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CHAPTER: Three

Compression Members
Outline

1. Introduction.

2. Classification of Cross-sections

3. Types of Equilibrium

4. Critical load of a pin – ended strut

5. Design of Axially loaded Columns

6. Effective Area of Class 4 Cross – Sections

7. Buckling length of compression members


3.1 Introduction
 A structural member is considered to be a compression member if it
is designed primarily to resist axial compression, however some
bending may also be present and accounted for in the design.
 If the bending action is quite significant, the member

is termed as a beam-column and designed in a different way.


 Terms such as columns, stanchions and struts are

widely used to define a compression member.

 Columns are ordinarily used in buildings, are vertical structural

members and transmit some actual load or beam reaction to another


column or foundation.
Cont’d . . .
 Stanchions are steel columns made of rolled steel sections (usually
built – up) and carry heavy loads.
 Struts on the other hand are not necessarily vertical and are used as
compression members in roof trusses and bridge trusses
 The two main differences between tension and compression members
are:
a. Tension members are held straight by means of tensile loads, while
in the case of compression members, the compressive loads tend to
bend the member out of the plane of loading
b. For riveted or bolted connections, the net area will govern the
strength of a tension member, while for compression members the
rivets or bolts are assumed to fill the holes.
Cont’d . . .
 Due to the above and all other reasons, if a particular member is

subjected to compression and tension one at a time it performs


differently as shown below:

 If a 6 mm diameter steel rod 1 m long is placed in a resting machine

subjected to a pull, as shown in a Figure below, it will be found to


carry a load of about 7 kN before failure occurs.

 on the other hand if this same rod had been subjected to compression,

then the maximum load, which would have been carried, would be
about 0.035 kN, a very big difference.
Cont’d . . .
 Failure in the first test occurs by the fracture of the member; in the
second it is due to bending out of the line of action of the load, as
indicated.
 As seen above the compression capacity of the rod is almost negligible
this is due to additional stress from moment
 Moment results from a number of effects, which make an apparently
axial load acts eccentrically. The causes are:
1. The fact that no member can be made perfectly straight.
2. Imperfection in manufacturing leaving some part of the member with
slightly different mechanical properties from the remainder.
3. Inability to ensure that the load actually acts along the center of area
of the cross-section.
Cont’d . . .
 This Chapter will present the assessment and design of structural

members that are acted upon by pure compression forces; i.e., direct
loads with no moments acting simultaneously.

 Compression members can fail by yielding, inelastic buckling, or

elastic buckling depending on the slenderness ratio of the members as


well as in local buckling that is usually influenced by the relative
thickness of the component elements that constitute the cross section.

 Members with low slenderness ratios generally tend to fail by

yielding, whereas members with high slenderness ratios tend to fail by


elastic buckling.
Cont’d . . .
 Most compression members used in construction have intermediate

slenderness ratios, and so the predominant mode of failure is inelastic


buckling.

 Member buckling can occur in one of three different modes: flexural,

torsional, and flexural-torsional.

 In addition to slenderness ratio and cross-sectional shape, the behavior

of compression members is affected by the relative thickness of the


component elements that constitute the cross section.

 The relative thickness of a component element is qualified by the

width-to-thickness ratio (b/t) of the element.


Cont’d . . .
 If the width-to-thickness ratio falls within a limiting value stipulated

by relevant codes and specifications, local buckling of the component


element will not occur.

 However, if the width-thickness ratio exceeds these stipulated values,

consideration of local buckling in the design of the compression


member is required.
3.2. Classification of Cross-sections
 Classification of sections of compression members depends on their

failure modes under load.

 Different standards and codes stipulate various classification although

they generally coverage to two main modes of classification-either


into four classes (as in, for example, the ES EN 1993_2015) or into
three classes (as in, for example, the AISC Standard).

 The ES EN 1993_2015 classifies sections into four categories.

Accordingly, the design strength of a cross-section subject to


compression depends on its classification as Class 1 (Plastic), Class 2
(Compact), Class 3 (Semi-compact), or Class 4 (thin-walled)
according to their capacity in the following manner.
Cont’d . . .
 Class 1 cross sections, also known as plastic sections can develop their

plastic moment resistance (fy times plastic modulus) with the rotation
capacity required for plastic analysis. Only cross sections falling in this
class may only be used for plastic design.

