
"Fitzgerald, Zelda" through a direct search in the li- also produces microfiche of thousands of finding aids
brary catalog at Princeton. not yet available in electronic format. Searches may
The following section includes an overview of be done by repository or by collection name.
major resources available in electronic format, espe- Example:
cially those on the World Wide Web. Resources on A search on ArchivesUSA on Susan B. Anthony, one
women over the Web still tend to be bibliographical, ofthe leaders ofthe nineteenth-century woman's rights
rather than documentary. In other words, the records, movement in the United States, leads to the manuscript
finding aids, and inventories describing archival col- collection for the Blackwell family, many of whom
lections on women and women's issues are more were also leaders in the movement. The record includes
likely to be available, while the original materials a description ofthe repository holding the collection, in
themselves are not as readily accessible. There are this case the Library of Congress, Manuscript Division.
some exceptions to this, and this section does con- There is a description ofthe collection on the Blackwell
tain an overview of Web sites that contain actual doc- family. This includes the type of material in the collec-
uments or primary resources. Even these sites often tion, the dates, and the amount of material in the collec-
contain only examples or small portions of a whole tion. From the description of the collection it can be
collection. In general, visual images such as photo- noted that Susan B. Anthony is one ofthe major corre-
graphs and graphic materials are more available than spondents. The record does not reveal the type or how
electronic forms of manuscript documents. much material in this collection concerns Anthony.
There is a notation that afindingaid for the collection is
Types of Archival Resources Available on available from the holding institution.
the World Wide Web or in Other Digital
Online Finding Aids to Archival and Primary Research Libraries Information Network
Resources (RLIN)
RLIN is an information system used by many aca-
National utilities
Megasites—lists of links to other World Wide Web sites demic research libraries and major archival reposito-
Individual institutions ries to catalog primary and secondary resources. It is
only available through online systems of libraries by
Digital Collections subscription. Many smaller academic libraries may
link to the database to view the catalog, but they do
Commercial Collections (subscription-based collec- not contribute records ofthe holdings at their own in-
tions) stitutions. The RLG Union Catalog (RLIN) is a com-
Collections available online on the World Wide Web prehensive database that serves as a major union
(single institution) catalog for everything from books and serials to
Collections available online on the World Wide Web archives, manuscripts, maps, music scores, sound
(multi-institution) recordings, films, photographs, posters, computer
files, and more. As archivists and librarians have be-
National Utilities come more aware of resources on women in their col-
ArchivesUSA lections, they have included more references in their
catalog records to lead to that material. Information
ArchivesUSA is a subscription-based directory on RLIN is supplied by the institution holding the
with records of more than 5,400 repositories and with original material. Researchers who have access to
finding aids for more than 124,400 collections of pri- RLIN, WorldCat, and ArchivesUSA should perform
mary source material across the United States. Infor- their searches through all three utilities as the same re-
mation on repositories and specific manuscript sources may not appear in all the databases.
collections in those repositories is included in the RLIN may be searched by title, author, subject, or
ArchivesUSA site on the World Wide Web. Records keywords. Searches may be limited to primary re-
from the National Union Catalog of Manuscript Col- sources, such as archival materials or visual materials.
lections (NUCMC) and links to more than 4,300 col- It is also possible to limit searches for computer files.
Information on RLIN may be incomplete. There are researchers should enlist the assistance of public ser-
no direct links from the catalog record to online forms vice staff at local libraries.
of the archival finding aid for a collection. Many of On WorldCat it is possible to limit searches by a list
the new digital collections have not been cataloged on title, author, subject, or keywords. Searches may also
RLIN and are not accessible through that database. be limited by format criteria, such as books, serials,
archival materials, and electronic or digital collec-
Example: tions. Several criteria may be selected at one time, so
By searching the subject heading "women in adver- the researcher could limit the search to digital collec-
tising" on RLIN the researcher will find many listings tions of primary resources on a particular person or
and sublistings by geographical location for primary subject area. MARC records include basic informa-
and secondary sources. One collection, the records of tion about a collection, such as author, title, date, size,
a feminist group active through the 1980s, Women major subject areas, and holding institution. There
Against Violence Against Women (WAVAW), is listed may be a link to the detailed finding aid and the inven-
on RLIN as being part of the Women's Educational tory ofthe collection.
Center, Women's Movement Archives (Cambridge,
Mass.). Information about the content, dates of the Example:
material, and amount of material is given in the RLIN In searching for the papers of twentieth-century phi-
record. It should be noted that this record is not up to losopher Hannah Arendt, a record indicates that the Li-
date. The Women's Educational Center is listed as the brary of Congress holds a collection of her papers. The
holding institution. However, the WAVAW records and record includes information about the size, range, and
the rest of the collections from the Women's Educa- content of the collection at the Library of Congress,
tional Center are now housed at Northeastern Univer- the primary language of the collection, and a link to a
sity. A further keyword search of "women in World Wide Web site at the Library of Congress about
advertising" limited by visual materials finds several this collection of papers. At the Web site there is a link
primary source collections including a slide collection to portions of the finding aid, some of which is avail-
of advertisements at Stanford University and a collec- able online, and the information that the full digitized
tion of nineteenth-century advertising cards at the Li- collection of Arendt's papers is only available at New
brary Company, Philadelphia. There is no way to limit School University in New York City and the Hannah
a search on visual materials to primary or archival ma- Arendt Center at the University of Oldenburg, Ger-
terials only, so many of the records found were for many. Parts of the collection and the finding aid are
published video recordings on this subject. A keyword available for public access on the Internet.
search on "women in advertising" limited to computer
files failed to locate any records, even though there are Megasites on the World Wide Web
several digital collections now available, most notably American Women s History: A Research Guide, cre-
the Ad*Access collection at Duke University, http:// ated and maintained by Ken Middleton, Middle
scriptorium, lib. duke. edu/. Tennessee State University Library. http://www.
WorldCat (Online Computer Library Center- This is one ofthe most complete sites for print, mi-
OCLC FirstSearch Service) croforms, and electronic resources of archival and
secondary sources on women. The site is well main-
WorldCat is described as a "catalog of books, web tained and kept up to date by Ken Middleton, refer-
resources and materials worldwide." Public and aca- ence/microforms librarian at Middle Tennessee
demic libraries in the United States and other coun- University Library. There are more than eighteen hun-
tries around the world contribute records about the dred links to other Web sites and resource guides.
archival holdings of their institutions. WorldCat and More than three hundred digital collections that con-
other OCLC products are subscription based and tain some information about the history of women are
available through academic and major public libraries. also listed. A subject index links the researcher to
Many smaller public libraries contribute records more than seventy subfields. There is also a list of
through OCLC and provide access to the utility to links arranged state by state. This site does not con-
their staff, but cannot afford to provide FirstSearch tain, in itself, finding aids to specific collections or
services to their patrons. Under these circumstances collections of actual documents. Rather the researcher
will find links to other institutions that have created directories, gateways, portals and information resources
digital finding aids. There are links to digital collec- relevant to the study of women's and gender history"
tions of archival materials as well. The site includes and links to the Web sites of institutions and collections
sections on archives and manuscript collections, lists that hold material on women. The links are mostly
of some microfilmed collections, and links to institu- geared to European, British, and U.S. institutions.19
tions with Web sites of archival materials on women H-Women Archival and Manuscript Collections,
and women's organizations. There is so much infor- maintained by the staff of H-Women, a listserv of
mation on this site that the user could get lost, even H-Net, Humanities & Social Sciences OnLine.
though it is well designed. It may be easiest to use this http://www2.h-net.msu.edu/~women/manuscripts/
site through a particular subject area, as each topic
then offers links to institutions holding different types This site lists approximately fifty links mostly to the
of primary sources—for example, archival collec- Web sites of special collections in the libraries of aca-
tions; commercial and noncommercial digital collec- demic institutions in the United States and Great
tions; microform collections; and selected books of Britain with significant holdings on women. There are
documents, periodicals of women's organizations, sta- a few sites listed here that are not found in the other
tistics, media, and oral histories. bibliographies. However, as of 2002 about one-third
ofthe links at this site were not functioning.
Archives for Research on Women and Gender Pro-
ject—A Geographic Guide to Uncovering Women s Information Resources for Women s Studies, created
History in Archival Collections, prepared and and maintained by Sherri Barnes, University of
maintained by staff at the Center for the Study of California, Santa Barbara Library.
Women and Gender, University of Texas, San An- http://library.ucsb.edu/subj/women.html.
tonio. http://www.lib.utsa.edu/Archives/links.htm This site contains links to both primary and second-
This site contains links to academic libraries, a few ary online resources on women. The links are divided
women's organizations, and historical societies. It is or- into categories such as reference and archival re-
ganized alphabetically by state. There is a list of links to sources, women of color, labor studies/labor and
important sites outside of the United States, with most work, lesbian studies, sports, and publishers and
of these located in Great Britain and Australia. There is booksellers. There is a short description of each site.
a short description of the holdings of each library or The information on the links to Web sites for women's
collection. It is unclear if this geographic guide has organizations and women's businesses listed on this
continued to be maintained after the year 2000. site is especially helpful.
Genesis: Developing Access to Women s History Re- Matilda Joslyn Gage Website Links to Websites on
sources in the British Isles, a project ofthe Re- Women in the 19th Century, created and main-
search Support Libraries Programme (Great tained by supporters of a Matilda Joslyn Gage
Britain), http://www.genesis.ac.uk/index.html Foundation, P.O. Box 192, Fayetteville, NY 13066.
Although most resources listed in this chapter cover _lnk.html#arch3
collections and materials in the United States, the Gen-
esis project is included here because of its innovation This site has links to a mixture of primary and sec-
and broad coverage. The Genesis home page describes ondary Web sites and information on women in the
the project: "to identify and develop access to women's nineteenth-century United States. There is an alphabet-
history sources in the British Isles. The database holds ical list at the top ofthe site that leads to the rest ofthe
descriptions of women's history collections from li- site. Researchers might find such material as a digital
braries, archives and museums from around the British collection of eighteenth- and nineteenth-century floral
Isles." Forty-six institutions participate in this project drawings by women artists, an online copy of Sarah
and have created standardized records for the database. Grimke's Letters on the Equality of the Sexes, and
Researchers may conduct a simple or advanced search three lectures by feminist Caroline Dall from 1870.
for archival materials and manuscript collections across Women s Archives Mapping Project, created and
the 46 institutions that contribute to this database. maintained by staff at the Archives ofthe Ann Ida
Besides access to the database, Genesis links to inter- Gannon, Sisters of Charity ofthe Blessed Virgin
national resources. There are two valuable lists for re- Mary, Center for Women and Leadership, Loyola
searchers: a list of British and international "links to University.
http://www.luc.edu/orgs/gannon/archives/donordi- mation about primary resource collections on Jewish
rectory.html women available at institutions in the United States.
The editors of this Web site have created a database The Jewish Women's Archive Web site can be
with information about and links to approximately 55 searched by personal name, subject, or occupation. A
academic institutions and women's organizations with search leads to information on archival resources
significant archival collections on women. The collec- about an individual person or organization, with fur-
tions may also be searched by state, city, or keyword. ther information on the institution holding the materi-
Information on each collection includes name of the als. Contact information for the institution is included.
collection, contact information—telephone, fax, Louise Noun—Mary Louise Smith Iowa Women s Archives
email, and name of contact person—Web site URL, http ://www.lib.uiowa.edu/iwa/
materials solicited by each institution or collection,
The Iowa Women's Archives collects primary
and a brief description of holdings. An online form al-
source materials on the women and women's organi-
lows the staff from additional institutions to enter in-
zations of Iowa. Finding aids for more than 150 man-
formation about their collection.
uscript collections are included at this site. The
Women s History Resources, created and maintained collections are listed alphabetically by the name ofthe
by the University of Wisconsin System Women's individual or organization. It is not clear if there is ad-
Studies Librarian, Phyllis Holman Weisbard. ditional material or collections available that do not
http://www.library.wisc.edu/libraries/Womens yet have finding aids available online.
Schlesinger Library
This site contains examples of institutions and col- http://www.radcliffe.edu/schles/index.html
lections with primary and archival sources on women.
The links are organized by subject area. The Schlesinger Library has one of the largest col-
lections on the history of women in the United States.
WSSLINKS Archival Sites for Women s Studies, main- The collection has hundreds of manuscript collections
tained by the Women's Studies Section ofthe As- and the library Web site generally describes the
sociation of College and Research Libraries, strengths of the library. There are links at this site to
http: //gwis2. circ. gwu.edu/~mfpankin/archwss.htm online finding aids for less than 100 of these manu-
This site contains links to the Web sites of academic script collections. None of the documents from these
institutions, public libraries, some government agen- collections are directly available over the Internet. The
cies, and historical societies with significant collec- primary material the Schlesinger has made available
tions on women. There are also links to women's over the World Wide Web includes 11,000 plus photo-
organizations that maintain their own Web pages and graphs, as part ofthe Visual Information Access (VIA)
archives. The site is divided first geographically by re- system at Harvard University. VIA may be accessed
gion of the United States and then alphabetically by through the Schlesinger Web site. Further information
name ofinstitution or organization. A list of important about the manuscript collections located at the
sites outside the United States is also included. There Schlesinger Library may be found through searching
is a brief description for all links, including additional HOLLIS, the online catalog of Harvard University.
search instructions where needed, so users can navi- Sophia Smith Collection
gate large and complicated sites. A list of links to http://www.smith.edu/libraries/libs/ssc/home.html
women's volunteer organizations and other important
women's sites is included as well. The WSSLinks site The Sophia Smith Collection located at Smith Col-
is straightforward, well organized, and easy to use. lege has extensive holdings on the history of women.
The collection Web site contains more than 300 collec-
tions on women and women's organizations, including
Selected Individual Institutions (With No documents, photographs, scrapbooks, and lists of col-
Documents Online) lections. The description of each collection consists of
the date and the amount of material available, but no
Jewish Women's Archive abstract or description of each collection or a link to
http: //www.j wa.org/main.htm finding aids for these collections is available. The
The Jewish Women's Archive is a virtual finding aid archival collections are also listed by subject area, so a
rather than an online archives. This site includes infor- researcher may search for materials on journalism,
women's diaries, labor history, social work, the woman searchers should be aware that often the materials are
suffrage movement, and other areas of interest. only representative of the full holdings from each in-
See also: stitution or on each topic.
Smith College Archives Commercial digitized products are also available
http://www.smith.edU/libraries/libs/archives/info.htm# for purchase. The cost of these collections usually lim-
collections its them to academic institutions or large public li-
braries. The list below covers only a selected number
The Woman s Collection ofthe Blagg-Huey Library, Texas of the digital collections with information on women
Women's University that are now available.
Commercial Digital Collections
The Woman's Collection includes a manuscript col-
lection that provides rich research materials on the North American Women s Letters and Diaries (Alexandria,
history of women's education in Texas. The collection Va.: Alexander Street Press, 2001-). http://www.alexander
is divided into three major areas. There is a manu- street2. com/nwldlive.
script collection of individual women and women's or- This collection includes letters or diaries from 107
ganizations. Holdings are especially strong in the women of North America. The researcher may search
history of Anglo women in Texas, education, women the collection by name of author, sources, historical
in politics, suffrage, and women's rights. An interna- events, or the texts themselves. Biographical informa-
tional cookbook collection contains mostly published tion about each author includes all forms of the au-
materials, but also includes some primary materials thor's name, place of birth and death, birth and death
on women cookbook and recipe collectors. The dates, race, marriage, religion, occupation, and so on.
records ofthe Women Air Force Service Pilots collec- A link leads the researcher to a list of the diaries, and
tion form a third area ofthe Woman's Collection. The letters may be viewed chronologically. These docu-
Web site includes an abstract of each collection and a ments may also be accessed by the "Personal Events"
brief description of each woman or organization. table of contents so that the researcher could find all
the letters and diary entries on childbirth or increase
Digital Collections of income. These personal events include: attending
school; birthday; death of parent; inheritance; physi-
There are several hundred projects at institutions cal illness; starting job; sale of slave; travel. There are
around the United States to make historical materials 36 categories in all. A similar sort of search of the
available on CD-ROM, DVD, or over the World Wide documents can be conducted on the "Historical
Web. Many of these projects include materials on Events" table of contents, with important dates
women and women's issues. At present the process of stretching from 1754 to 1867. The ability to conduct
digitizing materials is expensive, time consuming, and simple word or phrase searches as well as advanced
needs considerable expertise. Most institutions recog- multifield searches is also possible. The original let-
nize that the goal for digitizing their materials is one ters and diaries in this digital collection all come from
of access. With the continual demand for resources on published sources, usually books and magazines.
women, collections dealing with women or women's There is no information listed on which institutions
issues have been primary candidates for digitization. hold the original versions ofthe letters and diaries.
Primary resources such as photographs, diaries, let-
ters, posters, advertisements, oral interviews, govern- Access to Women s Studies: CIS History Universe (Con-
ment reports, and audio files, are among the materials gressional Information Service: Washington, D.C, 2000-).
now available. Photographs and other visual images http://www.lexisnexis.com/academic/luniv/hwomen/
are the most popular type of digital collections. In wl 1 .htm (The URL is for a tour of site.)
general, most digital collections are selections from This digital collection includes transcriptions of se-
the institution, rather than complete collections or lected letters, reports from such organizations as the
holdings. The user should be aware of this and contact League of Women Voters on their political crusade for
the institution for further information. child welfare in the 1920s, some items from manu-
Other digital projects include materials from several script collections of key activists (e.g., Elizabeth Cady
institutions, gathered to illustrate the sources available Stanton) in the battle for woman suffrage, and the
on a particular topic or subject area. Again, re- records of government agencies, such the Women's
Bureau ofthe U.S. Department of Labor. A complete collections at once. Searches may be limited to docu-
list of collections is available. Each item in this digital ments, maps, motion pictures, photographs and prints,
product is defined as a primary or secondary resource. or sound recordings. Alternatively, a search may be
There is complete bibliographic data with each docu- performed on a specific historic collection, under such
ment, including author, title, date, name of collection, general headings as Geography, Politic Science and
series, folder, length of document, institution where Law, or Recreation and Sports. The collections them-
original document may be found, and whether or not selves include "Born in Slavery," "American Variety
the collection is available on microfilm. The docu- Stage: Vaudeville and Popular Entertainment,"
ments in this digital collection are retrieved as PDF "American Life Histories: Manuscripts from the Fed-
files and are fully searchable. Keyword or controlled eral Writer's Project."
subject searching is also available. Images ofthe orig- At the home page for the American Memory Web
inal documents do not seem to be included in this col- site a search limited to manuscripts on the word
lection. "women" elicited five hundred hits. These included
photographs, letters, writings by and about women,
Selected Institutional Digital Collections and other items. Records of each document include an
image of the original item, a transcription, links to
The collections and Web sites included in this sec- other items of similar interest, and links to the online
tion are only a selection of the ever-growing number collection at the Library of Congress, which sponsors
of resources available over the World Wide Web. the original document. In some cases a link to a cata-
There are some sites devoted to collections of primary log record is available. For example, an early draft of
sources specifically on women. Other Web sites in- The Woman s Bible by Elizabeth Cady Stanton may be
cluded here cover broader subject areas, but they in- found through the American Memory site. A link to
clude significant amounts of material on women, the catalog record for the entire collection of Eliza-
women's organizations, or topics of interest to re- beth Cady Stanton papers eventually leads to a finding
searchers on women. The examples in this section aid for that manuscript collection. Within the Stanton
were selected to illustrate a range ofthe kinds of elec- papers finding aid, links are provided to specific docu-
tronic resources available from single institutions. ments available online through the American Memory
African-American Women On-line Archival Collections project, thus returning the researcher back the starting
Special Collections Library, Duke University Web site. The extensive printed guide, American
http: //scriptorium. lib. duke. edu/collections/ Women: A Library of Congress Guide for the Study of
african-american-women.html Women s History and Culture in the United States, de-
This site includes three collections of primary docu- scribed earlier in this chapter, provides a broader view
ments from the writings of African American women. ofthe collections available at the Library of Congress.
These collections contain rare nineteenth-century and Dickinson Electronic Archives
early-twentieth-century writings of slave women and a http://www.iath.virginia.edu/dickinson/index.html
woman born to former slaves. This site provides links
This extensive Web site was designed and continues
to descriptions of other manuscript collections of
to be maintained by staff at the University of Virginia.
African American women's organizations at Duke
The site, in its entirety, includes primary documents
University. These collections represent only a portion
by and about Emily Dickinson, other members of the
of the archival holdings on African American and
Dickinson family, and connected friends and col-
Anglo women in the Special Collections Library at
leagues. Much of the archival material about Emily
Duke University.
Dickinson is restricted to the sources connected to the
American Memory University of Virginia. Primary materials, mostly let-
(Washington, D.C: Library of Congress, National Digital ters and writings, from other members of the Dickin-
Library Program, 1994-) son family are available over the World Wide Web.
Emergence of Advertising in America (online)
This enormous Web site is a gateway to access Durham, N.C.: Digital Scriptorium, Rare Book, Manu-
seven million digitized items from more than one hun- script, and Special Collections Library, Duke University,
dred historical collections at the Library of Congress. 2000 (cited June 26, 2001).
It is easy to use, and researchers may search across all http: //scriptorium .lib. duke. edu/eaa/
This database presents more than 9,000 images, Researchers may use the basic or advanced search
with information, relating to the early history of ad- form to locate records of the physical holdings infor-
vertising in the United States. There are no documents mation for motion picture films and sound and video
in the database. A researcher may perform a keyword recordings of NARA's Motion Picture, Sound, and
search across all the collections included on this site. Video Branch. Searches may be limited by media
Images of women were often included in advertise- type, specific titles, title keywords, control number,
ments whether companies were directing their prod- and/or specific description level identifiers. A portion
ucts towards women or not. A search on this database of the NARA holdings listed in NAIL has digital im-
on the topic of tobacco advertising found 285 images, ages. A search may be limited to those records with
with only 9 of them listed as containing women. How- digital images of the original items. A link in the
ever, in searching through the images, all 23 adver- record leads the researcher to the image of the docu-
tisements listed for just the tobacco company Watson ment. No transcriptions of the documents are avail-
and McGill contain images of women. Not all of the able.
records, which accompany the images in this whole A keyword search on the word women retrieved
site, had the word woman or women noted, even where more than 6,000 records. Only 600 of these records
women appear in the image. had digital representations of the original documents
or images. Nevertheless, information on women and
Emma Goldman women's history occurs throughout the NAIL data-
http://sunsite.berkeley.edu/Goldman/ base if researchers are aware of what sorts of docu-
This Web site describes the Emma Goldman Papers mentation to search. For example, before gaining the
Project based at the University of California at Berke- right to vote in 1920, women used petitions as a polit-
ley. The larger project has published two microfilm ical tool to make their voices heard in the courts and in
collections of Goldman materials: The Emma Gold- Congress. Hundreds of petitions were signed by
man Papers: A Microfilm Edition (Chadwyck-Healey groups of women on such public issues as slavery and
Inc., 1991) and Emma Goldman: A Guide to Her Life antislavery, rights of Native Americans, women's
and Documentary Sources (Chadwyck-Healey Inc., rights, polygamy, child labor, and disarmament.
1995). The Web site contains descriptions ofthe mi- Women also petitioned the federal government as in-
crofilm and print project and also sample documents dividuals in attempts to address personal concerns.
on Goldman and radical contemporaries, on anar- Even where women are the only signers of a petition
chism, antiwar work, socialism, an online exhibit of or the majority of signers, in most of the NAIL
photographs and documents with explanatory text, records for these petitions the word women does not
and a section of curriculum to aid middle and high appear, so the original keyword search (finding more
school students. This site also includes the Open than 6,000 records) did not include this material. Cre-
Road, a newsletter about the Goldman Papers Project. ative use of these materials will yield substantial
Portions of some of Goldman's writings are available amounts of archival resources for the study of women.
as well. Suffrage Oral History Project
National Archives and Records Administration (NARA) The Bancroft Library, University of California at Berkeley
and National Archive Information Locator (NAIL) http://sunsite.berkeley.edu:2020/dynaweb/teiproj/oh/
http://www.archives.gov/research_room/nail/index.html suffragists/

