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INTERNATIONAL ISLAMIC UNIVERSITY MALAYSIA

NAME: MOHAMAD NUR FA’IZUDIN BIN MOHD ZAINUDIN

MATRIC NO: 1524087

TITLE: ASSIGNMENT 3

DEPARTMENT OF BIOTECHNOLOGY ENGINEERING

KULLIYAH OF ENGINEERING

2nd DECEMBER 2019


Question 1

You undertake to control a process. Individual component transfer functions are given by

𝐺𝑣 = 0.016/(3𝑠 + 1)

𝐺𝑚 = 50/(30𝑠 + 1)

𝐺𝑠 = 1/(10𝑠 + 1)

Where the subscripts are conventional and the gains have been expressed in consistent units

for your convenience. Use proportional control and calculate the controller gain at the

stability limit. Do this by two methods: “poles of the transfer function” and “Routh array”.

Poles of Transfer Function

𝐺𝑜𝑙 = 𝐺𝑣 𝐺𝑚 𝐺𝑠

0.016 50 1
𝐺𝑜𝑙 = ( ).( ) .( )
3𝑠 + 1 30𝑠 + 1 10𝑠 + 1

0.8
𝐺𝑜𝑙 =
900𝑠 3 + 420𝑠 2 + 43𝑠 + 1

0.8
1 + 𝐺𝑜𝑙 = 1 +
900𝑠 3 + 420𝑠 2 + 43𝑠 + 1

900𝑠 3 + 420𝑠 2 + 43𝑠 + 1 0.8


1 + 𝐺𝑜𝑙 = +
900𝑠 3 + 420𝑠 2 + 43𝑠 + 1 900𝑠 3 + 420𝑠 2 + 43𝑠 + 1

900𝑠 3 + 420𝑠 2 + 43𝑠 + 1.8


1 + 𝐺𝑜𝑙 =
900𝑠 3 + 420𝑠 2 + 43𝑠 + 1

900𝑠 3 + 420𝑠 2 + 43𝑠 + 1.8


1 + 𝐺𝑜𝑙 =
(3𝑠 + 1)(30𝑠 + 1)(10𝑠 + 1)
Let s=jꞷ

900𝑠 3 + 420𝑠 2 + 43𝑠 + 1.8 + 𝐾𝑐𝑚 = 0

900(jꞷ)3 + 420(jꞷ)2 + 43(jꞷ) + 1.8 + 𝐾𝑐𝑚 = 0

900𝑗 3 ꞷ3 + 420j2 ꞷ2 + 43jꞷ + 1.8 + 𝐾𝑐𝑚 = 0

−900𝑗ꞷ3 − 420ꞷ2 + 43jꞷ + 1.8 + 𝐾𝑐𝑚 = 0

−900𝑗ꞷ3 + 43jꞷ = 0

−𝑗ꞷ(900ꞷ2 − 43) = 0

900ꞷ2 − 43 = 0

43
ꞷ2 =
900

43
ꞷ = ±√
900

−420ꞷ2 + 1.8 + 𝐾𝑐𝑚 = 0

2
43
−420 (√ ) + 1.8 + 𝐾𝑐𝑚 = 0
900

2
43
−420 (√ ) + 1.8 + 𝐾𝑐𝑚 = 0
900

274
𝐾𝑐𝑚 = = 18.27
15

𝐾𝑐𝑚 < 18.27 𝑓𝑜𝑟 𝑠𝑡𝑎𝑏𝑖𝑙𝑖𝑡𝑦


Routh array

𝑠3 900 43 0

𝑠2 420 1.8+K 0

𝑠1 39.14-2.14K 0 0

𝑠0 1.8+K 0 0

39.14 − 2.14𝐾 > 0.

−2.14𝐾 > −39.14

𝐾 < 18.29

1.8+K > 0

K > -1.8

The value of K must be (-1.8 < K < 18.29) to get stable.


Question 2

𝐺𝑣 = 0.016/(3𝑠 + 1)

𝐺𝑚 = 50/(30𝑠 + 1)

𝐺𝑠 = 1/(5𝑠 + 1)

What is the controller gain at the stability limit?

