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LEADERSHIP, MANAGEMENT,

1. Ms. Castro is newly-promoted to a patient care manager position. She updates her knowledge on the
theories in management and leadership in order to become effective in her new role. She learns that
some managers have low concern for services and high concern for staff. Which style of management
refers to this?
A. Organization Man
B. Impoverished Management
C. Country Club Management
D. Team Management
2. Her former manager demonstrated passion for serving her staff rather than being served. She takes
time to listen, prefers to be a teacher first before being a leader, which is characteristic of
A. Transformational leader
B. Transactional leader
C. Servant leader
D. Charismatic leader

3. On the other hand, Ms. Castro notices that the Chief Nurse Executive has charismatic leadership style.
Which of the following behaviors best describes this style?
A. Possesses inspirational quality that makes followers gets attracted of him and regards him with
reverence
B. Acts as he does because he expects that his behavior will yield positive results
C. Uses visioning as the core of his leadership
D. Matches his leadership style to the situation at hand.

4. Which of the following conclusions of Ms. Castro about leadership characteristics is TRUE?
A. There is a high correlation between the communication skills of a leader and the ability to get the job
done.
B. A manager is effective when he has the ability to plan well.
C. Assessment of personal traits is a reliable tool for predicting a manager’s potential.
D. There is good evidence that certain personal qualities favor success in managerial role.

5. She reads about Path Goal theory. Which of the following behaviors is manifested by the leader who
uses this theory?
A. Recognizes staff for going beyond expectations by giving them citations
B. Challenges the staff to take individual accountability for their own practice
C. Admonishes staff for being laggards.
D. Reminds staff about the sanctions for non performance.
6. One leadership theory states that “leaders are born and not made,” which refers to which of the
following theories?
A. Trait
B. Charismatic
C.Great Man
D. Situational

7. She came across a theory which states that the leadership style is effective dependent on the
situation. Which of the following styles best fits a situation when the followers are self-directed, experts
and arematured individuals?
A. Democratic
B. Authoritarian
C. Laissez faire
D. Bureaucratic

8. She surfs the internet for more information about leadership styles. She reads about shared
leadership as a practice in some magnet hospitals. Which of the following describes this style of
leadership?
A. Leadership behavior is generally determined by the relationship between the leader’s personality and
the specific situation
B. Leaders believe that people are basically good and need not be closely controlled
C. Leaders rely heavily on visioning and inspire members to achieve results
D. Leadership is shared at the point of care.

9. Ms. Castro learns that some leaders are transactional leaders. Which of the following does NOT
characterize a transactional leader?
A. Focuses on management tasks
B. Is a caretaker
C. Uses trade-offs to meet goals
D. Inspires others with vision

10. She finds out that some managers have benevolent-authoritative style of management. Which of the
following behaviors will she exhibit most likely?
A. Have condescending trust and confidence in their subordinates
B. Gives economic or ego awards
C. Communicates downward to the staff
D. Allows decision making among subordinates

11. Harry is a Unit Manager I the Medical Unit. He is not satisfied with the way things are going in his
unit. Patient satisfaction rate is 60% for two consecutive months and staff morale is at its lowest. He
decides to plan and initiate changes that will push for a turnaround in the condition of the unit. Which of
the following actions is a priority for Harry?
A. Call for a staff meeting and take this up in the agenda.
B. Seek help from her manager.
C. Develop a strategic action on how to deal with these concerns.
D. Ignore the issues since these will be resolved naturally.