The National Archives and Records Administration The Suffragists Oral History Project was originally
(NARA) is the agency that archives all federal conducted in the mid- to late-1970s. Historians inter-
records. National Archive Information Locator viewed a small number of 11 suffrage leaders, includ-
(NAIL) is NARA's current online catalog of holdings ing Alice Paul and Jeannette Rankin. The taped
in Washington, D.C, the regional records services fa- interviews were transcribed and published by the Ban-
cilities, and the presidential libraries. A new catalog, croft Library. The interviews document their activities
the Archival Research Catalog (ARC), is planned as a in behalf of passage of the Nineteenth Amendment
replacement. NAIL currently contains descriptions of and their continuing careers as leaders of movements
more than 607,000 archival holdings descriptions and for welfare and labor reform, world peace, and the
124,000 digital copies; it represents only a portion of passage of the Equal Rights Amendment. The tran-
NARA's vast holdings. scribed interviews are now available online. There is a
subject index to each interview and a researcher may See also at the University of Pennsylvania, the Mar-
perform a keyword search across all of the transcrip- ian Anderson Collection of Photographs, 1898-1992,
tions. Annenberg Rare Book and Manuscript Library.
Triangle Factory Fire
Created by the Kheel Center for Labor-Management Docu- Selected Sites with Digital Collections from
mentation and Archives, Cornell University/ILR Multiple Institutions
http: //www. ilr. Cornell. edu/trianglefire/
DoHistory Created by the Film Study Center at Harvard
This site includes primary and secondary sources on University in 2000
the workers and events at the Triangle Shirtwaist Com- http ://www. dohistory. org/
pany Factory in New York, New York, 1911. Most of the
employees at the company were women; women were This award-winning site is a multifunctional tool to
leaders and participants in the strikes and union activity teach history and use of primary sources, rather than
solely a guide to archival sources or the gateway to a
surrounding this event. The site documents a significant
digital collection. The editors state at the top of the
event in the history of working women. Included is a
opening page that this is "A site that shows you how to
history of the event, lists of witnesses, victims, and a
piece together the past from the fragments that have
bibliography. Digitized documents include testimonials,
survived. Our case study: Martha Ballard."20 The di-
reports, newspaper clippings, oral histories of survivors,
aries of Maine resident and midwife Martha Ballard
photographs, and illustrations. This site contains almost
(1785-1812) have thrilled scholars, students, and inde-
all of the primary documents on the Triangle Factory
pendent historians. The diaries have been the source of
Fire held by the Kheel Center. There is also a list of pri-
at least two books and a historical film. This site in-
mary and secondary resources held at other institutions.
cludes portions of the book edited and published by
There are photographs and illustrations, but no images
historian Laurel Ulrich Thatcher, transcriptions of the
of original documents, only the transcriptions.
diaries by Robert R. McCausland and Cynthia MacAl-
Women in Journalism man McCausland, and portions of a film on Martha
Washington Press Club Foundation Ballard written and produced by Laurie Kahn-Leavitt.
http://npc.press.org/wpforal/ohhome.htm Information about the video, clips from the film, and
The Washington Press Club Foundation initiated an essay from Kahn-Leavitt about the process of mak-
their oral history project in 1986. The project includes ing a historical film are included on the site.
nearly 60 interviews with women journalists whose The digital collection portion of the site includes
careers span most of the twentieth century. Transcrip- images and transcriptions of each page of the Ballard
tions of 42 of these interviews are available online at diary, as well as images and transcriptions ofthe orig-
this Web site. The journalists were chosen to reflect inal primary and secondary sources used as back-
cultural diversity, importance to the field of journal- ground material for the site. As the diaries are often
ism, and impact on the careers of other women and on difficult to read, information to assist in decoding
the wider community. Tapes and transcripts of all the them is also included on the site. Researchers may
interviews are available at Columbia University and view such items as 19 pages from the official records
the National Press Club Library in Washington, D.C. ofthe town of Hallowell, Maine. Both the diaries and
Transcripts of the tapes are available at academic in- the background documents may be viewed as images
stitutions around the United States. A list of holding of the original pages or as transcribed versions. A
institutions is included on this Web site. database accompanies the documents and diaries,
which may be searched by text, a list of keywords, or
Women s Studies Collection
date range. The location of each original primary re-
Schoenberg Center For Electronic Text and Image, Univer-
sity of Pennsylvania source is listed with the image or text.
http://www.dewey.library.upenn.edu/sceti/. Internet Women s History Sourcebook
Created and maintained by Paul Halsall at Fordham University
This site contains the complete text of several un-
published nineteenth- and twentieth-century women's
diaries and two cookbooks. These documents are The editor of this site has provided links to a selec-
available as large images only, with no transcriptions tion of primary and secondary sources on women in
ofthe pages. the ancient, medieval, and modern world. Sections on
Ancient Egypt, Mesopotamia, Greece, Rome, Me- The Salem Witch Trials Documentary Archive and
dieval Europe, North America, Latin America, Europe, Transcription project is an electronic collection of pri-
Asia, Africa, and the Islamic World are subdivided into mary source materials, including court records, con-
topics pertinent to the study of women. These include: temporary books, maps, images, and literary works,
General, Great Women, Women's Oppression, The relating to the Salem witch trials of 1692. Many ofthe
Structure of Women's Lives, Women's Agency, and documents included on the site concern the role of
Gender Construction. Links from the site's table of women in the trials and in Salem in the late seven-
contents take the researcher to a brief title and link. In teenth century Court documents and other pertinent
some cases the resources are located at other sites; in materials from archival collections in Massachusetts,
others the historical resources have been transcribed by Maine, and New York may be found on the site. There
this site's editor and included on the site itself. Re- are images ofthe original documents. A separate sec-
sources located at the Internet Women's History tion ofthe site contains copies of transcriptions ofthe
Sourcebook site are transcribed and there are no im- court documents produced in 1938. Further transcrip-
ages ofthe original documents. tions are planned.
The Margaret Sanger Papers Project Women and Social Movements in the United States,
http://www.nyu.edu/projects/sanger/project.htm 1830-1930 (online) 1997-
Created and Maintained by Thomas Dublin and Kathryn
This Web site describes the historical editing project Kish Sklar, Center for the Historical Study of Women and
on the papers of Margaret Sanger sponsored by the Gender at the State University of New York at Binghamton
History Department at New York University. There are http://womhist.binghamton.edu/index.html
links to detailed descriptions of the two microfilmed
collections: Margaret Sanger Microfilm Edition: This site is "Organized around the history of women
Smith College Series and the Margaret Sanger Micro- in social movements between 1830 and 1940, [and]
film Edition: Collected Documents Series. Both col- makes the insights of women's history accessible to
lections are published by ProQuest. A careful search teachers at universities, colleges, and high schools."
reveals a link at this Web site to primary documents onCurrently the documents on this site are all selected
Sanger through the Web site of the Model Editions from 24 published microfilm collections of primary
Partnership (see below). sources on the history of women. As of 2003 there are
projects underway that will incorporate archival or pri-
The Margaret Sanger Papers Project Electronic Edition mary documents from numerous institutions into the
(Model Edition Project) site.
This site includes transcriptions of more than 750
The Model Editions Partnership is a project spon- documents but only a few images of the original doc-
sored by the University of South Carolina and "ex- uments. Documents may be searched by date or gen-
plore [s] ways of creating editions of historical eral subject area. Keyword searching is available.
documents which meet the standards scholars tradi- There are also 200 historical photographs, graphics,
tionally use in preparing printed editions. Equally im- and other visual items. The site also includes a de-
portant is our goal of making these materials more scription of the microfilm collections from which the
widely available via the Web."21 Documents from the documents are drawn.
Margaret Sanger Papers Project are included in the
Model Editions Project. The documents were selected CONCLUSION
by the editors of the Sanger Project and include un-
Archival collections focused on women and issues
searchable digital images of more than 60 archival
specifically concerning women are available at many lo-
documents. There are no transcriptions of these docu-
cations. There are several institutions across the United
ments. Explanatory reference notes and links are avail-
States, such as the Schlesinger Library, which collect
able for each document, setting it into the context of
exclusively on women, women's organizations, and
Sanger's life and the other documents on the Web site.
women's issues. Almost all archival collections have
Salem Witch Trials some information about women, even when the focus of
Created under the supervision of Benjamin C. Ray, the institution seems directed toward other topics.
University of Virginia A few printed guides to these resources have been
http://etext.virginia.edu/salem/witchcraft/ published through the second half of the twentieth
century, but these publications covered only a tiny 2. Two books published by historian Mary Ritter
portion ofthe enormous amount of archival resources Beard were the most famous exceptions to this: Mary
actually available. Archivists, librarians, and scholars Ritter Beard, ed., America through Women's Eyes
interested in women's history and women's studies (New York: Macmillan, 1933); and Mary Ritter Beard,
have turned with enthusiasm to the World Wide Web Woman as Force in History: A Study in Traditions and
as the principle method to disseminate information Realities (New York : Macmillan, 1946).
about the vast amounts of material on women already 3. Early examples of this historiographical writing:
available in collections. These professionals and Barbara Welter, "The Cult of True Womanhood,"
scholars have utilized the special capabilities of the American Quarterly 18, no. 2, part 1 (Summer 1966):
Web to increase the information about the location of pp. 151-75; Kathryn Kish Sklar, Catharine Beecher;
archival resources on women. However, even with this A Study in American Domesticity (New Haven, Conn.:
great increase since the advent of the Web, there re- Yale University Press, 1973); Mary P. Ryan, Woman-
mains a great deal of work to be done in exposing the hood in America, from Colonial Times to the Present
materials available on women. (New York: New Viewpoints, 1975).
In cooperation with these professionals and schol- 4. A notable exception to this was Gerda Lerner,
ars, publishers of archival collections and designers of ed., Black Women in White America (New York: Vin-
new electronic resources will also play a significant tage Books, 1973). Lerner used excerpts of previously
role in making archival materials on women more eas- published primary documents to demonstrate the rich
ily accessible to researchers. The established partner- history of African American women.
ships between information professionals and scholars 5. World Center for Women's Archives (WCWA)
already interested in women's studies will have to be Pamphlet, ca. 1939, Margaret Sanger Papers, Library
extended to include publishers and Web designers. of Congress, quoted in "The World Center for
Archival resources on women are not yet directly Women's Archives: A Look Back at a Novel Idea,"
available in microform or electronically in proportion Margaret Sanger Papers Project Newsletter, no. 7,
to the amount located on paper within institutions. (spring 1994), http://www.nyu.edu/projects/sanger/
Those researchers interested in locating archival re- wcwa.htm.
sources on women now have far more, and far better, 6. "World Center for Women's Archives," Corre-
guides to collections than they did before the middle spondence with Mary Beard, 1935-1945, Swarthmore
ofthe 1990s. The availability of paper and electronic College Peace Collection Official Records.
guides are thanks to the work of archivists and librari- 7. Mary Ritter Beard to Ellen Starr Brinton, 14 Au-
ans specializing in women's studies and women's his- gust 1939, Correspondence with Mary Beard, 1935-
tory. However, even with the growing number of 1945, Swarthmore College Peace Collection Official
printed and electronic guides becoming increasingly Records.
accessible, it still requires thought, persistence, and 8. New Jersey Historical Society, "Federal Writers
creative methodologies on the part of researchers to Project. New Jersey," New Jersey Historical Society,
unearth archival resources on women and their his- http://www.jerseyhistoryorg/findingaid.php?aid=083
tory. The long-established partnerships between 0 summary.
archival professionals, librarians, women's studies 9. Mary Ritter Beard to Ellen Starr Brinton, Corre-
scholars, and historians will continue to be a neces- spondence with Mary Beard, 1935-1945, Swarthmore
sary component to the development of bibliographical College Peace Collection Official Records.
resources to archival resources on women. 10. Mary McLeon Bethune Council House, "Col-
lections," National Archives for Black Women's
NOTES History, http://www.nps.gov/mamc/bethune/archives/
1. Eleanor Flexner's book Century of Struggle: The
11. Andrea Hinding, ed., Women s History
Woman s Rights Movement in the United States (Cam-
Sources: A Guide to Archives and Manuscript Collec-
bridge: Harvard University Press, Belknap Press,
tions in the United States (New York: Bowker, 1979),
1959) and The Ideas of the Woman Suffrage Move-
p. ix.
ment, 1890-1920, by Aileen S. Kraditor (New York:
12. Suzanne Hildenbrand makes this same point in
Columbia University Press, 1965) are excellent exam-
the introduction to Women's Collections: Libraries,
ples of this history
Archives, and Consciousness (New York: Haworth 18. Gale Group Inc., Primary Source Microfilm,
Press, 1986), p. 1. http://www.galegroup.com/psm/about.htm.
13. Ibid., p. xi. 19. All quotations in this section are from Research
14. Ibid., p. xi. Support Libraries Programme, "Project Information,"
15. Glenn Porter, "Forward," in Women s History: A http://www.genesis.ac.uk/projectinfo.html.
Guide to Sources at Hagley Museum and Library, by 20. Film Study Center, Harvard University,
Lynn Ann Catanese (Westport, Conn.: Greenwood "Martha Ballard's Diary Online," DoHistory, http://
Press, 1997), p. 1. www.dohistory.org/diary/aboutonlinediary.html.
16. Ibid., p. iv. 21. University of South Carolina, Division of Li-
17. Harvard Business School, "Women, Enterprise braries and Information Systems, "Model Editions
and Society: A Guide to Resources in the Business Partnership: Historical Editions in the Digital Age,"
Manuscripts Collection at Baker Library: Introduc- http://mep.cla.sc.edu/.
tion," http://www.library.hbs.edu/hc/wes/intro/.
Moving Image and Sound Archives
Dwight Swanson