𝐺𝑜𝑙 = 𝐺𝑣 𝐺𝑚 𝐺𝑠

0.016 50 1
𝐺𝑜𝑙 = ( )( )( )
3𝑠 + 1 30𝑠 + 1 5𝑠 + 1

0.8
1 + 𝐺𝑜𝑙 = 1 + ( )
450𝑠 3 + 255𝑠 2 + 38𝑠 + 1

450𝑠 3 + 255𝑠 2 + 38𝑠 + 1.8


1 + 𝐺𝑜𝑙 = =0
(3𝑠 + 1)(30𝑠 + 1)(5𝑠 + 1)

450𝑠 3 + 255𝑠 2 + 38𝑠 + 1.8 = 0

Using direct substitution method;

Let s=jꞷ

450(jꞷ)3 + 255(jꞷ)2 + 38jꞷ + 1.8 + 𝐾𝑐𝑚 = 0

450𝑗 3 ꞷ3 + 255j2 ꞷ2 + 38jꞷ + 1.8 + 𝐾𝑐𝑚 = 0

−450𝑗ꞷ3 − 255ꞷ2 + 38jꞷ + 1.8 + 𝐾𝑐𝑚 = 0

−450𝑗ꞷ3 + 38jꞷ = 0

−𝑗ꞷ(450ꞷ2 − 38) = 0
450ꞷ2 − 38 = 0

38
ꞷ2 =
450

38
ꞷ = ±√
450

−255ꞷ2 + 1.8 + 𝐾𝑐𝑚 = 0

2
38
−255 (√ ) + 1.8 + 𝐾𝑐𝑚 = 0
450

2
38
−255 (√ ) + 1.8 + 𝐾𝑐𝑚 = 0
450

𝐾𝑐𝑚 = 19.73

𝐾𝑐𝑚 < 19.73 𝑓𝑜𝑟 𝑠𝑡𝑎𝑏𝑖𝑙𝑖𝑡𝑦


Using routh array method;

450𝑠 3 + 255𝑠 2 + 38𝑠 + 1.8 + 𝐾𝑐𝑚 = 0

𝑠3 450 38 0

𝑠2 255 1.8+K 0

𝑠1 592 30 0 0
− 𝐾
17 17

𝑠0 1.8+K 0 0

592 30
− 𝐾>0
17 17

30 592
− 𝐾>−
17 17

𝐾 < 19.73

1.8+K > 0

K>-1.8

The range value for K is (-1.8<K<19.73). Thus, the system will be stable in this range.
Question 3

𝐺𝑣 = 0.016/(3𝑠 + 1)

𝐺𝑚 = 50/(20𝑠 + 1)

𝐺𝑠 = 1/(10𝑠 + 1)

What is the controller gain at the stability limit?

𝐺𝑜𝑙 = 𝐺𝑣 𝐺𝑚 𝐺𝑠

0.016 50 1
𝐺𝑜𝑙 = ( )( )( )
3𝑠 + 1 20𝑠 + 1 10𝑠 + 1

0.8
1 + 𝐺𝑜𝑙 = 1 + ( )
600𝑠 3 + 290𝑠 2 + 33𝑠 + 1

600𝑠 3 + 290𝑠 2 + 33𝑠 + 1.8


1 + 𝐺𝑜𝑙 = =0
(3𝑠 + 1)(20𝑠 + 1)(10𝑠 + 1)

600𝑠 3 + 290𝑠 2 + 33𝑠 + 1.8 = 0

Using direct substitution method;

Let s=jꞷ

600(jꞷ)3 + 290(jꞷ)2 + 33jꞷ + 1.8 + 𝐾𝑐𝑚 = 0

600𝑗 3 ꞷ3 + 290j2 ꞷ2 + 33jꞷ + 1.8 + 𝐾𝑐𝑚 = 0

−600𝑗ꞷ3 − 290ꞷ2 + 33jꞷ + 1.8 + 𝐾𝑐𝑚 = 0

−600𝑗ꞷ3 + 33jꞷ = 0

−𝑗ꞷ(600ꞷ2 − 33) = 0
600ꞷ2 − 33 = 0

33
ꞷ2 =
600

33
ꞷ = ±√
600

−290ꞷ2 + 1.8 + 𝐾𝑐𝑚 = 0

2
33
−290 (√ ) + 1.8 + 𝐾𝑐𝑚 = 0
600

2
33
−290 (√ ) + 1.8 + 𝐾𝑐𝑚 = 0
600

𝐾𝑐𝑚 = 14.15

𝐾𝑐𝑚 < 14.15 𝑓𝑜𝑟 𝑠𝑡𝑎𝑏𝑖𝑙𝑖𝑡𝑦


Question 4

List three (3) types of temperature measuring devices commonly used in control system and

briefly outline their operating principles.

No Temperature measuring device Operating principles

1 Infrared thermometer Contain lens that used to focus infrared light from an

object onto a detector called thermopile. Thermopile

will absorb the infrared radiation, turns it into heat

and changes into electricity. That is why the infrared

thermometer is very sensitive.

2 Gas actuated thermometer The tube is filled with gas (usually helium). The

kinetic energy of the helium gas increases as

temperature increases. Thus, it deforms the

measuring tube and gives reading on the scaling.

3 Bimetallic thermometer The indicator is attached with two different metals

with different thermal expansion. The bimetal will

expand and contract based on temperature. Thus, it

will give the reading of the change in temperature.