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What is Wastewater Treatment?

Wastewater treatment is the process of treating wastewater – water that is not suitable
for use – into clean water and safe to which will be discharged back into
the environment. Wastewater came from several sources such as bathing, washing,
using the toilet, and rainwater runoff. Wastewater is full of contaminants including
bacteria, chemicals and other toxins. Wastewater treatment aims to reduce the
contaminants to acceptable levels to make the water safe for discharge back into the
environment.

There are two wastewater treatment plants namely :

 chemical or physical treatment plant

 biological wastewater treatment plant.

Biological waste treatment plants are using biological matter and bacteria to break
down waste matter. It is suitable to treat wastewater from housing and business areas.
While, physical waste treatment plants used chemical reactions as well as physical
processes to treat wastewater. They are used for wastewater from industries, factories
and manufacturing firms. This is because most of the wastewater from these
industries contains chemicals and other toxins that can largely harm the environment.

The following is a step by step process of how wastewater is treated:

1. Wastewater Collection

The first step in waste water treatment process is by collecting the wastewater and
directed to a central point. After that, the water is then transferred to a treatment plant
using underground drainage systems or by exhauster tracks . The transportation of
wastewater should however be done under hygienic conditions. The pipes or tracks
should be leak proof and the people offering the exhausting services should wear
protective clothing.

2. Odor Control

Second step is the odor control. Wastewater contains a lot of dirty substances that
causing a foul smell after some time. In order for the surrounding areas to be free
from the foul smell, odor treatment processes are included at the treatment plant. All
odor sources are contained and treated by using chemicals to neutralize the foul smell
producing elements.

3. Screening

Next step is screening. The purpose of this process is to remove large objects that
cause damage to the machine and equipments. For example nappies, cotton buds,
plastics, diapers, rags, sanitary items, nappies, face wipes, broken bottles or bottle
tops. Specially designed equipment is used to get rid of grit that is usually washed
down into the sewer lines by rainwater. The solid wastes removed from the
wastewater are then transported and disposed off in landfills.

4. Primary Treatment

The purpose of this treatment is to separate macrobiotic solid matter from wastewater.
The process starts by pouring the wastewater into big tanks for to separate the solid
matter onto the surface. All the solid waste like sludge that separate earlier, is taken
by large scrappers and is transferred to the center of the cylindrical tanks and later
gone through out of the tanks for next treatment. The water is remained been pumped
for next treatment.

5. Secondary Treatment

This process is also known as the activated sludge process, which a stage where seed
sludge is added to the wastewater for it to broke down even more. In huge aeration,
the air is pumped into tanks that has a mixture of the wastewater with the seed sludge,
that cause for the growth of bacteria. The bacteria used oxygen and the growth of
some small microorganisms that help to consume the remaining organic matter. After
that, large particles that produced is separated at the bottom of the huge tanks. For 3-6
hours, the wastewater passes through the large tanks

6. Bio-solids handling

All the solid matter from the primary and secondary treatment processes are
transferred to digesters which was heated at room temperature. For a month, the solid
wastes when through a treatment is called anaerobic digestion. In this process, they
produced methane gases and nutrient rich bio-solids are formed then recycled and
dewatered into local firms. The formation of methane gas is used as a source of
energy at the treatment plants usually. The gases used to produce electricity in engines
or drive plant equipment and be used in boilers to generate heat for digesters.

7. Tertiary treatment

This process is equivalent to the method used by drinking water treatment plants
which to produce clean raw water for the purpose of drinking. This treatment stage
can remove up to 99 percent of the wastewater’s impurities. This produces produced
water that is close enough to drinking water quality. Unfortunately, this process is
quite expensive because it needs special equipment, operators that are well trained
that can operated highly skilled equipment, chemicals and a stable energy supply.

8. Disinfection

This stage is to eliminate some microorganisms that still remained. The step is to
disinfect the wastewater at least 20-25 minutes in a in mixture of chlorine and sodium
hypochlorite in tanks. The disinfection process is cucial part of the treatment process.
This is because the purpose of it is to guard the health of the animals and thel local
people who use the water for other purposes. The treated waste water is released into
the environment through the local water ways after that.

9. Sludge Treatment

The sludge which is was produced in the primary and secondary treatment processes
needs to be concentrated and thicken for next process. It is put into thickening tanks
that allow it to settle down and later separates from the water. This process can take
up to 24 hours. The remaining water is collected and sent back to the huge aeration
tanks for furthelr treatment. The sludge is then treated and sent back into the
environment and can be used for agricultural use.

Wastewater treatment has a number of benefits. For example, wastewater treatment


ensures that the environment is kept clean, there is no water pollution, makes use of
the most important natural resource; water, the treated water can be used for cooling
machines in factories and industries, prevents the outbreak of waterborne diseases and
most importantly, it ensures that there is adequate water for other purposes like
irrigation.