12. She knows that there are external forces that influence changes in his unit. Which of the following is
NOT an external force?
A. Memo from the CEO to cut down on electrical consumption
B. Demands of the labor sector to increase wages
C. Low morale of staff in her unit
D. Exacting regulatory and accreditation standards

13. After discussing the possible effects of the low patient satisfaction rate, the staff started to list down
possible strategies to solve the problems head-on. Should they decide to vote on the best change
strategy, which of the following strategies is referred to this?
A. Collaboration
B. Majority rule
C. Dominance
D. Compromise

Answer: (B) Majority rule


Majority rule involves dividing the house and the highest vote wins.1/2 + 1 is a majority.
14. One staff suggests that they review the pattern of nursing care that they are using, which is
described as a
A. job description
B. system used to deliver care
C. manual of procedure
D. rules to be followed

Answer: (B) system used to deliver care


A system used to deliver care. In the 70’s it was termed as methods of patient assignment; in the early
80’s it was called modalities of patient care then patterns of nursing care in the 90’s until recently
authors called it nursing care systems.
15. Which of the following is TRUE about functional nursing?
A. Concentrates on tasks and activities
B. Emphasizes use of group collaboration
C. One-to-one nurse-patient ratio
D. Provides continuous, coordinated and comprehensive nursing services
Answer: (A) Concentrates on tasks and activities
Functional nursing is focused on tasks and activities and not on the holistic care of the patients

16. Functional nursing has some advantages, which one is an EXCEPTION?


A. Psychological and sociological needs are emphasized.
B. Great control of work activities.
C. Most economical way of delivering nursing services.
D. Workers feel secure in dependent role

Answer: (A) Psychological and sociological needs are emphasized.


When the functional method is used, the psychological and sociological needs of the patients are
neglected; the patients are regarded as ‘tasks to be done ‘
17. He raised the issue on giving priority to patient needs. Which of the following offers the best way for
setting priority?
A. Assessing nursing needs and problems
B. Giving instructions on how nursing care needs are to be met
C. Controlling and evaluating the delivery of nursing care
D. Assigning safe nurse: patient ratio

18. Which of the following is the best guarantee that the patient’s priority needs are met?
A. Checking with the relative of the patient
B. Preparing a nursing care plan in collaboration with the patient
C. Consulting with the physician
D. Coordinating with other members of the team

Answer: (B) Preparing a nursing care plan in collaboration with the patient
The best source of information about the priority needs of the patient is the patient himself. Hence
using a nursing care plan based on his expressed priority needs would ensure meeting his needs
effectively.
19. When Harry uses team nursing as a care delivery system, he and his team need to assess the priority
of care for a group of patients, which of the following should be a priority?
A. Each patient as listed on the worksheet
B. Patients who needs least care
C. Medications and treatments required for all patients
D. Patients who need the most care

20. She is hopeful that her unit will make a big turnaround in the succeeding months. Which of the
following actions of Harry demonstrates that he has reached the third stage of change?
A. Wonders why things are not what it used to be
B. Finds solutions to the problems
C. Integrate the solutions to his day-to-day activities
D. Selects the best change strategy
21. Julius is a newly-appointed nurse manager of The Good Shepherd Medical Center, a tertiary hospital
located within the heart of the metropolis. He thinks of scheduling planning workshop with his staff in
order to ensure an effective and efficient management of the department. Should he decide to conduct
a strategic planning workshop, which of the following is NOT a characteristic of this activity?
A. Long-term goal-setting
B. Extends to 3-5 years in the future
C. Focuses on routine tasks
D. Determines directions of the organization

22. Which of the following statements refer to the vision of the hospital?
A. The Good Shepherd Medical Center is a trendsetter in tertiary health care in the Philippines in the
next five years
B. The officers and staff of The Good Shepherd Medical Center believe in the unique nature of the
human person
C. All the nurses shall undergo continuing competency training program.
D. The Good Shepherd Medical Center aims to provide a patient-centered care in a total healing
environment.

