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RESEARCH PROCESS – is the examination and analysis of systematically gathered facts about a

particular problem.
Main goal: discovery or validation of knowledge

PHASES OF THE RESEARCH PROCESS


I. Selecting and Defining the problem
II. Selecting a Research Design
III. Collecting Data
IV. Analyzing Data
V. Utilizing Research Findings

CRITERIA IN CHOOSING RESEARCH PROBLEM


1. Ethical issues in conducting research
2. Significance of the study to nursing
3. Personal motivation (course requirements, intellectual curiosity)
4. Qualifications of the researcher
5. Feasibility of the study

CHARACTERISTICS OF A RESEARCH PROBLEM


1. Interesting
2. Researchable
3. Practical/Feasible (time, availability of subjects, costs, materials and equipment)
4. Ethical

SOURCES OF RESEARCH PROBLEMS


1. Experience
2. Observation
3. Literature
4. Theory

TYPES OF RESEARCH QUESTIONS


1. Factor-isolating/Factor-naming – “What is this?”
e.g. What are the properties of parental bonding? What are the stages of the grieving process?

2. Factor-relating – “What is happening here?”


Goal: To determine how the factors that have been identified relate to one another
e.g. What is the relationship between the parents’ own childhood experiences and their
subsequent child abuse or neglect?

3. Situation-relating – “What will happen if…?” This type of question usually yields hypothetical
testing or experimental study.
e.g. To what extent does the token economy program as reinforcement decrease phobic behavior
in a particular group of psychiatric patients?

4. Situation-producing – “How can I make this happen?” Questions of this type establish explicit
goals for nursing actions and develop plans or prescriptions to achieve the goals.

IMPORTANT TERMINOLOGIES AND CONCEPTS ASSOCIATED WITH THE PROBLEM STATEMENT


1. General Objective or Major Problem – refers to the overall purpose of the research study and is
usually derived from the broad problem
2. Specific Objectives or Minor Problems – refer to the statements of specific outcomes and are
usually derived from subproblems. They should have the following characteristics:
a. Correspond to the purpose of the study
b. Written clearly
c. Measurable

Hypothesis – statement that explains or predicts the relationship between two or more variables in terms
of expected results or outcomes of the study (Fain, 2004). It attempts to explain phenomena; hence,
provides a rationale for expecting variables to behave in a certain way.

Purposes of Hypothesis
1. To guide scientific inquiry in the advancement of knowledge
2. To provide direction for the research design and the collection, analysis and interpretation of data
3. To provide a framework for reporting the conclusion of the study
Types of Hypothesis

1. Simple hypothesis - predicts the relationship between one independent variable and one dependent
variable
e.g. Performance in the College of Nursing is related to success in the nurses’ licensure examination

2. Complex hypothesis - predicts the relationship between two or more independent variables and two
or more dependent variables.
e.g. Heredity, home environment, and quality of instruction are related to intelligence, motivation, and
performance in school

3. Directional/Predictive Hypothesis - specifies the direction of the relationship between the variables
being studied.
e.g. People who smoke are more prone to lung cancer than those who do not smoke.

4. Non Directional Hypothesis - predicts only that there is a relationship between the variables being
studied but does not specify what it is.
e.g. There is a difference in the level of anxiety of pre-surgical patients who receive pre-operative
instruction than those who do not receive such instruction.

5. Statistical/Null hypothesis - is an assumption that there is no difference between the studied variables
e.g. No significant difference in the test means will be found to exist between students having a hospital
laboratory experience and those students having a free day preceding the day of test administration.

6. Research/Alternative/Declarative/Scientific hypothesis – states that a relationship or difference, exists


between variables
e.g. There is a significant difference in the perceived level of social support between married and
unmarried patients with type II diabetes mellitus

VARIABLE - a quality, property or characteristic of the person or thing to be studied that can be
quantitatively measured. It is any factor that varies.
e.g. temperature, types of breathing, types of injection, health status, height, and weight

INDEPENDENT VARIABLE (Cause) – the antecedent condition or cause; the one manipulated by the
researcher
e.g. Does smoking (IV) cause cancer (DV)?

DEPENDENT VARIABLE (Effect) - the response and effect variable or the criterion measure
e.g. Method of instruction (IV) in relation to the degree of success of breastfeeding (DV)

CONFOUNDING VARIABLES or EXTRANEOUS or UNCONTROLLED VARIABLES - may affect the


dependent variable that may confuse the interpretation of the study.

DICHOTOMOUS VARIABLE - one that has only two categories. e.g. male or female
POLYCHOTOMOUS VARIABLE - have more than two categories, such as race
CATEGORICAL VARIABLES - those that represent unordered categories, groups or classes
CONTINUOUS VARIABLES - those that have a range of variety such as weight, height, and temperature.

REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE

Functions of Related Literature


a. Provide research ideas
b. Orients the researcher to what is already known
c. Provides conceptual context
d. Provides information about research approaches

Sources of Related Literature


a. Journals
b. Abstract journals
c. Indexes
d. Bibliographies and book lists
e. Computerized and bibliographic databases
f. Guides and directories
g. Statistical reports

Sources Available to the Researcher

1. Primary Data Sources – provide a description of a research study as written by the original
researchers.
a. Oral history
b. Life history
c. Published sources
d. Diaries
e. Historical societies
f. Official minutes
g. Audio and visual recordings
h. Eyewitnesses
i. Pictorial sources
j. Other print sources
k. Physical evidence
2. Secondary Data Sources – a description of a studies prepared by someone other than the
original researcher/s.
a. Interpretations – historical researchers depend on another person’s private frame of
reference for information.
b. Hearsay – simply what people think they heard.