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) What is the difference between internal combustion engine and external combustion and
gasoline engine and diesel engine?
External combustion engines are those in which combustion takes place outside the engine.
Steam engine and steam turbines are the common example for e.g. In steam engine or steam
turbine, heat generated due to combustion of fuel is employed to generate high pressure steam
which is used as the working fluid in reciprocating engine or turbine.
Internal combustion engines are the petrol or diesel engines which we encounter in our daily life,
the products of combustion are generated by air fuel combustion inside engine cylinder and
these are our working fluid also .Hence, combustion takes place inside the engine and products
of combustion are working fluids also.
In theory, diesel engines and gasoline engines are quite similar. They are both internal
combus-tion engines designed to convert the chemical energy available in fuel into mechanical
energy. This mechanical energy moves pistons up and down inside cylinders. The pistons are
connected to a crankshaft, and the up-and-down motion of the pistons, known as linear motion,
creates the rotary motion needed to turn the wheels of a car forward.
Both diesel engines and gasoline engines covert fuel into energy through a series of small
explosions or combustions. The major difference between diesel and gasoline is the way these
explosions happen. In a gasoline engine, fuel is mixed with air, compressed by pistons and ignited
by sparks from spark plugs. In a diesel engine, however, the air is compressed first, and then the
fuel is injected. Because air heats up when it's compressed, the fuel ignites.
2.) What are the advantages and disadvantages of diesel and gasoline engine?
Advantages of Diesel engine
 Engine Longevity
 Excellent for towing
 Great fuel economy
 Can use alternative fuels
 Mechanical simplicity
Disadvantages of Diesel engine
 Operating noise
 Initial expense
 Engine emissions and maintenance
Advantages of Gasoline engine
 Costs less
 Efficient
 Greater raw power
Disadvantages of Gasoline engine
Fire hazard
Short life span
Non-renewable source of energy

3. What are the different types of engine according to cylinder arrangement and according to
On the basis of arrangement of Cylinders
Three, four, five, six, eight and twelve cylinders are used in car engines. Buses and trucks
Use twelve and sixteen cylinder engines. The engine cylinders can be arranged in the following
 In a row (in-line)
 In two rows or banks set at an angle (V-type)
 In two rows, opposing each other (flat, or pancake)
On the basis of strokes
 Two stroke engine
 Four stroke engine
4.) Describe the following parts of an engine.
a) Cylinder – A cylinder is the central working part of a reciprocating engine or pump, the
space in which a piston travels.
b) Cylinder head – It sits above the cylinders on top of the cylinder block. It closes in the top
of the cylinder, forming the combustion chamber.
c) Crank case – In an internal combustion engine of the reciprocating type, the crankcase is
the housing for the crankshaft. The enclosure forms the largest cavity in the engine and
is located below the cylinder(s), which in a multicylinder engine is usually integrated into
one or several cylinder blocks.
d) Cylinder block – The cylinder block is an integrated structure comprising the cylinder(s) of
a reciprocating engine and often some or all of their associated surrounding structures
(coolant passages, intake and exhaust passages and ports, and crankcase).
e) Piston – A piston is a component of reciprocating engines, reciprocating pumps, gas
compressors and pneumatic cylinders, among other similar mechanisms. It is the moving
component that is contained by a cylinder and is made gas-tight by piston rings.
f) Piston ring – A piston ring is a split ring that fits into a groove on the outer diameter of a
piston in a reciprocating engine such as an internal combustion engine or steam engine.
g) Crankshaft – A crankshaft—related to crank—is a mechanical part able to perform a
conversion between reciprocating motion and rotational motion
h) Camshaft – In internal combustion engines with pistons, the camshaft is used to operate
poppet valves. It consists of a cylindrical rod running the length of the cylinder bank with
a number of oblong lobes protruding from it, one for each valve.
5.) Define the following.
Intake – The intake event is when the air-fuel mixture is introduced to fill the combustion
chamber. The intake event occurs when the piston moves from TDC to BDC and the intake valve
is open. The movement of the piston toward BDC creates a low pressure in the cylinder.
Compression stroke – In this stroke the piston compresses the air-fuel mixture in preparation for
ignition during the power stroke
Power stroke – The stage of the cycle of an internal combustion engine in which the piston is
driven outward by the expansion of gases.
Exhaust stroke – The exhaust stroke is the fourth of four stages in a four stroke internal
combustion engine cycle. In this stage gases remaining in the cylinder from the fuel ignited during
the compression step are removed from the cylinder through an exhaust valve at the top of the
Torque – Torque is a measure of how much a force acting on an object causes that object to
Engine horse power – Engine power or horsepower is the maximum power that an engine can
put out. It can be expressed in kilowatts or horsepower.
Engine efficiency – Engine efficiency of thermal engines is the relationship between the total
energy contained in the fuel, and the amount of energy used to perform useful work.