23. The statement, “The Good Shepherd Medical Center aims to provide patient-centered care in a total
healing environment” refers to which of the following?
A. Vision
B. Goal
C. Philosophy
D. Mission

24. Julius plans to revisit the organizational chart of the department. He plans to create a new position
of a Patient Educator who has a coordinating relationship with the head nurse in the unit. Which of the
following will likely depict this organizational relationship?
A. Box
B. Solid line
C. Broken line
D. Dotted line

Answer: (C) Broken line


This is a staff relationship hence it is depicted by a broken line in the organizational structure
25. He likewise stresses the need for all the employees to follow orders and instructions from him and
not from anyone else. Which of the following principles does he refer to?
A. Scalar chain
B. Discipline
C. Unity of command
D. Order
Answer: (C) Unity of command
The principle of unity of command means that employees should receive orders coming from only one
manager and not from two managers. This averts the possibility of sowing confusion among the
members of the organization
26. Julius orients his staff on the patterns of reporting relationship throughout the organization. Which
of the following principles refer to this?
A. Span of control
B. Hierarchy
C. Esprit d’ corps
D. Unity of direction

27. He emphasizes to the team that they need to put their efforts together towards the attainment of
the goals of the program. Which of the following principles refers to this?
A. Span of control
B. Unity of direction
C. Unity of command
D. Command responsibility

28. Julius stresses the importance of promoting ‘esprit d corps’ among the members of the unit. Which
of the following remarks of the staff indicates that they understand what he pointed out?
A. “Let’s work together in harmony; we need to be supportive of one another”
B. “In order that we achieve the same results; we must all follow the directives of Julius and not from
other managers.”
C. “We will ensure that all the resources we need are available when needed.”
D. “We need to put our efforts together in order to raise the bar of excellence in the care we provide to
all our patients.”
29. He discusses the goal of the department. Which of the following statements is a goal?
A. Increase the patient satisfaction rate
B. Eliminate the incidence of delayed administration of medications
C. Establish rapport with patients.
D. Reduce response time to two minutes.
30. He wants to influence the customary way of thinking and behaving that is shared by the members of
the department. Which of the following terms refer to this?
A. Organizational chart
B. Cultural network
C. Organizational structure
D. Organizational culture
31. He asserts the importance of promoting a positive organizational culture in their unit. Which of the
following behaviors indicate that this is attained by the group?
A. Proactive and caring with one another
B. Competitive and perfectionist
C. Powerful and oppositional
D. Obedient and uncomplaining

Positive culture is based on humanism and affiliative norms


32. Stephanie is a new Staff Educator of a private tertiary hospital. She conducts orientation among new
staff nurses in her department. Joseph, one of the new staff nurses, wants to understand the channel of
communication, span of control and lines of communication. Which of the following will provide this
information?
A. Organizational structure
B. Policy
C. Job description
D. Manual of procedures
33. Stephanie is often seen interacting with the medical intern during coffee breaks and after duty
hours. What type of organizational structure is this?
A. Formal
B. Informal
C. Staff
D. Line
This is usually not published and oftentimes concealed.
34. She takes pride in saying that the hospital has a decentralized structure. Which of the following is
NOT compatible with this type of model?
A. Flat organization
B. Participatory approach
C. Shared governance
D. Tall organization

35. Centralized organizations have some advantages. Which of the following statements are TRUE?
1. Highly cost-effective
2. Makes management easier
3. Reflects the interest of the worker
4. Allows quick decisions or actions.

A. 1 & 2
B. 2 & 4
C. 2, 3& 4
D. 1, 2, & 4

36. Stephanie delegates effectively if she has authority to act, which is BEST defined as:
A. having responsibility to direct others
B. being accountable to the organization
C. having legitimate right to act
D. telling others what to do
37. Regardless of the size of a work group, enough staff must be available at all times to accomplish
certain purposes. Which of these purposes in NOT included?
A. Meet the needs of patients
B. Provide a pair of hands to other units as needed
C. Cover all time periods adequately.
D. Allow for growth and development of nursing staff.

