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CHEMISTRY

PROJECT
SAPONIFICATION
NAME:

STD & SEC: XII-‘D’

ROLL NUMBER:
AIM:
TO PREPARE A SOAP
(SAPONIFICATION).

APPARATUS REQUIRED:
 BEAKER.
 GLASS ROD.
 BURNER.
 TRIPOD STAND.
 SODIUM PELLETS.
 COCONUT OIL.
 COMMON SALT.
 DRY CLOTH.
PROCEDURE
STEP 1:
Take a Beaker and wash it thoroughly.
Clean with a dry cloth.

STEP 2:
Now, take coconut oil and pour it in the beaker till it reaches 250 ml
and add sodium pellets to it, heat it.

STEP 3:
Continuously stir it using a glass rod
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
First of all, I am immensely indebted to almighty god for his blessings
and grace without which I could not have undertaken this task and my
efforts would never have been a success.I humbly consider a privilege
and honor to express my heartiest and profound gratitude to Mrs.
Radhika Unni, Principal of S.B.O.A school and junior college ,
Chennai-101.For giving me facilities in my school and necessary
chemicals to do my project.
I wish to express my deepest feelings of gratitude to Mrs. Joshila
Benjamin (Chemistry teacher) and Mrs. V. Bindhu (Lab teacher). For
their erudite involvement and sustained guidance which has been
pivotal in my project work. Their minute observation, precious
insights, critical comments have indeed greatly helped to shape my
ideas.
This guidance and support received from my entire classmates who
contributed and who are contributing to this project, is vital for the
success of this project. I am grateful for their constant support and
help. I also owe sense of gratitude to my parents for encouragement
and support throughout the project.
INTRODUCTION
In chemistry, soap is a salt of a fatty acid. Soap are mainly used as
surfactants for washing, bathing, cleaning. Fats and oils are composed
of triglycerides; three molecules of fatty acids are attached to a single
molecule of glycerol. The alkaline solution, which is often called lye,
brings about a chemical reaction as saponification. They have a polar
end which is hydrophilic (water loving) and a long non-polar chain
which is hydrophobic (water hating). As a consequence, they can
form emulsion by suspending oil in water.
Fatty end of water soluble end:
CH3-(CH2)n-COONa
Soaps are useful for cleaning because soap molecules have both a
hydrophilic end, which dissolve in water, as well as a hydrophobic
end, which is able to dissolve non-polar grease molecules.

THEORY
MICELLE
Micelle is an aggregate of surfactant molecule dispersed in a liquid
colloid. In an aqueous solution, molecules having polar or charged
group and non-polar regions (amphiphilic molecules) form aggregate
called micelle. In a micelle, polar or ionic heads form an outer shell in
contact with water, while non-polar tails are sequestered in the
interior.Hence, the core of micelle, being formed of long non-polar
tails, resembles an oil or gasoline drop. The number of amphiphilic
molecules forming the aggregate is called aggregation number; it is a
way to describe the size of the micelle.
EQUATION

Sodium palmitate is SOAP.


TYPES OF SOAP
Kitchen soaps
They are further categorized into two: cleansers and detergents.

Cleansers
Cleansers are often made with mild abrasives and they are formulated
to eliminate heavy oil or solid particles and hard-toremove stains. The
cleansers come in many different types depending on the type of
abrasives they contain.

Detergents
Dish detergents are made to remove tough grease and release the solid
dirt particles in the foam that is produced by the detergent. There are
two types of dish detergents: machine dishwasher detergents and hand
dishwashing detergents.
Laundry soaps
Laundry soaps are formulated to eliminate grease, solid particles and
organic compounds from clothes. They can be found in liquid,
powder and gel forms.

Cleaning soaps
Cleaning soaps have different formulations to clean grease and soil.
The difference between cleansers and cleaning soaps is that cleaning
soaps don't contain harsh abrasives.

Personal soaps
This kind of soap is made in many forms and special formulations for
specific personal hygiene needs. One type of the personal soap is the
antibacterial soap that is made to prevent bacteria and viruses from
spreading. There are also body and hair soaps that have a mix of
ingredients that cleans both the skin and hair .
Novelty soaps
Novelty soaps are especially manufactured for the kids and include
the soaps in the shapes of various items, such as a rubber ducky or the
soap-on-the-rope. There are made not only to clean dirt and grime, but
for amusement and enjoyment as well.

Perfumed soaps
Perfumed soaps are produced by adding a few additional ingredients
and perfume.
Guest soaps
Guest soaps are miniature soaps that are made and shaped into
attractive shapes and they are basically designed for the use by guests
either in the main bathroom or separate guest bathroom. Popular and
commonly used shapes are flowers, sea shells and rounds.

Beauty soaps
Beauty soaps are produced to feature attractive fragrances, and
ingredients for a variety of skin types. They can feature glycerin, or
special oil blends.

Medicated soaps
Medicated soaps and original soap are very similar. Unlike original
soap, medicated soap has the addition of antiseptics and disinfectants.
Glycerin soaps
Glycerin is a normally produced during the process of soap
production. Soaps which include glycerin in them tend to make your
skin feel moister.

Transparent soap
Transparent soap uses slightly different ingredients and usually some
form of alcohol to alter the process which is also conducted at higher
temperatures. Not all transparent soaps are glycerin soaps.
Liquid soaps
Liquid soaps are actually very difficult to produce and many of the
commercial liquid soaps are just in fact detergents.