 Class 2 cross sections can develop their plastic moment resistance but

with limited rotation capacity. Cross-sections falling in this group are


also known as compact sections.

 Class 3 cross sections are those which can reach their “yield” moment

(fy times elastic modulus) but local buckling prevents the development
of the plastic moment resistance.
Cont’d . . .
 In Class 3 sections, the stress in the extreme fibers should be limited
to the yield stress because local buckling prevents development of the
plastic moment capacity.
 Cross-sections falling in this group are also known as semi-compact
sections.
 Class 4 cross sections, also known as thin-walled cross-sections, are
those in which local buckling is liable to prevent the development of
the “yield” moment; i.e., premature buckling occurs before yield is
reached.
 For axial compression members, Classes 1, 2 and 3 become one, and,
in the absence of overall buckling are referred to as "compact"; in this
case Class 4 is referred to as "slender".
Cont’d . . .
 According to ES EN 1993_2015, the classification of sections
depends on the classification of flange and web elements.

 The classification also depends on whether the compression

elements are in pure compression, pure bending or under the


influence of combined axial force and bending.

 The latter two conditions will be discusses in subsequent

chapters.

 This Chapter presents classification of compression elements for

only pure compression according to Table 5.2


Cont’d . . .
Table 5.2 (sheet 1 of 3): Maximum width-to-thickness ratio for compression parts
Cont’d . . .
Table 5.2 (sheet 2 of 3): Maximum width-to-thickness ratio for
compression parts
Cont’d . . .
Table 5.2 (sheet 3 of 3): Maximum width-to-thickness ratio for compression parts
3.3. Types of Equilibrium.
 Stable: The body returns to its initial position after

disturbing its condition of equilibrium.

 Neutral: The body remains in the same apparent

equilibrium in its new position.

 Unstable: The body losses its initial condition of

equilibrium.
Cont’d . . .
 Now lets apply a disturbing force F at mid-height of a compression

member acting as shown in the figure.

 If the strut returns to its position prior to the application of F, then it is

in stable equilibrium.

 If it remains in the deflected position, it is in neutral equilibrium.

 If it continues to deflect, it is in unstable equilibrium and the strut

loses its load carrying capacity and fails.


3.4. Critical load of a pin – ended strut
 Consider a long slender compression member. If an axial load P is

applied and increased slowly, it will ultimately reach a value 𝑃𝑐𝑟 that
will cause buckling of the column. 𝑃𝑐𝑟 is called the critical buckling
load of the column.
 The critical buckling load 𝑃𝑐𝑟 for columns is theoretically given by:

 2 EI
Pcr 
le2

Where
le is effective length of the column
E is modules of elasticity
I is moment of inertia about axis of buckling
Cont’d . . .
 The critical or buckling stress is the average stress over the cross-

sectional area of a column is given by:

𝑃𝑐𝑟 𝜋 2 𝐸𝐼 𝜋2𝐸
𝜎𝑐𝑟 = = 2 = 2
𝐴 𝐴𝐿𝑒 𝜆
𝜆 is referred as the slenderness ratio of the column that measures the
column tendency for buckling.

 The variation of the critical column stress versus the slenderness ratio

is plotted in the following Fig.


Cont’d . . .

Figure: Variation of critical stress with slenderness


Cont’d . . .
 Although the Euler theory gives insight into behaviors of slender

column but it ignores consideration of some important factors which


are grouped under imperfections such as,
– Initial lack of straightness
– Accidental eccentricities of loading
– Residual stresses that remain in a member after it has been formed
into finished product. Causes can be uneven cooling, cold bending,
cumbering, punching of holes, cutting and welding

– Variation of material properties over the cross-section


Cont’d . . .