Biological waste treatment plants are using biological matter and bacteria to break
down waste matter. It is suitable to treat wastewater from housing and business areas.
While, physical waste treatment plants used chemical reactions as well as physical
processes to treat wastewater. They are used for wastewater from industries, factories
and manufacturing firms. This is because most of the wastewater from these
industries contains chemicals and other toxins that can largely harm the environment.

The following is a step by step process of how wastewater is treated:

1.Wastewater Collection

The first step in waste water treatment process is by collecting the wastewater and
directed to a central point. After that, the water is then transferred to a treatment plant
using underground drainage systems or by exhauster tracks . The transportation of
wastewater should however be done under hygienic conditions. The pipes or tracks
should be leak proof and the people offering the exhausting services should wear
protective clothing.
2.Odor Control

Second step is the odor control. Wastewater contains a lot of dirty substances that
causing a foul smell after some time. In order for the surrounding areas to be free
from the foul smell, odor treatment processes are included at the treatment plant. All
odor sources are contained and treated by using chemicals to neutralize the foul smell
producing elements.

3.Screening

Next step is screening. The purpose of this process is to remove large objects that
cause damage to the machine and equipments. For example nappies, cotton buds,
plastics, diapers, rags, sanitary items, nappies, face wipes, broken bottles or bottle
tops. Specially designed equipment is used to get rid of grit that is usually washed
down into the sewer lines by rainwater. The solid wastes removed from the
wastewater are then transported and disposed off in landfills.

4.Primary Treatment

The purpose of this treatment is to separate macrobiotic solid matter from wastewater.
The process starts by pouring the wastewater into big tanks for to separate the solid
matter onto the surface. All the solid waste like sludge that separate earlier, is taken
by large scrappers and is transferred to the center of the cylindrical tanks and later
gone through out of the tanks for next treatment. The water is remained been pumped
for next treatment.

5.Secondary Treatment
This process is also known as the activated sludge process, which a stage where seed
sludge is added to the wastewater for it to broke down even more. In huge aeration,
the air is pumped into tanks that has a mixture of the wastewater with the seed sludge,
that cause for the growth of bacteria. The bacteria used oxygen and the growth of
some small microorganisms that help to consume the remaining organic matter. After
that, large particles that produced is separated at the bottom of the huge tanks. For 3-6
hours, the wastewater passes through the large tanks

6.Bio-solids handling

All the solid matter from the primary and secondary treatment processes are
transferred to digesters which was heated at room temperature. For a month, the solid
wastes when through a treatment is called anaerobic digestion. In this process, they
produced methane gases and nutrient rich bio-solids are formed then recycled and
dewatered into local firms. The formation of methane gas is used as a source of
energy at the treatment plants usually. The gases used to produce electricity in engines
or drive plant equipment and be used in boilers to generate heat for digesters.

7.Tertiary treatment

This process is equivalent to the method used by drinking water treatment plants
which to produce clean raw water for the purpose of drinking. This treatment stage
can remove up to 99 percent of the wastewater’s impurities. This produces produced
water that is close enough to drinking water quality. Unfortunately, this process is
quite expensive because it needs special equipment, operators that are well trained
that can operated highly skilled equipment, chemicals and a stable energy supply.

8.Disinfection
This stage is to eliminate some microorganisms that still remained. The step is to
disinfect the wastewater at least 20-25 minutes in a in mixture of chlorine and sodium
hypochlorite in tanks. The disinfection process is crucial part of the treatment process.
This is because the purpose of it is to guard the health of the animals and thel local
people who use the water for other purposes. The treated waste water is released into
the environment through the local water ways after that.

Biological waste treatment plants area unit exploitation biological matter


and bacterium to interrupt down waste material. it's appropriate to treat waste
matter from housing and business areas. While, physical waste treatment plants used
chemical reactions similarly as physical processes to treat waste matter. they're used
for waste matter from industries, factories and producing corporations. this is
often be} as a result of most of the waste matter from these industries contains
chemicals and other toxins that can largely harm the surroundings.

The following could be a step by step method of however waste matter is treated:

1.Wastewater assortment
The first step in waste water treatment method is by aggregation the waste matter and
directed to a central purpose. After that, the water is then transferred to a treatment
plant exploitation underground voidance systems or by exhauster tracks . The
transportation of waste matter ought to but be done underneath healthful conditions.
The pipes or tracks ought to be leak proof and also the folks giving the exhausting
services ought to wear protecting article of clothing.

