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0 просмотров11 страницWind power installations are rapidly increasing worldwide, leading to a huge level of permeation into electricity supply networks. Enormous efforts are spent to improve the performance of the wind turbine generator systems. This paper proposes a novel adaptive fuzzy logic control strategy for performance improvement of a grid-tied wind generator system. The variable-speed wind turbine driven permanent-magnet synchronous generator is tied to the electricity network by a full-capacity power.

Nov 29, 2019

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Wind power installations are rapidly increasing worldwide, leading to a huge level of permeation into electricity supply networks. Enormous efforts are spent to improve the performance of the wind turbine generator systems. This paper proposes a novel adaptive fuzzy logic control strategy for performance improvement of a grid-tied wind generator system. The variable-speed wind turbine driven permanent-magnet synchronous generator is tied to the electricity network by a full-capacity power.

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0 просмотров11 страницWind power installations are rapidly increasing worldwide, leading to a huge level of permeation into electricity supply networks. Enormous efforts are spent to improve the performance of the wind turbine generator systems. This paper proposes a novel adaptive fuzzy logic control strategy for performance improvement of a grid-tied wind generator system. The variable-speed wind turbine driven permanent-magnet synchronous generator is tied to the electricity network by a full-capacity power.

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fully edited. Content may change prior to final publication. Citation information: DOI 10.1109/TII.2018.2875922, IEEE

Transactions on Industrial Informatics

TII-18-1047 1

Performance Enhancement of a Grid-Connected

PMSG-Based Wind Turbine

Mahmoud A. Soliman, Hany M. Hasanien, Senior Member, IEEE, Haitham Z. Azazi, E. E. El-Kholy,

Member, IEEE, S. A. Mahmoud

Abstract—Wind power installations are rapidly increasing Membership grade of FLC

worldwide, leading to a huge level of permeation into electricity Capacitance of the dc-link capacitor

supply networks. Enormous efforts are spent to improve the , Turbine power coefficient and its optimum value

performance of the wind turbine generator systems. This paper D Generator Rotor damping coefficient

proposes a novel adaptive fuzzy logic control strategy for , Error and change of error signals

performance improvement of a grid-tied wind generator system.

, - and -axis stator currents of PMSG

The variable-speed wind turbine driven permanent-magnet

synchronous generator is tied to the electricity network by a full- Moment of inertia of PMSG

capacity power converter. A cascaded adaptive fuzzy logic Iteration index

control strategy is proposed as the control methodology for the , - and -axis inductances of PMSG

generator- and the grid-side converter/inverter. The adaptive Synchronous inductance of the PMSG

technique depends on continuous mixed -norm algorithm, Pole pair number of the PMSG

which on-line updates the scaling factors of the fuzzy logic , Real and reactive powers of PMSG

controllers (FLCs) at a high convergence speed. For the sake of Mechanical power captured from the wind

preciseness, real wind speed data measured in Zaafarana wind Radius of the turbine’s blade

farm, Egypt, are considered in the analyses. The effectiveness of

Stator resistance of PMSG

the proposed adaptive FLC is compared to that achieved using

, Mechanical and electromagnetic torque of PMSG

particle swarm optimization algorithm-based an optimal

proportional-integral controller, considering severe grid Wind speed

disturbances. Extensive simulation analyses, which are done Vdc, DC-link voltage and its reference value

using MATLAB/Simulink software, are presented to validate the VPCC Terminal voltage at the PCC

efficiency of the adaptive fuzzy logic control strategy. , - and -axis stator voltages of PMSG

logic controller, permanent-magnet synchronous generator,

variable-speed wind turbine.

R ECENTLY,

renewable energy sources like wind, wave, bio-

mass, etc., are regarded as the predictable energy sources

for the electric power production. Several strategic factors

NOMENCLATURE influence the huge level of permeation of the renewable

energies into the electricity networks around the globe, such as

Air density

depletion of natural resources, increase in fuel price, and trend

, Turbine tip speed ratio and its optimum value

to a clean energy. Among the available renewable energy

Pitch angle of the turbine’s blade

technologies, wind energy is increasingly becoming the most

Magnetic flux of PMSG

promising technology for the nearest future because of its

Electrical angular speed of PMSG

environmental friendliness and its huge potential to produce

Manuscript received April 28, 2018; revised September 9, 2018; accepted large amounts of power at minimal cost. Globally, the wind

October 8, 2018. power installations exceeded 539.1 GW in 2017 [1]. As per

Mahmoud A. Soliman is with the Dynamic Positioning and Navigation recent statistics, it is predicted that the wind power will

Department, Petroleum Marine Services Co., Alexandria, Egypt, (e-mail:

dr.msoliman08@gmail.com).

participate up to 40% of the electricity production worldwide

Hany M. Hasanien is with the Electrical Power and Machines Department, by 2050 [1].

