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Nov 29, 2019

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THI IS AGAIN FAKE

© All Rights Reserved

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Compression Members

Outline

1. Introduction.

2. Classification of Cross-sections

3. Types of Equilibrium

3.1 Introduction

A structural member is considered to be a compression member if it

is designed primarily to resist axial compression, however some

bending may also be present and accounted for in the design.

If the bending action is quite significant, the member

Terms such as columns, stanchions and struts are

column or foundation.

Cont’d . . .

Stanchions are steel columns made of rolled steel sections (usually

built – up) and carry heavy loads.

Struts on the other hand are not necessarily vertical and are used as

compression members in roof trusses and bridge trusses

The two main differences between tension and compression members

are:

a. Tension members are held straight by means of tensile loads, while

in the case of compression members, the compressive loads tend to

bend the member out of the plane of loading

b. For riveted or bolted connections, the net area will govern the

strength of a tension member, while for compression members the

rivets or bolts are assumed to fill the holes.

Cont’d . . .

Due to the above and all other reasons, if a particular member is

differently as shown below:

carry a load of about 7 kN before failure occurs.

on the other hand if this same rod had been subjected to compression,

then the maximum load, which would have been carried, would be

about 0.035 kN, a very big difference.

Cont’d . . .

Failure in the first test occurs by the fracture of the member; in the

second it is due to bending out of the line of action of the load, as

indicated.

As seen above the compression capacity of the rod is almost negligible

this is due to additional stress from moment

Moment results from a number of effects, which make an apparently

axial load acts eccentrically. The causes are:

1. The fact that no member can be made perfectly straight.

2. Imperfection in manufacturing leaving some part of the member with

slightly different mechanical properties from the remainder.

3. Inability to ensure that the load actually acts along the center of area

of the cross-section.

Cont’d . . .

This Chapter will present the assessment and design of structural

members that are acted upon by pure compression forces; i.e., direct

loads with no moments acting simultaneously.

well as in local buckling that is usually influenced by the relative

thickness of the component elements that constitute the cross section.

elastic buckling.

Cont’d . . .

Most compression members used in construction have intermediate

buckling.

component elements that constitute the cross section.

Cont’d . . .

If the width-to-thickness ratio falls within a limiting value stipulated

element will not occur.

member is required.

3.2. Classification of Cross-sections

Classification of sections of compression members depends on their

into four classes (as in, for example, the ES EN 1993_2015) or into

three classes (as in, for example, the AISC Standard).

compression depends on its classification as Class 1 (Plastic), Class 2

(Compact), Class 3 (Semi-compact), or Class 4 (thin-walled)

according to their capacity in the following manner.

Cont’d . . .

Class 1 cross sections, also known as plastic sections can develop their

plastic moment resistance (fy times plastic modulus) with the rotation

capacity required for plastic analysis. Only cross sections falling in this

class may only be used for plastic design.

Class 2 cross sections can develop their plastic moment resistance but

also known as compact sections.

Class 3 cross sections are those which can reach their “yield” moment

(fy times elastic modulus) but local buckling prevents the development

of the plastic moment resistance.

Cont’d . . .

In Class 3 sections, the stress in the extreme fibers should be limited

to the yield stress because local buckling prevents development of the

plastic moment capacity.

Cross-sections falling in this group are also known as semi-compact

sections.

Class 4 cross sections, also known as thin-walled cross-sections, are

those in which local buckling is liable to prevent the development of

the “yield” moment; i.e., premature buckling occurs before yield is

reached.

For axial compression members, Classes 1, 2 and 3 become one, and,

in the absence of overall buckling are referred to as "compact"; in this

case Class 4 is referred to as "slender".

Cont’d . . .

According to ES EN 1993_2015, the classification of sections

depends on the classification of flange and web elements.

influence of combined axial force and bending.

chapters.

Cont’d . . .

Table 5.2 (sheet 1 of 3): Maximum width-to-thickness ratio for compression parts

Cont’d . . .

Table 5.2 (sheet 2 of 3): Maximum width-to-thickness ratio for

compression parts

Cont’d . . .

Table 5.2 (sheet 3 of 3): Maximum width-to-thickness ratio for compression parts

3.3. Types of Equilibrium.

Stable: The body returns to its initial position after

equilibrium.

