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This article has been accepted for publication in a future issue of this journal, but has not been

fully edited. Content may change prior to final publication. Citation information: DOI 10.1109/TII.2018.2875922, IEEE
Transactions on Industrial Informatics
TII-18-1047 1

An Adaptive Fuzzy Logic Control Strategy for


Performance Enhancement of a Grid-Connected
PMSG-Based Wind Turbine
Mahmoud A. Soliman, Hany M. Hasanien, Senior Member, IEEE, Haitham Z. Azazi, E. E. El-Kholy,
Member, IEEE, S. A. Mahmoud

 Rotational rotor speed of the turbine’s shaft


Abstract—Wind power installations are rapidly increasing Membership grade of FLC
worldwide, leading to a huge level of permeation into electricity Capacitance of the dc-link capacitor
supply networks. Enormous efforts are spent to improve the , Turbine power coefficient and its optimum value
performance of the wind turbine generator systems. This paper D Generator Rotor damping coefficient
proposes a novel adaptive fuzzy logic control strategy for , Error and change of error signals
performance improvement of a grid-tied wind generator system.
, - and -axis stator currents of PMSG
The variable-speed wind turbine driven permanent-magnet
synchronous generator is tied to the electricity network by a full- Moment of inertia of PMSG
capacity power converter. A cascaded adaptive fuzzy logic Iteration index
control strategy is proposed as the control methodology for the , - and -axis inductances of PMSG
generator- and the grid-side converter/inverter. The adaptive Synchronous inductance of the PMSG
technique depends on continuous mixed -norm algorithm, Pole pair number of the PMSG
which on-line updates the scaling factors of the fuzzy logic , Real and reactive powers of PMSG
controllers (FLCs) at a high convergence speed. For the sake of Mechanical power captured from the wind
preciseness, real wind speed data measured in Zaafarana wind Radius of the turbine’s blade
farm, Egypt, are considered in the analyses. The effectiveness of
Stator resistance of PMSG
the proposed adaptive FLC is compared to that achieved using
, Mechanical and electromagnetic torque of PMSG
particle swarm optimization algorithm-based an optimal
proportional-integral controller, considering severe grid Wind speed
disturbances. Extensive simulation analyses, which are done Vdc, DC-link voltage and its reference value
using MATLAB/Simulink software, are presented to validate the VPCC Terminal voltage at the PCC
efficiency of the adaptive fuzzy logic control strategy. , - and -axis stator voltages of PMSG

Index Terms—Adaptive control, frequency converter, fuzzy I. INTRODUCTION


logic controller, permanent-magnet synchronous generator,
variable-speed wind turbine.
R ECENTLY,
renewable energy sources like wind, wave, bio-
mass, etc., are regarded as the predictable energy sources
for the electric power production. Several strategic factors
NOMENCLATURE influence the huge level of permeation of the renewable
energies into the electricity networks around the globe, such as
Air density
depletion of natural resources, increase in fuel price, and trend
, Turbine tip speed ratio and its optimum value
to a clean energy. Among the available renewable energy
Pitch angle of the turbine’s blade
technologies, wind energy is increasingly becoming the most
Magnetic flux of PMSG
promising technology for the nearest future because of its
Electrical angular speed of PMSG
environmental friendliness and its huge potential to produce
Manuscript received April 28, 2018; revised September 9, 2018; accepted large amounts of power at minimal cost. Globally, the wind
October 8, 2018. power installations exceeded 539.1 GW in 2017 [1]. As per
Mahmoud A. Soliman is with the Dynamic Positioning and Navigation recent statistics, it is predicted that the wind power will
Department, Petroleum Marine Services Co., Alexandria, Egypt, (e-mail:
dr.msoliman08@gmail.com).
participate up to 40% of the electricity production worldwide
Hany M. Hasanien is with the Electrical Power and Machines Department, by 2050 [1].
Faculty of Engineering, Ain Shams University, Cairo 11517, Egypt (e-mail: At the present, the variable-speed wind turbine generator
hanyhasanien@ieee.org).
systems (WTGSs) have drawn great attraction for the modern
Haitham Z. Azazi; E. E. EL-Kholy; and S. A. Mahmoud are with the
Department of Electrical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Menoufia wind power industry. This solicitude is due to the superior
University, Shebin El-Kom, Egypt, (e-mail: Haitham_azazi@yahoo.com; characteristics that they presented, such as lower acoustical
E.E.ELKHOLY@ieee.org; Sabry_abdellatif@yahoo.com). noise, higher power density, and better control capability

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This article has been accepted for publication in a future issue of this journal, but has not been fully edited. Content may change prior to final publication. Citation information: DOI 10.1109/TII.2018.2875922, IEEE
Transactions on Industrial Informatics
TII-18-1047 2