Faculty of Engineering, Ain Shams University, Cairo 11517, Egypt (e-mail: At the present, the variable-speed wind turbine generator

hanyhasanien@ieee.org).

systems (WTGSs) have drawn great attraction for the modern

Haitham Z. Azazi; E. E. EL-Kholy; and S. A. Mahmoud are with the

Department of Electrical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Menoufia wind power industry. This solicitude is due to the superior

University, Shebin El-Kom, Egypt, (e-mail: Haitham_azazi@yahoo.com; characteristics that they presented, such as lower acoustical

E.E.ELKHOLY@ieee.org; Sabry_abdellatif@yahoo.com). noise, higher power density, and better control capability

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Transactions on Industrial Informatics

TII-18-1047 2

compared to the fixed-speed WTGSs [2]–[4]. Various types of FLC is used to control the generator-side converter and grid-

such electrical machines are commercially available in the side inverter under cascaded structure. The CMPN algorithm

market [5]–[9]. Among them, permanent-magnet synchronous updates on-line the scaling factors of all FLCs with a high

generators (PMSGs) are the most commonly machines used in convergence speed. Detailed system modelling and its control

the WTGSs due to their features, including the self-excitation, schemes are elucidated. The efficacy of the CMPN-based

the small size, and the high reliability. Owing to the gearless adaptive FLC is compared with that achieved using particle

construction, PMSGs require lower maintenance and have swarm optimization (PSO) technique-based an optimal PI

higher efficiency [7]–[9]. controller, considering severe grid disturbances. For the sake

The variable-speed wind turbine (VSWT) direct-drive of preciseness, real wind speed data measured in Zaafarana

PMSG is tied to the electric network by a full-rated frequency wind farm, Egypt, are taken into account in the analyses.

converter (FC) which, generally, composes of two voltage Extensive simulation analyses, which are done using

source converters connected back-to-back by a common dc- MATLAB/Simulink software, are presented to validate the

link [10], [11]. The well-designed cascaded control strategy is efficiency of the CMPN algorithm. To the best of the authors’

used to control the generator- and grid-side converter/inverter knowledge, the CMPN algorithm-based adaptive FLC has not

[11]–[13]. In particular, this control strategy depends on the so far been pointed out in renewable energy literatures.

conventional proportional-integral (PI) controllers due to their

robustness and the fact of the widely stability margins that II. MODEL SYSTEM

they offered. However, these controllers suffer from the high In this study, the system modelling demonstrated in Fig. 1 is

sensitivity to the systems nonlinearity and parameters’ utilized to illustrate the efficiency of the adaptive FLC applied

variation. Several optimization algorithms have been utilized to the FC of the VSWT-driven PMSG. The system model is

to design the optimal PI controllers’ parameters in the composed of a VSWT, a direct-drive PMSG, two power

electrical power systems [14]–[18]. These techniques are converters linked back-to-back by a dc-link capacitor, a step-

efficacious tools to solve the non-linearity problems. up transformer, and a transmission line with a double-circuit.

However, they need complicated computational analyses and The PMSG parameters are given in Table I [3], [12]. The

great efforts to fine-tune the multiple PI controllers. system base is regarded as 5.0 MVA.

Nowadays, fuzzy logic controllers (FLCs) incorporate an

alternative trend rather than the PI control strategies to handle III. WIND TURBINE MODEL

the characteristics of non-linear dynamic systems. The FLC

The mechanical power captured from the wind, , can be

employs fuzzy logic as a design methodology, which can be

expressed by the following relation [17], [18]:

utilized in promoting the systems non-linearity for embedded

control strategy. The FLCs have some salient features, such as (1)

efficient to handle the characteristics of non-linear system (2)

dynamics, model-free approach, and simple design

(3)

requirements. The FLC depends on the designer experience in

fine-tuning the membership functions (MFs) through a set of

IF-THEN rules. The FLCs have been widely-employed to ( ) (4)

resolve different problems in the power systems [3], [19]– For VSWT, the wind turbine has a specific rotational

[21]. Notably, most of the classical FLCs reported in these speed, , at each wind speed, which relates to the maximum

literatures are based on a fixed MF and a static rule base. power extracted from the wind. This technique is, in common,

Despite the robustness of the FLCs, sometimes the classical defined as maximum power point tracking (MPPT) technique.

FLC is not sufficient to cope up with the non-linear systems Fig. 2 elucidates the wind turbine characteristics used in this

that exhibit a high degree of uncertainty. This represents the study [3], [18]. Notably, the accurate measurement of wind

principle impetus to apply continuous mixed -norm (CMPN) speed is, in general, hardly to be achieved. Therefore, it is

algorithm-based adaptive filtering technique to on-line update better to determine the maximum power, , as follows [3]:

the scaling factors of the FLC for improving the performance

of a grid-tied variable-speed wind generator (VSWG). ( ) (5)

Adaptive filtering algorithms have been reported in much of

the literature to solve different problems in various

applications, such as electronic engineering, signal processing, Generator-side Grid-side

speech, and language implementations [22]–[25]. For these P=1.0 converter inverter

algorithms, a compromise between the method complexity and V=1.0 CB CB

1.25/11.4 kV 0.1+j0.6

the convergence speed should be considered [26]. Notably, the

C 0.1+j0.6

CMPN algorithm has a higher convergence speed over other

j0.1 F

adaptive filtering algorithms for various applications [27]. VPCC ∞ bus

f=20Hz V=1.0

This paper proposes a novel application of the CMPN 3LG

algorithm-based adaptive FLCs to enhance the performance of 50 Hz, 5.0 MVA BASE

the grid-tied VSWT-PMSG system. A CMPN-based adaptive Fig. 1. Model system.