Figure: Typical column test data compared with Euler strut theory
Cont’d . . .
 Therefore columns are distinguished as:-

 Stocky/ Short Columns with characteristics of:-

 Very low slenderness


 unaffected by buckling
 The strength is related to the material yield stress fy
 failure results from rupture of cross-section
 Slender Columns with characteristics of:-

 Large slenderness
 Affected by buckling but not due to imperfection buckling
 The ultimate failure load is Euler Load and independent of yield
stress
Cont’d . . .
 Medium slenderness with characteristics of:-

 Affected by imperfection (imperfection buckling)


 Out-of-straightness and residual stresses are the most
significant imperfections
 failure load is less than Euler Load
3.5 Design of Axially loaded Columns.
 A number of design checks are required for compression
members.
 In all cases, it is recommended that the forces and moments in
the members are derived from an elastic global analysis.
 In addition to cross-sectional resistance, consideration should
be given to overall buckling of members.
 Members in compression are susceptible to a number of
buckling modes including local buckling (Class 4 or thin
sections only), flexural buckling, torsional buckling and
flexural-torsional buckling.
Cont’d . . .
 Compression members are to be designed in such a way that both the

cross-sectional resistance to applied loads be established and


member capacity verified against possible buckling failures.

 This course will cover only flexural buckling resistance of Axially

loaded compression members.

 According with ES EN 1993 design of Steel Structures, section 6.2.4

and 6.3.1.1; the compression resistance of cross section is as follows:

 The design value of the compression force 𝑁𝐸𝑑 at each cross section

𝑁𝐸𝑑
shall satisfy: ≤ 1.0
𝑁𝑐,𝑅𝑑
Cont’d . . .
 The design resistance of the cross-section for uniform compression

𝑁𝑐,𝑅𝑑 should be determined as follows:


𝐴𝑓𝑦
𝑁𝑐,𝑅𝑑 = for class 1,2 or 3 cross-sections
𝛾𝑚𝑜

𝐴𝑒𝑓𝑓 𝑓𝑦
𝑁𝑐,𝑅𝑑 = for class 4 cross-section
𝛾𝑚𝑜

 A compression member should be verified against buckling as

𝑁𝐸𝑑
follows: ≤ 1.0
𝑁𝑏,𝑅𝑑

where 𝑁𝐸𝑑 is the design value of the compression force;


𝑁𝑏,𝑅𝑑 is the design buckling resistance of the compression member.
Cont’d . . .
 The design buckling resistance of a compression member

should be taken as:


𝜒𝐴𝑓𝑦
𝑁𝑏,𝑅𝑑 = for Class 1,2 and 3 cross-sections
𝛾𝑚1

𝜒𝐴𝑒𝑓𝑓 𝑓𝑦
𝑁𝑏,𝑅𝑑 = for class 4 cross-sections
𝛾𝑚1

where 𝜒 is the reduction factor for the relevant buckling mode.

ҧ 𝑁𝐸𝑑
 For slenderness 𝜆 ≤ 0.2 or for ≤ 0.04, the buckling effects
𝑁𝑐𝑟

may be ignored and only cross sectional checks apply.


Cont’d . . .
 Buckling curves

For axial compression in members the value of 𝜒 for the appropriate


non dimensional slenderness 𝜆ҧ should be determined from the
relevant buckling curve according to:
1
 but   1.
   2  


2  0.5

2
 𝜙 = 0.5 1 + 𝛼 𝜆ҧ − 0.2 + 𝜆ҧ

𝐴𝑓𝑦 𝐿𝑐𝑟 1
 𝜆ҧ = = for Class 1,2 and 3 cross-sections
𝑁𝑐𝑟 𝑖 𝜆1
𝐴𝑒𝑓𝑓
𝐴𝑒𝑓𝑓 𝑓𝑦 𝐿𝑐𝑟
 𝜆ҧ =
𝐴
= for class 4 cross-sections
𝑁𝑐𝑟 𝑖 𝜆1
Cont’d . . .
𝐸 235
 𝜆1 = 𝜋 = 93.9𝜀, 𝜀= (𝑓𝑦 𝑖𝑛 𝑁Τ𝑚𝑚2 )
𝑓𝑦 𝑓𝑦

 α is an imperfection factor that depends on:

– Shape of the cross-section


– Direction of buckling ( Y or Z axis)
– Fabrication process ( hot-rolled, welded or cold-formed)

 The imperfection factor α corresponding to the appropriate buckling

curve is give by:


Cont’d . . .
 Buckling curve plotted as 𝜒 versus non-dimensional slenderness ratio𝜆.ҧ
Cont’d . . .
The appropriate buckling curve shall be determined from Table 6.2 as
follows:
Cont’d . . .
3.6 Effective Area of Class 4 Cross - Sections
 For class 4 cross sections, some of the sections are non effective. Thus,

the effective area of the section, 𝐴𝑒𝑓𝑓 , should be determined in order to


determine the compression resistance of class 4 cross sections.