compared to the fixed-speed WTGSs [2]–[4]. Various types of FLC is used to control the generator-side converter and grid-
such electrical machines are commercially available in the side inverter under cascaded structure. The CMPN algorithm
market [5]–[9]. Among them, permanent-magnet synchronous updates on-line the scaling factors of all FLCs with a high
generators (PMSGs) are the most commonly machines used in convergence speed. Detailed system modelling and its control
the WTGSs due to their features, including the self-excitation, schemes are elucidated. The efficacy of the CMPN-based
the small size, and the high reliability. Owing to the gearless adaptive FLC is compared with that achieved using particle
construction, PMSGs require lower maintenance and have swarm optimization (PSO) technique-based an optimal PI
higher efficiency [7]–[9]. controller, considering severe grid disturbances. For the sake
The variable-speed wind turbine (VSWT) direct-drive of preciseness, real wind speed data measured in Zaafarana
PMSG is tied to the electric network by a full-rated frequency wind farm, Egypt, are taken into account in the analyses.
converter (FC) which, generally, composes of two voltage Extensive simulation analyses, which are done using
source converters connected back-to-back by a common dc- MATLAB/Simulink software, are presented to validate the
link [10], [11]. The well-designed cascaded control strategy is efficiency of the CMPN algorithm. To the best of the authors’
used to control the generator- and grid-side converter/inverter knowledge, the CMPN algorithm-based adaptive FLC has not
[11]–[13]. In particular, this control strategy depends on the so far been pointed out in renewable energy literatures.
conventional proportional-integral (PI) controllers due to their
robustness and the fact of the widely stability margins that II. MODEL SYSTEM
they offered. However, these controllers suffer from the high In this study, the system modelling demonstrated in Fig. 1 is
sensitivity to the systems nonlinearity and parameters’ utilized to illustrate the efficiency of the adaptive FLC applied
variation. Several optimization algorithms have been utilized to the FC of the VSWT-driven PMSG. The system model is
to design the optimal PI controllers’ parameters in the composed of a VSWT, a direct-drive PMSG, two power
electrical power systems [14]–[18]. These techniques are converters linked back-to-back by a dc-link capacitor, a step-
efficacious tools to solve the non-linearity problems. up transformer, and a transmission line with a double-circuit.
However, they need complicated computational analyses and The PMSG parameters are given in Table I [3], [12]. The
great efforts to fine-tune the multiple PI controllers. system base is regarded as 5.0 MVA.
Nowadays, fuzzy logic controllers (FLCs) incorporate an
alternative trend rather than the PI control strategies to handle III. WIND TURBINE MODEL
the characteristics of non-linear dynamic systems. The FLC
The mechanical power captured from the wind, , can be
employs fuzzy logic as a design methodology, which can be
expressed by the following relation [17], [18]:
utilized in promoting the systems non-linearity for embedded
control strategy. The FLCs have some salient features, such as (1)
efficient to handle the characteristics of non-linear system (2)
dynamics, model-free approach, and simple design
(3)
requirements. The FLC depends on the designer experience in
fine-tuning the membership functions (MFs) through a set of
IF-THEN rules. The FLCs have been widely-employed to ( ) (4)
resolve different problems in the power systems [3], [19]– For VSWT, the wind turbine has a specific rotational
[21]. Notably, most of the classical FLCs reported in these speed, , at each wind speed, which relates to the maximum
literatures are based on a fixed MF and a static rule base. power extracted from the wind. This technique is, in common,
Despite the robustness of the FLCs, sometimes the classical defined as maximum power point tracking (MPPT) technique.
FLC is not sufficient to cope up with the non-linear systems Fig. 2 elucidates the wind turbine characteristics used in this
that exhibit a high degree of uncertainty. This represents the study [3], [18]. Notably, the accurate measurement of wind
principle impetus to apply continuous mixed -norm (CMPN) speed is, in general, hardly to be achieved. Therefore, it is
algorithm-based adaptive filtering technique to on-line update better to determine the maximum power, , as follows [3]:
the scaling factors of the FLC for improving the performance
of a grid-tied variable-speed wind generator (VSWG). ( ) (5)
Adaptive filtering algorithms have been reported in much of
the literature to solve different problems in various
applications, such as electronic engineering, signal processing, Generator-side Grid-side
speech, and language implementations [22]–[25]. For these P=1.0 converter inverter
algorithms, a compromise between the method complexity and V=1.0 CB CB
1.25/11.4 kV 0.1+j0.6
the convergence speed should be considered [26]. Notably, the
C 0.1+j0.6
CMPN algorithm has a higher convergence speed over other
j0.1 F
adaptive filtering algorithms for various applications [27]. VPCC ∞ bus
f=20Hz V=1.0
This paper proposes a novel application of the CMPN 3LG
algorithm-based adaptive FLCs to enhance the performance of 50 Hz, 5.0 MVA BASE
the grid-tied VSWT-PMSG system. A CMPN-based adaptive Fig. 1. Model system.

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This article has been accepted for publication in a future issue of this journal, but has not been fully edited. Content may change prior to final publication. Citation information: DOI 10.1109/TII.2018.2875922, IEEE
Transactions on Industrial Informatics
TII-18-1047 3