38. Which of the following guidelines should be least considered in formulating objectives for nursing
care?
A. Written nursing care plan
B. Holistic approach
C. Prescribed standards
D. Staff preferences

41. Stephanie considers shifting to transformational leadership. Which of the following statements best
describes this type of leadership?
A. Uses visioning as the essence of leadership.
B. Serves the followers rather than being served.
C. Maintains full trust and confidence in the subordinates
D. Possesses innate charisma that makes others feel good in his presence.
42. As a manager, she focuses her energy on both the quality of services rendered to the patients as well
as the welfare of the staff of her unit. Which of the following management styles does she adopt?
A. Country club management
B. Organization man management
C. Team management
D. Authority-obedience management

43. Katherine is a young Unit Manager of the Pediatric Ward. Most of her staff nurses are senior to her,
very articulate, confident and sometimes aggressive. Katherine feels uncomfortable believing that she is
the scapegoat of everything that goes wrong in her department. Which of the following is the best
action that she must take?
A. Identify the source of the conflict and understand the points of friction
B. Disregard what she feels and continue to work independently
C. Seek help from the Director of Nursing
D. Quit her job and look for another employment.

44. As a young manager, she knows that conflict occurs in any organization. Which of the following
statements regarding conflict is NOT true?
A. Can be destructive if the level is too high
B. Is not beneficial; hence it should be prevented at all times
C. May result in poor performance
45. Katherine tells one of the staff, “I don’t have time to discuss the matter with you now. See me in my
office later” when the latter asks if they can talk about an issue. Which of the following conflict
resolution strategies did she use?
A. Smoothing
B. Compromise
C. Avoidance
D. Restriction

46. Kathleen knows that one of her staff is experiencing burnout. Which of the following is the best
thing for her to do?
A. Advise her staff to go on vacation.
B. Ignore her observations; it will be resolved even without intervention
C. Remind her to show loyalty to the institution.
D. Let the staff ventilate her feelings and ask how she can be of help.

47. She knows that performance appraisal consists of all the following activities EXCEPT:
A. Setting specific standards and activities for individual performance.
B. Using agency standards as a guide.
C. Determine areas of strength and weaknesses
D. Focusing activity on the correction of identified behavior.
48. Which of the following statements is NOT true about performance appraisal?
A. Informing the staff about the specific impressions of their work help improve their performance.
B. A verbal appraisal is an acceptable substitute for a written report
C. Patients are the best source of information regarding personnel appraisal.
D. The outcome of performance appraisal rests primarily with the staff.
49. There are times when Katherine evaluates her staff as she makes her daily rounds. Which of the
following is NOT a benefit of conducting an informal appraisal?
A. The staff member is observed in natural setting.
B. Incidental confrontation and collaboration is allowed.
C. The evaluation is focused on objective data systematically.
D. The evaluation may provide valid information for compilation of a formal report.

Answer: (C) The evaluation is focused on objective data systematically.


Collecting objective data systematically can not be achieved in an informal appraisal. It is focused on
what actually happens in the natural work setting.
50. She conducts a 6-month performance review session with a staff member. Which of the following
actions is appropriate?
A. She asks another nurse to attest the session as a witness.
B. She informs the staff that she may ask another nurse to read the appraisal before the session is over.
C. She tells the staff that the session is manager-centered.
D. The session is private between the two members.
51. Alexandra is tasked to organize the new wing of the hospital. She was given the authority to do as
she deems fit. 51. She is aware that the director of nursing has substantial trust and confidence in her
capabilities, communicates through downward and upward channels and usually uses the ideas and
opinions of her staff. Which of the following is her style of management?
A. Benevolent –authoritative
B. Consultative
C. Exploitive-authoritative
D. Participative
52. She decides to illustrate the organizational structure. Which of the following elements is NOT
included?
A. Level of authority
B. Lines of communication
C. Span of control
D. Unity of direction
53. She plans of assigning competent people to fill the roles designed in the hierarchy. Which process
refers to this?
A. Staffing
B. Scheduling
C. Recruitment
D. Induction
54. She checks the documentary requirements for the applicants for staff nurse position. Which one is
NOT necessary?
A. Certificate of previous employment
B. Record of related learning experience (RLE)
C. Membership to accredited professional organization
D. Professional identification card