While significant and serious research of film and worry about the ways in which they can make them-
television history can be done at a first-rate video selves and their services available to the public."
rental store or through a library's film and video col- (Houston 1994, 75) According to film archivist Paolo
lection, to truly grasp the breadth ofthe world of mov- Cherchi-Usai, in keeping with this new sense of open-
ing images, a researcher will eventually have to seek ness, "those which don't or can't provide access now
out the resources of a film and video archive. It is only pretend that they do, and feel guilty about it" (Hous-
in an archive that one can view prints of films that may ton 1994, 97).
never be available commercially, including not only Two recommended starting points for archival re-
feature films, but such genres as newsreels, home search are the books Keepers ofthe Frame by Penel-
movies, outtakes, and industrial and educational films. ope Houston and Anthony Slide's Nitrate Won't Wait.
Furthermore, moving image archives are not just a re- Both books examine the history of film archives and
source for the study of film or media history, but for the politics and philosophies of film preservation,
all types of history, since moving images exist at a Houston from a primarily European viewpoint and
crossroads of art, entertainment, and documentation. Slide from an American one. Film archives, in their
Likewise, some sound recordings, such as radio earliest incarnations, were seen as being on the fringes
shows, were only intended as ephemeral broadcasts of legality since it was feared that the motion picture
and only through serendipity do they still exist today companies that owned the copyrights on the films
in archival collections. Oral history recordings, how- would step up and demand their prints back. Luckily
ever, are intentionally created to permanently capture this rarely happened, so gradually this fear was aban-
the passage of time through the words of its partici- doned and archives developed working relationships
pants. While recorded words can be transcribed, no with film studios.
textual translation can truly capture the same feeling As archives adopted more traditional library-science
and meaning of hearing the original voices and the approaches to cataloging and access, there still re-
original sounds. mained impediments to usage. First, are the copyright
issues associated with commercial film prints. Espe-
MOVING IMAGE ARCHIVES cially in the case of commercial films, copyright own-
ers stand at the center of most archival transactions, as
Researchers approaching moving image archives
rights must be cleared and fees negotiated. This is
for the first time may find a difficult series of obstacles rarely a problem for on-site viewing of prints or tapes
keeping them from actually gaining access to the ma- but does become an issue for any type of duplication or
terials they are searching for. A tradition of secrecy exhibition. A more pressing problem is the technical
among film archives has thankfully been abandoned, one because unlike almost any other type of archival
writes Penelope Houston, and "access is the watch- media, films, videotapes, and audiotapes require ma-
word, one might say the talisman, for the modern film chinery in order to be able to make any use of them;
archive. They talk about it all the time, practise it,
and this machinery is frequently very expensive, frag- material preservation" (Cherchi-Usai 2000, 124)" Be-
ile, and potentially damaging to the artifacts. Most of yond this, however, he offers some key pointers on the
the preeminent moving image archives are intimately processes and tools of archival film research that are
involved in the preservation process, so will be unwill- well worth reading for the first-time film researcher in
ing to put their original materials at risk. Different order to get the most possible information out of the
archives have different policies about access to master archival visit.
materials, but it is not uncommon for archives to disal- Given all of these caveats, is archival moving image
low viewing of film prints or tapes that have not been and sound research a lost cause? Certainly not. In fact,
preserved, leaving many titles off-limits to researchers. every year the opportunities for access to primary
Film archives, perhaps more than any other type of sources grow as the volume of material (including the
archive, require advance warning by potential re- preserved titles) in archives accumulates. Addition-
searchers, since film is frequently kept either off-site or ally, the amount of information about media materials
in climate-controlled vaults, which demand lengthy is growing exponentially with the development of
staging times before the materials can be used. both centralized databases and noncentralized ones
Researchers looking into specific topics should of available via the Internet.
course contact archives such as the ones in other chap- The largest American collections are the national
ters of this book because very frequently manuscript collections at the Library of Congress and the Na-
collections end up with media materials, though these tional Archives and Records Administration. Beyond
often get lost in the back shelves of storage areas. these are the cinema collections associated either with
Even the largest, most established media archives, Hollywood film production or classic cinema, both
however, have a difficult time keeping up with the be- American and foreign. The first large-scale associa-
wildering array of different types of film, video, and tion of film archives was the International Federation
audio formats, each one with its own idiosyncrasies of Film Archives (FIAF), which was founded in 1938,
and each one more expensive than the next. 16mm Web site at http://www.fiafnet.org/. There are cur-
film, for example, became the standard format for ed- rently 11 American FIAF members, including the
ucational, news, and documentary film, whereas largest ofthe American film archives. In recent years,
35mm has been the format of choice for most theatri- the Association of Moving Image Archivists (AMIA)
cal films for more than 100 years. Maintaining equip- has had a burgeoning membership both in North
ment for even these two formats can be a huge America and around the world. One ofthe most help-
financial burden for small archives, which is to say ful resources in the film preservation and film research
nothing of 8mm, super 8, 9.5mm, 28mm, 70mm and world is AMIA-L, the Listserv sponsored by the
so on. And even though the Video Home System AMIA.
(VHS) has lasted as the standard video access format Archival researchers seeking moving image materi-
for several decades, its future is very much in doubt in als beyond the cinema ofthe silver screen should seek
this digital age. Because of these issues and the costs out the wealth of resources found in regional and spe-
involved, viewing and listening facilities vary by cialized collections. Regional moving image archives
archive. Larger film archives will have flatbed viewers are frequently found in state or local historical soci-
(such as Steenbecks) for viewing 16mm and 35mm eties or as parts of university libraries. These collec-
film prints, preferably in separate study rooms. tions are usually limited only by geography, and have
Flatbeds allow for the viewing of prints on small mon- as their mandates the preservation of the moving im-
itor-sized screens, but their mechanisms are gentler on ages created in a particular location. They, therefore,
film than traditional projectors. In smaller archives, tend to be strongest in nonfiction categories, such as
however, it is more likely that a researcher will be home movies, local television, and documentaries, at
viewing a VHS copy of a film on a VCR in a study the same time frequently including fiction films such
carrel. as independent films and feature films shot in the re-
Paolo Cherchi-Usai, in his book Silent Cinema: An gion.
Introduction, includes a useful chapter on the relation- Specialized archives are those that build their col-
ship between researchers and archives. He begins with lections around a specific topic. In some cases, the
the etiquette involved (by both parties), as summa- focus may be on a particular category of film, such as
rized by his rule: "Both must ensure that the act of educational films or East German films, but more
consulting to a better knowledge ofthe work and to its commonly these archives collect all types of media re-
lated to a single research topic, such as baseball or While archives have almost completely abandoned
Japanese American life. printed catalogs and finding aids in favor of Web sites,
there are still several older publications by larger
Bibliographies and Catalogs archives, the Library of Congress in particular, which
are useful for film study. These include:
In 1983, Frank Hodsoll, the chairman ofthe National
Endowment for the Arts, wrote "informed decisions Motion Pictures from the Library of Congress Paper
about preservation priorities will continue to be diffi- Print Collection, 1894-1912, compiled by Kemp
cult to make until the contents and physical condition of R. Niver and edited by Bebe Bergsten (Berkeley:
films in major collections across the country are listed University of California Press, 1967).
in one database" (Slide 1992, 147). In 1994, the Na- The George Kleine Collection of Early Motion Pic-
tures in the Library of Congress: A Catalog, pre-
tional Moving Image Database (NAMID) project was
pared by Rita Horwitz and Harriet Harrison with
established with the support ofthe American Film Insti-
the assistance of Wendy White (Washington D.C:
tute to try to centralize and standardize moving image Library of Congress, Motion Picture, Broadcast-
holdings from across the country. Despite its good in- ing, and Recorded Sound Division, 1980).
tentions, by the late 1990s the project had largely Catalog of Holdings, the American Film Institute
stalled, and some of the leading archives still continue Collection and the United Artists Collection at the
to use private and proprietary databases. The closest Library of Congress (Los Angeles, Calif.: Ameri-
thing to a single large database of film titles remains the can Film Institute, 1978).
Online Computer Library Center (OCLC), but this The Film Catalog: A List of Holdings in the Museum
tends to be used primarily by university collections, and of Modern Art, edited by Jon Gartenberg with Lee
even then only rarely. Locating a particular film title un- Amazonas (Boston, Mass.: G.K. Hall, 1985).
fortunately remains a fairly complicated process. In Three of the largest film and television collections
2002, however, the Association of Moving Image in the country (the Library of Congress, the National
Archivists (AMIA) and the Library of Congress re- Archives and Records Administration, and UCLA)
ceived funding from the National Science Digital Li- have their catalogues available online, and in all three
brary to begin implementation of the Moving Image l cases, detailed records give information about the
Collections (MIC) portal. MIC (http://gondolin. availability of on-site viewing copies. The Library of
rutgers.edu/MIC) is an ambitious Web-based system to Congress includes motion picture and videotape
coordinate information about archival moving image records in its general "Library of Congress Online
collections. The project will eventually include a world- Catalog" at http://catalog.loc.gov/. As of 2002, the
wide directory of moving image archives, cataloging National Archives' Archival Research Catalog data-
facilities for participating institutions, a union catalog base at http://www.archives.gov/research_room/arc/
of publicly held film and video titles, and an outreach contains records for nearly 100,000 films and videos
and education component with links to information on and 40,000 sound recordings. UCLA's film and televi-
cataloging and preserving moving image materials. sion collection is found as part of the university's
The first publicly available list of titles of films held ORION2 database at http://orion2.library.ucla.edu/.
in the archives ofthe FIAF was the Treasures from the From the main screen select the "Film and Television
Film Archives: A Catalog of Short Silent Fiction Films Archive" database.
Held by the FIAF Archives, which was compiled and
edited by Ronald S. Magliozzi (Metuchen, N.J.: Directories
Scarecrow Press, 1988). As its subtitle implies, this
list is fairly limited in scope, but is still one of the In order to locate a particular film or video title,
most important sources for early cinema research. then, a researcher must first locate the appropriate
This was usurped by The International Film Archive archive. The most comprehensive published direc-
CD-ROM, which contains a 1995 update ofthe silent tory of American archival sources is Footage: The
film list, as well as volumes (1972 to the present) of Worldwide Moving Image Sourcebook (New York:
the International Index to Film Periodicals, plus Second Line Search, 1997 [updates earlier 1989 and
records from its TV-related companion, the FIAF the- 1991 versions]). This hefty book is widely available
saurus and a directory of film and TV documentation and lists not only publicly held collections, but also
collections. collections from private libraries, production com-
panies, and stock footage houses as well. There are AMERICAN FIAF ARCHIVES
1,860 listings for the United States and Canada,
Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences Academy
with an additional 934 international sources. Entries
Film Archive
include contact information, as well as information 1313 North Vine St.
about access policies, cataloging, rights, and de- Hollywood, CA 90028
scriptions of holdings (frequently quite lengthy). In 310-247-3000
addition to the listings, there are geographic and fax:310-859-9531
subject indexes, a directory of related services, and http://www3.oscars.org/filmarchive/index.html
essays about moving image archives, and stock ampas@oscars.org
This collection covers a broad history of American
Although Footage: The Worldwide Moving Image
and world cinema, including the silent era and classic
Sourcebook does include listings outside of North
Hollywood. Highlights include Academy Award nom-
America, a more comprehensive European directory
inees and copies of ceremonies, as well as the per-
is Film and Television Collections in Europe, edited
sonal film collections of Alfred Hitchcock and other
by Daniela Kirchner; produced by MAP-TV, an ini-
prominent directors and actors.
tiative of the MEDIA Programme of the European
Union (London: Blueprint, 1995). It includes direc- American Film Institute National Center for Film and
tory information as well as brief nation-by-nation Video Preservation
essays about moving image collections. Additional John F. Kennedy Center
recent international directories include Film Re- Washington, D.C. 20566
searcher s Handbook: A Guide to Sources in North 202-252-3120
America, South America, Asia, Australasia and
Africa, compiled by Jenny Morgan (New York: also:
Routledge, 1996); International Directory of Film
2021 North Western Ave.
and TV Documentation Centres,, 3rd ed., edited by Los Angeles, CA 90027
Frances Thorpe (Chicago, 111.: St. James Press, 323-856-7708
1988); and World Directory of Moving Image and fax: 323-856-7616
Sound Archives, edited by Wolfgang Klaue http: //www. an .com/
(Miinchen, Germany: K.G. Saur, 1993). AFIFEST@AFI.com
As expected, perhaps, there are several online di- The AFI collection is housed at the Library of Con-
rectories of moving image collections. The National gress and includes features, shorts, newsreels, docu-
Film Preservation Board maintains the most com- mentaries, and television programs. Among the
prehensive list at the Library of Congress Web site collections are those of Hal Roach Studios, Columbia
at http://lcweb.loc.gov/film/arch.html. This is an in- Pictures, Paramount Studios, and Radio Keith Or-
ternational list of links to archives' own sites with pheum (RKO).
no additional collections information. The National
Film Preservation Foundation maintains its own list Anthology Film Archives
in "Community of Archives" at http://www.film 32 Second Ave.
New York, NY 10003
preservation.org/community.html. This list includes
only the archives that have been awarded NFPF
fax: 212-477-2714
preservation grants, but as such includes most ofthe http: //www. anthologyfilmarchives. org/
preeminent archives in the country. The list is
searchable by region, archive name, grant date, This institution is dedicated to the preservation, study,
grant program, or film title and includes a summary and exhibition of independent and avant-garde film. It
of each archive's holdings. Finally, the Media Re- includes an active film program in its two theaters, and
sources Center at UC-Berkeley publishes a list of the Essential Cinema Repertory Collection, a collection
links to television news archives and stock footage of classic independent and experimental films.
libraries in "Stockfootage and News Footage: A Human Studies Film Archives (Smithsonian Institution)
Short List of Web Resources" at http://www. Smithsonian Institution Museum Support Center
lib.berkeley.edu/MRC/stockfootage.html. 4210 Silver Hill Road
Suitland, MD 20746 fax:212-333-1173
301-238-2875 http://moma.org/collection/depts/film_media/index.html
fax: 301-238-2883
http ://www.nmnh. si.edu/naa/ MOMA houses a collection of representative Amer-
naa@nmnh.si.edu ican and international cinema, including all periods
and genres. Special collections include those of D. W.
Now a part ofthe National Anthropological Archives, Griffith, Twentieth Century-Fox, David O. Selznick,
the HSFA is devoted to collecting, preserving, docu- and Douglas Fairbanks.
menting, and disseminating a broad range of ethno-
graphic and anthropological moving image materials National Archives and Records Administration, Motion
from around the world. Picture, Sound and Video Branch
International Museum of Photography and Film at George College Park, MD 20740-6001
Eastman House 301-713-7050 (Research Room)
900 East Ave. fax: 301-713-6904
Rochester, NY 14607 http ://www.archives.gov/
716-271-3970 The NARA collection includes a vast range of U.S.
http://www.eastman.org/ government productions as well as the Donated Film
film@geh.org Collection, which includes newsreels from Para-
mount, Fox Movietone, News of the Day, Universal,
A general cinema collection, highlights include one
the March of Time, and television news broadcasts.
of the largest collections of silent films in the world,
classic American film, and early German and French
Pacific Film Archive
cinema collections, as well as Warner Brothers motion University of California, Berkeley Art Museum
picture stills. 2625 Durant Ave. #2250
Library of Congress, Motion Picture, Broadcasting and Berkeley, CA 94720-2250
Recorded Sound Division 510-642-1437 (Library)
Motion Picture and Television Reading Room fax:510-642-4889
LM336 htp://www.bampfa.berkeley.edu/
101 Independence Ave. S.E. uampfaweb@uclink2 .berkeley.edu
Washington, D.C. 20540-4690 The PFA collection includes international and U.S.
202-707-8572 (Reading Room) films with special strengths of the collection being
Japanese features, Soviet silent cinema, West Coast
http: //lc web. loc. gov/rr/mopic/
avant-garde, and California historical footage.