1.5 maximum power to the electric network. The reactive power


Locus of maximum
Turbine Input Power [pu]
captured power can be controlled by the d-axis stator current. The reference
reactive power, , is considered zero for achieving unity
1 power factor operation at the PMSG terminals. It can be noted
13m/s
that four CMPN-based adaptive FLCs are utilized under
12m/s cascaded control structure. The output signals of this control
0.5 11m/s
10m/s
methodology ( and ) are transformed to the reference
9m/s frame ( using the conversion angle ( that is
7m/s 8m/s
0 6m/s determined from the generator speed. Then, these signals are
0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 1.2 1.4 1.6 1.8
Turbine Speed [pu]
compared with a triangular carrier signal of frequency 1.0 kHz
Fig. 2. Characteristics of wind turbine with MPPT curve. to generate the gate pulses of the converter IGBT switches.
TABLE I B. Grid-Side Inverter
PMSG PARAMETERS [3], [12]
The grid-side inverter is applied to control the dc-link
Rated Power 5.0 [MW] Stator Resistance 0.01 [pu] voltage and maintain the terminal voltage as well, at a desired
Rated Voltage 1.0 [kV] d-axis Reactance 1.0 [pu]
value adjusted by the operator. Adaptive FLCs in cascaded
Frequency 20 Hz q-axis Reactance 0.7 [pu]
Number of Poles 150 Field Flux 1.4 [pu] form are developed for this purpose. The dc-link voltage can
Inertia Constant 3.0 [s] be controlled by the dn-axis current component. In this study,
the dc-link capacitor is considered 10 mF with rated voltage of
In this study, a pitch angle controller, which is pointed out in 2.3 kV. The terminal voltage can be controlled using the qn-
[12], is considered to maintain the turbine output power axis current. In this study, the terminal voltage at the point of
constant during high wind speeds. common coupling (VPCC) is indicated in Fig. 1. A phase-
locked-loop (PLL) system is used to detect the conversion
IV. PMSG MODEL
angle ) from the ac network voltage. Fig. 4 demonstrates
The dynamic voltage equations of the PMSG can be written in the control block diagram of the grid-side inverter. The output
coordinates with the following equations [4], [8]: signals from this control methodology and are
(6) transformed to the three-phase signals ( which are
compared with a triangular carrier signal of frequency 1.05
(7)
kHz to produce the switching signals to the inverter IGBT
(8) switches. An adaptation of the FLCs used in the control
The mechanical dynamics of the PMSG are expressed as: methodology of the converter/inverter is based on the CMPN
(9) technology which on-line updates the scaling factors of the
where, the electromagnetic torque, can be given by: FLCs.
[( ) ] (10) VI. PROPOSED CMPN-BASED ADAPTIVE FLC
The real power, , and the reactive powers, , of the In the converter/inverter control blocks, the proposed
PMSG are written in coordinates as follows. adaptive FLCs detect the reference signals from the error and
(11) change of error signals. The detailed design of the adaptive
FLC is pointed out as follows.
(12)
1) Fuzzification: In the cascaded control scheme, four FLCs
V. CONTROL STRATEGY OF FREQUENCY CONVERTER are used, where each of inner-loop and outer-loop has two
FLCs. Fig. 5 illustrates the general control blocks of the
The VSWT driven PMSG is based on the utilization of a
proposed adaptive FLC. The inputs are the error signals
full-rated FC. The FC composes of a generator-side converter,
( ) and change of error signals ( ), which are fed
a dc-link capacitor, and a grid-side inverter. The control
into the FLC for fuzzification after adjusting by scaling
strategy of the FC using the proposed CMPN algorithm-based
factors, where is the sample number and denotes the
adaptive FLCs is elucidated as follows.
scaling factors number of FLCs, i.e., = 1,2,3……8. In the
A. Generator-Side Converter generator-side converter control, the inputs of FLCs are
The generator-side converter is capable of transmitting the and of the and , and - and -axis stator
maximum power from the wind to the electricity supply currents, and . The outputs of the FLCs are the reference
network. The well-designed cascaded control strategy, signals of the - and -axis stator currents, and , and
depicted in Fig. 3, is considered as the control methodology of converter - and -axis voltages, and , as illustrated in
the generator-side converter. As the power converter is Fig. 3. In the grid-side inverter control, the inputs for FLCs are
directly coupled with the PMSG, its q-axis stator current can the and of the Vdc, the rms value of the VPCC, and
control the real power. The real power set-point, , is the - and -axis grid currents, and The outputs of the
calculated from the MPPT scheme in order to transmit the

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Transactions on Industrial Informatics
TII-18-1047 4

+ Iq + e2 + Vq Firing Pulses
Pmax + e1 CMPN-
CMPN- _
_ based + based +
+ Δe1 _+ Δe2
Ppmsg Z-1 _ Adaptive Z-1 Iq Z-1 _ Adaptive Z-1
FLC-1 FLC-2 Carrier Signal
Ipmsg-a,b,c
dq abc
Vd q Va b c
θr dq
∫ abc
ωr
θr
I
_d Vd
𝑄𝑝𝑚𝑠𝑔 + e3 + Id e4 +
CMPN- CMPN-
_ + + based +
_+ Δe3 based + Δe4
Qpmsg Z-1 Adaptive Z-1 Z-1 _ Adaptive Z-1
_
FLC-3 FLC-4

Fig. 3. Control blocks of the generator-side converter.

Vdc + + Idn + e6 + Vdn Firing Pulses


e5 CMPN-
CMPN- _
_ based + based +
+ Δe5 _+ Δe6
Vdc Z-1 Adaptive Z-1 Idn Z-1 _ Adaptive Z-1
_
FLC-5 FLC-6 Carrier Signal
IPCC
dq Vdn qn abc
VPCC Va b cn
θt dq
PLL abc
θt
Iqn
_
Iqn + Vqn
VPCC + e7 + e8
CMPN- CMPN-
_ based + + based +
_+ Δe7 + Δe8
VPCC Z-1 _ Adaptive Z-1 Z-1 _ Adaptive Z-1
FLC-7 FLC-8

Fig. 4. Control blocks of the grid-side inverter.