55. Which phase of the employment process includes getting on the payroll and completing
documentary requirements?
A. Orientation
B. Induction
C. Selection
D. Recruitment
56. She tries to design an organizational structure that allows communication to flow in all directions
and involve workers in decision making. Which form of organizational structure is this?
A. Centralized
B. Decentralized
C. Matrix
D. Informal
57. In a horizontal chart, the lowest level worker is located at the
A. Leftmost box
B. Middle
C. Rightmost box
D. Bottom
58. She decides to have a decentralized staffing system. Which of the following is an advantage of this
system of staffing?
A. greater control of activities
B. Conserves time
C. Compatible with computerization
D. Promotes better interpersonal relationship
59. Aubrey thinks about primary nursing as a system to deliver care. Which of the following activities is
NOT done by a primary nurse?
A. Collaborates with the physician
B. Provides care to a group of patients together with a group of nurses
C. Provides care for 5-6 patients during their hospital stay.
D. Performs comprehensive initial assessment
60. Which pattern of nursing care involves the care given by a group of paraprofessional workers led by
a professional nurse who take care of patients with the same disease conditions and are located
geographically near each other?
A. Case method
B. Modular nursing
C. Nursing case management
D. Team nursing
61. St. Raphael Medical Center just opened its new Performance Improvement Department. Ms.
Valencia is appointed as the Quality Control Officer. She commits herself to her new role and plans her
strategies to realize the goals and objectives of the department. Which of the following is a primary task
that they should perform to have an effective control system?
A. Make an interpretation about strengths and weaknesses
B. Identify the values of the department
C. Identify structure, process, outcome standards & criteria
D. Measure actual performances
62. Ms. Valencia develops the standards to be followed. Among the following standards, which is
considered as a structure standard?
A. The patients verbalized satisfaction of the nursing care received
B. Rotation of duty will be done every four weeks for all patient care personnel.
C. All patients shall have their weights taken recorded
D. Patients shall answer the evaluation form before discharge
63. When she presents the nursing procedures to be followed, she refers to what type of standards?
A. Process
B. Outcome
C. Structure
D. Criteria
64. The following are basic steps in the controlling process of the department. Which of the following is
NOT included?
A. Measure actual performance
B. Set nursing standards and criteria
C. Compare results of performance to standards and objectives
D. Identify possible courses of action
65. Which of the following statements refers to criteria?
A. Agreed on level of nursing care
B. Characteristics used to measure the level of nursing care
C. Step-by-step guidelines
D. Statement which guide the group in decision making and problem solving
66. She wants to ensure that every task is carried out as planned. Which of the following tasks is NOT
included in the controlling process?
A. Instructing the members of the standards committee to prepare policies
B. Reviewing the existing policies of the hospital
C. Evaluating the credentials of all nursing staff
D. Checking if activities conform to schedule
67. Ms. Valencia prepares the process standards. Which of the following is NOT a process standard?
A. Initial assessment shall be done to all patients within twenty four hours upon admission.
B. Informed consent shall be secured prior to any invasive procedure
C. Patients’ reports 95% satisfaction rate prior to discharge from the hospital.
D. Patient education about their illness and treatment shall be provided for all patients and their
families.

68. Which of the following is evidence that the controlling process is effective?
A. The things that were planned are done
B. Physicians do not complain.
C. Employees are contended
D. There is an increase in customer satisfaction rate.
69. Ms. Valencia is responsible to the number of personnel reporting to her. This principle refers to:
A. Span of control
B. Unity of command
C. Carrot and stick principle
D. Esprit d’ corp
70. She notes that there is an increasing unrest of the staff due to fatigue brought about by shortage of
staff. Which action is a priority?
A. Evaluate the overall result of the unrest
B. Initiate a group interaction
C. Develop a plan and implement it
D. Identify external and internal forces.
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