 Local buckling may become the design criterion when the proportions

of elements in a cross-section exceeds those given for semi-compact


elements.

 Such cross-sections are defined as thin-walled (class 4) and their

capacity is limited.

 The effective cross sectional properties of class 4 cross sections shall

be based on the effective widths of the compression elements.


Cont’d . . .
 During the design of class 4 cross-sections allowance for the strength

is necessary to take in to account local buckling. These is done in


two alternatives:

A). By reducing the characteristics strength (𝑓𝑦 ) of the material.

 Where a thin-walled element is in compression the yield strength 𝑓𝑦

shall be reduced by the certain factor.

B). Based on effective cross-sectional property.

 In these method, effective width may be used in class 4 cross-section

to make the necessary allowances for reductions in resistance due to


the effects of local buckling.
Cont’d . . .
 The effective width is equal to the reduction factor (𝜌) multiplied by
the width of the cross-section.
 These reduction factor is approximated as follows in accordance
with ES EN 1993:
1. Internal compression element:
if 𝜆ҧ𝑝 ≤ 0.673: 𝜌=1
ഥ𝑝 −0.055(3+𝜓)
𝜆
if 𝜆ҧ𝑝 > 0.673: 𝜌= ഥ2𝑝 ≤1
𝜆

2. Outstand compression flange


if 𝜆ҧ𝑝 ≤ 0.748: 𝜌=1
ഥ𝑝 −0.188
𝜆
if 𝜆ҧ𝑝 > 0.748: 𝜌= ഥ2𝑝 ≤1
𝜆
fy b/t
Where p  
 cr 28.4 k
Cont’d . . .
t is the relevant thickness
𝜎𝑐𝑟 is the critical plate-buckling stress
𝐾𝜎 is the buckling factor corresponding to the stress ratio
𝜓 as appropriate SNS
and 𝑏ത is the appropriate width

𝑏ത = d for webs

𝑏ത = b for internal flange elements except RHS

𝑏ത = b-3t for flanges of RHS

𝑏ത = c for outstand flanges

𝑏ത = h for equal-leg angles

𝑏ത = h or (h+b)/2 for unequal-leg angles


Cont’d . . .
Cont’d . . .
Cont’d . . .
Effective properties of cross sections with class 3 webs
and class 1 or 2 flanges
 Where cross-sections with a class 3 web and class 1 or 2 flanges are

classified as effective Class 2 cross-sections, the proportion of the


web in compression should be replaced by a part of 20𝜀𝑡𝑤 adjacent
to the compression flange, with another part of 20𝜀𝑡𝑤 adjacent to the
plastic neutral axis of the effective cross-section in accordance with
Figure 6.3.

1 compression
2 tension
3 plastic neutral axis
4 neglect
3.7 Buckling length of compression members.
 It is a length used to account for the shape of the deflection curve

 The buckling length factor 𝑘 is a factor which, when multiplied by

the actual un-braced length L of an end restrained compression


member, will yield an equivalent pine-ended member whose
buckling strength is the same as that of the original end restrained
member.

 The effective length of a member will depend on its end conditions.

 For a prismatic member, the buckling length factor can be

determined from different method which are given in the next slides.
Cont’d . . .
Method I: The following general recommendation can be used if
support condition can be represented in the figure.
Cont’d . . .
Method II: In these method the effective buckling length manly
depends up on the stiffness of the member that joins at the joint which
intern depends up on the joint distribution factor 𝜂.

 The distribution factor 𝜂 is given by:

Kcolumns

Kcolumns  Kbeams

 See the frame shown NS, how to find the joint distribution factor .