FLCs are the reference signals of the grid currents in


coordinates, and , and inverter voltages in CMPN
quantities, and , as shown in Fig. 4. For suitableness, algorithm
ei(k) Reference
the inputs and output of each FLC are adjusted by scaling 𝑘𝑒𝑖 + signals
Fuzzy Defuzzification 𝑘𝑜𝑖
factors, , , and , as explained in Fig. 5. These scaling + Fuzzification Inference
factors play a vital role in designing the FLC to obtain a better Z-1 _ 𝑘Δ𝑒𝑖 +
Δei(k) Z-1
system performance under various operating conditions. Input fuzzy Fuzzy Output fuzzy
In this paper, the concentrate of the adaptive FLC design is sets Rules sets
to update the inputs and output scaling factors of the FLC. In FLC
Fig. 5, the denotes the unit time delay for one sampling. Fig. 5. Schematic block diagram of the proposed adaptive FLC.
The triangular MFs with overlap, depicted in Fig. 6, are NB NS Z PS PB
considered in the input/output fuzzy sets, in which the 1.0
linguistic variables are defined as: Negative Big (NB),
Negative Small (NS), Zero (Z), Positive Small (PS), and
Positive Big (PB). The grade of input and output MFs can be
expressed as follows [28]:
| | (13)
where denotes the grade of membership value,
–1.0 –0.5 0 0.5 1.0
denotes the width, represents the coordinate of the point at Fig. 6. Membership functions for inputs and outputs of the FLCs.
which the grade of membership is 1, and denotes the value
of input/output variable. applying genetic algorithms (GAs) technique which depends
In this work, the inputs/output scaling factors of all FLCs on the minimization of error signals. The GAs characteristics,
are varying adaptively using the CMPN algorithm. which are reported in [18], are used in this study. Then, the
To achieve a precise stable system, the initial values of the proposed CMPN adaptive algorithm can update on-line the
inputs/output scaling factors of all FLCs are selected by scaling factors of all FLCs when a disturbance occurs.

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Transactions on Industrial Informatics
TII-18-1047 5

TABLE II algorithm is expressed by the following formula [28]:


FUZZY RULE TABLE FOR FLCS
∫ {| | } (18)
Output
NB NS Z PS PB where is a probability density-like weighting function,
NB PB PB PS PS Z
NS PB PS PS Z NS which is bounded by the following restriction:
Z PS PS Z NS NS
PS PS Z NS NS NB ∫ (19)
PB Z NS NS NB NB
The weight vector of the CMPN adaptive filtering algorithm is
updated based on (18), and can be indicated by the following:
2) Fuzzy Rule Base: The fuzzy rules between the input and
output variables are based on the IF-THEN rules. There are 25 (20)
control rules used in the fuzzy inference to achieve the desired
where stands for the instantaneous gradient of
signals, as pointed out in Table II. The compromise between
the complexity of the FLC and the estimated error is with respect to and stands for the step size
considered during the choice of these rules. (adaptation gain parameter), which adjusts the system
stability. This can be represents by the following:
3) Inference and Defuzzification: To reduce the controller
complexity, Mamdani’s max–min [28] technique is utilized ∫ {| | } (21)
for the fuzzy inference mechanism. For defuzzification, the
center-of-area technique [28] is utilized to achieve the output According to the single point estimate method, the expectation
crispy values ( using the following equation: {| | } can be nearly to | | and after performing
∑ straightforward mathematical calculations, (20) is developed
(14)
∑ by the following equations [27]:
where represents the total number of rules, denotes the (22)
membership grade for the th rule, and represents the
coordinate related to the respective output. ∫ | | (23)

where stands for a variable step size which depends on


VII. CMPN ADAPTIVE FILTERING ALGORITHM
. If =1, will be determined as follows:
Recently, the family of mixed-norm adaptive filters has | | n | | | |
(24)
been presented in various forms to integrate the merits of n( )
stochastic established adaptive filter algorithms [29]. The least In this study, all the adaptive FLCs used under cascaded
mean mixed-norm adaptive filter was presented in [30], in structure depend on the CMPN algorithm which is proposed to
which the least mean square (LMS) algorithm and the least
adapt the inputs/output scaling factors of the FLCs. The on-
mean fourth algorithm were combined. Furthermore, a robust line adaptation of the scaling factors of the FLCs depends on
mixed-norm (RMN) algorithm was introduced in [29], which
(22). stands for the actual input signal. The update of the
integrated the LMS algorithm and the least absolute deviation
scaling factors of the FLCs is represented using the following
algorithm. Then, in [31], a normalized RMN algorithm was
formulas:
suggested to minimize the error norm, which is defined using
the following formula: (25)

{ } {| |} (15) (26)

where denotes the cost function, [0,1] represents (27)


a mixing parameter which controls the combination of error
By comparing (22) with (25)-(27), the change of the scaling
norms, and denotes the output error of the adaptive filter
factors of the FLC ( , , and ) can be achieved as
which is expressed as follows:
follows:
(16)
(28)
(17)
where is considered to be a small value of 0.01 to minimize
where denotes the output vector of the adaptive filter, the error signal with a fast convergence.
and represent, respectively, the input and desired
output signals vectors, and stands for the current weight VIII. OPTIMIZED PI CONTROLLERS BY PSO TECHNIQUE
vector of the adaptive filter [32].
To validate the performance of the CMPN-based adaptive
The principle of the -norm was introduced to the LMS
FLC under various operating conditions, the analyses are
algorithm in [33]. But, this concept mainly focused on the
compared with that accomplished using the cascaded PI
standard LMS algorithm ( ). Lately, these adaptive
control strategy. Each converter/inverter control strategy has
filtering algorithms were developed [27], [34]. The CMPN

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four PI controllers under cascaded structure. Obtaining all PI axis current control is given in S-domain formula as:
controllers’ parameters applied in the VSWT-driven PMSG ( )
system is a challenging task to guarantee satisfactory (31)
( )
responses in all operating regions. Therefore, the PSO
algorithm is applied to optimally design the PI controllers’ where and are, respectively, the set-point and actual q-
parameters [17]. axis currents and denote the PI gains of PI-4.