This institution houses the largest and most diverse UCLA Film and Television Archive
moving image and sound collection in the United 1015 North Cahuenga Blvd.
Hollywood, CA 90038
States. The Library acquires materials in part through
213-462-4921 (General offices)
copyright deposits, therefore giving it unique access to
all possible types of acquisitions. Major collections in- http://www.cinema.ucla.edu/
clude the Copyright collection (including the Paper
Print collection of films from 1894-1914), the Ameri- The collection is strongest in classic Hollywood
can Film Institute Collection, Captured Foreign Collec- film with collections from Paramount, Twentieth Cen-
tions (German, Italian, and Japanese), the George tury-Fox, Warner Bros., and Columbia studios, as well
Kleine Collection (European Cinema), United Artists as Hearst Metrotone Newsreels.
preprint materials, and numerous other film and televi-
sion collections. Finding aids for many collections can Wisconsin Center for Film and Theater Research
be found at http://lcweb.loc.gov/rr/mopic/mpfind.html. Wisconsin Historical Society
816 State St.
Museum of Modern Art Dept. of Film and Video Madison, WI 53706
11 West 53rd St. 608-264-6466
New York, NY 10019-5486 fax: 608-264-6472
212-708-9400 http://www.wisconsinhistory.org/wcftr/
A major archives of research materials relating to This archive has a collection of more than 700 titles
the entertainment industry including manuscript col- of films relating to Hawaii and the Pacific, including
lections and stills, as well as the United Artists Collec- home movies, television programs, and promotional
tion (1931^49), films by independent filmmakers, and and anthropological films.
dramatic and documentary television. Idaho
Hemingway Western Studies Center
Alaska 1910 University Dr.
Alaska Film Archives Boise, ID 83725
Elmer E. Rasmuson Library 208-426-1999
Univ. of Alaska, Fairbanks http://www.boisestate.edu/hemingway/film.htm
P.O. Box 756800
Fairbanks, AK 99775-6808 Collection contains films, audio and videotapes,
907-474-5357 photographs, scripts, documents, news stories, articles
fax: 907-474-6365 and correspondences, and ephemera relating to silent
http: //image. elmer.uaf. edu/ and talkie feature films made in Idaho.
Collection includes raw footage and edited films on
subjects such as early mining, military activity during Kansas State Historical Society: Audio-Visual Collection
World War II and the Cold War, shifting transportation Kansas History Center
patterns, construction of the Trans-Alaska Pipeline, 6425 SW 6th Ave.
and Alaska's native peoples. Topeka,KS 66615-1099
Alaska Moving Image Preservation Association 785-272-8681, ext. 303
1325 Primrose St.
Anchorage, AK 99508 http://www.kshs.org/research/collections/documents/
907-279-8433 audiovi sual/index. htm
fax: 907-276-0450 Significant collections include the Atchison,
http://www.amipa.org/ Topeka, and Santa Fe film archives, John R. Brinkley
amipa@alaska.net films and audio recordings, KSNT news film collec-
A statewide media collection with special strengths tion, and WIBW news film collection, as well as large
that include the collections of independent film and holdings of audio and visual media relating to agricul-
video production companies and broadcasters in Alaska. ture, railroads, public health, and hygiene.

Florida Kentucky
Louis Wolfson II Florida Moving Image Archive University of Kentucky Audio-Visual Archives
Miami-Dade Public Library 111 King Library North
101 West Flagler St. Lexington, KY 40506-0039
Miami, FL 33130 606-257-8611
305-375-1505 fax: 606-257-8379
fax: 305-375-4436 http://www.uky.edu/Libraries/Special/av/
http ://www. fmia.org/
info@fmia.org Collections cover the history and culture of Ken-
tucky, including university-related educational and
This institution's holdings cover the Miami metro-
public affairs programming, as well as athletics-re-
politan area as well as the state of Florida with special
lated film and video, collections of local television
strengths in television news and home movies.
and radio programming, Kentucky-related indepen-
Hawaii dent filmmakers, and a wide variety of still photo-
Bishop Museum Archives graphic images.
Honolulu, HI 96817-0916 Minnesota
808-848-4148 Minnesota Historical Society
fax: 808-847-8241 Moving Image Collection
http://www.bishopmuseum.org/ 345 Kellogg Blvd. West
archives@bishopmuseum.org St. Paul, MN 55102-1906
651-296-6126 North Dakota
http://www.mnhs.org/library/collections/movingimages/mo State Historical Society of North Dakota, State Archives
vingimages.html and Historical Research Library
collections@mnhs.org North Dakota Heritage Center
612 East Boulevard Ave.
Holdings include documentary, educational, ama-
Bismarck, ND 58505-0179
teur, and artistic films and videotapes, travelogues, 701-328-2668
home movies, television news, and the Intermedia fax: 701-328-3710
Arts videotape collection, which showcases Min- http://www.state.nd.us/hist/infcoll.htm
nesota's independent video producers from 1972 to
1989. Audiovisual materials include motion picture film
and videotape, and oral history interviews, including
Mississippi and the South the North Dakota Television Newsfilm Collection and
Southern Media Archive, Center for Study of Southern several individual and family collections.
University of Mississippi Northern New England
307 Hill Hall Northeast Historic Film
University, MS 38677 P.O. Box 900
601-232-7811 85 Main St.
fax: 601-232-7842 Bucksport, ME 04416
http://www.olemiss.edu/depts/general_library/files/ 207-469-0924
archives/viscoll/ fax: 207-469-7875
http: //www. oldfilm. org/
Collection of historical and cultural media of the oldfilm@aol.com
twentieth-century mid-South, including still photo-
graphs, moving picture footage, videotape, and audio Archive houses film and video collections from
field recordings. Maine, New Hampshire, Vermont, and Massachusetts.
Collections include one of the largest home movie
Nebraska collections in the country as well as television news,
Nebraska State Historical Society independent productions, and feature films.
P.O. Box 82554
1500 R St. Ohio
Lincoln, NE 68501 Ohio Historical Society
402-471-4750 Audiovisual Archives
fax:402-471-3100 1982 Velma Ave.
http://www.nebraskahistory.org/ Columbus, OH 43211
Collections relate to the history and culture of Ne- fax: 614-297-2654
braska and the Great Plains region, including home http://www.ohiohistory.org/resource/audiovis/index.html
movies, public service films, local TV news footage, audiovisual@ohiohistory.org
advertisements, newsreels, and Nebraska-produced
local talent films. Ohio-related collection includes newsreels, televi-
sion news, state-produced films, industrial and educa-
New Mexico tional films.
New Mexico State Records Center and Archives: Archives
and Historical Services Division Oregon and the Pacific Northwest
404 Montezuma Ave. Oregon Historical Society, Moving Images
Santa Fe, NM 87501 1200 Southwest Park Ave.
505-827-7334 Portland, OR 97205-2483
fax:505-827-7331 503-306-5256
http://www.nmcpr.state.nm.us/ fax: 503-221-2035
Historical films from New Mexico and the South- orhist@ohs.org
west including state-produced films, newsreels, home
movies, and tourist, documentary and educational Holdings include more than 15,000 titles on diverse
films. subjects, including early newsreels, family movies,
commercial and industrial films, scenic and wildlife, Holdings relate to the regional social, economic,
and a host of segments and outtakes, silent theatrical and political history of Wisconsin and the upper Mid-
films, and exploration and wildlife collections. west. Topics of national interest include nineteenth-
century expeditionary photography, Native American
Tennessee and Appalachia
East Tennessee State University, Archives of Appalachia images, mass communication, and social action
P.O. Box 70295 movements.
Johnson City, TN 37614-0138
http://cass.etsu.edu/archives/ IMAGE COLLECTIONS
Collection contains an oral history and folklore col- Andy Warhol Museum: Film and Video Collection
lection with sound and moving image recordings re- Andy Warhol Museum
lating to the cultural, economic, historic, political, and
Pittsburgh, PA 15212-5890
social life of Appalachia.
fax: 412-237-8340
Utah and the West
University of Utah, Marriott Library,
Audio-Visual Department Films and videotapes produced by Andy Warhol.
Marriott Library
Black Film Center/Archive Home Page (Indiana Univer-
Salt Lake City, UT 84112
Smith Research Center, Suite 180
fax: 801-585-3464
2805 East 10th St.
Indiana University
Collections cover the visual and aural history of Bloomington, Indiana 47408
Utah and the Intermountain West. Holdings are strong 812-855-6041
in Utah pioneer history, the arts, skiing and outdoor fax: 812-856-5832
recreation, the environment, Native Americans and http: //www. indiana.edu/~bfca/
immigrants, and politics. bfca@indiana.edu
Films and related materials by and about African
West Virginia Americans.
West Virginia Division of Culture and History,
Archives Section DEFA Film Library
The Cultural Center University of Massachusetts Amherst, Department of Ger-
Capitol Complex manic Languages and Literatures
1900 Kanawha Blvd. East 504 Herter Hall
Charleston, WV 25305-0300 Box 33925
304-558-0220 Amherst, MA 01003-3925
fax: 304-558-2779 413-545-6681
http: //w ww. wvculture. org/agency/index. html fax:413-577-3808
Materials include documentaries, home movies, and defa@german.umass.edu
industrial films relating to West Virginia, as well as
several television news collections. East German cinema.

Wisconsin Duke University, Special Collections and John Hartman

State Historical Society of Wisconsin, Visual Materials Center for Sales, Advertising, and Marketing History
Section Rare Book, Manuscript, and Special Collections Library
816 State St. 103 Perkins Library
Madison, WI 53706 Durham, NC 27708-0185
608-264-6470 919-660-5822
fax: 608-264-6472 fax: 919-660-5934
http://www.shsw.wisc.edu/archives/vismat/index.html http://scriptorium.lib.duke.edu/hartman/
vismat@ccmail.adp.wisc.edu special-collections@duke.edu
History of advertising, including the J. Walter Films and videos relating to the Jewish experience.
Thompson Company Collection.
National Library of Medicine, History of Medicine Division
Japanese American National Museum Building 38, Room 1E-21
369 East First St. 8600 Rockville Pike
Los Angeles, CA 90012 Bethesda, MD 20894
213-625-0414 301-496-5405
fax:213-625-1770 fax: 301-496-2809
http ://www.j anm.org/ http://www.nlm.nih.gov/hmd/hmd.html
Japanese American life.
Films and videotapes regarding medicine, public
Mystic Seaport Museum health, clinical and medical teaching, psychiatry, and
75 Greenmanville Ave. mental institutions.
Mystic, CT 06355-0990
860-572-5379 Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of American
fax: 860-572-5328 History Archives Center
http://www.mysticseaport.org/research/nf-index.cfm/ AHBC340MRC601
12th St. and Constitution Ave. NW
Maritime subjects, scenes, and events. Washington, D.C. 20560
NASA Johnson Space Center 202-357-3270
2101 NASA Rd. fax: 202-786-2453
AP42 http://americanhistory.si.edu/archives/home.htm
Houston, TX 77058-3696 acnmah@sivm.si.edu
Diverse collections including advertising history,
http ://www.j sc.nasa.gov/ the Groucho Marx Collection, World's Fairs, Western
Union Collection.
NASA research and development; aeronautics and
the human space flight program. National Museum ofthe American Indian: Film and Video
Smithsonian Institution, National Air and Space Museum One Bowling Green
Archives Division New York, NY 10004
MRC-322 212-825-6894
NASM fax:212-825-8180
Washington, D.C. 20560 http: //www. nmai. si. e du/fv/index. html
202-357-4721 fvc@ic.si.edu
fax: 202-786-2835
http://www.nasm.edu/nasm/arch/info/filmarchives.htm Films, video, radio, and electronic media by and
Materials relating to aviation and space history. about indigenous peoples of North, Central, and
South America and Hawaii.
National Baseball Hall of Fame: Film, Video, and
Recorded Sound Department New York Public Library for the Performing Arts
P.O. Box 590 40 Lincoln Center Plaza
25 Main St. New York, NY 10023-7498
Cooperstown, NY 13326-0590 212-870-1641
607-547-0333 fax: 212-787-1769
fax: 607-547-4094 http://www.nypl.org/research/lpa/lpa.html
http://www.baseballhalloffame.org/library/fvrs.htm theatrediv@nypl.org
Hall of Fame induction ceremonies, game broad- Collection includes Billy Rose Theatre Collection
casts, documentary productions, and interviews. and Theatre on Film and Tape Archives.
The National Center for Jewish Film New York Public Library, Dance Division
Lown Building, Room 102 40 Lincoln Center Plaza
Waltham, MA 02254 New York, NY 10023-7498
617-899-7044 212-870-1659
fax: 617-736-2070 fax: 212-799-7975
http://www.brandeis.edu/jewishfilm/index.html http://www.nypl.org/research/lpa/dan/dan.html
Documentation of dance in all forms. Presidio of San Francisco
San Francisco, CA 94129-0244
U.S. Holocaust Memorial Museum Film and Video Archive 415-561-6767
10 Raoul Wallenberg Place SW, 5th Floor fax:415-840-0391
Washington, D.C. 20024 http ://www. archive. org/movies/
202-488-6106 info@archive.com
fax: 202-488-2690
http://www.ushmm.org/research/collections/filmvideo/ Online archive of downloadable film clips.
research@ushmm.org FILM-RELATED MANUSCRIPT
Audiovisual records pertaining to the Holocaust and
related aspects of World War II. The following collections contain nonfilm materials
that are related to the American motion picture industry.
University of South Carolina, The Newsfilm Archive
1139 Wheat St. Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences, Margaret
Columbia, SC 29208 Herrick Library
803-777-6841 http ://www. oscars. org/mhl/
fax: 803-777-4756
http: //www. sc. edu/newsfilm/ Books, periodicals, screenplays, collection files,
posters, photographs, special collections, and oral his-
20th Century Fox Movietone newsreels and out-
tories relating to the film industry
takes (1919-34).
American Film Institute, Louis B. Mayer Library
Schomburg Center for Research in Black Culture, Moving http: //www. an .com/
Image and Recorded Sound Division
New York Public Library Collections include scripts, oral history transcripts,
515 Malcolm X Boulevard and collections of individuals associated with the film
New York, NY 10037-1801 industry.
fax: 212-491-6761 American Museum ofthe Moving Image
http://www.nypl.org/research/sc/scl/mirs.html http://www.ammi.org/

