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Measurement

jou r n a l h o m e pa ge: w ww . el s evi er . c o m/ lo c at e /m e asu r em en t

L.J. Wang a, L. Hu a,⇑, Z.C. Zhu a, P. Ye b, X. Fu a

a

The State Key Laboratory of Fluid Power Transmission and Control, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, People’s Republic of China

b

Tancy Instrument Corporation, Cangnan, People’s Republic of China

a r t i c l e i n f o a b s t r a c t

Article history: A simple analytical method is introduced to calculate the sensitivity of Coriolis mass ﬂow-

Received 10 March 2010 meter (CMF). The deﬁnition of the sensitivity is further developed based on the reciprocity

Received in revised form 2 March 2011 principle, through employing two approaches: selecting the moment when the displace-

Accepted 8 March 2011

ment of drive point is zero as the calculation moment; reducing the degree of high-order

Available online 12 March 2011

static indeterminacy by taking a half of the structure due to symmetry in structure and

anti-symmetry in load. With these approaches, the method can be used to calculate sensi-

Keywords:

tivities for the ﬂowmeters with any shaped tubes and anywhere detected positions; thus,

Coriolis mass ﬂowmeter

provides theory basis for tube shape design and detected positions determination. Detail

Sensitivity

Analytical calculation analytical calculations for typical Straight-Circle-joint-shaped CMFs are illustrated. The

U-shaped method is validated on a published U-CMF and then, is further illustrated and experimen-

Narrowed-U-shaped tally validated through predicting the most sensitive detected point for a narrowed-U-CMF.

2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

1. Introduction which distorts the tube and causes phase difference be-

tween the output signals of the two EMVSs. Thus, the mass

Mass ﬂow rate measurement is very important in many ﬂow Qm can be determined by ST through measuring the

occasions, such as measurements of salinity in determina- time difference DT between the EMVSs’ movements (pro-

tion of the dielectric of the water [1], ingredients in chem- portional to the phased difference).

ical reaction [2], and compressed nature gas in energy The ratio DT/Qm is commonly deﬁned as the sensitivity

trading [3], etc. Being an instrument to directly measure S of CMF [5,6], which is a very important performance

the true mass ﬂow rate, Coriolis mass ﬂowmeter (CMF) parameter for a CMF, especially for the CMFs used to mea-

has attracted more and more interests in the past few dec- sure small mass ﬂow rate (such as used in perfume indus-

ades, for its high accuracy, high rangeability and high try [2]) and ﬂows of small density ﬂuids (such as used in

repeatability [4]. compressed nature gas trading [3]). By now, various stud-

Typical CMF is composed of electromagnetic driver ies have been developed to improve CMF performance in

(EMD), vibrating tube (VT), electromagnetic velocity sensor this regard, which can be formulated to two approaches:

(EMVS two EMVSs are usually installed symmetrically at

upstream and downstream with the EMD respectively) – Designing more effective VT shapes to magnify the

and signal transmitter (ST). At zero ﬂow, the whole tube vi- effect of the Coriolis force: U-shaped [7], X-shaped

brates synchronously (in phase) as alternating current [4], D-shaped [8], narrowed-U-shaped [9], and

passing through the EMD. While there is ﬂow passing straight-shaped [10] have been developed.

through the tube, Coriolis force will be acted on the tube – Finding more suitable (larger DT) EMVS installation

wall by the ﬂow. The force has opposite directions on the positions (detected points) on the VT [11].

upstream and downstream tube walls with the EMD,

At same time, sensitivity calculation methods (includ-

⇑ Corresponding author. Tel./fax: +86 057187953395. ing analytical [7,12] and numerical [13–15] ones) are also

E-mail address: cmeehuli@zju.edu.cn (L. Hu). studied to exploit the operation of the CMF and also