𝐾𝑐 +𝐾1 𝐾𝑐 +𝐾2
𝜂1 = and 𝜂2 =
𝐾𝑐 +𝐾1 +𝐾11 +𝐾12 𝐾𝑐 +𝐾2 +𝐾21 +𝐾22
Cont’d . . .
Cont’d . . .
𝐾𝑐 is the column stiffness coefficient = 𝐼𝑐𝑜𝑙ൗ𝐿

𝐾𝑖𝑗 is the effective beam stiffness coefficient 𝐼𝑏𝑒𝑎𝑚ൗ𝐿

Finally, the slenderness ratio shall be taken as:

𝜆 = 𝐿𝑐𝑟Τ𝑟 , where r is the radius of gyration about relevant axis

 The values of the slenderness ratio 𝜆 shall not exceed the following:

 For members resisting loads other than wind loads 180

 For members resisting self weight and wind loads only 250

 For any member normally acting as a tie but subjected to

reversal of stress resulting from the action of wind 350


Cont’d . . .
After the distribution factor 𝜂 is found the following empirical
expressions may be used as conservative approximations:

 Non –sway mode

𝑙𝑐𝑟 2
= 0.5 + 0.14 𝜂1 + 𝜂2 + 0.055 𝜂1 + 𝜂2
𝐿

𝑙𝑐𝑟 1+145 𝜂1 +𝜂2 −0.265𝜂1 𝜂2


or alternatively =
𝐿 2−0.364 𝜂1 +𝜂2 −0.247𝜂1 𝜂2
 Sway mode
𝑙𝑐𝑟 1−0.2 𝜂1 +𝜂2 −0.12𝜂1 𝜂2 0.5
=
𝐿 1−0.8 𝜂1 +𝜂2 +0.6𝜂1 𝜂2
3.8 Built-up Compression Members
 Built-up members are members made by bolting or welding together
two or more standard structural shapes.
 For a built-up member to fully effective (i.e., if all component

structural shapes are to act as one unit rather than as individual units),
the following conditions must be satisfied.

1. The ends of the built-up member must be prevented from slippage


during buckling.

2. Adequate fasteners must be provided along the length of the


member.

3. The fasteners must be able to provided sufficient gripping force on


all the component shapes being connected.
Cont’d . . .
 Condition 1 is satisfied if continuous welds are used throughout the

length of the built-up compression member, all component shapes in


contract at the ends of the member are connected by a weld having a
length not less than the maximum width of the member, or by fully
tightened bolts spaced longitudinally not more than four diameters
apart for a distance equal to 1 ½ times the maximum width of the
member.

 Condition 2 is satisfied if continuous welds are used throughout the

length of the built-up compression member.


 Condition 3 is satisfied if either welds or fully tightened bolts are
used as the fasteners.
Cont’d . . .
 While condition 1 is mandatory, conditions 2 and 3 can be violated in

design.

 If condition 2 or condition 3 is violated, the built-up member is not

fully effective, and slight slippage among component shapes may


occur.

 To account for the decrease in capacity due to slippage, a modified

slenderness ratio is used for the computation of the design compressive


strength when buckling of the built-up member is about an axis
coincident with or parallel to at least one plane of contact for the
component shapes.
Cont’d . . .
 Once the slenderness ratio is computed, the design compression

strength is to be calculated from the expressions developed for


simple compression members depending on the cross section
geometry and component element width-thickness ratio of the built
up shapes.

 An additional requirement for the design of built-up members is that

a/ri does not exceed ¼ of the governing slenderness ratio of the built-
up member. This provision is provided to prevent component shapes
buckling from occurring between adjacent fasteners before the built-
up member buckling overall.
Cont’d . . .
 According to ES EN 1993 three types of built up members are allowed.

 This are Laced compression members, Battened compression members

and Closely spaced built-up members

1. Uniform built-up compression members with hinged ends that are


laterally supported should be designed with the following model based
on ES EN 1993

 The member may be considered as a column with a bow imperfection

𝑒𝑜 = 𝐿ൗ500

 The elastic deformations of lacings or battens, see Figure 6.7, may be

considered by a continuous (smeared) shear stiffness 𝑆𝑣 of the column.


Cont’d . . .

2. The model of a uniform built-up compression member applies when:

 The lacings or battens consist of equal modules with parallel chords

 The minimum numbers of modules in a member is three.


Cont’d . . .
3. The design procedure is applicable to built-up members with
lacings in two planes, see Figure 6.8.