African American, Caribbean and African popular Movie artifacts, props, equipment, sets, ephemera,
and traditional music genres; public-affairs television and costumes.
programs. Brigham Young University, L. Tom Perry Special Collec-
tions Library, Arts and Communications Archives
University of Southern California, Moving Image Archive
University Park
Los Angeles, CA 90089-2211 Significant personal manuscript collections includ-
213-740-3182 ing those of directors Cecil B. DeMille and Howard
fax: 213-740-2920 Hawks.
filmrequest@cntv.usc.edu Columbia University, Oral History Research Office
http: //www. Columbia. edu/cu/lweb/indiv/oral/
Films and videotapes produced by USC students.
Collection includes a series entitled Hollywood Film
Wayne State University, Walter P. Reuther Library Industry, which contains interviews with actors, direc-
5401 CassAve.
tors, cameramen, and technicians recorded in 1971.
Detroit, MI 48202
313-577-2658 Indiana University, Black Film Center/Archive
fax:313-577-8019 http://www.indiana.edu/~bfca/
A repository of films and film-related materials by
North American Labor, trade unionism, and work life. and about African Americans; The collection includes
interviews, photos, screenplays, press releases, film
ONLINE ARCHIVE advertisements, posters, and newspaper clippings.
Internet Moving Images Archive Indiana University, Lilly Library
P.O. Box 29244 http://www.indiana.edu/~liblilly/overview/film.shtml
Film, radio, and television collections include mat or medium. While the majority ofthe previously
scripts, lobby cards, press books, and publicity stills. listed film archives have selective television programs
International Museum of Photography and Film at George in their collections, there are a number of American
Eastman House archives that specialize in television programming.
http://www.eastman.org/10_colmp/10_index.html The sources for collections of television program-
ming include networks, local stations, production
Collection includes posters, star portraits, corre- companies, and on a few occasions, shows are taped
spondence, music cue sheets, lobby cards, scripts, pre- off-air by the archives themselves. In some cases this
cinema materials, and other paper documents. means that virtually the entire output of a network is
Library of Congress Manuscript Division available, but frequently only selective representative
http://www.loc.gov/rr/mss/ episodes of series are kept. Early television broadcasts
are especially rare commodities, as so many of the
Manuscript Division holds records of individuals
shows were produced live and not recorded aside from
associated with the film industry, including actors Lil-
occasional kinescope (film) prints.
lian Gish, Hume Cronyn, and Jessica Tandy.
In North America, many television archives are
Museum of Modern Art (MOM A; New York City), Celeste members of Association of Moving Image Archivists
Bartos International Film Study Center & Film Stills Archive (AMIA), but the overseeing international organization
http://www.moma.org/collection/depts/film_media/bartos/ for television archives is the FIAT/IFTA, the Interna-
index.html tional Federation of Television Archives, Web site at
Collections include screenplays and dialogue conti- http://fiatifta.org/index.html. FIAT membership is not
nuities; extensive files of reviews, articles, and pro- limited to archives, but also includes television net-
gram notes, and film indexes. works and commercial vendors.
New York Public Library for the Performing Arts, Billy
Rose Theatre Collection Television Collections
http://www.nypl.org/research/lpa/the/the.html The Cable Center
Barco Library
Collections include production photographs, pub-
2000 Buchtel Blvd.
licity portraits, prints, movie stills, film posters, sets,
Denver, CO 80210
costume and lighting designs, and personal records of 303-871-4885
individuals involved in the film industry. http: //www. cablecenter. org/
University of California Los Angeles, Film and Television libraryinfo@cablecenter.org
Archive At present, the collections do not include significant
http://www.cinema.ucla.edu/ amounts of programming, but do contain materials re-
Records include professional papers of individuals lating to cable television and telecommunications
and organizations, lobby cards, scripts, posters, stills, through manuscript collections, oral histories, docu-
and photographs. ments, photographs, and equipment.
University of Southern California, Cinema-Television Library Library of Congress
http://artscenter.usc.edu/cinematv/index.html See Motion Pictures entry for contact information.
Papers, scripts, and production materials of film in-
dustry notables. Collections include the National Broadcasting
Company (NBC) television collection (1948-77), Na-
TELEVISION ARCHIVES tional Educational Television Programs (NET), Public
Broadcasting Service (PBS) collection, television
Television was for many years a poor relation in the news, as well as off-air taping and copyright deposits.
field of film preservation, but as television has Publications include Three Decades of Television: A
emerged as a significant field of study, so too have Catalog of Television Programs Acquired by the Li-
television archives. Distinctions between film, video, brary of Congress, 1949-79, compiled by Sarah
and television are becoming less distinct each year, Rouse and Katherine Loughney in 1989 (Washington,
meaning that most film archives have become instead D.C: Library of Congress, 1989, now out of print).
moving image archives, collecting regardless of for- The catalog is a complete list of holdings through
1979, excluding commercials and news programs. University of Oklahoma, Julian P. Canter Political Com-
The nearly 20,000 entries provide synopses of fiction mercial Archive
and nonfiction programs, genre and broad subject Department of Communication, Room 113
terms, cast and production credits, and copyright and 610 Elm Ave.
telecast information. Norman, OK 73019
Chicago Cultural Center, Museum of Broadcast fax:405-325-1566
78 East Washington St. Facility provides a comprehensive collection of U.S.
Chicago, IL 60602 political television commercials from 1950 to the
312-629-6000 present.
http://www.Museum.TV/ Purdue University, Public Affairs Video Archives
archives@museum.tv (C-SPAN)
1000 Liberal Arts and Education Building
The museum contains a collection of more than West Lafayette, IN 47907-1000
13,000 television programs, 4,000 radio programs, 317.494-5000
11,000 television commercials, and 4,500 newscasts fax:317-494-3421
that is open to the public. The collection has a search- http://pava.purdue.edu
able database on its Web site. info@pava.purdue.edu
Archive records are of complete broadcasts of
Museum of Television and Radio
25 West 52nd St. C-SPAN and C-SPAN 2 off-air.
New York, NY 10019-6101 San Francisco State University, San Francisco Bay Area
212-621-6800 Television Archives
fax:212-621-6700 1630 Holloway Ave.
also: San Francisco, CA 94132
465 North Beverly Drive
Beverly Hills, CA 90210
http://www.mtr.org/ Archive houses local news and documentaries from
the Bay Area.
Visitors to the museum may search its collections of
University of Georgia, Media Archive and Peabody Award
television and radio shows using its programming
database and view or listen to shows in a separate con-
Main Library
sole room. In addition, researchers may search the
Athens, GA 30602
museum's microfiche clippings file and collection of 706-542-1971
television and radio programs in the Scholars' Room fax: 706-542-4144
in both New York and Los Angeles locations. These http://www.libs.uga.edu/media/mediarch.html
research facilities have carrels equipped with an
Collection archives annual Peabody Awards entries.
audio/visual monitor for viewing and listening to the
museum's collection of programs and a computer that Vanderbilt University, Television News Archive
accesses the library's card catalog. 110 21st Ave. South
Suite 704
National Jewish Archive of Broadcasting Nashville, TN 37203
1109 Fifth Ave. 615-322-2927
New York, NY 10023 fax: 615-343-8250
212-399-3382 http ://tvnews .vanderbilt. edu/
fax:212-410-3855 tvnews@tvnews.vanderbilt.edu
A collection of network evening news broadcasts
taped off-air since 1968.
Museum holds television and radio programs per- University of Maryland, Library of American Broadcasting
taining to the Jewish culture. and National Public Broadcasting Archives
Hornbake Library netic tapes. Primarily a musical collection, the archive
College Park, MD 20742 also includes early radio broadcasts and spoken-word
301-405-9255 recordings by luminaries such as Amelia Earhart,
301-405-9160 Thomas Edison, Albert Einstein, Lenin, and Oscar
fax:301-314-2634 Wilde.
http://www.lib.umd.edu/NPBA/ (National Public Broad-
casting Archives) Library of Congress, Recorded Sound Reference Center
http://www.lib.umd.edu/LAB/ (Library of American
101 Independence Ave. SE
Washington, D.C. 20540-4690
The Library of American Broadcasting collection 202-707-7833
includes audio and video recordings, publications, http ://lc web. loc. gov/rr/record/
personal collections, oral histories, photographs, rsrc@loc.gov
scripts, and vertical files related to the history of Collections include:
broadcasting. The National Public Broadcasting
Archives contains records of American noncommer- • National Broadcasting Company (NBC) Radio Col-
cial broadcasting organizations as well as selected lection. 150,000 16-inch lacquer discs from the
audio and video programming from national networks 1930s through the 1980s, including tens of thou-
(NAEB, NPR, CPB/Annenberg) and Washington-area sands of broadcasts related to World War II
stations (WETA, WAMU-FM, and Maryland Public • Armed Forces Radio and Television Service
Television). Also available are oral history tapes and (AFRTS). 300,000 12- and 16-inch discs froml942
to 1998
transcripts from the NPR Oral History Project.
• Office of War Information (OWI). More than 50,000
instantaneous lacquer discs from 1942 to 1945
RECORDED SOUND ARCHIVES • National Public Radio (NPR). The cultural pro-
Recorded sound is a hybrid category of several gen- gramming portions of NPR broadcasts, 27,000
res of media. Music collections will not be considered tapes from 1971 to 1992
• Voice of America (VOA). More than 50,000 discs
here, but frequently sound collections such as spoken-
and tapes of musical-event broadcasts dating from
word recordings are subcategories contained within
1946 to 1988
larger musical archives. Radio shows are also fre- • WOR-AM Collection. Flagship station of the Mu-
quently attached to television under the larger cate- tual Broadcasting Network located in New York
gory of broadcasting. City; includes several thousand 16-inch instanta-
The primary North American professional organi- neous transcription discs, the paper archives of
zation for recorded sound archives is the Association WOR, as well as an outstanding group of materials
for Recorded Sound Collections (ARSC), Web site at relating to the radio career of Phillips H. Lord
http://www.arsc-audio.org/. ARSC runs a recorded- • Archive of Recorded Poetry and Literature. Several
sound discussion list at http://www.arsc-audio.org/ thousand recordings of notable authors reading their
arsclist.html. Internationally, the leading organization own works in the recording studios and Coolidge
is the International Association of Sound and Audiovi- Auditorium ofthe Library of Congress
sual Archives (IASA), Web site at http://www.
iasa-web.org/. University of Missouri-Kansas City, Marr Sound Archives
Miller Nichols Library
Recorded Sound Collections 5100RockhillRd.
Kansas City, MO 64110
Syracuse University, Belfer Audio Laboratory & Archive 816-235-1534
Syracuse University Library fax: 816-333-5584
Syracuse, NY 13244 http://www.umkc.edu/lib/spec-col/marr.html
The archives holds nearly 250,000 sound recordings
http://libwww.syr.edu/information/belfer/index.html including LPs, 78s, 45s, cylinders, transcription discs,
instantaneous cut discs, and open-reel tapes. Holdings
Collections include more than 300,000 recordings include historic voices, radio programs, and authors
in all formats, including cylinders, discs, and mag- reading their own works.
National Archives archives, and the C E. Morse (One Man's Family)
See contact info in Moving Image section. archives.
m_sound_video .html Michigan State University, Vincent Voice Library
http://mopix@nara.gov/ (Motion Picture, Sound, and 100 Library
Video unit reference staff) East Lansing, MI 48824
Collections include 90,000 spoken-word recordings, http: //www. lib. msu. edu/vincent/
primarily from agencies of the U.S. government but
Currently in progress is the online National Gallery
also from private, commercial, and foreign sources.
of the Spoken Word, a collection of twentieth-century
Collections date from 1896 and include recordings of
recordings including a variety of interests and topics
performances of the Federal Theater and Music Pro-
such as Thomas Edison's first cylinder recordings, the
jects ofthe Works Progress Administration, press con-
voices of Babe Ruth and Florence Nightingale, and
ferences, panel discussions, interviews, and speeches
Studs Terkel's timeless interviews.
promoting and explaining policies and programs of
some 75 federal agencies. Additional recordings in-
clude World War II propaganda broadcasts in German,
Japanese, and Italian and American propaganda broad- One ofthe most common types of sound recordings
casts and news coverage of war campaigns. Other held in archival collections is the oral history inter-
recordings include oral arguments before the U S . view. In the vast majority of cases, oral history tapes
Supreme Court during the 1955-74 sessions, entertain- are held by oral history divisions or departments of
ment broadcasts, documentaries and dramas relating to universities or other institutions. It creates a unique
U.S. history, proceedings of political conventions, cam- situation in which the archive is also the primary pro-
paign speeches, and extensive news coverage. ducer ofthe archival holdings.
While databases such as RLIN and NUCMC do in-
Online Finding Aids and Indexes clude some oral history collections, as with most en-
deavors, oral history research is increasingly
Captured German Sound Recordings Internet-oriented. The last published directory was
Finding aid at: http://www.archives.gov/research_room/ 1990's Oral History Index : An International Direc-
research_topics/captured_german_sound_recordings.html tory of Oral History Interviews, compiled by Ellen S.
Wasserman (Westport, Conn.: Meckler Media Corp.,
Voices of World War II, 1937-45
1990). Interviews here are listed alphabetically by in-
Finding aid at: http://www.archives.gov/research_room/
terviewee's name. There is no subject index, but the
book does contain a directory of oral history collec-
The Crucial Decade: Voices ofthe Postwar Era, 1945-54 tions. Previous to that was the Directory of Oral His-
Finding aid at: http://www.archives.gov/research_room/ tory Collections by Allen Smith (Phoenix, Ariz.: Oryx
research_topics/voices_of_postwar.html Press, 1988). This helpful, though dated, directory in-
cludes listings for 476 U.S. collections including a
Nixon White House Tapes subject index, contact information, collection size,
http://www.archives.gov/nixon/tapes/tapes.html conditions of access, catalog, and purpose. This in
turn superseded Oral History Collections, which was
Stanford University, Stanford Archive of Recorded Sound compiled and edited by Alan M. Meckler and Ruth
Braun Music Center
McMullin (New York: R.R. Bowker, 1975).
Stanford, CA 94305-3076
The central worldwide professional association for
fax:650-725-1145 oral historians is the International Oral History Asso-
http://garamond.stanford.edu/depts/ars/ ciation, Web site at http://www.ioha.fgv.br/. In the
United States, however, the leading organization is the
Recordings include the speeches of Churchill, Oral History Association, Web site at http://www.
Kennedy, and Paderewski, the Pryor Collection of late dickinson.edu/oha/. In addition to this national associ-
1930s and early 1940s radio broadcasts, Project South ation, there are numerous regional groups, including
(interviews with participants in the Civil Rights move- the Michigan Oral History Association (MOHA), the
ment of the 1960s), the Djerassi Foundation tape New England Association of Oral History (NEAOH),
the Northwest Oral History Association (NOHA), the fax:909-621-8609
Southwest Oral History Association (SOHA), and the http://www.cgu.edu/hum/his/oralhis/index.htm
Texas Oral History Association (TOHA). The Oral Special collections include missionaries in China,
History Association's Journal, Oral History Review Pomona College Oriental Study Expedition, and
(Berkeley: University of California Press), is another women's educational politics.
source for locating oral history projects.
Another especially useful resource is the OHA's H- Columbia University, Oral History Research Office
Oralhist listserv. This list's homepage at 801 Butler Library, Box 20
535 W. 114th St., MC 1129
http://www2.h-net.msu.edu/~oralhist/ includes an an-
New York, NY 10027
notated list of links to oral history centers and collec-
tions, as well as an index of sites arranged by subject fax: 212-854-9099
and a list of online oral history projects with down- http://www.columbia.edu/cu/lweb/indiv/oral/
loadable sound files. oralhist@libraries.cul.columbia.edu

Oral History Archives Special interests include American craftspeople, Ar-

Baylor University, Institute for Oral History gentina, African American journalists, Chinese oral
Carroll Library, Suite 306 history, the Eisenhower administration, U.S. Marine
P.O. Box 97271 Corps, Naval history, physicians and AIDS, social se-
Waco, TX 76798-7271 curity, and student movements ofthe 1960s.
254-710-3437 Yale University, Fortunoff Video Archive for Holocaust
fax: 254-710-1571 Testimonies
http://www3.baylor.edu/Oral_History/ Sterling Memorial Libraries
Topics include rural life, Texas Baptists, the eco- P.O. Box 208240
nomic history of Texas. 120 High St., Room 331C
New Haven, CT 06520-8240
California State University, Oral History Program 203-432-1879
Long Beach History Department fax:203-432-1879
F02-113 http://www.library.yale.edu/testimonies/
1250 Bellflower Blvd.
Long Beach, CA 90840 A collection of more than 4,200 videotaped inter-
562-985-5428 views of Holocaust witnesses and survivors
fax:562-985-5431 (1979-81).
Indiana University, The Center for the Study of History
Collections include arts in southern California, and Memory
Asian and Asian American history, and Chicano and Ashton-Aley 264
Mexican American history. Bloomington, IN 47405
Center for Documentary Studies http://www.indiana.edu/~ohrc/
Duke University ohrc@indiana.edu
1317W. PettigrewSt.
Durham, NC 27707 Collections include Indiana history, American foun-
919-660-3651 dations, Studebaker Company, village mothers.
http://cds.aas.duke.edu/ Institute of Oral History at the University of Texas at El Paso
Liberal Arts Building, Room 334
Behind the Veil: Documenting African American El Paso, TX 79968-0532
Life in the Jim Crow South. This collection includes 915-747-7052
more than 1,200 oral history interviews. fax:915-747-5948
Claremont Graduate University, History Department http://dmc.utep.edu/oralh/OralHistory.html
Oral History Program
710 North College Avenue Special projects include the Mexican Revolution of
Claremont, CA 91711 1910, Big Bend National Park, United States and
909-621-8172 Mexico border history
Smithsonian Institution, National Air and Space Museum fax: 919-962-1403
Oral History Project http: //www. sohp. org/
Archives Division sohp_info@sohp.org
National Air and Space Museum
Special projects include southern politics, rural
MRC 322
7th and Independence Ave. SW electrification, southern women, Piedmont industrial-
Washington, DC 20560 ization, southern communities, African American
202-357-3133 high school principals, foundation history, the press
fax: 202-786-2835 and the Civil Rights movement, African American life
http://www.nasm.edu/nasm/dsh/oralhistory.html and culture.
reference.desk@nasm.si.edu (note: contact by E-mail first
for current mailing address and phone number) Survivors ofthe Shoah Visual History Foundation
Coordinator, Archival Access
Development of aeronautics, NASA, and the space P.O. Box 3168
sciences. Los Angeles, CA 90078-3168
Northeast Archives of Folklore and Oral History
Maine Folklife Center
5773 South Stevens Hall
University of Maine Videotapes of 50,000 testimonies of Holocaust sur-
Orono, ME 04469-5773 vivors and witnesses
fax:207-581-1823 Louisiana State University, The T. Harry Williams Center
http://www.umaine.edu/folklife/ for Oral History
folklife@maine.edu Agnes Morris House
Baton Rouge, LA 70803
Folklife in Maine and eastern Canada. 225-578-7439
Oral History American Music http://www.lib.lsu.edu/special/williams/
Yale School of Music and Library
Collections include Louisiana storytelling, Acadian
P.O. Box 208246
Handicraft Project Series, Americans in Vietnam, civil
New Haven, CT 06520-8246
203-432-1988 rights, history of education.
fax:203-432-1989 UCLA Oral History Program
http: //www. y ale. edu/oham/ A253 Bunche Hall
Collections of major figures in American music. Box 951575
Los Angeles, CA 90095-1575
Smithsonian Institution, Oral History Collection 310-825-4932
Institutional History Division fax:310-206-2796
Smithsonian Institution Archives http://www.library.ucla.edu/libraries/special/ohp/
P.O. Box 37012 ohpindex.htm
Arts and Industries Building, Room 2135, MRC 414 oral-history@library.ucla.edu
Washington, D.C. 20013-7012
202-357-1420 A complete listing of interviews is contained in The
fax: 202-357-2395 UCLA Oral History Program: Catalog ofthe Collec-
http://www.si.edu/archives/ihd/ihda.htm tion, 3rd ed., compiled by Teresa Barnett (Los Ange-
SIHistory@osia.si.edu les, Calif.: Oral History Program, Department of
Current and retired Smithsonian staff and others who Special Collections, 1999). Collections include
have made significant contributions to the institution. African American artists and leaders of Los Angeles,
Frank Lloyd Wright, Los Angeles art community, bio-
University of North Carolina, Southern Oral History Pro- medical scientists, California state government.
CB#3195 United States Holocaust Memorial Museum
406 Hamilton Hall Oral History
University of North Carolina 100 Raoul Wallenberg Place, SW
Chapel Hill, NC 27599-3195 Washington, D.C. 20024-2126
919-962-0455 202-488-6103
http ://www.ushmm. org/ Collections include Hawaiian history and ethnic
oralhistory@ushmm.org groups.
7,000 audio and video interviews of Holocaust sur- University of Kentucky, Oral History Program
vivors and witnesses. Special Collections and Archives
University of Kentucky Libraries
University of California at Berkeley,
Lexington, KY 40506
Regional Oral History Office
486 The Bancroft Library #6000
Berkeley, CA 94720-6000
fax: 510-642-7589 Collections include Frontier Nursing Service,
http://bancroft.berkeley.edu/ROHO/ Robert Penn Warren, and Appalachia.
University of South Dakota, South Dakota Oral History
Research material includes twentieth-century West- Center
ern mining, the California wine industry, women po- Institute of American Indian Studies
litical leaders of California, California's political 414 East Clark St.
history, suffragists, the AIDS epidemic in San Fran- Vermillion, SD 57069
cisco, earthquake engineering, health maintenance or- 605-677-5011
ganizations, California's legal history, the Sierra Club, 877-COYOTES
water resources, sanitary engineering, disability rights http://www.usd.edu/iais/oralhist/index.html
and independent living movements.
University of Connecticut at Storrs, Center for Collections include Native American history and
Oral History South Dakota history.
Thomas J. Dodd Center University of Southern Mississippi, Center for Oral His-
405 Babbidge Road, Unit 1205 tory & Cultural Heritage
Storrs, CT 06269-1205 College Hall, Room 112
860-486-5245 Box 5715
fax: 860-486-4582 Hattiesburg, MS 39406-5175
http://www.oralhistory.uconn.edu/ 601-266-4574
fax: 601-266-6217
Connecticut history, World War II, African National
Congress, and the Nuremberg war crimes trials.
University of Florida Libraries, Samuel Proctor Oral His- Collections include Mississippi's history, Hurricane
tory Program Camille, gay and lesbian life, Gulf Coast history, pris-
P.O. Box 115215 oners of war.
4103 Turlington Hall
Gainesville, FL 32611-5215 BIBLIOGRAPHY
Cherchi-Usai, Paolo. Silent Cinema: An Introduction. Lon-
fax: 352-846-1983
don: British Film Institute, 2000.
Footage: The Worldwide Moving Image Sourcebook. New
Native Americans, civil rights activities in St. Au- York: Second Line Search, 1997.
gustine, women in Florida, pioneer settlers, Florida's Houston, Penelope. Keepers ofthe Frame. London: British
education system, and the citrus industry. Film Institute, 1994.
Kirchner, Daniela, ed. Film and Television Collections in
University of Hawai'i, Center for Oral History Europe. London: Blueprint, 1995.
Social Science Research Institute Klaue, Wolfgang, ed. World Directory of Moving Image and
University of Hawai'i at Manoa Sound Archives. Miinchen, Germany: K.G. Saur, 1993.
2424 Maile Way Meckler, Alan M., comp., and Ruth McMullin, ed. Oral
Saunders Hall 724 History Collections. New York: R. R. Bowker, 1975.
Honolulu, HI 96822 Morgan, Jenny, comp. Film Researchers Handbook: A
808-956-6259 Guide to Sources in North America, South America,
fax: 808-956-2884 Asia, Australasia and Africa. New York: Routledge,
http://www.oralhistory.hawaii.edu/ 1996.
Slide, Anthony. Nitrate Won't Wait: A History of Film Wasserman Ellen S., comp. Oral History Index: An Interna-
Preservation in the United States. Jefferson, N.C.: Mc- tional Directory of Oral History Interviews. Westport,
Farland & Company, 1992. Conn.: Meckler Media Corp., 1990.
Smith, Allen. Directory of Oral History Collections.
Phoenix, Ariz.: Oryx Press, 1988.
Thorpe, Frances, ed. International Directory of Film and
TV Documentation Centres. 3rd edition. Chicago, 111.:
St. James Press, 1988.
Fine Arts Archives
Tammi Moe