BIODEGRADABLE SOAP
Biodegradable soap is a cleaning agent that can decompose naturally
over time. These soaps can help reduce environmental impact when
hikers, backpackers, and campers need to bathe or clean their
belongings.
Depending on the formulation of soap that is purchased, it can be used
on the body, face, hair, hands and objects such as dishes and clothes.
Non-toxic soaps can be made with organic oils so as to remain
environmentally friendly. Oils can be used in soap formulations not
only to provide a nice fragrance, but also as part of a therapeutic
bathing experience. For example, lavender and peppermint oils can
help relax a tense hiker. Tree oil, eucalyptus and pumice ingredients
can help soothe aching feet. Jojoba, castor and almond oils are other
common oils used in soap formulations.It is important for individuals
to realize that using a biodegradable soap does not necessarily mean
that the soap is safe to use around all water sources. These soaps
degrade over time, but they require contact with soil to do so. If it isn't
used at least 200 feet (60.96 m) from water sources, it can pollute
them and make them unsuitable for other uses.

NON-BIODEGRADEABLE SOAPS
Non-biodegradable soaps are cleaning agents which cannot
decompose naturally over time. This kind of soaps can be a threat to
earth, it can cause soil, water and other type of pollutions.
This kind of soap feels good while using but they can cause some
kind of side effects to the applied surface(skin). Normally
professional and instant beauty soap are made with
toxic(nonbiodegradable) material.
Its formulation depends upon the kind of area in which they are going
to be used. Soaps with strong smell and constant exposure to it can
even cause nervous breakdown, asthma and migraines. The three
harmful ingredients present in this toxic soaps are parabeans, sulfates
and triclosan.
Let me explain what triclosan/triclocarban can do with us. The
chemicals react with chlorine in tap water to produce dioxins. Dioxins
are neurotoxins that can cause cancer, nerve disorders, and immune
system disorders. The chemicals are endocrine disrupters, blocking
thyroid hormone metabolism and attaching to hormone receptors to
block hormones. According to the EPA, the chemicals can cause
developmental and reproductive toxicity. They are carcinogens. They
contribute to antibiotic resistance in bacteria that causes infection in
humans.
BIBLIOGRAPHY
This project would be nearly
incomplete if I have not used the
information given in the following
websites.
 SEMINARSONLY.COM
 WIKIPEDIA.COM
 ANSWERS.COM
 MERITNTION.COM
CONCLUSION
In conclusion, soap is a substance, water soluble sodium salts of fatty
acid, that is used to remove dirt and grimes from a surface. Its
molecules have a long hydrocarbon chain that has a negative charged
head. Its non-polar hydrocarbon chain does not interact with water
molecules that form micelles. The soap micelles repeal each other and
stay dispersed in water. New micelles form that having soiling
molecules in the center. The dirt gets attached to them and can be
rinsed away.
From this project we concluded that, since soap is started to
consumed it has changed our lives drastically.
We should say thanks’ to soaps. because without soaps this world
would literally would not be exist.
DIFFERENCE BETWEEN
SOAPS AND DETERGENTS
SOAP:-

There are a variety of soaps. A soap is the metal salt of a fatty acid.
The metal may be an alkali metal such sodium (Na) or potassium (K).
These metals are found in the first column of the periodic table of the
elements. Or, the metal can be an alkaline earth metal, such as
calcium (Ca) or magnesium (Mg). These metals are found in the
second column of the periodic table of the elements. A fatty acid is an
organic compound most often of animal or plant origin. A fatty acid
contains a long-chain aliphatic carbon skeleton (with or without
branches) with a carboxylic acid group (-COOH) at its end.
An example of a soap is potassium palmitate:
CH₃(CH₂)₁₄-COO⁻ K⁺
DETERGENT: -

Detergents have some similarities. But are often of synthetic origin.


They are not made insoluble by mineralized (or hard) water. Also,
instead of a carboxylic acid group, a detergent contains a more highly
ionic group. It may have a sulfate or a sulfonate group (OS(O)₂-OH).
In addition, detergents can include one or more aromatic rings.
Detergents offer added properties. They can be used as surfactants
and foaming agents.
There are even detergents that dissolve in solvents other than water,
such as gasoline. These often include nitrogen in their formulation.
The nitrogen compound often includes a ring as part of its structure.
Such compounds are not only detergents, but dispersants.
An example of a detergent is sodium lauryl sulfate:
CH₃(CH₂)₁₂-OS(O)₂-O⁻ Na⁺ .
Soap and detergent properties in hard water. The most important
difference between a soap and detergent is their behavior in water. A
big drawback of washing with soap is that it forms a scum in hard
water, which is not easy to clean and is known to turn laundry into a
hue.
Soaps form a scum in hard water, which is not easy to rinse away and
is known to turn laundry, a grayish hue. The insoluble film that soap
leaves can leave a residue on the laundry same like as would see in a
shower stall where hard water is present. On the other hand,
detergents react less to minerals in water hence does not leave this
residue. In case you are living in an area, where the water is soft, a
soap will work satisfactorily, but even then a gradual build-up of
calcium and magnesium ions (also called 'curd') will be left on the
fabric.
Another important difference between soaps and detergents is the
sensitivity of soaps to acidic conditions. On putting a soap into an
acidic (pH<4.5), it protonates the carboxylate group.