4. The chords may be solid members or may themselves be laced or


battened in the perpendicular plane

Figure 6.8: Lacings on four sides and buckling length 𝐿𝑐ℎ of chords
Cont’d . . .
5. Checks should be performed for chords using the design chord
forces 𝑁𝑐ℎ,𝐸𝑑 , from compression forces 𝑁𝐸𝑑 and moments 𝑀𝐸𝑑 at
mid span of the built-up member.
6. For a member with two identical chords the design force 𝑁𝑐ℎ,𝐸𝑑 ,
should be determined from:
𝑀𝐸𝑑 ℎ𝑜 𝐴𝑐ℎ
𝑁𝑐ℎ,𝐸𝑑 = 0.5𝑁𝐸𝑑 +
2𝐼𝑒𝑓𝑓
1
𝑁𝐸𝑑 𝑒𝑜 +𝑀𝐸𝑑
Where: 𝑀𝐸𝑑 = 𝑁 𝑁
1− 𝑁𝐸𝑑 − 𝑆𝐸𝑑
𝑐𝑟 𝑣
𝜋2 𝐸𝐼𝑒𝑓𝑓
𝑁𝑐𝑟 = is the effective critical force of the built-up member
𝐿2
𝑁𝐸𝑑 is the design value of the compression force to the built-up
member
Cont’d . . .
𝑀𝐸𝑑 is the design value of the maximum moment in the middle of the
built-up member considering second order effects
1
𝑀𝐸𝑑 is the design value of the maximum moment in the middle of the
built-up member without second order effects
ℎ𝑜 is the distance between the centroids of chords
𝐴𝑐ℎ is the cross-sectional area of one chord
𝐼𝑒𝑓𝑓 is the effective second moment of area of the built-up member,
see 6.4.2 and 6.4.3
𝑆𝑣 is the shear stiffness of the lacings or battened panel, see 6.4.2 and
6.4.3
Design steps for loading compression members:
1. Determine the axial load, Nsd.

2. Determine the buckling length,𝐿𝑒 , which is a function of the column


length, L, and the support condition of the column.

3. Select a trial section (take into consideration economy, i.e. least


weight per unit length).

4. Determine the Class of the section according to Section 5.5.2 and


Table 5.2. If the cross-section is classified as Class 4, determine Aeff
according to ES EN 1993

5. Determine the non-dimensional slenderness ratio (Section 6.3.1.3).


Cont’d . . .
6. Using Table 6.2 determine the appropriate buckling curve.

7. Using the equation or the graph find the value of χ. Interpolation


must be used to determine more exact values.

8. Calculate the design buckling resistance Nb,Rd of the member.


Buckling about both principal axes must be checked.

9. Check the computed buckling resistance against the applied load. If


the calculated value is inadequate or is too high, select another section
and go back to Step 4.
Example 1
 The column B – E on the Figure shown below is under the action of

NSd = 2880 kN. Both sides are pinned. Check the resistance of the
column. Steel grade S 275 is used.
Cont’d . . .
Step 1: Axial load, NSd = 2880 kN.
Step 2: Buckling length L = 4000 mm (pinned in both sides and Frame
is non-sway mode).

Step 3: The section is given.

Step 4: Determine the class of the cross-section (at least class 3)


 Outstand element of compression flange: c / tf ≤ 14ε.

 Web subject to compression only: c/ tw ≤ 42ε.

 c / tf ≤ 14ε ⇒ 122.45Τ = 7.51 < 14 ∗ 0.92 = 12. 88 𝑜𝑘


16.3

 c/ tw ≤ 42ε ⇒ 244Τ
9.1 = 26.8 < 42 ∗ 0.92 = 38.64 𝑜𝑘

Therefore, the section belongs to at least Class 3.


Cont’d . . .
Step 5: Determine the non-dimensional slenderness ratio.
For S 275 steel grade, λ1 = 93.9 ε = 93.9 x 0.92 = 86.8
𝐿𝑒𝑦
 Slenderness ratio about y-axis: 𝜆𝑦 = ൗ𝑖𝑦 = 4000Τ135 =29.63
𝐿𝑒𝑧
 Slenderness ratio about z-axis: 𝜆𝑧 = ൗ𝑖𝑧 = 4000Τ63.6 = 62.89
Hence, the non-dimensional slenderness ratio is determined as:

ҧ 𝜆𝑦
𝜆𝑦 = ൗ𝜆1 = 29.63Τ86.8 = 0.341

𝜆
𝜆ҧ𝑧 = 𝑦ൗ𝜆1 = 62.89Τ86.8 = 0.725
Step 6: Determine the appropriate column curves (Table 6.2 ES EN-
1993).
ℎൗ = 310ൗ
𝑏 254 = 1.22 > 1.2 𝑎𝑛𝑑 𝑡𝑓 = 16.3 < 40
Use curve a for buckling about y-axis and curve b for buckling about z-axis.
Cont’d . . .
Step 7: Determine the value of χ.
1
 but   1.
   2  