INTRODUCTION and religion. Each era is then subdivided into more

specific classifications reflecting geography, politics,
Scholarly pursuits in the field of fine arts are under-
and common aesthetics. The organization of this chap-
taken for various reasons. The common thread is the
ter will reflect these determinants. While the chapter
interest in the creative, imaginative, and aesthetic im-
in no way represents a complete list of primary source
pulses manifested by human beings. Discovering rela-
material, it is a guide to the most prominent and ac-
tionships and securing relevant meaning between the
cessible archival collections. Larger collections, such
various forms of fine art crosses disciplines and cul-
as the Archives of American Art, will appear in multi-
tural boundaries. The resources available are some-
ple places according to subject. This will help guide
times so large that the researcher is lost in the
the researcher to the appropriate collection when there
possibilities. To add to the complexity, the locations of
are hundreds available.
those resources are widespread and not always easily
accessible. The fine art object extends beyond a spe-
cific institutional boundary and can be housed in li- COMPREHENSIVE COLLECTIONS
brary special collections, museum archives, academic
The Archives of American Art
archives, cultural institutions, and research centers.
There are many ways to access different types of in- The Archives of American Art houses the world's
formation using bibliographies, periodical and news- largest collection of primary source documentation of
paper indexes, exhibition catalogs, collections of art the visual arts in America with 5,000 collections and
criticism, auction records, museum directories, mono- approximately 14 million items. The largest collection
graphic studies, publications on wartime activities of is the Carnegie Institute Museum of Art records,
dealers and collectors, art schools, artists' coopera- which contain international correspondence and exhi-
tives, and art organizations. The Library of Congress bition documentation of contemporary paintings trav-
classifies private art collections under N 5200—5299. eling through the Pittsburgh museum. The archive
The level of research being conducted will dictate the also collects the records ofthe American Art Associa-
appropriate avenues to pursue. Inherent in the world tion, Art Students League, American Academy in
of fine arts is the decentralized location of individual Rome, Pennsylvania Academy of Fine Arts, National
pieces of artwork, so comprehensive coverage is not Academy of Design, National Arts Club, Print Coun-
always possible and requires the use of two or more cil of America, National Watercolor Society, and sev-
collections. This can also be problematic when it eral auction houses in the United States. The
comes to locating primary sources. The historical or- documentation dates span a period of time from the
ganization of Western art is commonly arranged into mid-eighteenth century to the present.
five periods: antiquity, the Middle Ages, Renaissance, Notable artists within the collection include Ansel
baroque, modern, and post-modern. Eastern art move- Adams, Dankmar Adler, Abbott Handerson Thayer,
ments are generally organized by dynasty, philosophy, Joseph Albers, Keith Haring, David Hockney, Alexan-
der Lieberman, Jackson Pollock, Gifford Beal, Fax: (626) 583-7207
Thomas Pollock Anshutz, Edward Hicks, Winslow Access: Appointment required. Monday through Friday
Homer, Georgia O'Keeffe, Mark Rothko, Robert 9:00 to 12:00 and 1:00 to 5:00 P.M.
Motherwell, George Mueller, Erwin Panofsky, Max- aaawcrc@aaa.si.edu
field Parrish, Lilla Cabot Perry, Alexander Calder,
Mary Cassatt, George Catlin, Salvador Dali, Marcel
Duchamp, and thousands of others. (Adapted from the Bibliotheque nationale de France
Archives of American Art Web site, 2002.) The Prints and Photograph collections contain over
The collections are indexed alphabetically and can 15 million items. Artists of note are Rembrandt,
be accessed online at http://archivesofamericanart. Toulouse-Lautrec, and Clouet, plus 40,000 prints by
si.edu/collectn.htm. Copies of the archive's finding over 3,000 artists. The photo archive contains Nadar,
aids can be requested from the AAA reference staff at Eugene Atger, Reutligen, and Victor Hugo. (Adapted
http://archivesofamericanart.si.edu/askus.htm. from the French National Library, 2002.)
The Research Library Group Union Catalog for cul-
tural materials also contains the AAA finding aids but Richelieu site—Prints Department
requires a subscription to the site. The Smithsonian 58, Rue de Richelieu
75002 Paris
Institution Research Information System provides ac-
33(0)1 53 79 59 59
cess to all available online resources at http://www.
Access: http://www.bnf.fr/pages/zNavigat/frame/pratic.htm
Archives of American Art, Washington, D.C. http://www.bnf.fr/site_bnf_eng/index.html (English version)
750 9th St. N.W.
Suite 2200 The British Library
Washington, D.C.
Mailing: Reference Services /ILL Extensive collections include all world languages
Archives of American Art and cover all disciplines. The collection dates from
Smithsonian Institution 1753 forward. The music collection holds over a mil-
P.O. Box 37012 lion discs, 185,000 tapes, and other music-related ele-
Victor Building, Room 2200, MRC 937 ments from around the world that span the entire
Washington, D.C. 20013-7012 history of recorded sound. (Adapted from the British
(202)275-1961 Library Web site, 2002.)
Access: Microfilm Reference Room does not require an
appointment. Monday through Friday 9:00 A.M. to 5:00 P.M. Rare Books and Music Reading Room
Use of oral history tapes and transcripts requires an ap- 96 Euston Road
pointment. Manuscript Reading Room requires an appoint- London NW12DB
ment. Monday through Friday 9:30 A.M. to 12:00 P.M. and +44 (0)20 7412 7676 (Rare Books)
1:00 to 4:30. +44 (0)20 7412 7772 (Music)
Fax: +44(0)20 7412 7609
Archives of American Art, New York City Access: Limited to approved researchers. Appointment re-
1285 Avenue ofthe Americas (Located between 51st and quired. Monday 10:00 to 4:00. Tuesday through Thursday
52nd Streets.) 9:30 to 8:00. Friday through Saturday 9:30 to 5:00.
Lobby Level Online Manuscript Catalog http://molcat.bl.uk/
New York, NY 10019 rare-books@bl.uk
(212)399-5015 music-collections@bl.uk
Fax:(212)307-4501 http://www.bl.uk/services/reading/collection.html
Access: No appointment required, but calling ahead rec-
ommended. Monday through Friday 9:30 A.M. to 5:00 P.M. Columbia University
yeckleyk@aaany. si .edu
Rare Book and Manuscript Library
Columbia University
Archives of American Art, California
Huntington Library Contains oral histories of prominent figures in
1151 Oxford Rd. twentieth-century art, such as Tibor De Nagy and
San Marino, CA 91108 David M. Solinger; art collectors; and historians. Em-
(626) 583-7847 phasis is on the Arts and Crafts movement, with sev-
eral artisans involved in metal work, textiles, glass, The focus is predominantly European paintings be-
ceramics, and wood. Also houses collections for re- tween the sixteenth and nineteenth centuries. The
search into music and theater in the late nineteenth Archival Documents database offers descriptive in-
and early twentieth centuries. Notable artists within formation about archival documents inventorying
the collection: David Tisdale, Will Barnet, Max French, Netherlandish, and Spanish art collections.
Weber, George Segal, Louise Nevelson, Kenyon Cox, The Inventory Contents contains item level descrip-
William Zorach, Louis Corinth, Rockwell Kent, Al- tion of individual works of art in the Archival Docu-
fred Stieglitz, Pablo Picasso, Diego Rivera, Paul mentation database. The Sale Catalogues contain
Guillaume, Marius de Zayas, Andre Racz, Alice Neel, information from auction records of nineteenth-
Ben Shahn, Edwin Walter Dickinson, Jack Levine, century Belgian, British, French, and Netherlandish
Leon Krull, Robert Indiana, William Zorach, and art sales and seventeenth- and eighteenth-century
Roland Rood. (Adapted from the Columbia Univer- German art sales. The Sales Contents database pro-
sity Web site, 2002.) vides item level description of paintings from the
Comprehensive list of Columbia Libraries auction catalogs database. The Public Collections
http://www. Columbia, edu/cu/lweb/indiv/locations. html database contains information about individual paint-
ings from a selection of American and British public
Access: Reading Room use requires an appointment. collections. The Provenance of Paintings contains the
Hours for the different libraries vary. provenance of a portion of the paintings in the Public
Collections database. The Vocabulary Databases con-
tain the Art and Architecture Thesaurus, the Union
Butler Library, 6th Floor East List of Artists Names, and the Getty Thesaurus of
535 W. 114th Street Geographic Names.
New York, NY 10027
Fax:(212)854-1365 Getty Special Collection Finding Aids
Avery Architectural and Fine Arts Library The collections are extensive, and providing individ-
300 Avery ual reference to each piece would require a much
1172 Amsterdam Ave. larger publication. Some of the more notable collec-
New York, NY 10027 tions within the research center cover areas related to
(212)854-3501 experiments in art and technology, prominent art gal-
Avery@libraries.cul.columbia.edu leries and art collectors in the nineteenth and twentieth
centuries, British museums and art institutes, Phaidon
The Getty Research Institute publishing, writings of prominent art historians and art
critics, Medieval art, the Bauhaus, Russian Construc-
The Getty Research Institute states that the goals
tivism, the Dadaist movement, Lettrism, Surrealism,
and mission of the institution are to promote scholar- Futurism, the Avant-garde movement in Germany, Ab-
ship in the arts by providing both on-site and remote stract Expressionism, Minimal and Conceptual art,
access to an extensive collection of primary and sec- Mail art, Concrete and Sound Poetry, and Mexican re-
ondary source material in the arts. The special collec- ligious engraving. Artists within the collection include
tion houses rare and unique materials that enable but are not limited to: Douglas Cooper, Boccioni,
scholars and other advanced researchers to conduct Delia Bella, Marcel Duchamp, Hans Richter, Josef
primary research in all fields relevant to the visual Franz Maria Hoffmann, Rauschenberg, Gavarni and
arts. The finding aids are available online and provide Grandville, Max Ernst, Bontempelli, Ian Hamilton
detailed access to archival papers, collections of rare Finlay, Malvina Hoffman, Romeyn De Hooghe, Robert
photographs, prints, and architectural drawings. Irwin, Philip Johnson, Wassily Kandinsky, Allan
Kaprow, Jean Le Pautre, Filippo Thomaso Marinetti,
Getty Fine Arts Databases Benedetta Cappa Marinetti, Jean Pillement, the Gentili
The Getty Provenance Index Online Searchable family, Jose Guadalupe Posada, Man Ray, and Frank
Databases consist of several databases regarding the Lloyd Wright. {Adapted from the Getty Research Cen-
history and provenance of individual works of art. ter Web site, 2002.)
1200 Getty Center Drive, Suite 1100 tecture spanning antiquity to the present. The library
Los Angeles, CA. 90049-1688 contains extensive holdings in the fields of master
(310)440-7390 drawings, Italian primitives, Romanesque sculpture,
Access: The Reading Room is available by appointment Renaissance painting, French Impressionism, German
only Monday through Saturday 9:00 A.M. to 6:00 P.M. Find- Expressionism, and Islamic and Asian art. A major
ing aids for most collections are available. The institute is
collection of auction-sale catalogs, large holdings of
closed all major U.S. holidays. The Getty Integrated Cata-
exhibition catalogs, the literature of conservation and
log (GIC) provides online access to all the research li-
braries' resources, including the special collection's finding technical study of works of art, history of photogra-
aids, at http://www.getty.edu/research/tools/gic/. phy, Russian and East European art history, and Is-
http://www.getty.edu/research/library/reference_form.html lamic art and architecture adds to the strength of the
www.getty.edu/research/library/ library's resources. (Adapted from the Fine Arts Li-
brary Web site, 2002.)
Harvard—Special Collections Fine Arts Library
For a comprehensive list of all Harvard libraries and Harvard University
32 Quincy Street
archives, refer to the Hollis catalog at http://lib.
Cambridge, MA 02138
harvard.edu/libraries/listings_alpha.html. The Hou-
ghton Library houses collections that focus on the
study of Western civilization. The Rare Books depart- Access: Access to the collections is granted through an ap-
ment has 500,000 printed books, including nearly plication process. The hours change with the academic se-
2,600 books from the fifteenth century with several mesters. During active Sessions: Monday through
different subjects, including music. The Manuscripts Thursday 9:00 A.M. to 10:00 P.M. Friday 9:00 A.M. to 6:00
department administers a diverse collection of over 10 P.M. Saturday 10:00 A.M. to 5:00 P.M. Sunday 1:00 P.M. to
million manuscripts dating from 3000 B.C.E. to the 6:00 P.M. Intersessions: Monday through Friday 9:00 A.M.
present. Collections subjects include illuminated man- to 5:00 P.M. Closed Saturday and Sunday.
uscripts; music; Arabic, Persian, and Syriac manu- mailto:falibref@fas.harvard.edu
scripts; photographs; drawings; and paintings. http://hcl.harvard.edu/finearts/
(Adapted from the Houghton Library Web site, 2002.)
The Ruebel Asiatic Research Collection—
Houghton Library ofthe Harvard College Library Harvard
Harvard University
Cambridge, MA 02138 The Ruebel collection is one of the leading unified
(617)495-2441 collections of Asian Art within the United States. The
(617) 495-2449 (Department of Manuscripts) collection focuses on the art of East Asia, Central
Fax:(617)495-1376 Asia, Southeast Asia, and India. The holdings include
Access: Access to rare books and manuscripts is predomi- books, periodicals, offprints of rare and important ar-
nantly handled in the Harvard Reading Rooms. A limited ticles, maps, rubbings of inscriptions from stone mon-
number of archival holdings have been cataloged into
uments, reproductions of Chinese and Japanese scroll
HOLLIS, the Harvard online catalog. The Houghton Li-
paintings, auction and exhibit catalogs, and manu-
brary is open to everyone regardless of academic affiliation
Monday through Friday 9:00 A.M. to 5:00 P.M. and Saturday scripts. Strengths of the collection are Chinese ritual
9:00 A.M. to 1:00 P.M. A growing number of finding aids bronzes, Buddhist arts, Chinese and Japanese paint-
are available online using the Online Archival Search In- ing, Japanese woodblock prints, and East Asian ce-
formation System, at http://oasis.harvard.edu/. ramics. Languages include Chinese, Japanese,
houghref@fas.harvard.edu Korean, English, and Western European languages.
Houghton_Manuscripts@harvard.edu (Adapted from the Fine Arts Library Web site, 2002.)
http ://hcl .harvard, edu/houghton/
The Harvard University Art Museums
The Fine Arts Library—Harvard 32 Quincy Street
Cambridge, MA 02138 (Within the Sackler Museum at the
The Fine Arts Library has a comprehensive collec- Corner of Quincy and Broadway.)
tion of both Western and non-Western art and archi- (617)495-0570
Access: Monday through Thursday 9:00 A.M. to 10:00 P.M. ington are extensive. The catalog photo study collec-
Friday 9:00 A.M. to 6:00 P.M. Saturday 10:00 A.M. to 5:00 tion on British seventeenth- and eighteenth-century
P.M. Closed Sunday. painting and sculpture is the largest outside of Lon-
Intersession: Monday through Friday 9:00 A.M. to 5:00 P.M. don. Archives include the Esdaile Archive of British
The entire Asiatic collection can be searched online via sculpture and the C. H. Collins Baker Archive of exhi-
Hollis, at http://hcl.harvard.edu/ois/services/pubs/ils/
bition catalogs and newspaper clippings on artists of
all nationalities who exhibited in London between
1900 and 1920. (Adaptedfrom the Huntington Library
Web site, 2002.)
The Harvard Semitic M u s e u m Photographic The Huntington
Archives—Harvard 1151 Oxford Road
San Marino, CA 91108
Developed between 1891 and 1992, this is one of (626) 405-2228
the world's most important collections of historical Fax: (626) 449-5720
Middle Eastern photographs. The archive's contents Access: Scholars must apply for reading privileges before
number approximately 38,000 images in a wide range coming to the library. Reading Rooms are accessible to
of formats. Several archives with extensive visual qualified applicants Monday through Saturday from 8:30
documentation of Middle Eastern culture, architec- A.M. to 5:00 P.M. Closed on all major holidays. Printed
ture, and art exist within the photographic archive. guides to both the British and American manuscript collec-
The Edgar J. Fisher Archive documents Istanbul in the tions are available. The southern California offices ofthe
late nineteenth and early twentieth century. The Karl Archives of American Art, housed at the Huntington, con-
S. Twitchell Archive documents Yemen and Saudi tain microfilms ofthe complete holdings. The Huntington
library collection can be searched online, at
Arabia in the early twentieth century. Baroness Marie-
Therese Ullens de Schooten Archive documents an-
cient sites, Islamic architecture, and the landscape and
ethnography of Iran and the Sufis. The Abdul Hamid
Albums document the Ottoman Empire. (Adapted Metropolitan Museum of Art
from the Fine Arts Library Web site, 2002.)
T h o m a s J. Watson Library—Metropolitan
Harvard University
The Thomas J. Watson Library has been developing
32 Quincy Street
Cambridge, MA 02138 its holdings for over 120 years and is one ofthe largest
(617)495-3372 primary source research collections in the world. The
Fax:(617)496-4889 collection strengths are predominantly European and
Access: Resides within a locked space in the visual collec- American art, with substantial holdings in Near East-
tion and is accessible to anyone with scholarly interests. ern, Egyptian, Greek, Roman, Asian, and Islamic art.
Primary access is through an inventory report with accom- Artists of importance within the rare book and man-
panying photographer and country indexes. Several surro- uscript collection are Albrecht Diirer, Michelangelo,
gate records allow preview access before consulting the Tintoretto (Giacopo Robusti), Sebastiano Serlio, An-
primary visual sources. drea Palladio, Leonardo da Vinci, Giovanni Paolo Lo-
spur@fas.harvard.edu mazzo, Thomas Chippendale, Josiah Wedgewood, Sir
Richard Westmacott, Athanasius Kirchner, Michele
Visual Information Access is a union catalog of visual re-
Todini, Filippo Bonanni, Louis Haghe, Theodore
sources at Harvard
http://via.harvard.edu:748/html/VIA.html. Henry Adolphus Fielding, Samual P. Avery, William
Harnett, and Aubrey Beardsley Important subject mat-