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Transactions on Industrial Informatics

TII-18-1047 3

Locus of maximum

Turbine Input Power [pu]

captured power can be controlled by the d-axis stator current. The reference

reactive power, , is considered zero for achieving unity

1 power factor operation at the PMSG terminals. It can be noted

13m/s

that four CMPN-based adaptive FLCs are utilized under

12m/s cascaded control structure. The output signals of this control

0.5 11m/s

10m/s

methodology ( and ) are transformed to the reference

9m/s frame ( using the conversion angle ( that is

7m/s 8m/s

0 6m/s determined from the generator speed. Then, these signals are

0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 1.2 1.4 1.6 1.8

Turbine Speed [pu]

compared with a triangular carrier signal of frequency 1.0 kHz

Fig. 2. Characteristics of wind turbine with MPPT curve. to generate the gate pulses of the converter IGBT switches.

TABLE I B. Grid-Side Inverter

PMSG PARAMETERS [3], [12]

The grid-side inverter is applied to control the dc-link

Rated Power 5.0 [MW] Stator Resistance 0.01 [pu] voltage and maintain the terminal voltage as well, at a desired

Rated Voltage 1.0 [kV] d-axis Reactance 1.0 [pu]

value adjusted by the operator. Adaptive FLCs in cascaded

Frequency 20 Hz q-axis Reactance 0.7 [pu]

Number of Poles 150 Field Flux 1.4 [pu] form are developed for this purpose. The dc-link voltage can

Inertia Constant 3.0 [s] be controlled by the dn-axis current component. In this study,

the dc-link capacitor is considered 10 mF with rated voltage of

In this study, a pitch angle controller, which is pointed out in 2.3 kV. The terminal voltage can be controlled using the qn-

[12], is considered to maintain the turbine output power axis current. In this study, the terminal voltage at the point of

constant during high wind speeds. common coupling (VPCC) is indicated in Fig. 1. A phase-

locked-loop (PLL) system is used to detect the conversion

IV. PMSG MODEL

angle ) from the ac network voltage. Fig. 4 demonstrates

The dynamic voltage equations of the PMSG can be written in the control block diagram of the grid-side inverter. The output

coordinates with the following equations [4], [8]: signals from this control methodology and are

(6) transformed to the three-phase signals ( which are

compared with a triangular carrier signal of frequency 1.05

(7)

kHz to produce the switching signals to the inverter IGBT

(8) switches. An adaptation of the FLCs used in the control

The mechanical dynamics of the PMSG are expressed as: methodology of the converter/inverter is based on the CMPN

(9) technology which on-line updates the scaling factors of the

where, the electromagnetic torque, can be given by: FLCs.

[( ) ] (10) VI. PROPOSED CMPN-BASED ADAPTIVE FLC

The real power, , and the reactive powers, , of the In the converter/inverter control blocks, the proposed

PMSG are written in coordinates as follows. adaptive FLCs detect the reference signals from the error and

(11) change of error signals. The detailed design of the adaptive

FLC is pointed out as follows.

(12)

1) Fuzzification: In the cascaded control scheme, four FLCs

V. CONTROL STRATEGY OF FREQUENCY CONVERTER are used, where each of inner-loop and outer-loop has two

FLCs. Fig. 5 illustrates the general control blocks of the

The VSWT driven PMSG is based on the utilization of a

proposed adaptive FLC. The inputs are the error signals

full-rated FC. The FC composes of a generator-side converter,

( ) and change of error signals ( ), which are fed

a dc-link capacitor, and a grid-side inverter. The control

into the FLC for fuzzification after adjusting by scaling

strategy of the FC using the proposed CMPN algorithm-based

factors, where is the sample number and denotes the

adaptive FLCs is elucidated as follows.

scaling factors number of FLCs, i.e., = 1,2,3……8. In the

A. Generator-Side Converter generator-side converter control, the inputs of FLCs are

The generator-side converter is capable of transmitting the and of the and , and - and -axis stator

maximum power from the wind to the electricity supply currents, and . The outputs of the FLCs are the reference

network. The well-designed cascaded control strategy, signals of the - and -axis stator currents, and , and

depicted in Fig. 3, is considered as the control methodology of converter - and -axis voltages, and , as illustrated in

the generator-side converter. As the power converter is Fig. 3. In the grid-side inverter control, the inputs for FLCs are

directly coupled with the PMSG, its q-axis stator current can the and of the Vdc, the rms value of the VPCC, and

control the real power. The real power set-point, , is the - and -axis grid currents, and The outputs of the

calculated from the MPPT scheme in order to transmit the

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This article has been accepted for publication in a future issue of this journal, but has not been fully edited. Content may change prior to final publication. Citation information: DOI 10.1109/TII.2018.2875922, IEEE