0263-2241/$ - see front matter 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

doi:10.1016/j.measurement.2011.03.011

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Nomenclature

a mean radius of tube, a = (r + r0 )/2 G shear modulus

dDP displacement of drive point GJ torsional rigidity (G J)

dMP displacement of measured (detected) point I second moment

l distance of detected point from end point of VT J polar moment J = 2pa3t

lx position of detected point on VT Mf ﬂuid mass per unit length

lST length of the straight segment of tube M(s) moment on VT produced by load force

r inner radius of tube MðsÞ moment on VT produced by unit force

r0 outer radius of tube Qm mass ﬂow rate

rCT curve radius of the curved segment of tube T additional torque added on drive point

s position parameter along the VT T(s) torque on VT produced by load force

v velocity of ﬂuid ﬂow T ðsÞ torque on VT produced by unit force

vMP velocity of measured (detected) point S sensitivity of CMF, S = DT/Qm

x angle velocity of tube DdMP relative displacement between detected points

x position parameter of VT straight section Dt time difference between detected points

x0 position of detected point on VT straight section u narrowed degree of narrowed-U-CMF

E modulus of elasticity u(s) angle between tangent of VT and direction of

EI ﬂexural rigidity (E I) moment

F additional force added on drive point h angle parameter of VT curve section

FC coriolis force h0 angle position of detected point on VT curve

F(s) load force on VT including f and fc section

provide theory base for above sensitivity improvement Eq. (1) will be still applicable if the sensitivity is calculated

works on VT shapes and detected positions. By now, ana- at the moment when the displacement of drive point

lytical models for U-CMF [7] and straight-CMF [12] have dDP = 0, for relative displacement and velocity of two

been built based on the theory of vibrating beams in inter- EMVSs reach their maximum (equal the magnitudes of

action with the 1D ﬂuid ﬂow. However, in order to exploit these two parameters) at this moment. The parameters

the entire vibrating procedure of the whole VTs, the calcu- DdMP and vMP at this moment can further be calculated

lations are very complex eigenvalues problems; thus, the as following equations, according to the basic formulations

analytical models prove to be efﬁcient only for these spe- in typical mechanics of materials

cial shaped VTs. Recent advance in mathematical modeling mk

ks

basis for numerical approach to solve the problem. In v MP ¼ x l ð3Þ

[14], the uncertainties associated with ﬁnite element mod-

eling of CMF are discussed in 1D or 2D. A 3D ﬂuid–struc- where mk is torque produced by Coriolis force and drive

ture coupled numerical model is built in [15] to simulate force, ks is torsional rigidity of the whole tube structure,

the operation of CMF. A common disadvantage of the mk/ks is the torsional angle according to a basic hooke’s

numerical approaches is different models should be built law of torsion in typical mechanics of materials, b is the

for different size parameters (even for same VT shape). distance between two EMVSs, x is angle velocity of VT

To optimize the performance of CMF (for example improve and l is the distance of detected point from end point of

its sensitivity), researchers usually have to built large VT. However, it is still very difﬁcult to solve the DdMP

amount of models to ﬁnd best size parameters and de- determination problem when dealing with the complex

tected points. So, it is still very attractive if we can supply geometry in practical sensitivity calculations, for it is not

a simple analytical method to solve the problem. very easy to ﬁnd the inexplicit value of the ks, which even

As mentioned, providing simple analytical method to changes as different temperatures and pressures in VT

exploit the entire vibrating procedure of the whole VTs is [17,18]. The deﬁnition in [16] has a very clear physical

still very difﬁcult. What studied in this paper is an analyt- meaning and thus, provides a basis for further sensitivity

ical method to calculate the CMF sensitivity simply. The calculations, which also include the method in this paper.

method is based on a deﬁnition of the time difference The method in this paper further develops the analyti-

(the most important parameter to calculate the CMF sensi- cal sensitivity calculation method by solving the DdMP

tivity) given by [16], which relates the time difference to determination problem based on the reciprocity principle

the relative displacement of two detecting points. Accord- proposed in paper [19]. This reciprocity principle, which

ing to [16], the time difference can be calculated through states that the alteration of the VT at the detecting points

dividing the magnitude of relative displacement DdMP by can be calculated as the integral of the Coriolis force ﬁeld

the magnitude of two EMVSs velocity vMP. So the sensitiv- multiplied by the mode shape driven by unit forces acting

ity S = Dt/Qm can be deduced to following equation: at the sensing points, is particularly useful in analytical

modeling and analyzing of the CMFs (such as evaluating

DdMP 1 the velocity proﬁle effects in straight tube CMF [20,21]).