2.Odor management

Second step is that the odor management. waste matter contains tons of dirty
substances that inflicting a foul smell once it slow. so as for the encompassing areas to
be free from the foul smell, odor treatment processes area unit enclosed at the
treatment plant. All odor sources area unit contained and treated
by exploitation chemicals to neutralize the foul smell manufacturing parts.

3.Screening

Next step is screening. the aim of this method is to get rid of giant objects that
cause injury to the machine and equipments. as an example nappies, cotton buds,
plastics, diapers, rags, healthful things, nappies, face wipes, broken bottles or
bottle topnotch. Specially designed instrumentality is employed to
urge eliminate grit that's sometimes washed down into the sewer lines by fresh water.
The solid wastes aloof from the waste matter area unit then transported and disposed
off in landfills.

4.Primary Treatment

The purpose of this treatment is to separate dietetics solid matter from waste
matter. the method starts by running the waste matter into massive tanks for to
separate the solid matter onto the surface. All the solid waste like sludge that separate
earlier, is taken by giant scrappers and is transferred to the middle of the cylindrical
tanks and later capable out of the tanks for next treatment. The water is remained
been tense for next treatment.

5.Secondary Treatment

This method is additionally referred to as the activated sludge method, that a


stage wherever seed sludge is additional to the waste matter for it to poor down
even additional. In Brobdingnagian aeration, the air is tense into tanks that features
a mixture of the waste matter with the seed sludge, that cause for the
expansion of bacteria. The bacterium used oxygen and the expansion of
some tiny microorganisms that facilitate to consume the remaining organic matter.
After that, giant particles that created is separated at the lowest of the massive tanks.
For 3-6 hours, the waste matter passes through the big tanks

6.Bio-solids handling

All the solid matter from the first and secondary treatment processes area
unit transferred to digesters that was heated at temperature. For a month, the solid
wastes once through a treatment is named anaerobic digestion. during this method,
they created methane series gases and nutrient wealthy bio-solids area
unit shaped then recycled and dewatered into native corporations. The formation
of methane series gas is employed as a supply of energy at the treatment
plants sometimes. The gases wont to turn out electricity in engines or drive
plant instrumentality and be employed in boilers to come up with heat for digesters.

7.Tertiary treatment

This method is appreciate the strategy employed by water treatment plants that to
provide clean raw water for the aim of drinking. This treatment stage will take
away up to ninety nine p.c of the wastewater’s impurities. This
produces created water that's shut enough to water quality. sadly, this method is kind
of costly as a result of it wants special instrumentality, operators that area unit well
trained that may operated extremely practiced instrumentality, chemicals and a stable
energy provide.

8.Disinfection

This stage is to eliminate some microorganisms that also remained. The step is
to clean the waste matter a minimum of 20-25 minutes in an exceedingly in mixture
of halogen and hypochlorite in tanks. The medical aid method is crucial a part of the
treatment method. this can be as a result of the aim of it's to protect the health of the
animals and thel native those who use the water for alternative functions. The treated
waste water is free into the surroundings through the native water ways in which at
the moment.

Coagulation / Flocculation
During coagulation, liquid aluminium sulfate (alum) and/or polymer is added to
untreated (raw) water. When mixed with the water, this causes the tiny particles of
dirt in the water to stick together or coagulate. Next, groups of dirt particles stick
together to form larger, heavier particles called flocs which are easier to remove by
settling or filtration.

Sedimentation

As the water and the floc particles progress through the treatment process, they move
into sedimentation basins where the water moves slowly, causing the heavy floc
particles to settle to the bottom. Floc which collects on the bottom of the basin is
called sludge, and is piped to drying lagoons. In Direct Filtration, the sedimentation
step is not included, and the floc is removed by filtration only.

Filtration

Water flows through a filter designed to remove particles in the water. The filters are
made of layers of sand and gravel, and in some cases, crushed anthracite. Filtration
collects the suspended impurities in water and enhances the effectiveness of
disinfection. The filters are routinely cleaned by backwashing.

Disinfection

Water is disinfected before it enters the distribution system to ensure that any
disease-causing bacteria, viruses, and parasites are destroyed. Chlorine is used
because it is a very effective disinfectant, and residual concentrations can be
maintained to guard against possible biological contamination in the water
distribution system.

Sludge Drying

Solids that are collected and settled out of the water by sedimentation and filtration
are removed to drying lagoons.
Fluoridation

Water fluoridation is the treatment of community water supplies for the purpose of
adjusting the concentration of the free fluoride ion to the optimum level sufficient to
reduce dental caries. Hunter Water is required to fluoridate water in accordance with
the NSW Fluoridation of Public Water Supplies Act 1957.

pH Correction

Lime is added to the filtered water to adjust the pH and stabilise the naturally soft
water in order to minimise corrosion in the distribution system, and within customers’
plumbing.