A. PSO Algorithm For outer-loop control, the TF of the q-axis current control
can be given in S-domain as:
The PSO is a computational intelligence-based algorithm,
( )
which was first presented by Kennedy and Eberhart [35]. It (32)
was inspired by the social behavior of fish schooling and bird ( )

flocking. The PSO includes adherent merits than other where ( and represent the PI gains of PI-3.
optimization techniques in terms of rapid computational time,
a derivative-free algorithm, and fewer parameters to be To simplify the design, the d- and q-axis current controllers
adjusted. The PSO approach has successfully been applied to have similar dynamics, so that the optimal design of the PI
solve various optimization problems [17], [36], [37]. controller’s gains is just performed for the q-axis current
The design variables for an optimization problem are control.
considered to be N. Each particle in the swarm of P particles is
started in a random position in the N-dimensional hyperspace b. For grid-side converter control:
such that the particle’s position denotes a candidate solution to For inner-loop control, the TF of the dn-axis current control
this optimization problem. The PSO algorithm is a simple is written in S-domain formula as:
optimization algorithm, as it only contains two equations for
( )
each particle; (i) a position vector (Xi = [xi1, xi2, . . ., xiN]) and (33)
( )
(ii) a velocity vector (Vi = [vi1, vi2, . . ., viN]). The particle’s
position is updated according to its own best exploration, best where and are, respectively, the set-point and actual
swarm overall experience, and previous velocity vector based grid d-axis currents, ( and denote, respectively, the per-
on the following relations [38]: phase network resistance and inductance, and
represent the PI gains of PI-6.
( ) ( ) (29)
Also, for outer-loop control, the TF of the dn-axis current
(30) control is given in S-domain as follows:
where and stand for two positive acceleration constants; ( )
and denote two randomly generated numbers in a range (34)
( )
of [0, 1]; ω stands for the inertia weight; is the best
position of particle achieved based on its own where are the PI gains of PI-5.
b b b
experience; ; To achieve a simple design, the TF for the inner-loop qn-
represents the best particle position based on overall swarm’s axis control is similar to (33). Then, the Eqs. (31) to (34) are
b b b linearized in state-space system formula, where the matrix A
experience; and .
which stands for the poles of the closed-loop control can be
B. Optimization Procedure of the PSO Approach achieved. The fitness function, can be defined as [39]:

The design strategy of the optimized PI controllers using the { }


| |
PSO technique can be expressed as follows. The flowchart of
the PSO algorithm is indicated in [17]. (35)
{ }
{
Step 1) Selection of Variables
The design variables of the PI controllers’ parameters are where stands for the mode eigenvalue of the matrix A
selected such that the X1, X3,……, and X15, respectively, and ( ) is a function presented to ensure the system stability
represent the proportional gains (kp) of PI-1, PI-2,……., and [39]. The stable or unstable system is determined using the
PI-8. X2, X4,…, and X16, respectively, represent the integral real part of eigenvalues which should be ≥ zero. So, the
gains (ki) of PI-1, PI-2,……., and PI-8. should be larger to avoid the instability systems.
Step 2) Creation of Fitness Function Step 3) PSO Approach
The main target of using the PSO technique is to minimize The PSO technique is then applied to (35) to minimize the
the fitness function as follows: function and achieve the optimal values of the PI controllers’
a. For generator-side converter control: gains which are listed in Table III. In this study, the MATLAB
toolbox for the PSO approach is considered [40]. Table IV
For inner-loop control, the transfer function (TF) of the q-

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Transactions on Industrial Informatics
TII-18-1047 7

demonstrates the optimal PSO characteristics after repeated TABLE III


PI CONTROLLERS’ PARAMETERS BASED ON THE PSO ALGORITHM
individual runs [17]. The PSO is terminated after 50 iterations.
The fitness function convergence is shown in Fig. 7. PI Kp Ki
PI-1 10.234 5.0034
PI-2 3.526 0.213
IX. SIMULATION RESULTS AND DISCUSSION PI-3 9.023 4.0287
The detailed model of the grid-tied VSWT-PMSG involving PI-4 3.526 0.213
the detailed switching model of the FC with the proposed PI-5 2.109 1.421
PI-6 3.001 2.567
adaptive FLC is considered to achieve precise analyses. The
PI-7 4.425 1.624
simulation analyses are done using MATLAB/Simulink PI-8 3.001 2.567
software. Simulation time is considered as 5 s and 300 s for
the transient and dynamic stability analyses. The time step is TABLE IV
OPTIMAL PSO CHARACTERISTICS
selected 20 μs to obtain accurate results.
Number of particles 20
A. Transient Characteristic Analysis Initial velocity of the agent 0
Inertia weight 1
To confirm the validity of the proposed CMPN algorithm-
Acceleration constants 2
based adaptive control strategy, which is applied to control the Number of iterations 50
FC of the network-tied VSWT-PMSG, the symmetrical 3-line-
8
to-ground (3LG) temporary fault is considered, as a severe
network disturbance. The disturbance occurs at the high- 7