Transactions on Industrial Informatics

TII-18-1047 4

+ Iq + e2 + Vq Firing Pulses

Pmax + e1 CMPN-

CMPN- _

_ based + based +

+ Δe1 _+ Δe2

Ppmsg Z-1 _ Adaptive Z-1 Iq Z-1 _ Adaptive Z-1

FLC-1 FLC-2 Carrier Signal

Ipmsg-a,b,c

dq abc

Vd q Va b c

θr dq

∫ abc

ωr

θr

I

_d Vd

𝑄𝑝𝑚𝑠𝑔 + e3 + Id e4 +

CMPN- CMPN-

_ + + based +

_+ Δe3 based + Δe4

Qpmsg Z-1 Adaptive Z-1 Z-1 _ Adaptive Z-1

_

FLC-3 FLC-4

e5 CMPN-

CMPN- _

_ based + based +

+ Δe5 _+ Δe6

Vdc Z-1 Adaptive Z-1 Idn Z-1 _ Adaptive Z-1

_

FLC-5 FLC-6 Carrier Signal

IPCC

dq Vdn qn abc

VPCC Va b cn

θt dq

PLL abc

θt

Iqn

_

Iqn + Vqn

VPCC + e7 + e8

CMPN- CMPN-

_ based + + based +

_+ Δe7 + Δe8

VPCC Z-1 _ Adaptive Z-1 Z-1 _ Adaptive Z-1

FLC-7 FLC-8

coordinates, and , and inverter voltages in CMPN

quantities, and , as shown in Fig. 4. For suitableness, algorithm

ei(k) Reference

the inputs and output of each FLC are adjusted by scaling 𝑘𝑒𝑖 + signals

Fuzzy Defuzzification 𝑘𝑜𝑖

factors, , , and , as explained in Fig. 5. These scaling + Fuzzification Inference

factors play a vital role in designing the FLC to obtain a better Z-1 _ 𝑘Δ𝑒𝑖 +

Δei(k) Z-1

system performance under various operating conditions. Input fuzzy Fuzzy Output fuzzy

In this paper, the concentrate of the adaptive FLC design is sets Rules sets

to update the inputs and output scaling factors of the FLC. In FLC

Fig. 5, the denotes the unit time delay for one sampling. Fig. 5. Schematic block diagram of the proposed adaptive FLC.

The triangular MFs with overlap, depicted in Fig. 6, are NB NS Z PS PB

considered in the input/output fuzzy sets, in which the 1.0

linguistic variables are defined as: Negative Big (NB),

Negative Small (NS), Zero (Z), Positive Small (PS), and

Positive Big (PB). The grade of input and output MFs can be

expressed as follows [28]:

| | (13)

where denotes the grade of membership value,

–1.0 –0.5 0 0.5 1.0

denotes the width, represents the coordinate of the point at Fig. 6. Membership functions for inputs and outputs of the FLCs.

which the grade of membership is 1, and denotes the value

of input/output variable. applying genetic algorithms (GAs) technique which depends

In this work, the inputs/output scaling factors of all FLCs on the minimization of error signals. The GAs characteristics,

are varying adaptively using the CMPN algorithm. which are reported in [18], are used in this study. Then, the

To achieve a precise stable system, the initial values of the proposed CMPN adaptive algorithm can update on-line the

inputs/output scaling factors of all FLCs are selected by scaling factors of all FLCs when a disturbance occurs.

1551-3203 (c) 2018 IEEE. Personal use is permitted, but republication/redistribution requires IEEE permission. See http://www.ieee.org/publications_standards/publications/rights/index.html for more information.

This article has been accepted for publication in a future issue of this journal, but has not been fully edited. Content may change prior to final publication. Citation information: DOI 10.1109/TII.2018.2875922, IEEE

Transactions on Industrial Informatics

TII-18-1047 5

FUZZY RULE TABLE FOR FLCS

∫ {| | } (18)

Output

NB NS Z PS PB where is a probability density-like weighting function,

NB PB PB PS PS Z

NS PB PS PS Z NS which is bounded by the following restriction:

Z PS PS Z NS NS

PS PS Z NS NS NB ∫ (19)

PB Z NS NS NB NB

The weight vector of the CMPN adaptive filtering algorithm is

updated based on (18), and can be indicated by the following:

2) Fuzzy Rule Base: The fuzzy rules between the input and

output variables are based on the IF-THEN rules. There are 25 (20)

control rules used in the fuzzy inference to achieve the desired

where stands for the instantaneous gradient of

signals, as pointed out in Table II. The compromise between

the complexity of the FLC and the estimated error is with respect to and stands for the step size

considered during the choice of these rules. (adaptation gain parameter), which adjusts the system

stability. This can be represents by the following:

3) Inference and Defuzzification: To reduce the controller

complexity, Mamdani’s max–min [28] technique is utilized ∫ {| | } (21)

for the fuzzy inference mechanism. For defuzzification, the

center-of-area technique [28] is utilized to achieve the output According to the single point estimate method, the expectation

crispy values ( using the following equation: {| | } can be nearly to | | and after performing

∑ straightforward mathematical calculations, (20) is developed

(14)

∑ by the following equations [27]:

where represents the total number of rules, denotes the (22)

membership grade for the th rule, and represents the

coordinate related to the respective output. ∫ | | (23)

VII. CMPN ADAPTIVE FILTERING ALGORITHM

. If =1, will be determined as follows:

Recently, the family of mixed-norm adaptive filters has | | n | | | |

(24)

been presented in various forms to integrate the merits of n( )

stochastic established adaptive filter algorithms [29]. The least In this study, all the adaptive FLCs used under cascaded

mean mixed-norm adaptive filter was presented in [30], in structure depend on the CMPN algorithm which is proposed to

which the least mean square (LMS) algorithm and the least

adapt the inputs/output scaling factors of the FLCs. The on-

mean fourth algorithm were combined. Furthermore, a robust line adaptation of the scaling factors of the FLCs depends on

mixed-norm (RMN) algorithm was introduced in [29], which

(22). stands for the actual input signal. The update of the

integrated the LMS algorithm and the least absolute deviation

scaling factors of the FLCs is represented using the following

algorithm. Then, in [31], a normalized RMN algorithm was

formulas:

suggested to minimize the error norm, which is defined using

the following formula: (25)

{ } {| |} (15) (26)

a mixing parameter which controls the combination of error

By comparing (22) with (25)-(27), the change of the scaling

norms, and denotes the output error of the adaptive filter

factors of the FLC ( , , and ) can be achieved as

which is expressed as follows:

follows:

(16)

(28)

(17)

where is considered to be a small value of 0.01 to minimize

where denotes the output vector of the adaptive filter, the error signal with a fast convergence.

and represent, respectively, the input and desired

output signals vectors, and stands for the current weight VIII. OPTIMIZED PI CONTROLLERS BY PSO TECHNIQUE

vector of the adaptive filter [32].