Cont’d . . .

Now lets apply a disturbing force F at mid-height of a compression

in stable equilibrium.

3.4. Critical load of a pin – ended strut

Consider a long slender compression member. If an axial load P is

applied and increased slowly, it will ultimately reach a value 𝑃𝑐𝑟 that

will cause buckling of the column. 𝑃𝑐𝑟 is called the critical buckling

load of the column.

The critical buckling load 𝑃𝑐𝑟 for columns is theoretically given by:

2 EI

Pcr

le2

Where

le is effective length of the column

E is modules of elasticity

I is moment of inertia about axis of buckling

Cont’d . . .

The critical or buckling stress is the average stress over the cross-

𝑃𝑐𝑟 𝜋 2 𝐸𝐼 𝜋2𝐸

𝜎𝑐𝑟 = = 2 = 2

𝐴 𝐴𝐿𝑒 𝜆

𝜆 is referred as the slenderness ratio of the column that measures the

column tendency for buckling.

The variation of the critical column stress versus the slenderness ratio

Cont’d . . .

Cont’d . . .

Although the Euler theory gives insight into behaviors of slender

are grouped under imperfections such as,

– Initial lack of straightness

– Accidental eccentricities of loading

– Residual stresses that remain in a member after it has been formed

into finished product. Causes can be uneven cooling, cold bending,

cumbering, punching of holes, cutting and welding

Cont’d . . .

Figure: Typical column test data compared with Euler strut theory

Cont’d . . .

Therefore columns are distinguished as:-

unaffected by buckling

The strength is related to the material yield stress fy

failure results from rupture of cross-section

Slender Columns with characteristics of:-

Large slenderness

Affected by buckling but not due to imperfection buckling

The ultimate failure load is Euler Load and independent of yield

stress

Cont’d . . .

Medium slenderness with characteristics of:-

Out-of-straightness and residual stresses are the most

significant imperfections

failure load is less than Euler Load

3.5 Design of Axially loaded Columns.

A number of design checks are required for compression

members.

In all cases, it is recommended that the forces and moments in

the members are derived from an elastic global analysis.

In addition to cross-sectional resistance, consideration should

be given to overall buckling of members.

Members in compression are susceptible to a number of

buckling modes including local buckling (Class 4 or thin

sections only), flexural buckling, torsional buckling and

flexural-torsional buckling.

Cont’d . . .

Compression members are to be designed in such a way that both the

member capacity verified against possible buckling failures.

The design value of the compression force 𝑁𝐸𝑑 at each cross section

𝑁𝐸𝑑

shall satisfy: ≤ 1.0

𝑁𝑐,𝑅𝑑

Cont’d . . .

The design resistance of the cross-section for uniform compression

𝐴𝑓𝑦

𝑁𝑐,𝑅𝑑 = for class 1,2 or 3 cross-sections

𝛾𝑚𝑜

𝐴𝑒𝑓𝑓 𝑓𝑦

𝑁𝑐,𝑅𝑑 = for class 4 cross-section

𝛾𝑚𝑜

𝑁𝐸𝑑

follows: ≤ 1.0

𝑁𝑏,𝑅𝑑

𝑁𝑏,𝑅𝑑 is the design buckling resistance of the compression member.

Cont’d . . .

The design buckling resistance of a compression member

𝜒𝐴𝑓𝑦

𝑁𝑏,𝑅𝑑 = for Class 1,2 and 3 cross-sections

𝛾𝑚1

𝜒𝐴𝑒𝑓𝑓 𝑓𝑦

𝑁𝑏,𝑅𝑑 = for class 4 cross-sections

𝛾𝑚1

ҧ 𝑁𝐸𝑑

For slenderness 𝜆 ≤ 0.2 or for ≤ 0.04, the buckling effects

𝑁𝑐𝑟

Cont’d . . .

Buckling curves

non dimensional slenderness 𝜆ҧ should be determined from the

relevant buckling curve according to:

1

but 1.