Fitness function
tension grid-side (fault point F, indicated in Fig. 1) at t = 1 s. 6
The circuit breakers (CBs) on the faulted line are opened
5
together at 1.1 s to clear the fault, and at 1.5 s the CBs are
successfully reclosed. The wind speed is maintained constant 4

at its rated value of 12 m/s. The transient responses of the 3


CMPN algorithm-based adaptive FLCs are compared with that
2
achieved using PSO-based optimal PI controllers. During the 10 20 30 40 50
Number of iterations
grid disturbance, the grid-side inverter injects sufficient
Fig. 7. Fitness function convergence using PSO.
amount of reactive power to the electricity supply network.
So, the terminal voltage, VPCC, is able to return back to its pre-
fault value, as depicted in Fig. 8(a). It is worthy to mention than that of the PSO-based an optimal PI controller. Table V
here that the VPCC response using the proposed CMPN indicates the transient response specifications including the
algorithm-based adaptive FLC has a low steady-state error and steady-state error, the percentage of peak
better response than that of the PSO-based optimal PI overshoot/undershoot, and the settling time using both
controllers. Fig. 8(b) clarifies the performance of the PMSG approaches. It is worthy to mention here that the transient
rotor speed using both controller approaches. It is found that response specifications using the CMPN algorithm-based
the proposed adaptive FLC helps the PMSG rotor speed to adaptive FLC are lower than that achieved when the PSO-
reach the pre-fault value rapidly than that of using the optimal based an optimal PI controller is used.
PI controller. Fig. 8(c) indicates the real power response of the From transient characteristic analysis, it can be claimed that
the CMPN-based adaptive FLC is regarded to be a precise
grid-side inverter. Notably, the proposed adaptive FLC
efficiently adjusts the maximum power transferred to the means to improve the transient characteristics of the variable-
network and achieves a better response than that of the PSO- speed WTGSs.
based optimal PI controllers. Fig. 8(d) illustrates the reactive
TABLE V
power response of the grid-side inverter using both control TRANSIENT RESPONSE SPECIFICATIONS
strategies. It can be realized that the reactive power of the System response Specification PSO-PI CMPN-FLC
grid-side inverter has a better damped response and becomes Steady-state error (pu) 0.02 0
more improved using the CMPN algorithm-based adaptive Terminal voltage Peak undershoot (%) 89 83
Settling time (s) 1.55 1.1
FLC compared to that obtained using the PSO-based optimal Steady-state error (pu) 0.01 0
PI controller. Fig. 8(e) indicates the dc-link voltage response. Rotor speed of
Peak overshoot (%) 0.5 0.1
PMSG
It is worth for mentioning here that a dc-link over voltage Settling time (s) 9 1.3
protection scheme (OVPS) using a braking chopper, which is Real power of
Steady-state error (pu) 0.08 0.01
reported in [18], is considered in this study with the purpose of Peak undershoot (%) 98.8 96
grid-side inverter
Settling time (s) 1.25 1.2
keeping the dc-link voltage within a passable range during a
Reactive power Steady-state error (pu) 0.083 0.001
severe grid disturbance. It is obviously noticed that without of grid-side Peak overshoot (%) 75.6 27
using the dc-link OVPS, the dc-link voltage quickly raises at inverter Settling time (s) 9.2 1.3
the instant of the fault. As a result, the FC is exposed to an Steady-state error (pu) 0.05 0.002
unstable operation. Moreover, it is indicated that the CMPN- DC-link voltage Peak overshoot (%) 7.8 0.4
Settling time (s) 1.25 1.2
based adaptive FLC provides much better damped response

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This article has been accepted for publication in a future issue of this journal, but has not been fully edited. Content may change prior to final publication. Citation information: DOI 10.1109/TII.2018.2875922, IEEE
Transactions on Industrial Informatics
TII-18-1047 8

1.2 B. Dynamic Characteristic Analysis


Terminal voltage (pu)
1 To achieve realistic responses, the dynamic characteristic of
0.8 VSWT-PMSG is evaluated by using real wind speed data
measured at Zaafarana wind farm, Egypt, on 26 October 2017.
0.6
The simulation analyses are implemented using
0.4 MATLAB/Simulink software at the midday from 12:00
0.2 PSO-PI to12:05 pm. Fig. 9(a) illustrates the wind speed spectrum of
0
CMPN-FLC this wind farm. It is worthy to note that during the 5-min
0 1 2 3 4 5 pattern, the wind speed varies from 9.3 to 12.9 m/s to point out
Time (s)
(a)
a wind range of wind speed fluctuation considered in this
1.04 analysis. Fig. 9(b) depicts the response of the PMSG rotor
Rotor speed of PMSG (pu)

speed, which ensures the variable-speed operation of PMSG


1.02
under several operating situations. It is shown that when the
1 wind speed is higher than its rated speed, the blade pitch angle
is controlled to maintain the PMSG rotor speed constant at its
0.98 rated speed of 1.0 p.u. Fig. 9(c) points out the responses of the
0.96 optimum power and the real power delivered to the grid. It is
PSO-PI
CMPN-FLC
observed that the real power at the grid-side and the optimum
0.94 power are very close due to the power losses in the FC. Fig.
0 1 2 3 4 5
Time (s) 9(d) points out the reactive power of the grid-side inverter.
(b) Fig. 9(e) depicts the response of the terminal voltage, VPCC.
1.5
Fig. 9(f) illustrates the terminal current at the PCC in
Real power of grid-side

coordinates. It is pointed out that the current component


always varies with the wind speed fluctuation. However,
inverter (pu)