ter documented in the rare book and manuscript collec-
Huntington Library, Art Collections, and
tion includes Le Descriptions de l'Egypte, from
Botanical Gardens
Napoleon Bonaparte's invasion in 1798; documen-
The Huntington Library supports the study of tation of all the paintings, sculptures, epitaphs, and in-
British art, Continental European art of the seven- scriptions found in the churches of Venice in 1684; a
teenth and eighteenth centuries, and American art catalog of Brescian art in private and public collections
from the sixteenth century to the present. The book, in 1760; detailed account of techniques in British mar-
manuscript, and photographic resources at the Hunt- bling; privately produced catalog of the J. Pierpont
Morgan collection; the handmade papers of Japan; Pontormo, and Rubens. The Medieval and Renais-
decorative motifs in the Art Nouveau and Art Deco sance Manuscripts collection spans ten centuries of
styles; and the VVV Surrealism publication. (Adapted Western illumination with over 1,300 manuscripts,
from the Metropolitan Museum Web site, 2002.) including the Hours of Catherine of Cleves, the Lin-
dau Gospel, and the Hours of Cardinal Alessandro
The Henry R. Luce Center for the Study of Farnese. The library houses a comprehensive collec-
American Art—Metropolitan tion of bookbindings from the seventh century to the
present. The Ancient Near Eastern Seals and Tablets
The Henry R. Luce Center for the Study of Ameri-
collection houses artifacts from ancient Mesopotamia
can Art makes available for inspection American fine
dating from the fifth millennium B.C. to the Persian
art and decorative art objects not currently on view
Empire in the fifth century B.C. The Music Manu-
within the museum. Objects are arranged by material
scripts and Books collection is the largest in the
and then subcategorized by form and chronology. All
United States, encompassing handwritten works by
ofthe objects within the Department are cataloged for
Beethoven, Mozart, Brahms, Schubert, Stravinsky,
computerized access.
and Gilbert and Sullivan. The Literary and Historical
The Metropolitan Museum of Art collection highlights Charles Dickens, Henry David
1000 Fifth Avenue at 82nd Street Thoreau, Thomas Jefferson, Jane Austen, Charlotte
New York, NY 10028-0198 Bronte, Albert Einstein, Abraham Lincoln, John
Thomas J. Watson (212) 650-2225 Steinbeck, and Voltaire. (Adapted from the Morgan
Henry R. Luce (212) 570-3903 Library Web site, 2002.)
Fax: Thomas J. Watson (212) 570-3847
Access: Reading Room use is open to qualified re- The Morgan Library
searchers, appointment highly recommended. The Central 29 East 36th Street
Catalog is open to all visitors by appointment. Hours for New York, NY 10016-3403
individual libraries vary. Hours: Thomas J. Watson Library (212)590-0315
is open Tuesday through Friday 10:00 A.M. to 4:40 P.M. The Fax:(212)685-4740
Luce Center is open Friday and Saturday 9:30 to 8:45 P.M., Access: The reading room is available by appointment
Sunday and Tuesday through Thursday 9:30 A.M. to 5:15 Monday through Friday 9:30 A.M. to 4:00 P.M. Applications
P.M. The Metropolitan Museum's libraries and archival col- must be submitted in writing with an accompanying letter
lections can be accessed online, at http://www. of reference from a scholar or educational institution.
metmuseum.org/education/er_online_resourc. readingroom@morganlibrary.org
asp#watsonline. http://www.morganlibrary.org/research/html/index.html
National Gallery Archive—London
MAKE—the Organization for Women in The London National Gallery's permanent collec-
the Arts tion spans the period from 1250 to 1900 and consists
of Western European paintings. The archive contains
The MAKE research center offers a comprehensive
Gallery records and private papers of art collectors as-
collection of contemporary and historical women artists.
sociated with the institution. The Gallery records are
107-109 Charing Cross Road useful for determining provenance of the art objects
London WC2H0DU and documenting correspondence with artists such as
00 44(0)20 7514 8860 Edwin Landseer, Barbara Hepworth, and Henry
Fax: 00 44 (0)20 7514 8864
Moore. (Adapted from the National Gallery Archive—
Access: Access to the collection is on-site. Email reference
London Web site, 2002.)
http://web.ukonline.co.uk/womensart.lib/ The National Gallery
Trafalgar Square
The Morgan Library—Reading Room London WC2N 5DN
020 7747 2831
The collection includes over 10,000 drawings and Fax: 020 7747 2892
prints spanning the fourteenth through the twentieth Access: Appointment required. Daily 9:30 A.M. to 5:30 P.M.
centuries. Works include: Mantenga, Durer, G. B. Closed January 1. Finding aids are available for most col-
Tiepolo, Blake, Rembrandt, Watteau, Degas, Pollock, lections and can be used within the reading rooms.
lad@ng-london.org.uk built upon field photography from the early twentieth
http://www.nationalgallery.org.uk/about/history/archive/ century. It is considered one of the world's most sig-
default.htm nificant collections of images documenting Native
American peoples of the Western Hemisphere.
National Gallery of Art—Curatorial (Adapted from the National Museum of the American
Records Indian web site.)
The department of Curatorial Records maintains
files on all paintings, sculptures, and works of decora- Access: "The National Museum ofthe American Indian
tive art in the permanent collection of the National has Resource Centers in two of its facilities—the George
Gallery of Art. Files include all documentation and Gustav Heye Center (GGHC) in New York, and the Cul-
records of provenance, correspondence, exhibition tural Resources Center (CRC) in Suitland, Maryland.
history, and other materials. Bibliographies and biog- There will also be a Resource Center in the National Mu-
raphies of collection artists, donors, previous owners, seum of the American Indian on the National Mall in
Washington, D.C, opening in 2004. At that time, all three
and portrait sitters are available. {Adapted from the
Resource Centers will be digitally connected, and informa-
National Gallery of Art Web site, 2002)
tion will flow from New York to D.C. to Maryland." (From
Department of Curatorial Records the NMAI Web site.)
National Gallery of Art
Washington, D.C. 20565 N e w York
(202)737-4215 Resource Center
Access: Appointment required. 10:00 to 5:00 Monday George Gustav Heye Center
through Friday, closed on federal holidays. Types of access National Museum ofthe American Indian
available: http://www.nga.gov/resources/resource.htm Smithsonian Institution
curatorial-records@nga.gov One Bowling Green
http://www.nga.gov/resources/dcrfdesc.htm New York, NY 10004
National Museum of the American Indian Fax:(212)514-3792
This collection originally belonged to the Museum
of the American Indian, which the Heye Foundation
assembled at the turn of the twentieth century under
the direction of George Gustav Heye. Now part ofthe
Smithsonian Institution, the collection contains thou- Resource Center
sands of masterworks, including wood and stone carv- Cultural Resources Center
National Museum of the American Indian
ings and masks from the northwest coast of North
Smithsonian Institution
America. Works on paper and canvas include Plains
4220 Silver Hill Road
ledger drawings and contemporary prints and paint- Suitland, MD 20746
ings. The museum's collections also include a substan- (301)238-6624
tial array of materials from the Caribbean, Mexico, Fax: (301) 238-3200
Central America, and South America, including a wide nin@ic.si.edu
representation of artifacts from the Caribbean; ceram-
ics from Costa Rica, central Mexico, and Peru; beauti- Royal Commission on Historical
fully carved jade from the Olmec and Maya peoples; Manuscripts
textiles and gold from the Andean cultures; and elabo-
rate featherwork from the peoples of Amazonia. The Artists' Papers Register
The museum's photographic archive holds approxi- The Artists' Papers Register is an online database of
mately 90,000 images, including 47,000 negatives; the papers and primary sources of artists, designers,
30,000 vintage prints; and 13,500 transparencies, and craftsmen held in publicly accessible collections
lantern slides, and glass-plate negatives. While the in the United Kingdom. Nationality and status are not
collection ranges from mid-nineteenth-century da- criteria for inclusion. Approximately 1,150 national,
guerreotypes to color slides that record contemporary regional, and local repositories were surveyed, includ-
Native American artists and events, its reputation is ing archives, records offices, libraries, museums, gal-
leries, universities, and historic houses. The Royal library collects and preserves books, periodicals,
Commission on Historical Manuscripts maintains the manuscript collections, audiotapes, and ephemera that
database. (Adapted from the APR Web site, 2002.) illuminate the history of more than 160 years of pho-
tography and a century of film. The collection traces a
Artists' Papers Register
Royal Commission on Historical Manuscripts multifaceted history of both mediums, including tech-
Quality House, Quality Court nological developments, scientific research, the photo-
Chancery Lane graphic and motion picture industries, artistic
LondonWC2AlHP endeavors, the work of professional photographers,
0113-233-5518 amateur efforts, film directors' contributions, the in-
Access: Online only. terests of film fans, as well as the birth and accumu-
artists@hmc.gov.uk lated history ofthe two disciplines.
d.tomkins@leeds.ac.uk "The library houses more than 51,000 volumes on
http://www.hmc.gov.uk/artists/ photography and film. The comprehensive periodical
collection numbers more than 2,500 titles. Two hun-
Stanford University dred and sixty-six linear feet of manuscript materi-
als, the papers of photographers, studios, scientists,
The university houses collections with small collec-
and others connected to the field are an important
tions of letters by or about artists, catalogs, and exam-
sub-collection. Nine hundred and seventy audiotapes
ples of their works. Painters, sculptors, architects, and
document the lives of photographers and more than
photographers are included. Artists include Ansel
fifty years of programs at the Museum." (Taken from
Adams, Malvina Hoffman, Rockwell Kent, and Henri
the George Eastman House Museum Web site.)
Matisse. Stanford also houses an East German art col-
lection, German Artist Correspondence from the late
900 East Avenue
nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, medieval Rochester, NY 14607
manuscripts, and North American Indian Art, includ- (716)271-3361
ing Canada, Great Plains, Eastern U.S., Western U.S., Fax:(716)271-3970
and New Southwest. (Adapted from the Stanford Uni- Access: The Museum's photography, motion picture, tech-
versity Web site, 2002.) nology, and George Eastman collections are open to super-
vised research for any visitor. Appointments are required.
Department of Special Collections
Some ofthe collection is accessible on microfilm. The
Green Library
Richard and Ronay Menschel Library is open Tuesday
557 Escondido Mall
through Friday, 10 A.M. to 12 P.M. and 1:00 P.M. to 4:30 P.M.
Stanford, CA 94305
Contact the education department at extension 217.
Fax: (605) 723-8690
Access: Closed stacks. Reading Room use only by ap-
proved requests. Requests must be submitted by 5:00 P.M.
for a return of 11:30 the following morning. Closes at 5:00.
http://www-sul.stanford.edu/depts/spc/ask.html International Dada Archive
The International Dada Archive supports scholarly
research ofthe Dadaist movement. The purpose ofthe
archive is to preserve and disseminate written docu-
Modern and Post-Modern mentation of the Dada movement. The collection is
especially strong in manuscripts of Hans Arp, Jo-
George Eastman House International
hannes Baader, Hugo Ball, George Grosz, Raoul
M u s e u m of Photography and Film
Hausmann, John Hartfield, Hannah Hoch, Richard
"The Richard and Ronay Menschel Library at Huelsenbeck, Hans Richter, Kurt Schwitters, and
George Eastman House is internationally recognized Christof Spengemann. The collection is housed
as a significant resource for research in the history of throughout the University of Iowa Libraries. The col-
photography and cinema. The scope of the library re- lection includes microfilmed manuscript collections,
flects the Museum's extensive resources in the photog- video and sound recordings, books and articles, and
raphy, motion picture, and technology collections. The some computer files.
100 Main Library (505)946-1000
University of Iowa contact@okeeffemuseum.org
Iowa City, IA 52242-1420 http://www.okeeffemuseum.org/center/index.html
Access: Appointment required. The collection is accessible National M u s e u m of W o m e n in the Arts,
through an indexed card catalog, available on-site, contain- Library and Research Center
ing 47,000 titles and an online catalog with 42,000 titles, at
http://www.lib.uiowa.edu/dada/oasis.html. Supports scholarly research on women's contribu-
timothy-shipe@uiowa.edu tions to the arts. Contains over 16,000 files with re-
http://www.lib.uiowa.edu/dada/index.html sumes, bibliographies, representative contacts, artist
statements, periodicals, exhibition catalogs and
The M u s e u m of M o d e r n Art, N e w York ephemera, and reproductions.
This collection supports the scholarly research of National Museum of Women in the Arts
twentieth-century American art. Holdings include Library and Research Center
exhibition catalogs, art show ephemera, oral history 1250 New York Avenue N.W. (Corner of New York Avenue
project, correspondence, twentieth-century manu- and 13th Street)
scripts, museum papers, video recordings, research Washington, D.C. 20005-3920
(202) 783-7365
material, lectures, and departmental and program
Access: Reading Rooms use by appointment only Monday
records. Significant twentieth-century artists within
through Friday 10:00 A.M. to 5:00 P.M.
the collection include Chuck Close, Marcel Du- http://www.nmwa.org/library/libindex.htm
champ, Gertrude Stein, Umberto Boccioni, Constan-
t s Brancusi, Vladimir Isdebsky, Wassily Kandinsky,
Frederick J. Kiesler, Paul Klee, Hellmut Lehmann- The Oakland M u s e u m of California
Haupt, Ant Farm, Image Bank, J. B. Neumann, Elie Houses a comprehensive collection on twentieth-
Nadelman, Morgan Russell, Jasper Johns, and Sol Le century photographer Dorothea Lange.
Witt. Also available is a collection of letters from
major artists in the cubist movement. (Adapted from 1000 Oak Street
the Museum of Modern Art Web site, 2002.) Oakland, CA 94607
Museum of Modern Art Fax:(510)238-6579
Museums Archive and Research Center museumca@museumca.org
11 W. 53rd Street http ://www.museumca.org/
New York, NY 10019-5401
(212)708-9617 The Robert Gore Rifkind Center for G e r m a n
Fax:(212)333-1122 Expressionist Studies
Access: Reading Rooms require an appointment Monday,
Tuesday, Thursday, and Friday from 10:00 A.M. to 5:00 P.M. Dedicated to the study ofthe German Expressionist
Primary access to archival resources is through the finding movement during the early twentieth century. Con-
aids, entries in the RLIN database and the Museum's on- tains a collection of approximately 5,000 prints and
line catalog, or research resources at drawings, over 6,000 volumes, 2,000 rare books (pre-
http://library.moma.org/. A comprehensive list of archival dominantly in German), and documentary sources
holdings can be viewed online, at such as monographs, exhibition catalogs, oeuvre cata-
http://www.moma.Org/research/archives/holdings.html# logs, almanacs, anthologies, contemporaneous books,
8 monographic series, and runs of 111 periodicals.
http://www.moma.org/ Original graphics by more than 150 different artists
are represented, including those of Max Ernst, Max
Beckmann, Ernst Ludwig Kirchner, Max Oppen-
Georgia O'Keeffe M u s e u m and Research
heimer, and Otto Schubert. (Adapted from the Los An-
geles County Museum Web site, 2002.)
Has Georgia O'Keeffe's papers.
Los Angeles County Museum of Art
217 Johnson Street 5905 Wilshire Blvd.
Santa Fe, NM 87501 Los Angeles, CA 90036
(213)857-6165 to 10:00 P.M. Saturday 10:00 A.M. to 5:00 P.M. Hours are
Fax: (323) 857-4752 subject to change to accommodate special events or holi-
Access: Reading Room available by appointment only days.
Monday, Tuesday, and Thursday from 12:00 P.M. to 9:00 wrbicanm@warhol.org
P.M. and Saturday and Sunday from 11:00 A.M. to 8:00 P.M. http://www.warhol.org/collections/index.html
rifkind@lacma. org
http: //www. lacma. org/lacma. asp/ Nineteenth Century
The Rossetti Hypermedia Archive
The Tate Archive Collection
The Rossetti Hypermedia Archive presents the
A collection of archival material relating to British complete writings and pictures of Gabriel Rossetti.
art and artists, collectors, critics, writers, galleries,
The Institute for Advanced Technology in the Humanities
and institutions from the beginning of the twentieth
Alderman Library
University of Virginia
Hyman Kreitman Research Center P.O. Box 400115
Tate Britain, Millbank Charlottesville, VA 22904-4115
London SW1P4RG (804) 924-4527
020 7887 8838 Fax: (804) 982-2363
Access: Appointment required for approved researchers. Access: Online.
Monday through Wednesday from 10:00 to 5:00. iath@virginia.edu
Research.Center@tate.org.uk http://jefferson.village.virginia.edu/rossetti/index.html
The Andy Warhol Museum The Cloisters Library and Archive
"The archives are a part of the artist's life work and The Cloisters Library and Archive contains materi-
the greatest single collection of ephemera documenting als specifically for the study of medieval art. The col-
the diverse worlds in which Warhol was active. The col- lection of over 13,000 volumes addresses medieval
lection currently consists of over 8,000 cubic feet of ma- architecture, paintings, tapestries, illuminated manu-
terial, and functions as an integral part of the Andy scripts, and sculpture. The archive contains the papers
Warhol Museum, along with his paintings, films, video of Sumner McKnight and Harry Bober, two promi-
work, sculpture and graphic art. The collection includes nent historians of medieval art, and other research col-
scrapbooks of press clippings related to Warhol's work lections. (Adapted from the Cloisters Library and
and his private and public life; art supplies and materials Archive Web site, 2002.)
used by Warhol; posters publicizing his exhibitions and The Cloisters
films; over 4,000 audio tapes featuring interviews and Fort Tryon Park
conversations between Warhol and his friends and asso- New York, NY 10040
ciates; thousands of documentary photographs; an entire (212)396-5319
run of Interview magazine, which Warhol founded in Fax:(212)795-3640
1969; his extensive library of books and periodicals; Access: The Reading Rooms are available for approved re-
hundreds of decorative art objects; many personal items searchers by appointment only Tuesday through Friday
such as clothing and over thirty ofthe silver-white wigs 10:00 A.M. to 4:30 P.M.

