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# INTERNATIONAL ISLAMIC UNIVERSITY MALAYSIA

## MATRIC NO: 1524087

TITLE: ASSIGNMENT 3

## DEPARTMENT OF BIOTECHNOLOGY ENGINEERING

KULLIYAH OF ENGINEERING

## 2nd DECEMBER 2019

Question 1

You undertake to control a process. Individual component transfer functions are given by

𝐺𝑣 = 0.016/(3𝑠 + 1)

𝐺𝑚 = 50/(30𝑠 + 1)

𝐺𝑠 = 1/(10𝑠 + 1)

Where the subscripts are conventional and the gains have been expressed in consistent units

for your convenience. Use proportional control and calculate the controller gain at the

stability limit. Do this by two methods: “poles of the transfer function” and “Routh array”.

## Poles of Transfer Function

𝐺𝑜𝑙 = 𝐺𝑣 𝐺𝑚 𝐺𝑠

0.016 50 1
𝐺𝑜𝑙 = ( ).( ) .( )
3𝑠 + 1 30𝑠 + 1 10𝑠 + 1

0.8
𝐺𝑜𝑙 =
900𝑠 3 + 420𝑠 2 + 43𝑠 + 1

0.8
1 + 𝐺𝑜𝑙 = 1 +
900𝑠 3 + 420𝑠 2 + 43𝑠 + 1

## 900𝑠 3 + 420𝑠 2 + 43𝑠 + 1 0.8

1 + 𝐺𝑜𝑙 = +
900𝑠 3 + 420𝑠 2 + 43𝑠 + 1 900𝑠 3 + 420𝑠 2 + 43𝑠 + 1

## 900𝑠 3 + 420𝑠 2 + 43𝑠 + 1.8

1 + 𝐺𝑜𝑙 =
900𝑠 3 + 420𝑠 2 + 43𝑠 + 1

## 900𝑠 3 + 420𝑠 2 + 43𝑠 + 1.8

1 + 𝐺𝑜𝑙 =
(3𝑠 + 1)(30𝑠 + 1)(10𝑠 + 1)
Let s=jꞷ

## −900𝑗ꞷ3 − 420ꞷ2 + 43jꞷ + 1.8 + 𝐾𝑐𝑚 = 0

−900𝑗ꞷ3 + 43jꞷ = 0

−𝑗ꞷ(900ꞷ2 − 43) = 0

900ꞷ2 − 43 = 0

43
ꞷ2 =
900

43
ꞷ = ±√
900

## −420ꞷ2 + 1.8 + 𝐾𝑐𝑚 = 0

2
43
−420 (√ ) + 1.8 + 𝐾𝑐𝑚 = 0
900

2
43
−420 (√ ) + 1.8 + 𝐾𝑐𝑚 = 0
900

274
𝐾𝑐𝑚 = = 18.27
15

## 𝐾𝑐𝑚 < 18.27 𝑓𝑜𝑟 𝑠𝑡𝑎𝑏𝑖𝑙𝑖𝑡𝑦

Routh array

𝑠3 900 43 0

𝑠2 420 1.8+K 0

𝑠1 39.14-2.14K 0 0

𝑠0 1.8+K 0 0

𝐾 < 18.29

1.8+K > 0

K > -1.8

## The value of K must be (-1.8 < K < 18.29) to get stable.

Question 2

𝐺𝑣 = 0.016/(3𝑠 + 1)

𝐺𝑚 = 50/(30𝑠 + 1)

𝐺𝑠 = 1/(5𝑠 + 1)

## What is the controller gain at the stability limit?

𝐺𝑜𝑙 = 𝐺𝑣 𝐺𝑚 𝐺𝑠

0.016 50 1
𝐺𝑜𝑙 = ( )( )( )
3𝑠 + 1 30𝑠 + 1 5𝑠 + 1

0.8
1 + 𝐺𝑜𝑙 = 1 + ( )
450𝑠 3 + 255𝑠 2 + 38𝑠 + 1

## 450𝑠 3 + 255𝑠 2 + 38𝑠 + 1.8

1 + 𝐺𝑜𝑙 = =0
(3𝑠 + 1)(30𝑠 + 1)(5𝑠 + 1)