To validate the performance of the CMPN-based adaptive

The principle of the -norm was introduced to the LMS

FLC under various operating conditions, the analyses are

algorithm in [33]. But, this concept mainly focused on the

compared with that accomplished using the cascaded PI

standard LMS algorithm ( ). Lately, these adaptive

control strategy. Each converter/inverter control strategy has

filtering algorithms were developed [27], [34]. The CMPN

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Transactions on Industrial Informatics

TII-18-1047 6

four PI controllers under cascaded structure. Obtaining all PI axis current control is given in S-domain formula as:

controllers’ parameters applied in the VSWT-driven PMSG ( )

system is a challenging task to guarantee satisfactory (31)

( )

responses in all operating regions. Therefore, the PSO

algorithm is applied to optimally design the PI controllers’ where and are, respectively, the set-point and actual q-

parameters [17]. axis currents and denote the PI gains of PI-4.

A. PSO Algorithm For outer-loop control, the TF of the q-axis current control

can be given in S-domain as:

The PSO is a computational intelligence-based algorithm,

( )

which was first presented by Kennedy and Eberhart [35]. It (32)

was inspired by the social behavior of fish schooling and bird ( )

flocking. The PSO includes adherent merits than other where ( and represent the PI gains of PI-3.

optimization techniques in terms of rapid computational time,

a derivative-free algorithm, and fewer parameters to be To simplify the design, the d- and q-axis current controllers

adjusted. The PSO approach has successfully been applied to have similar dynamics, so that the optimal design of the PI

solve various optimization problems [17], [36], [37]. controller’s gains is just performed for the q-axis current

The design variables for an optimization problem are control.

considered to be N. Each particle in the swarm of P particles is

started in a random position in the N-dimensional hyperspace b. For grid-side converter control:

such that the particle’s position denotes a candidate solution to For inner-loop control, the TF of the dn-axis current control

this optimization problem. The PSO algorithm is a simple is written in S-domain formula as:

optimization algorithm, as it only contains two equations for

( )

each particle; (i) a position vector (Xi = [xi1, xi2, . . ., xiN]) and (33)

( )

(ii) a velocity vector (Vi = [vi1, vi2, . . ., viN]). The particle’s

position is updated according to its own best exploration, best where and are, respectively, the set-point and actual

swarm overall experience, and previous velocity vector based grid d-axis currents, ( and denote, respectively, the per-

on the following relations [38]: phase network resistance and inductance, and

represent the PI gains of PI-6.

( ) ( ) (29)

Also, for outer-loop control, the TF of the dn-axis current

(30) control is given in S-domain as follows:

where and stand for two positive acceleration constants; ( )

and denote two randomly generated numbers in a range (34)

( )

of [0, 1]; ω stands for the inertia weight; is the best

position of particle achieved based on its own where are the PI gains of PI-5.

b b b

experience; ; To achieve a simple design, the TF for the inner-loop qn-

represents the best particle position based on overall swarm’s axis control is similar to (33). Then, the Eqs. (31) to (34) are

b b b linearized in state-space system formula, where the matrix A

experience; and .

which stands for the poles of the closed-loop control can be

B. Optimization Procedure of the PSO Approach achieved. The fitness function, can be defined as [39]:

| |

PSO technique can be expressed as follows. The flowchart of

the PSO algorithm is indicated in [17]. (35)

{ }

{

Step 1) Selection of Variables

The design variables of the PI controllers’ parameters are where stands for the mode eigenvalue of the matrix A

selected such that the X1, X3,……, and X15, respectively, and ( ) is a function presented to ensure the system stability

represent the proportional gains (kp) of PI-1, PI-2,……., and [39]. The stable or unstable system is determined using the

PI-8. X2, X4,…, and X16, respectively, represent the integral real part of eigenvalues which should be ≥ zero. So, the

gains (ki) of PI-1, PI-2,……., and PI-8. should be larger to avoid the instability systems.

Step 2) Creation of Fitness Function Step 3) PSO Approach

The main target of using the PSO technique is to minimize The PSO technique is then applied to (35) to minimize the

the fitness function as follows: function and achieve the optimal values of the PI controllers’

a. For generator-side converter control: gains which are listed in Table III. In this study, the MATLAB

toolbox for the PSO approach is considered [40]. Table IV

For inner-loop control, the transfer function (TF) of the q-

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Transactions on Industrial Informatics

TII-18-1047 7

PI CONTROLLERS’ PARAMETERS BASED ON THE PSO ALGORITHM

individual runs [17]. The PSO is terminated after 50 iterations.