1
the current component maintains constant at zero for unity
power factor operation at the network which is one of the
0.5
objectives of the grid-side inverter control. Fig. 9(g) illustrates
PSO-PI the response of dc-link voltage. It is observed that the dc-link
CMPN-FLC
0 voltage profile has a small variation even through the wide
0 1 2 3 4 5
Time (s)
speed fluctuation. Figs. 9(h)-(j) indicate the variation of the
(c) inputs/output scaling factors of all FLCs. As shown from these
1 graphs, the scaling factors of the FLCs are continuously
Reactive power of grid-side

updated on-line using the CMPN algorithm to minimize the


0.5 error signal in an expedite way and precisely follow the
inverter (pu)

desired signal.
0 From the dynamic characteristic analysis, it is found that the
proposed adaptive FLC can efficiently extract the maximum
-0.5 possible power from the wind and transmit it to the electricity
PSO-PI
CMPN-FLC supply network under various operating regions regardless the
-1 deep and sharp wind speed variations. Furthermore, the V PCC
0 1 2 3 4 5
Time (s) and the Vdc are maintaining constant with the help of using the
(d) proposed CMPN-based adaptive FLCs.
8
Without OVPS
13
With OVPS using PSO-PI
DC-link voltage (kV)

6 With OVPS using CMPN-FLC


Wind speed (m/s)

12
2.6
4 2.4
2.2 11
0.6 0.8 1 1.2 1.4
2
10
0
0 1 2 3 4 5
Time (s)
9
0 50 100
150 200 250 300
(e) Time (s)
Fig. 8. Responses for 3LG temporary fault. (a) Terminal voltage. (b) Rotor (a)
speed of PMSG. (c) Real power of the grid-side inverter. (d) Reactive power Fig. 9. Responses for adaptive FLCs using real wind speed data. (a) Wind
of the grid-side inverter. (e) DC-link voltage. speed.

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Transactions on Industrial Informatics
TII-18-1047 9

1.1 2.5
Rotor speed of PMSG (pu)

DC-link voltage (kV)


1 2.4

0.9 2.3

0.8 2.2

0.7 2.1
0 50 100 150 200 250 300 0 50 100 150 200 250 300
Time (s) Time (s)
(b) (g)
1.2 2.5
Optimum using MPPT FLC-1 FLC-2 FLC-3 FLC-4
Grid-side inverter FLC-5 FLC-6 FLC-7 FLC-8
1 2
Real power (pu)

0.8 1.5

𝑲𝒆𝒊
1
0.6

0.5
0.4
0 50 100 150 200 250 300
Time (s) 0 50 100 150 200 250 300
Time (s)
(c)
1 (h)
Reactive power of grid-side

0.8
FLC-1 FLC-2 FLC-3 FLC-4
0.5 FLC-5 FLC-6 FLC-7 FLC-8
inverter (pu)

0.6

0
𝑲𝜟𝒆𝒊

0.4
-0.5
0.2
-1
0 50 100 150 200 250 300
Time (s) 0
0 50 100 150 200 250 300
(d) Time (s)
1.2 (i)
0.8
FLC-1 FLC-2 FLC-3 FLC-4
Terminal voltage (pu)

1.1 FLC-5 FLC-6 FLC-7 FLC-8


0.6
1
𝑲𝒐𝒊

0.9 0.4

0.8
0.2
0.7
0 50 100 150 200 250 300
Time (s) 0
0 50
150 100
200 250 300
(e) Time (s)
1.5 (j)
𝑰𝒅𝒏
Fig. 9. (Continued.) (g) DC-link voltage. (h) Input ( ) gain. (i) Input ( )
𝑰𝒒𝒏
Terminal current (pu)

gain. (j) Output ( ) gain.


1
From the simulation analyses, it can be claimed that the
0.5 CMPN algorithm-based adaptive FLC gives faster responses
with minimum oscillations, overshoot, and steady-state error
0 than that realized using the cascaded PI controllers optimized
by the PSO approach. The superiority and high performance
-0.5 of the CMPN algorithm-based adaptive FLC reflect its
0 50 100 150 200 250 300 accurate design, its rapid convergence speed, and its
Time (s)
(f) adaptability to on-line update the scaling factors of the FLCs
automatically to minimize the error signals achieving precise
Fig. 9. (Continued.) (b) Rotor speed of PMSG. (c) Real power of the grid-side
inverter. (d) Reactive power of the grid-side inverter. (e) Terminal voltage. (f) responses, compared to the PSO-based optimal PI controller.
Terminal current.

