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SAMPLING - process of selecting a portion of a population to represent the entire population.

Basic Sampling Concepts

1. Sample – the subset of the population selected by the investigator to participate in a research
2. Sampling frame – a listing of all the elements in the population from which the sample is drawn
3. Sampling bias – systematic overrepresentation or underrepresentation of some segment of the
population in terms of characteristics relevant to the research questions.
4. Sampling error – pertains to the differences in proportion values (e.g. average age of the
population) and sample values (e.g. average age of the sample)
5. Population – the entire group of persons or subjects that is of interest to the investigator
6. Eligibility criteria – the characteristics that delimit the population to participate in the study; they
determine the target population.
7. Target population – the entire population in which researcher is interested
8. Accessible population – cases that conform to the eligibility criteria and are accessible to the
researcher as a pool of subjects of the study.

Factors that determine sample size include the following:

1. Accessibility of sample participants – a sample is taken when it is not feasible to the whole
2. Cost – only a limited number may be studied if no funds are available
3. Amount of time available – if the time is limited, only a small sample size may be gathered.


1. Probability Sampling - assure that each element of the population will be included in the sample

a. Simple random sampling – the selection of the sample is done by chance.

e.g. lottery draws, table of random numbers

b. Stratified random sampling – the population is subdivided into areas, sections, then random
samples are taken from each.
e.g. divide the students into year levels: first year, second year, third year, fourth year, and
get random samples from each level

c. Systematic sampling – consists of taking every nth person in a school, community or

telephone directory.
e.g. in a study of the health problems in the community, the researcher may decide to study
every fifth family in a barangay

d. Cluster or multi-stage sampling – a small is taken from various sections of the total
e.g. in studying the attitudes of nurses in Metro Manila toward their work, a small sample from
each hospital will be taken

2. Non-Probability Sampling - no assurance that every element has a chance for inclusion

a. Convenience or accidental sampling – data are collected from anyone most conveniently
available such as people on a street corner or in a hospital or class. This is the weakest form
of sampling and is subject to bias.

b. Snowball or network sampling – a kind of convenience sampling that involves subject

suggesting or referring other subjects who meet the researcher’s eligibility criteria.
c. Judgmental or purposive sampling – researcher selects and studies a specific number of a
special group that represents the target population with regards to certain characteristics
such as age, sex or economic status.

d. Cross-cultural sampling – the study is conducted in a variety of cultural settings.

e.g. getting samples from Tagalogs, Ilocanos, Visayans, Bicolanos

e. Longitudinal sampling – a given group of subjects are studied for an extended period of time,
which can be retrospective or prospective.
a. Prospective sampling – mastectomy patients are studied from operation to three years
after discharge.
b. Retrospective sampling – growth of newborn two years ago to the present

f. Cross-sectional sampling – the subjects are observed at only one point in time.

g. Quota sampling – the researcher identifies the strata of the population and determine the
proportion of elements needed in the various segments of the population. Diverse segments
are represented in proportion to the occurrence in the population.