that became one of Warhol's defining physical features." http://www.metmuseum.org/events/ev_cloisters.asp/

(Taken from the Warhol Museum Web site.)
117 Sandusky Street Middle Ages
Pittsburgh, PA 15212-5890 The Women Artists Archive
Fax:(412)237-8340 This archive is a special collection in the University
Access: Reading room available by appointment only. Sun- Library at Sonoma State University. It contains mate-
day 10:00 A.M. to 5:00 P.M. Monday—closed. Tuesday rials concerning over 1,400 women artists from the
through Thursday 10:00 A.M. to 5:00 P.M. Friday 10:00 A.M. Middle Ages forward.
Special Collections/University Archives Fax:0039-055-249-11-55
University Library Access: Appointment required. Monday, Tuesday, Thursday,
Sonoma State University and Friday 9:00 to 10:00, Wednesday 2:00 to 5:00. The col-
1801 E. Cotati Ave. lection is cataloged and available to qualified researchers.
Rohnert Park, CA 94928 Inquiries into the collection can be made by phone,
(707)664-2861 http: //www. kubikat. org/
Access: The Women Artists Archive Database is available
online and lists all the artists within the collection. Medici Archive Collection
http://libweb.sonoma.edu/special.html "The archive ofthe Medici Grand Dukes is one ofthe
greatest yet least known Medici monuments. Estab-
COLLECTIONS ARRANGED BY REGION lished by Grand Duke Cosimo I in 1569, it offers the
most complete record of any princely regime in Renais-
Western Hemisphere
sance and Baroque Europe. Since this Archive consists
British C o l u m b i a Archive—Visual mostly of letters (nearly three million filling a full kilo-
Collection—Canada meter of shelf-space), it offers an incomparable
panorama of two-hundred years of human history, as
The archive contains over 110,000 photographic
told in the words of the people most immediately in-
items and approximately 10,000 paintings, drawings,
volved. However, this unique documentary resource has
and prints relating to British Columbia's history and
never been cataloged and indexed, nor microfilmed and
culture. Unique collections represent the work of early
accessed by electronic means. Only now, with The
British Columbia photographers, including Frederick
Medici Archive Project, is it fulfilling its potential to
Dally, F. G. Claudet, Richard and Hannah Maynard,
revolutionize our understanding ofthe past. The archive
Edward Dossetter, J. Howard A. Chapman, Savannah
provides resources for the arts and humanities to a broad
and Ernest William Albert Crocker. The paintings and
international public for the first time, by way of the In-
drawings collection includes works by Emily Carr. All
ternet. With the custom database system, it is now possi-
collections can be searched by geographic region,
ble to track all references to people, places and topics
subject, and artist. (Adapted from the British Colum-
and then combine them freely in sophisticated search
bia Archive Web site.)
functions. When work is complete, Documentary
655 Belleville Street Sources will be available as a searchable database on the
Victoria, B.C. Internet. Meanwhile, sample data is available at Medici
Canada Archive Project Access Sites in selected scholarly insti-
(250)387-1952 tutions around the world and on the Internet." (Taken di-
Fax: (250) 387-2072
rectly from the Medici Archive Project Web site.)
Access: Research using primary sources by appointment
only. Call slips may be submitted during full service hours, Access: The Medici Web site does not yet offer direct access
9:30-11:45 and 1:00-4:00 Monday through Friday, Janu- to the custom database, but its goal is to do so within the
ary 2nd through August 13th. Research facilities are closed next few years. The research staff has transferred a series of
on Wednesdays, August 14th through December 31st. Re- Preformatted reports, one set organized chronologically, the
trieval not available between 11:45 and 1:00. Some mate- other according to 39 predefined topic categories. The report
rial may take 24 hours or longer to access. pages can be browsed or searched online. The report totals
access@www.bcarchives.gov.bc.ca several thousand pages and offers scholars access to docu-
http://www.bcarchives.gov.bc.ca/ mentary material from the Medici Granducal Archive.
Europe—Italy http://www.medici.org/

The Institute of Art History in Florence Europe—Scotland

Collection contains Italian art and artists of the Glasgow School of Arts Archive
twentieth century.
Collections include the papers of William Hardie,
Kunsthistorisches Institute in Florenz
an acknowledged authority on Scottish painting and
Via Giuseppe Giusti 44
reputable art dealer, records from the Glasgow Dilet-
1-50121 Firenze
Italia tante Society, fine arts society from 1777-1843, John
0039-055-249-11-1 Ruskin's letters, the Royal Society of Painters in Wa-
tercolors, and Barlow's studies of Dante and European The collection also contains Rupert Gunnis's Dictionary
art during the nineteenth century. (Adapted from the of British Sculptors. Techniques covered in the collec-
Glasgow School of Art Web site, 2002.) tion range from the eighteenth-century revival of
chiaroscuro, woodcuts, aquatint, and the development of
Glasgow School of Art
167 Renfrew Street chromolithography in the mid-nineteenth century.
Glasgow G3 6RQ The collection includes hundreds of artists' manuals dat-
0141 353 4592 ing from 1600 to 1900. Artists include John Ruskin,
Fax: 0141 353 4670 Thomas Bewick, Thomas Gainsborough, David
Access: Reading Room use by appointment only Monday Roberts, James Ward, A.W.N. Pugnin, and Dante
through Friday 9:30 A.M. to 12:00 P.M. and 2:00 P.M. to Gabriel Rossetti. The collection also contains 1,300 in-
5:00 P.M. dividual leaves from illustrated incunables. (Adapted
archives@gsa.ac.uk from the Yale Center for British Arts, 2002.)
1080 Chapel Street
New Haven, CT 06520-8280
Europe—United Kingdom
National Art Library Archive Fax:(203)432-9613
Access: Reading Rooms are the principal means of access.
The Victoria and Albert Museum Archive is com- Open Tuesday through Friday 10:00 A.M. to 4:30 P.M.
prised of three sections. The Archive of Art and De- Records for the collection can be accessed online through
sign provides research material on individuals, the ORBIS search engine.
associations, and companies involved in art and de- elisabeth.fairman@yale.edu
sign. The collection strength is twentieth-century http://www.yale.edu/ycba/collection/index.htm
British design. The Beatrix Potter Collection con-
tains correspondence, drawings, watercolors, photo- Europe—Wales
graphs, and literary manuscripts. The Linder
Collection is also housed in the Beatrix Potter The National Library of Wales
archive and has over 280 drawings. The V & A The Library archive contains images relating to Wales
Archive houses the institutional documentation of and the other Celtic nations; this online catalog reflects
several million pieces of artwork within the museum. that emphasis, with the majority of pictures illustrating
(Adapted from the National Art Library at the Victo- some aspect of Welsh life, places in Wales, or people as-
ria and Albert Museum Web site, 2002.) sociated with this country. Artists of note within the col-
Blythe House lection are J.M.W. Turner, Richard Wilson, Thomas
Archive of Art and Design Gainsborough, Paul Sandby, and James Ward. Also in-
23 Blythe Road cluded are artists who reflect the native Welsh artistic
London W14 0QF tradition, such as William Roos, Hugh Hughes and the
+44(0)20 7603 1514 Reverend Evan Williams, Sir Kyffin Williams, Will
The Beatrix Potter Archive: +44 (0)20 7602 0281 ext. 212 Roberts, and Evan Walters. The library also houses over
The V & A Archive: +44 (0)20 7602 8832 1,000 items in the architecture of Wales collections and
Fax: 020 7602 0980 has several scholar/collector collections that provide a
Access: The Reading Room is available by appointment broad base for visual studies. (Adapted from the Na-
only. Tuesday through Thursday 10:00 A.M. to 4:30 P.M.
tional Library of Wales Digital Mirror site.)
Finding aids for each collection can be consulted on-site.
The archive is closed for three weeks during late August National Library of Wales
and early September. Aberystwyth
Archive@vam.ac.uk Ceredigion
http://www.nal.vam.ac.uk/archives.html Wales SY23 3BU
+44(0)1970 632 800
Fax: +44(0)1970 615 709
Yale Center for British Art
Access: Reading room access is granted through applica-
The Center houses a collection of over 20,000 rare tion for long- and short-term reading tickets. Entrance Hall
volumes. The emphasis is on visual art and cultural life exhibitions are open Monday through Friday 9:30 A.M. to
in the United Kingdom and former British Empire from 6:00 P.M. Saturday 9:30 A.M. to 5:00 P.M. Pictures and Maps
Reading Room open Monday through Friday 9:30 A.M. to
the seventeenth century through the nineteenth century.
6:00 P.M. Saturday 9:30 A.M. to 5:00 P.M. The Library is Chinese art and culture. The Museum owns over
closed on Sundays and public holidays and throughout the 650,000 objects, including ceramics, paintings, ritual
first full week in October every year. bronzes, carvings, embroidery, jade, and calligraphy.
http://www.llgc.org.uk/ymholiadau.htm (Adaptedfrom the National Palace Museum Web site.)
Located in the Building for Documents and Library.
North America + 886-2-2881-2021
Fax: +886-2-2881-4138
The Heard Museum's Billie Jane Baguley Access: Appointment required. Library hours are 9:00 A.M.
Library and Archives Collection to 5:00 P.M. Monday through Saturday.
serviceO 1 @npm.gov.tw
The collection's focus is on Native American art http://www.npm.gov.tw/english/library/library.htm
and culture with an emphasis on contemporary Native
American fine art and Native American writings. The
archive houses a Native American artists resource col- OTHER RESOURCES
lection with broad scope and depth. Also included in Journals
the collections are indigenous arts of Oceania, Africa,
Asia, and the Americas. (Adapted from the Heard Mu- Archives of American Art Journal. Produced by the
seum Web site, 2002.) Archives of American Art. Quarterly publication.
Art and Architecture Information Guides. Produced
The Heard Museum by Gale Research Company.
P.O. Box 210026 Metropolitan Museum Journal. Produced by the Met-
Tucson, AZ 85721-0026 ropolitan Museum of Art. Annual publication.
Phone inquiries not accepted.
Access: Appointment is required. Monday through Friday
10:00 to 4:45. The collection finding aids are available on- Portal Sites, Directories, and Pathfinders
line, at http://www.heard.org/research/archives/index.html. Archives USA
archives@heard.org Archives USA is a current directory of over 5,400
http://www.heard.org/ repositories and over 124,000 collections in the
United States. Access is provided through institu-
Pacific—Hawaii tional subscription.
Bishop M u s e u m Archives Special Collection
French Ministry of Culture
The earliest pieces in the museum's documentary Pathfinder of Libraries and Research Centers Docu-
art collection are drawings by artists who accompa- menting the Art of France.
nied European expeditions in the eighteenth century. http://web.culture.fr/culture/sedocum/histart.htm
The art collection provides early visual documents of
the changes that have occurred in Hawaii and the Pa- "This Directory is provided as a means to access
cific. The collection is indexed by artist and subject. nearly 3,000 libraries and library departments with
specialized holdings in art, architecture, and ar-
chaeology throughout the world. Data recorded for
Fax: (808) 847-8241
each institution includes address, telephone and
Access: Hours 12:00 to 3:00 Tuesday through Friday and
tele-facsimile numbers, hours of operation, annual
9:00 to 12:00 on Saturday. Online index.
closings, and listings of professional personnel. It
also includes electronic mail addresses of individ-
ual librarians and direct links to institutional home
pages." (Quoted from Web site.)
EASTERN HEMISPHERE http://iberia.vassar.edu/ifla-idal/

National Palace Museum—Chlng Portal to locate primary source material and copy-
Archive right holders of art and literature.
The National Palace Museum Archive houses a col- guides/Resources.html
lection of rare books, Ch'ing dynasty archives, docu-
Portal site for worldwide museum home pages.
ments, and noncirculating books and periodicals on http://www.museumlink.com/
UNESCO Archives Portal Printed Resources for Locating Fine Arts
http://portal.unesco.org/ci/ev.php7URL_ID = Manuscript Collections
= 201&reload= 1049451919 Artzen, Etta, and Robert Rainwater. Guide to the Lit-
erature of Art History. (1980) Chicago; American
University of California Los Angeles Arts Library Library Association. 616 p.
http://www.library.ucla.edu/libraries/arts/websites/ A critical bibliography containing over 4,160 entries
wwwart.htm designed for research into the history of art. Fully
annotated entries; some contain content analysis.
A portal site of over 4,900 Web sites describing hold- Contents include "Bibliography; Directories; Sales
ings of manuscripts, archives, rare books, historical Records; Visual Resources; Dictionaries and Ency-
photographs, and other primary sources for schol- clopedias (includes general biographical dictionar-
arly research. The lists only include actual reposito- ies); Iconography; Historiography and Methodology;
ries. The resources are divided geographically. Sources and