2

2 0.5

2

𝜙 = 0.5 1 + 𝛼 𝜆ҧ − 0.2 + 𝜆ҧ

𝐴𝑓𝑦 𝐿𝑐𝑟 1

𝜆ҧ = = for Class 1,2 and 3 cross-sections

𝑁𝑐𝑟 𝑖 𝜆1

𝐴𝑒𝑓𝑓

𝐴𝑒𝑓𝑓 𝑓𝑦 𝐿𝑐𝑟

𝜆ҧ =

𝐴

= for class 4 cross-sections

𝑁𝑐𝑟 𝑖 𝜆1

Cont’d . . .

𝐸 235

𝜆1 = 𝜋 = 93.9𝜀, 𝜀= (𝑓𝑦 𝑖𝑛 𝑁Τ𝑚𝑚2 )

𝑓𝑦 𝑓𝑦

– Direction of buckling ( Y or Z axis)

– Fabrication process ( hot-rolled, welded or cold-formed)

Cont’d . . .

Buckling curve plotted as 𝜒 versus non-dimensional slenderness ratio𝜆.ҧ

Cont’d . . .

The appropriate buckling curve shall be determined from Table 6.2 as

follows:

Cont’d . . .

3.6 Effective Area of Class 4 Cross - Sections

For class 4 cross sections, some of the sections are non effective. Thus,

determine the compression resistance of class 4 cross sections.

Local buckling may become the design criterion when the proportions

elements.

capacity is limited.

Cont’d . . .

During the design of class 4 cross-sections allowance for the strength

two alternatives:

the effects of local buckling.

Cont’d . . .

The effective width is equal to the reduction factor (𝜌) multiplied by

the width of the cross-section.

These reduction factor is approximated as follows in accordance

with ES EN 1993:

1. Internal compression element:

if 𝜆ҧ𝑝 ≤ 0.673: 𝜌=1

ഥ𝑝 −0.055(3+𝜓)

𝜆

if 𝜆ҧ𝑝 > 0.673: 𝜌= ഥ2𝑝 ≤1

𝜆

if 𝜆ҧ𝑝 ≤ 0.748: 𝜌=1

ഥ𝑝 −0.188

𝜆

if 𝜆ҧ𝑝 > 0.748: 𝜌= ഥ2𝑝 ≤1

𝜆

fy b/t

Where p

cr 28.4 k

Cont’d . . .

t is the relevant thickness

𝜎𝑐𝑟 is the critical plate-buckling stress

𝐾𝜎 is the buckling factor corresponding to the stress ratio

𝜓 as appropriate SNS

and 𝑏ത is the appropriate width

𝑏ത = d for webs

Cont’d . . .

Cont’d . . .

Cont’d . . .

Effective properties of cross sections with class 3 webs

and class 1 or 2 flanges

Where cross-sections with a class 3 web and class 1 or 2 flanges are

web in compression should be replaced by a part of 20𝜀𝑡𝑤 adjacent

to the compression flange, with another part of 20𝜀𝑡𝑤 adjacent to the

plastic neutral axis of the effective cross-section in accordance with

Figure 6.3.

1 compression

2 tension

3 plastic neutral axis

4 neglect

3.7 Buckling length of compression members.

It is a length used to account for the shape of the deflection curve

member, will yield an equivalent pine-ended member whose

buckling strength is the same as that of the original end restrained

member.

determined from different method which are given in the next slides.

Cont’d . . .

Method I: The following general recommendation can be used if

support condition can be represented in the figure.

Cont’d . . .

Method II: In these method the effective buckling length manly

depends up on the stiffness of the member that joins at the joint which

intern depends up on the joint distribution factor 𝜂.

Kcolumns

Kcolumns Kbeams

See the frame shown NS, how to find the joint distribution factor .

𝐾𝑐 +𝐾1 𝐾𝑐 +𝐾2

𝜂1 = and 𝜂2 =

𝐾𝑐 +𝐾1 +𝐾11 +𝐾12 𝐾𝑐 +𝐾2 +𝐾21 +𝐾22

Cont’d . . .

Cont’d . . .

𝐾𝑐 is the column stiffness coefficient = 𝐼𝑐𝑜𝑙ൗ𝐿

The values of the slenderness ratio 𝜆 shall not exceed the following:

For members resisting self weight and wind loads only 250

Cont’d . . .