2  0.5

2
𝜙 = 0.5 1 + 𝛼 𝜆ҧ − 0.2 + 𝜆ҧ

𝜙𝑦 = 0.5 1 + 0.21 0.341 − 0.2 + 0.3412 = 0.5729

𝜙𝑧 = 0.5 1 + 0.34 0.7245 − 0.2 + 0.72452 = 0.852


1
𝜒𝑦 = = 0.968
0.5729+ [0.57292 −0.3412 ]0.5
1
𝜒𝑧 = = 0.769
0.852+ [0.8522 −0.72452 ]0.5

 Therefore, buckling about z-axis becomes critical.


Cont’d . . .
Step 8: Calculate the design buckling resistance.
𝜒𝐴𝑓𝑦 0.769∗11000∗275
𝑁𝑏,𝑅𝑑 = = = 2326.23𝑘𝑁
𝛾𝑚1 1.0
Step 9: Check the resistance: 2880 kN > 2326.23 kN
Therefore the column do not resist the applied load.
Solution 1. Add an additional hinged support at mid-height to increase
the resistance about the minor axis.
Go to Step 5.
Slenderness ratio about y-axis = 29.63 (don’t vary)
Slenderness ratio about z-axis = 2000 / 63.6 = 31.45
Non dimensional slenderness ratio 𝜆ҧ𝑦 = 0.341 don’t vary
ҧ 31.45
𝜆𝑧 = = 0.362
86.8
𝜙𝑧 = 0.5 1 + 0.34 0.362 − 0.2 + 0.3622 = 0.593
Cont’d . . .
1
𝜒𝑧 = = 0.941
0.593+ [0.5932 −0.3622 ]0.5
𝜒𝐴𝑓𝑦 0.941∗11000∗275
∴ 𝑁𝑏,𝑅𝑑 = = = 2846.53𝑘𝑁 < 2880𝑘𝑁 not resist
𝛾 𝑚1 1.0
Solution 2: Add 2 plates 200 x 10 mm to reinforce the weak axis.

10∗2003
𝐼𝑧 = 𝐼𝑧𝑤 + 2 = 44.5 ∗ 106 + 13.3 ∗ 106 = 57.8106 𝑚𝑚4
12
𝐼𝑧 57.8∗106
𝑖𝑧 = = = 62.08
𝐴 15000
4000 64.43
𝜆𝑧 = = 64.43 𝑎𝑛𝑑 𝜆ҧ𝑧 = = 0.742
62.08 86.8
find the buckling curve: for 𝑡𝑓 ≤ 40𝑚𝑚 use curve C about Z-axis

𝜙𝑧 = 0.5 1 + 0.49 0.742 − 0.2 + 0.7422 = 0.908


1
𝜒𝑧 = = 0.699
0.908+ [0.9082 −0.7422 ]0.5
Cont’d . . .
Finally
𝜒𝐴𝑓𝑦 0.699∗15000∗275
𝑁𝑏,𝑅𝑑 = = = 2883.38𝑘𝑁 > 2880𝑘𝑁 Ok
𝛾𝑚1 1.0
Example
Determine the design buckling resistance of a 457 x 152 x 52 UB used as
a pin-ended column. The column is 3.00 m long and its steel grade is S
355.

Solution:
Step 2: Buckling length = 3000 mm.
Step 3: The section is given.
Step 4: Determine the class of the cross-section and check for local
buckling.
Cont’d . . .
For S 355 steel grade fy = 355 N/mm2. Thus, 𝜀 = 235Τ = 0.814
355

 Determine the class of the cross-section (at least class 3)

 Outstand element of compression flange: c / tf ≤ 14ε.

 Web subject to compression only: c/ tw ≤ 42ε.

 c / tf ≤ 14ε ⇒ 72.4Τ
10.9 = 6.83 < 14 ∗ 0.814 = 11.4 𝑜𝑘

 c/ tw ≤ 42ε ⇒ 407.6Τ = 53.63 < 42 ∗ 0.814 = 34.2 𝑛𝑜𝑡 𝑜𝑘


7.6

Therefore, the flange satisfies at least Class 3 requirement, but the web
is Class 4.