The fitness function convergence is shown in Fig. 7. PI Kp Ki

PI-1 10.234 5.0034

PI-2 3.526 0.213

IX. SIMULATION RESULTS AND DISCUSSION PI-3 9.023 4.0287

The detailed model of the grid-tied VSWT-PMSG involving PI-4 3.526 0.213

the detailed switching model of the FC with the proposed PI-5 2.109 1.421

PI-6 3.001 2.567

adaptive FLC is considered to achieve precise analyses. The

PI-7 4.425 1.624

simulation analyses are done using MATLAB/Simulink PI-8 3.001 2.567

software. Simulation time is considered as 5 s and 300 s for

the transient and dynamic stability analyses. The time step is TABLE IV

OPTIMAL PSO CHARACTERISTICS

selected 20 μs to obtain accurate results.

Number of particles 20

A. Transient Characteristic Analysis Initial velocity of the agent 0

Inertia weight 1

To confirm the validity of the proposed CMPN algorithm-

Acceleration constants 2

based adaptive control strategy, which is applied to control the Number of iterations 50

FC of the network-tied VSWT-PMSG, the symmetrical 3-line-

8

to-ground (3LG) temporary fault is considered, as a severe

network disturbance. The disturbance occurs at the high- 7

Fitness function

tension grid-side (fault point F, indicated in Fig. 1) at t = 1 s. 6

The circuit breakers (CBs) on the faulted line are opened

5

together at 1.1 s to clear the fault, and at 1.5 s the CBs are

successfully reclosed. The wind speed is maintained constant 4

CMPN algorithm-based adaptive FLCs are compared with that

2

achieved using PSO-based optimal PI controllers. During the 10 20 30 40 50

Number of iterations

grid disturbance, the grid-side inverter injects sufficient

Fig. 7. Fitness function convergence using PSO.

amount of reactive power to the electricity supply network.

So, the terminal voltage, VPCC, is able to return back to its pre-

fault value, as depicted in Fig. 8(a). It is worthy to mention than that of the PSO-based an optimal PI controller. Table V

here that the VPCC response using the proposed CMPN indicates the transient response specifications including the

algorithm-based adaptive FLC has a low steady-state error and steady-state error, the percentage of peak

better response than that of the PSO-based optimal PI overshoot/undershoot, and the settling time using both

controllers. Fig. 8(b) clarifies the performance of the PMSG approaches. It is worthy to mention here that the transient

rotor speed using both controller approaches. It is found that response specifications using the CMPN algorithm-based

the proposed adaptive FLC helps the PMSG rotor speed to adaptive FLC are lower than that achieved when the PSO-

reach the pre-fault value rapidly than that of using the optimal based an optimal PI controller is used.

PI controller. Fig. 8(c) indicates the real power response of the From transient characteristic analysis, it can be claimed that

the CMPN-based adaptive FLC is regarded to be a precise

grid-side inverter. Notably, the proposed adaptive FLC

efficiently adjusts the maximum power transferred to the means to improve the transient characteristics of the variable-

network and achieves a better response than that of the PSO- speed WTGSs.

based optimal PI controllers. Fig. 8(d) illustrates the reactive

TABLE V

power response of the grid-side inverter using both control TRANSIENT RESPONSE SPECIFICATIONS

strategies. It can be realized that the reactive power of the System response Specification PSO-PI CMPN-FLC

grid-side inverter has a better damped response and becomes Steady-state error (pu) 0.02 0

more improved using the CMPN algorithm-based adaptive Terminal voltage Peak undershoot (%) 89 83

Settling time (s) 1.55 1.1

FLC compared to that obtained using the PSO-based optimal Steady-state error (pu) 0.01 0

PI controller. Fig. 8(e) indicates the dc-link voltage response. Rotor speed of

Peak overshoot (%) 0.5 0.1

PMSG

It is worth for mentioning here that a dc-link over voltage Settling time (s) 9 1.3

protection scheme (OVPS) using a braking chopper, which is Real power of

Steady-state error (pu) 0.08 0.01

reported in [18], is considered in this study with the purpose of Peak undershoot (%) 98.8 96

grid-side inverter

Settling time (s) 1.25 1.2

keeping the dc-link voltage within a passable range during a

Reactive power Steady-state error (pu) 0.083 0.001

severe grid disturbance. It is obviously noticed that without of grid-side Peak overshoot (%) 75.6 27

using the dc-link OVPS, the dc-link voltage quickly raises at inverter Settling time (s) 9.2 1.3

the instant of the fault. As a result, the FC is exposed to an Steady-state error (pu) 0.05 0.002

unstable operation. Moreover, it is indicated that the CMPN- DC-link voltage Peak overshoot (%) 7.8 0.4

Settling time (s) 1.25 1.2

based adaptive FLC provides much better damped response

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Terminal voltage (pu)

1 To achieve realistic responses, the dynamic characteristic of

0.8 VSWT-PMSG is evaluated by using real wind speed data

measured at Zaafarana wind farm, Egypt, on 26 October 2017.