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Transactions on Industrial Informatics
TII-18-1047 10

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Transactions on Industrial Informatics
TII-18-1047 11

[34] A. Navia-Vazquez and J. Arenas-Garcia, “Combination of recursive Haitham Z. Azazi was born in Sharkia, Egypt, on
least -norm algorithms for robust adaptive filtering in alpha-stable October 1, 1979. He received B.Sc., M.Sc., and
noise,” IEEE Trans. Signal Process., vol. 60, no. 3, pp. 1478–1482, Mar. Ph.D. degrees in Electrical Engineering from
2012. Menoufiya University, Shebin El-Kom, Egypt, in
[35] J. Kennedy and R. Eberhart, “Particle swarm optimization,” in Proc. 2003, 2008, and 2011, respectively. In 2003, he
IEEE ICNN, Nov. 1995, vol. 4, pp. 1942–1948. became an instructor with Menoufiya University and
[36] C.-H. Liu and Y.-Y. Hsu, “Design of a self-tuning PI controller for a then an assistant lecturer in 2008. In 2011–2016, he
STATCOM using particle swarm optimization,” IEEE Trans. Ind. was a lecturer in the Department of Electrical
Electron., vol. 57, no. 2, pp. 702–715, Feb. 2010. Engineering, Faculty of Engineering; Menoufiya
[37] Hany M. Hasanien, “Particle swarm design optimization of transverse University. From 2016 to the present, Dr. Azazi has
flux linear motor for weight reduction and improvement of thrust force,” been an assistant professor with the Department of Electrical Engineering,
IEEE Trans. Ind. Electron., vol. 58, no. 9, pp. 4048–4056, Sep. 2011. Faculty of Engineering, Menoufiya University. His research interests include
[38] M. R. AlRashidi and M. E. El-Hawary, “A survey of particle swarm applications of power electronics, power factor correction converters, LED
optimization applications in electric power systems,” IEEE Trans. lighting systems, renewable energy applications, control of electrical
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[39] Y.-Su Kim, I.-Yop Chung, and S.-Il Moon, “Tuning of the PI controller
parameters of a PMSG wind turbine to improve control performance
under various wind speeds,” Energies J., vol. 8, pp. 406–1425, 2015. E. E. El-Kholy (M’16) was born in Menoufia, Egypt,
[40] MATLAB Optimization Toolbox. U.K.: The Math Works Press, Aug. in 1963. He received the B.Sc., M.Sc., and Ph.D.
2013, Release 2013 b. degrees in electrical engineering from Menoufia
University, Shebin El-Kom, Egypt, in 1986, 1992, and
1996, respectively. He is the Head of the Electrical
Engineering Department, Faculty of Engineering,
Mahmoud A. Soliman was born in Alexandria, Menoufia University. His main field of interest
Egypt, on December 4, 1986. He received the includes power electronics, ac/dc drives control
B.Sc. (very good with honors) and M.Sc. degrees techniques, active rectifiers, active filters, microgrids,
in Electrical Engineering from Menoufia and renewable energy. His interest also extended to
University, Faculty of Engineering, Shebin El- real-time control using DSP and fuzzy application in power electronics.
Kom, Egypt in 2008 and 2013, respectively. He
joined Oil and Gas industry as Electrical Engineer
from 2009 up till now. Since 2013, he has been S. A. Mahmoud was born in Dakahlia, Egypt in
engaged in scientific research of power electronic 1945. He received B.Sc. degree in Electrical
technology and renewable power generation Engineering from EL-Mansourah University, Egypt,
systems. Currently, he is pursuing towards the in 1969. He awarded the D.E.A. Degree and the
Ph.D. degree at Menoufia University, Egypt. His Ph.D. research work focused Ph.D. Degree in Power Electronics from I.N.P.L.,
on the Performance Enhancement of the Wind Energy Conversion Systems. ENSEM, Nancy, France, in 1977 and 1979
His research interests include electrical drives, modern control techniques, respectively. His current interests are power
power factor correction converters, renewable energy systems, Micro and electronics, control of electric machines, and
Smart Grids, FACTS, HVDC system, energy storage systems (ESS), and analysis of machine dynamics.
artificial intelligence applications on electrical machines and renewable
energy systems. He is a reviewer in different international journals including
the IET Journals and the ELSEVIER Journals. At present, he is the head of
Dynamic Positioning and Navigation Department at the Petroleum Marine
Services Co., Alexandria, Egypt.

Hany M. Hasanien received his B.Sc., M.Sc. and


Ph.D. degrees in Electrical Engineering from Ain
Shams University, Faculty of Engineering, Cairo,
Egypt, in 1999, 2004, and 2007, respectively. From
2008 to 2011, he was a Joint Researcher with
Kitami Institute of Technology, Kitami, Japan.
From 2012 to 2015, he was Associate Professor at
College of Engineering, King Saud University,
Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Currently, he is Professor at
the Electrical Power and Machines Department,
Faculty of Engineering, Ain Shams University. His
research interests include modern control techniques, power systems
dynamics and control, energy storage systems, renewable energy systems, and
smart grid. Prof. Hasanien is an Editorial Board Member of Electric Power
Components and Systems Journal. He is Associate Editor of IET Renewable
Power Generation. He has authored, co-authored, and edited three books in
the field of electric machines and renewable energy. He has published more
than 90 papers in international journals and conferences. His biography has
been included in Marquis Who’s Who in the world for its 28th edition, 2011.
He was awarded Encouraging Egypt Award for Engineering Sciences in 2012.
He was awarded Institutions Egypt Award for Invention and Innovation of
Renewable Energy Systems Development in 2014.

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