Consequently, there must be a reduction in the strength of the section


to allow for local buckling which will take place in the web.
Cont’d . . .
 Therefore, the effective area, Aeff must be determined for the web.

Explanation for the effect.

 The effective width (beff )= reduction factor x b = ρ x b.

 Calculate the reduction factor ρ as follow:


Cont’d . . .
1. Internal compression element:
if 𝜆ҧ𝑝 ≤ 0.673: 𝜌=1
ഥ𝑝 −0.055(3+𝜓)
𝜆
if 𝜆ҧ𝑝 > 0.673: 𝜌= ഥ2𝑝 ≤1
𝜆

𝑏ൗ𝑡
𝜆ҧ𝑝 = =
28.4𝜀 𝐾𝜎

 kσ is the buckling factor corresponding to the stress ratio ψ from Table

 In this example, since the column is axially loaded the stress

distribution is uniform, i.e. σ1 = σ2.

 Thus, σ2/ σ1 = 1, and kσ = 4.0

407.6Τ
∴ 𝜆ҧ𝑝 = 7.6
= 1.116 > 0.673
28.4∗0.814 4
Cont’d . . .
𝜆ҧ𝑝 − 0.055(3 + 𝜓) 1.16 − 0.055(3 + 1)
𝜌= = = 0.698
ҧ
2
𝜆𝑝 1.162

 The effective widths 𝑏𝑒𝑓𝑓 = 𝜌 ഥ


𝑏 = 0.698 ∗ 407.6 = 284.5𝑚𝑚
 Therefore the area that should be ignored at the center of the web is:
𝐴𝑛𝑜𝑛,𝑒𝑓𝑓 = 407.6 − 284.5 𝑋7.6 = 935.56𝑚𝑚2

𝐴𝑒𝑓𝑓 = 6650 − 935.56 = 5714.44𝑚𝑚2

Step 5: Determine the non-dimensional slenderness ratio.

For S 355 steel grade, λ1 = 93.9 ε = 93.9 x 0.814 = 76.43


𝐿𝑒𝑦
 Slenderness ratio about y-axis: 𝜆𝑦 = ൗ𝑖𝑦 = 3000Τ179 =16.76

𝐿𝑒𝑧
 Slenderness ratio about z-axis: 𝜆𝑧 = ൗ𝑖𝑧 = 3000Τ31.1 = 96.46
Cont’d . . .
Hence, the non-dimensional slenderness ratio is determined as:

ҧ 𝜆𝑦
𝜆𝑦 = ൗ𝜆1 = 16.76Τ76.43 = 0.22

𝜆
𝜆ҧ𝑧 = 𝑦ൗ𝜆1 = 96.46Τ76.43 = 1.26

Step 6: Determine the appropriate column curves (Table 6.2 ES EN-


1993).
ℎൗ = 449.8ൗ
𝑏 152.4 = 2.95 > 1.2 𝑎𝑛𝑑 𝑡𝑓 = 10.9 < 40
Use curve a for buckling about y-axis and curve b for buckling about z-
axis.
Cont’d . . .
Step 7: Determine the value of χ.
1
 but   1.
   2  



2  0.5

2
𝜙 = 0.5 1 + 𝛼 𝜆ҧ − 0.2 + 𝜆ҧ

𝜙𝑦 = 0.5 1 + 0.21 0.22 − 0.2 + 0.222 = 0.5263

𝜙𝑧 = 0.5 1 + 0.34 1.26 − 0.2 + 1.262 = 1.474


1
𝜒𝑦 = 2 2 0.5
= 0.996
0.5263 + [0.5263 − 0.22 ]
1
𝜒𝑧 = = 0.447
1.474+ [1.474 2 −1.262 ]0.5

 Therefore, buckling about z-axis becomes critical.


Cont’d . . .
Step 8: Calculate the design buckling resistance.

𝜒𝐴𝑒𝑓𝑓 𝑓𝑦 0.447∗5714.44∗355
𝑁𝑏,𝑅𝑑 = = = 906.8𝑘𝑁
𝛾𝑚1 1.0

Therefore the design buckling resistance, 𝑁𝑏,𝑅𝑑 = 906.8𝑘𝑁

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