Let s=jꞷ

## −450𝑗ꞷ3 − 255ꞷ2 + 38jꞷ + 1.8 + 𝐾𝑐𝑚 = 0

−450𝑗ꞷ3 + 38jꞷ = 0

−𝑗ꞷ(450ꞷ2 − 38) = 0
450ꞷ2 − 38 = 0

38
ꞷ2 =
450

38
ꞷ = ±√
450

## −255ꞷ2 + 1.8 + 𝐾𝑐𝑚 = 0

2
38
−255 (√ ) + 1.8 + 𝐾𝑐𝑚 = 0
450

2
38
−255 (√ ) + 1.8 + 𝐾𝑐𝑚 = 0
450

𝐾𝑐𝑚 = 19.73

## 𝐾𝑐𝑚 < 19.73 𝑓𝑜𝑟 𝑠𝑡𝑎𝑏𝑖𝑙𝑖𝑡𝑦

Using routh array method;

## 450𝑠 3 + 255𝑠 2 + 38𝑠 + 1.8 + 𝐾𝑐𝑚 = 0

𝑠3 450 38 0

𝑠2 255 1.8+K 0

𝑠1 592 30 0 0
− 𝐾
17 17

𝑠0 1.8+K 0 0

592 30
− 𝐾>0
17 17

30 592
− 𝐾>−
17 17

𝐾 < 19.73

1.8+K > 0

K>-1.8

The range value for K is (-1.8<K<19.73). Thus, the system will be stable in this range.
Question 3

𝐺𝑣 = 0.016/(3𝑠 + 1)

𝐺𝑚 = 50/(20𝑠 + 1)

𝐺𝑠 = 1/(10𝑠 + 1)

## What is the controller gain at the stability limit?

𝐺𝑜𝑙 = 𝐺𝑣 𝐺𝑚 𝐺𝑠

0.016 50 1
𝐺𝑜𝑙 = ( )( )( )
3𝑠 + 1 20𝑠 + 1 10𝑠 + 1

0.8
1 + 𝐺𝑜𝑙 = 1 + ( )
600𝑠 3 + 290𝑠 2 + 33𝑠 + 1

## 600𝑠 3 + 290𝑠 2 + 33𝑠 + 1.8

1 + 𝐺𝑜𝑙 = =0
(3𝑠 + 1)(20𝑠 + 1)(10𝑠 + 1)

Let s=jꞷ

## −600𝑗ꞷ3 − 290ꞷ2 + 33jꞷ + 1.8 + 𝐾𝑐𝑚 = 0

−600𝑗ꞷ3 + 33jꞷ = 0

−𝑗ꞷ(600ꞷ2 − 33) = 0
600ꞷ2 − 33 = 0

33
ꞷ2 =
600

33
ꞷ = ±√
600

## −290ꞷ2 + 1.8 + 𝐾𝑐𝑚 = 0

2
33
−290 (√ ) + 1.8 + 𝐾𝑐𝑚 = 0
600

2
33
−290 (√ ) + 1.8 + 𝐾𝑐𝑚 = 0
600

𝐾𝑐𝑚 = 14.15

## 𝐾𝑐𝑚 < 14.15 𝑓𝑜𝑟 𝑠𝑡𝑎𝑏𝑖𝑙𝑖𝑡𝑦

Question 4

List three (3) types of temperature measuring devices commonly used in control system and

## No Temperature measuring device Operating principles

1 Infrared thermometer Contain lens that used to focus infrared light from an

## thermometer is very sensitive.

2 Gas actuated thermometer The tube is filled with gas (usually helium). The