0.6

The simulation analyses are implemented using

0.4 MATLAB/Simulink software at the midday from 12:00

0.2 PSO-PI to12:05 pm. Fig. 9(a) illustrates the wind speed spectrum of

0

CMPN-FLC this wind farm. It is worthy to note that during the 5-min

0 1 2 3 4 5 pattern, the wind speed varies from 9.3 to 12.9 m/s to point out

Time (s)

(a)

a wind range of wind speed fluctuation considered in this

1.04 analysis. Fig. 9(b) depicts the response of the PMSG rotor

Rotor speed of PMSG (pu)

1.02

under several operating situations. It is shown that when the

1 wind speed is higher than its rated speed, the blade pitch angle

is controlled to maintain the PMSG rotor speed constant at its

0.98 rated speed of 1.0 p.u. Fig. 9(c) points out the responses of the

0.96 optimum power and the real power delivered to the grid. It is

PSO-PI

CMPN-FLC

observed that the real power at the grid-side and the optimum

0.94 power are very close due to the power losses in the FC. Fig.

0 1 2 3 4 5

Time (s) 9(d) points out the reactive power of the grid-side inverter.

(b) Fig. 9(e) depicts the response of the terminal voltage, VPCC.

1.5

Fig. 9(f) illustrates the terminal current at the PCC in

Real power of grid-side

always varies with the wind speed fluctuation. However,

inverter (pu)

1

the current component maintains constant at zero for unity

power factor operation at the network which is one of the

0.5

objectives of the grid-side inverter control. Fig. 9(g) illustrates

PSO-PI the response of dc-link voltage. It is observed that the dc-link

CMPN-FLC

0 voltage profile has a small variation even through the wide

0 1 2 3 4 5

Time (s)

speed fluctuation. Figs. 9(h)-(j) indicate the variation of the

(c) inputs/output scaling factors of all FLCs. As shown from these

1 graphs, the scaling factors of the FLCs are continuously

Reactive power of grid-side

0.5 error signal in an expedite way and precisely follow the

inverter (pu)

desired signal.

0 From the dynamic characteristic analysis, it is found that the

proposed adaptive FLC can efficiently extract the maximum

-0.5 possible power from the wind and transmit it to the electricity

PSO-PI

CMPN-FLC supply network under various operating regions regardless the

-1 deep and sharp wind speed variations. Furthermore, the V PCC

0 1 2 3 4 5

Time (s) and the Vdc are maintaining constant with the help of using the

(d) proposed CMPN-based adaptive FLCs.

8

Without OVPS

13

With OVPS using PSO-PI

DC-link voltage (kV)

Wind speed (m/s)

12

2.6

4 2.4

2.2 11

0.6 0.8 1 1.2 1.4

2

10

0

0 1 2 3 4 5

Time (s)

9

0 50 100

150 200 250 300

(e) Time (s)

Fig. 8. Responses for 3LG temporary fault. (a) Terminal voltage. (b) Rotor (a)

speed of PMSG. (c) Real power of the grid-side inverter. (d) Reactive power Fig. 9. Responses for adaptive FLCs using real wind speed data. (a) Wind

of the grid-side inverter. (e) DC-link voltage. speed.

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1.1 2.5

Rotor speed of PMSG (pu)

1 2.4

0.9 2.3

0.8 2.2

0.7 2.1

0 50 100 150 200 250 300 0 50 100 150 200 250 300

Time (s) Time (s)

(b) (g)

1.2 2.5

Optimum using MPPT FLC-1 FLC-2 FLC-3 FLC-4

Grid-side inverter FLC-5 FLC-6 FLC-7 FLC-8

1 2

Real power (pu)

0.8 1.5

𝑲𝒆𝒊

1

0.6

0.5

0.4

0 50 100 150 200 250 300

Time (s) 0 50 100 150 200 250 300

Time (s)

(c)

1 (h)

Reactive power of grid-side

0.8

FLC-1 FLC-2 FLC-3 FLC-4

0.5 FLC-5 FLC-6 FLC-7 FLC-8

inverter (pu)

0.6

0

𝑲𝜟𝒆𝒊

0.4

-0.5

0.2

-1

0 50 100 150 200 250 300

Time (s) 0

0 50 100 150 200 250 300

(d) Time (s)

1.2 (i)

0.8

FLC-1 FLC-2 FLC-3 FLC-4

Terminal voltage (pu)

0.6

1

𝑲𝒐𝒊

0.9 0.4

0.8

0.2

0.7

0 50 100 150 200 250 300

Time (s) 0

0 50

150 100

200 250 300

(e) Time (s)

1.5 (j)

𝑰𝒅𝒏

Fig. 9. (Continued.) (g) DC-link voltage. (h) Input ( ) gain. (i) Input ( )

𝑰𝒒𝒏

Terminal current (pu)

1

From the simulation analyses, it can be claimed that the

0.5 CMPN algorithm-based adaptive FLC gives faster responses

with minimum oscillations, overshoot, and steady-state error

0 than that realized using the cascaded PI controllers optimized

by the PSO approach. The superiority and high performance

-0.5 of the CMPN algorithm-based adaptive FLC reflect its

0 50 100 150 200 250 300 accurate design, its rapid convergence speed, and its

Time (s)

(f) adaptability to on-line update the scaling factors of the FLCs

automatically to minimize the error signals achieving precise

Fig. 9. (Continued.) (b) Rotor speed of PMSG. (c) Real power of the grid-side

inverter. (d) Reactive power of the grid-side inverter. (e) Terminal voltage. (f) responses, compared to the PSO-based optimal PI controller.

Terminal current.