After the distribution factor 𝜂 is found the following empirical

expressions may be used as conservative approximations:

𝑙𝑐𝑟 2

= 0.5 + 0.14 𝜂1 + 𝜂2 + 0.055 𝜂1 + 𝜂2

𝐿

or alternatively =

𝐿 2−0.364 𝜂1 +𝜂2 −0.247𝜂1 𝜂2

Sway mode

𝑙𝑐𝑟 1−0.2 𝜂1 +𝜂2 −0.12𝜂1 𝜂2 0.5

=

𝐿 1−0.8 𝜂1 +𝜂2 +0.6𝜂1 𝜂2

3.8 Built-up Compression Members

Built-up members are members made by bolting or welding together

two or more standard structural shapes.

For a built-up member to fully effective (i.e., if all component

structural shapes are to act as one unit rather than as individual units),

the following conditions must be satisfied.

during buckling.

member.

all the component shapes being connected.

Cont’d . . .

Condition 1 is satisfied if continuous welds are used throughout the

contract at the ends of the member are connected by a weld having a

length not less than the maximum width of the member, or by fully

tightened bolts spaced longitudinally not more than four diameters

apart for a distance equal to 1 ½ times the maximum width of the

member.

Condition 3 is satisfied if either welds or fully tightened bolts are

used as the fasteners.

Cont’d . . .

While condition 1 is mandatory, conditions 2 and 3 can be violated in

design.

occur.

strength when buckling of the built-up member is about an axis

coincident with or parallel to at least one plane of contact for the

component shapes.

Cont’d . . .

Once the slenderness ratio is computed, the design compression

simple compression members depending on the cross section

geometry and component element width-thickness ratio of the built

up shapes.

a/ri does not exceed ¼ of the governing slenderness ratio of the built-

up member. This provision is provided to prevent component shapes

buckling from occurring between adjacent fasteners before the built-

up member buckling overall.

Cont’d . . .

According to ES EN 1993 three types of built up members are allowed.

laterally supported should be designed with the following model based

on ES EN 1993

𝑒𝑜 = 𝐿ൗ500

Cont’d . . .

Cont’d . . .

3. The design procedure is applicable to built-up members with

lacings in two planes, see Figure 6.8.

battened in the perpendicular plane

Figure 6.8: Lacings on four sides and buckling length 𝐿𝑐ℎ of chords

Cont’d . . .

5. Checks should be performed for chords using the design chord

forces 𝑁𝑐ℎ,𝐸𝑑 , from compression forces 𝑁𝐸𝑑 and moments 𝑀𝐸𝑑 at

mid span of the built-up member.

6. For a member with two identical chords the design force 𝑁𝑐ℎ,𝐸𝑑 ,

should be determined from:

𝑀𝐸𝑑 ℎ𝑜 𝐴𝑐ℎ

𝑁𝑐ℎ,𝐸𝑑 = 0.5𝑁𝐸𝑑 +

2𝐼𝑒𝑓𝑓

1

𝑁𝐸𝑑 𝑒𝑜 +𝑀𝐸𝑑

Where: 𝑀𝐸𝑑 = 𝑁 𝑁

1− 𝑁𝐸𝑑 − 𝑆𝐸𝑑

𝑐𝑟 𝑣

𝜋2 𝐸𝐼𝑒𝑓𝑓

𝑁𝑐𝑟 = is the effective critical force of the built-up member

𝐿2

𝑁𝐸𝑑 is the design value of the compression force to the built-up

member

Cont’d . . .

𝑀𝐸𝑑 is the design value of the maximum moment in the middle of the

built-up member considering second order effects

1

𝑀𝐸𝑑 is the design value of the maximum moment in the middle of the

built-up member without second order effects

ℎ𝑜 is the distance between the centroids of chords

𝐴𝑐ℎ is the cross-sectional area of one chord

𝐼𝑒𝑓𝑓 is the effective second moment of area of the built-up member,

see 6.4.2 and 6.4.3

𝑆𝑣 is the shear stiffness of the lacings or battened panel, see 6.4.2 and

6.4.3

Design steps for loading compression members:

1. Determine the axial load, Nsd.

length, L, and the support condition of the column.

weight per unit length).

Table 5.2. If the cross-section is classified as Class 4, determine Aeff

according to ES EN 1993

Cont’d . . .

6. Using Table 6.2 determine the appropriate buckling curve.

must be used to determine more exact values.

Buckling about both principal axes must be checked.

the calculated value is inadequate or is too high, select another section

and go back to Step 4.

Example 1

The column B – E on the Figure shown below is under the action of

NSd = 2880 kN. Both sides are pinned. Check the resistance of the

column. Steel grade S 275 is used.

Cont’d . . .

Step 1: Axial load, NSd = 2880 kN.

Step 2: Buckling length L = 4000 mm (pinned in both sides and Frame

is non-sway mode).

Outstand element of compression flange: c / tf ≤ 14ε.

16.3

c/ tw ≤ 42ε ⇒ 244Τ

9.1 = 26.8 < 42 ∗ 0.92 = 38.64 𝑜𝑘

Cont’d . . .

Step 5: Determine the non-dimensional slenderness ratio.

For S 275 steel grade, λ1 = 93.9 ε = 93.9 x 0.92 = 86.8

𝐿𝑒𝑦

Slenderness ratio about y-axis: 𝜆𝑦 = ൗ𝑖𝑦 = 4000Τ135 =29.63

𝐿𝑒𝑧

Slenderness ratio about z-axis: 𝜆𝑧 = ൗ𝑖𝑧 = 4000Τ63.6 = 62.89

Hence, the non-dimensional slenderness ratio is determined as:

ҧ 𝜆𝑦

𝜆𝑦 = ൗ𝜆1 = 29.63Τ86.8 = 0.341

𝜆

𝜆ҧ𝑧 = 𝑦ൗ𝜆1 = 62.89Τ86.8 = 0.725

Step 6: Determine the appropriate column curves (Table 6.2 ES EN-

1993).

ℎൗ = 310ൗ

𝑏 254 = 1.22 > 1.2 𝑎𝑛𝑑 𝑡𝑓 = 16.3 < 40

Use curve a for buckling about y-axis and curve b for buckling about z-axis.

Cont’d . . .

Step 7: Determine the value of χ.

1

but 1.

2

2 0.5

2

𝜙 = 0.5 1 + 𝛼 𝜆ҧ − 0.2 + 𝜆ҧ

1

𝜒𝑦 = = 0.968

0.5729+ [0.57292 −0.3412 ]0.5

1

𝜒𝑧 = = 0.769

0.852+ [0.8522 −0.72452 ]0.5

Cont’d . . .

Step 8: Calculate the design buckling resistance.

𝜒𝐴𝑓𝑦 0.769∗11000∗275

𝑁𝑏,𝑅𝑑 = = = 2326.23𝑘𝑁

𝛾𝑚1 1.0

Step 9: Check the resistance: 2880 kN > 2326.23 kN

Therefore the column do not resist the applied load.

Solution 1. Add an additional hinged support at mid-height to increase

the resistance about the minor axis.

Go to Step 5.

Slenderness ratio about y-axis = 29.63 (don’t vary)

Slenderness ratio about z-axis = 2000 / 63.6 = 31.45

Non dimensional slenderness ratio 𝜆ҧ𝑦 = 0.341 don’t vary

ҧ 31.45

𝜆𝑧 = = 0.362

86.8

𝜙𝑧 = 0.5 1 + 0.34 0.362 − 0.2 + 0.3622 = 0.593

Cont’d . . .

1

𝜒𝑧 = = 0.941

0.593+ [0.5932 −0.3622 ]0.5

𝜒𝐴𝑓𝑦 0.941∗11000∗275

∴ 𝑁𝑏,𝑅𝑑 = = = 2846.53𝑘𝑁 < 2880𝑘𝑁 not resist

𝛾 𝑚1 1.0

Solution 2: Add 2 plates 200 x 10 mm to reinforce the weak axis.

10∗2003

𝐼𝑧 = 𝐼𝑧𝑤 + 2 = 44.5 ∗ 106 + 13.3 ∗ 106 = 57.8106 𝑚𝑚4

12

𝐼𝑧 57.8∗106

𝑖𝑧 = = = 62.08

𝐴 15000

4000 64.43

𝜆𝑧 = = 64.43 𝑎𝑛𝑑 𝜆ҧ𝑧 = = 0.742

62.08 86.8

find the buckling curve: for 𝑡𝑓 ≤ 40𝑚𝑚 use curve C about Z-axis

1

𝜒𝑧 = = 0.699

0.908+ [0.9082 −0.7422 ]0.5

Cont’d . . .