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[34] A. Navia-Vazquez and J. Arenas-Garcia, “Combination of recursive Haitham Z. Azazi was born in Sharkia, Egypt, on

least -norm algorithms for robust adaptive filtering in alpha-stable October 1, 1979. He received B.Sc., M.Sc., and

noise,” IEEE Trans. Signal Process., vol. 60, no. 3, pp. 1478–1482, Mar. Ph.D. degrees in Electrical Engineering from

2012. Menoufiya University, Shebin El-Kom, Egypt, in

[35] J. Kennedy and R. Eberhart, “Particle swarm optimization,” in Proc. 2003, 2008, and 2011, respectively. In 2003, he

IEEE ICNN, Nov. 1995, vol. 4, pp. 1942–1948. became an instructor with Menoufiya University and

[36] C.-H. Liu and Y.-Y. Hsu, “Design of a self-tuning PI controller for a then an assistant lecturer in 2008. In 2011–2016, he

STATCOM using particle swarm optimization,” IEEE Trans. Ind. was a lecturer in the Department of Electrical

Electron., vol. 57, no. 2, pp. 702–715, Feb. 2010. Engineering, Faculty of Engineering; Menoufiya

[37] Hany M. Hasanien, “Particle swarm design optimization of transverse University. From 2016 to the present, Dr. Azazi has

flux linear motor for weight reduction and improvement of thrust force,” been an assistant professor with the Department of Electrical Engineering,

IEEE Trans. Ind. Electron., vol. 58, no. 9, pp. 4048–4056, Sep. 2011. Faculty of Engineering, Menoufiya University. His research interests include

[38] M. R. AlRashidi and M. E. El-Hawary, “A survey of particle swarm applications of power electronics, power factor correction converters, LED

optimization applications in electric power systems,” IEEE Trans. lighting systems, renewable energy applications, control of electrical

Evolut. Computat., vol. 13, no. 4, pp. 913–918, Aug. 2009. machines, and DSP-based real-time control.

[39] Y.-Su Kim, I.-Yop Chung, and S.-Il Moon, “Tuning of the PI controller

parameters of a PMSG wind turbine to improve control performance

under various wind speeds,” Energies J., vol. 8, pp. 406–1425, 2015. E. E. El-Kholy (M’16) was born in Menoufia, Egypt,

[40] MATLAB Optimization Toolbox. U.K.: The Math Works Press, Aug. in 1963. He received the B.Sc., M.Sc., and Ph.D.

2013, Release 2013 b. degrees in electrical engineering from Menoufia

University, Shebin El-Kom, Egypt, in 1986, 1992, and

1996, respectively. He is the Head of the Electrical

Engineering Department, Faculty of Engineering,

Mahmoud A. Soliman was born in Alexandria, Menoufia University. His main field of interest

Egypt, on December 4, 1986. He received the includes power electronics, ac/dc drives control

B.Sc. (very good with honors) and M.Sc. degrees techniques, active rectifiers, active filters, microgrids,

in Electrical Engineering from Menoufia and renewable energy. His interest also extended to

University, Faculty of Engineering, Shebin El- real-time control using DSP and fuzzy application in power electronics.

Kom, Egypt in 2008 and 2013, respectively. He

joined Oil and Gas industry as Electrical Engineer

from 2009 up till now. Since 2013, he has been S. A. Mahmoud was born in Dakahlia, Egypt in

engaged in scientific research of power electronic 1945. He received B.Sc. degree in Electrical

technology and renewable power generation Engineering from EL-Mansourah University, Egypt,

systems. Currently, he is pursuing towards the in 1969. He awarded the D.E.A. Degree and the

Ph.D. degree at Menoufia University, Egypt. His Ph.D. research work focused Ph.D. Degree in Power Electronics from I.N.P.L.,

on the Performance Enhancement of the Wind Energy Conversion Systems. ENSEM, Nancy, France, in 1977 and 1979

His research interests include electrical drives, modern control techniques, respectively. His current interests are power

power factor correction converters, renewable energy systems, Micro and electronics, control of electric machines, and

Smart Grids, FACTS, HVDC system, energy storage systems (ESS), and analysis of machine dynamics.

artificial intelligence applications on electrical machines and renewable

energy systems. He is a reviewer in different international journals including

the IET Journals and the ELSEVIER Journals. At present, he is the head of

Dynamic Positioning and Navigation Department at the Petroleum Marine

Services Co., Alexandria, Egypt.

Ph.D. degrees in Electrical Engineering from Ain

Shams University, Faculty of Engineering, Cairo,

Egypt, in 1999, 2004, and 2007, respectively. From

2008 to 2011, he was a Joint Researcher with

Kitami Institute of Technology, Kitami, Japan.

From 2012 to 2015, he was Associate Professor at

College of Engineering, King Saud University,

Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Currently, he is Professor at

the Electrical Power and Machines Department,

Faculty of Engineering, Ain Shams University. His

research interests include modern control techniques, power systems

dynamics and control, energy storage systems, renewable energy systems, and

smart grid. Prof. Hasanien is an Editorial Board Member of Electric Power

Components and Systems Journal. He is Associate Editor of IET Renewable

Power Generation. He has authored, co-authored, and edited three books in

the field of electric machines and renewable energy. He has published more

than 90 papers in international journals and conferences. His biography has

been included in Marquis Who’s Who in the world for its 28th edition, 2011.

He was awarded Encouraging Egypt Award for Engineering Sciences in 2012.

He was awarded Institutions Egypt Award for Invention and Innovation of

Renewable Energy Systems Development in 2014.

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