Finally

𝜒𝐴𝑓𝑦 0.699∗15000∗275

𝑁𝑏,𝑅𝑑 = = = 2883.38𝑘𝑁 > 2880𝑘𝑁 Ok

𝛾𝑚1 1.0

Example

Determine the design buckling resistance of a 457 x 152 x 52 UB used as

a pin-ended column. The column is 3.00 m long and its steel grade is S

355.

Solution:

Step 2: Buckling length = 3000 mm.

Step 3: The section is given.

Step 4: Determine the class of the cross-section and check for local

buckling.

Cont’d . . .

For S 355 steel grade fy = 355 N/mm2. Thus, 𝜀 = 235Τ = 0.814

355

c / tf ≤ 14ε ⇒ 72.4Τ

10.9 = 6.83 < 14 ∗ 0.814 = 11.4 𝑜𝑘

7.6

Therefore, the flange satisfies at least Class 3 requirement, but the web

is Class 4.

to allow for local buckling which will take place in the web.

Cont’d . . .

Therefore, the effective area, Aeff must be determined for the web.

Cont’d . . .

1. Internal compression element:

if 𝜆ҧ𝑝 ≤ 0.673: 𝜌=1

ഥ𝑝 −0.055(3+𝜓)

𝜆

if 𝜆ҧ𝑝 > 0.673: 𝜌= ഥ2𝑝 ≤1

𝜆

ഥ

𝑏ൗ𝑡

𝜆ҧ𝑝 = =

28.4𝜀 𝐾𝜎

407.6Τ

∴ 𝜆ҧ𝑝 = 7.6

= 1.116 > 0.673

28.4∗0.814 4

Cont’d . . .

𝜆ҧ𝑝 − 0.055(3 + 𝜓) 1.16 − 0.055(3 + 1)

𝜌= = = 0.698

ҧ

2

𝜆𝑝 1.162

𝑏 = 0.698 ∗ 407.6 = 284.5𝑚𝑚

Therefore the area that should be ignored at the center of the web is:

𝐴𝑛𝑜𝑛,𝑒𝑓𝑓 = 407.6 − 284.5 𝑋7.6 = 935.56𝑚𝑚2

𝐿𝑒𝑦

Slenderness ratio about y-axis: 𝜆𝑦 = ൗ𝑖𝑦 = 3000Τ179 =16.76

𝐿𝑒𝑧

Slenderness ratio about z-axis: 𝜆𝑧 = ൗ𝑖𝑧 = 3000Τ31.1 = 96.46

Cont’d . . .

Hence, the non-dimensional slenderness ratio is determined as:

ҧ 𝜆𝑦

𝜆𝑦 = ൗ𝜆1 = 16.76Τ76.43 = 0.22

𝜆

𝜆ҧ𝑧 = 𝑦ൗ𝜆1 = 96.46Τ76.43 = 1.26

1993).

ℎൗ = 449.8ൗ

𝑏 152.4 = 2.95 > 1.2 𝑎𝑛𝑑 𝑡𝑓 = 10.9 < 40

Use curve a for buckling about y-axis and curve b for buckling about z-

axis.

Cont’d . . .

Step 7: Determine the value of χ.

1

but 1.

2

2 0.5

2

𝜙 = 0.5 1 + 𝛼 𝜆ҧ − 0.2 + 𝜆ҧ

1

𝜒𝑦 = 2 2 0.5

= 0.996

0.5263 + [0.5263 − 0.22 ]

1

𝜒𝑧 = = 0.447

1.474+ [1.474 2 −1.262 ]0.5

Cont’d . . .

Step 8: Calculate the design buckling resistance.

𝜒𝐴𝑒𝑓𝑓 𝑓𝑦 0.447∗5714.44∗355

𝑁𝑏,𝑅𝑑 = = = 906.8𝑘𝑁

𝛾𝑚1 1.0