S¼ ð1Þ

v MP Qm By further employing two approaches introduced below,

1119 L.J.

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1117–1127 1119

the method in this paper solves the DdMP determination amplitude, which is the general situation in the commer-

problem, making the sensitivity deﬁnition and the reci- cially available CMFs; (2) The VT consists of rigid sections,

procity principle applicable in actual calculation; then, which assumes that the whole VT vibrates with the same

provides a basis for both designing more effective vibrating angular velocity; (3) It assumes an incompressible ﬂuid

tube shapes to magnify the effect of the Coriolis force and and a uniform (ﬂat proﬁle) ﬂow within the VT ignoring

ﬁnding more sensitive detected positions on the tube. The the effect of the distribution of velocity.

remainder of this page offers the followings: A straight VT is chosen here as an example to illustrate

the general principle of our method. As shown in Fig. 1, the

1. In the presentation of the generally principle, a solvable VT is clamped at two end points. When ﬂuid ﬂowing

calculation model is built based on two approaches through the VT, its shape will be distorted from straight

employed to solve the DdMP determination problem, due to the Coriolis force. As mentioned above, to calculate

which include selecting the moment dDP = 0 as the cal- the sensitivity, the relative displacement DdMP between the

culation moment and reducing the degree of high-order two EMVSs should be obtained at ﬁrst. This is exactly

static indeterminacy by taking a half of the structure to the insurmountable problem in [16]. In our method, two

a statically determinate structure. Then, general expres- approaches are employed to solve the problem and then,

sions of moment and torque in the model for any shape the displacement of any point on the whole VT can be

VT and any detected positions are introduced in imple- calculated.

ment considerations, to explain how the method calcu-

late the relative displacement at any point on any 2.1.1. Approach I: as shown in Fig. 1a, the moment when the

shaped tube in theory at same time. Detail derivation displacement of drive point dDP = 0 is selected as the

process for exact analytical expressions of Straight- calculation moment

Circle-joint-shaped type CMF sensitivities are given Generally speaking, there are two kinds of forces being

as an illustration of the model calculation. The error acted on the VT during the vibrating procedure, which in-

sources are also discussed at the last of this section. clude the drive force from EMD and Coriolis forces from the

2. Due to its typical in structure and available (published) measured ﬂow. In most CMFs, the drive force is changing at

experiment data, a U-CMF introduced in [7] is selected real-time according to the ﬂow conditions [22], so it is very

as a special veriﬁcation example to illustrate and vali- difﬁcult to obtain the actual value of this force whether

date the method and its analytical calculation expres- through measurement or calculation, and the VT displace-

sions. As will be shown, the comparison between the ment caused by this force is also difﬁcult to be calculated.

calculated sensitivity and published experimental data In our study, the output force performances of EMD for dif-

show excellent agreement. ferent dDP are analyzed and utilized to select the suitable

3. The method is further illustrated and experimentally calculation moment. The selection of the moment when

validated by predicting the most sensitive detected dDP = 0 is exactly based on the analyzed feature that the

point for a narrowed-U-CMF. This also gives a direct displacement of the whole VT caused by the drive force

introduction of the exact industrial application of our from EMD is equal to zero at this moment. Further more,

method. values of the relative displacement and velocity of the

detecting points reach maximums (equal the magnitudes

2. General principle of these two parameters) at this selected moment, which

assures that the deﬁnition in [16] and the Eq. (1) are still

2.1. Calculation model applicable in our method.

This approach greatly easies the DdMP calculation not

The following discussion explains the generally princi- only through excluding the inﬂuence caused by the drive

ple of our method, with the following assumptions: (1) force, but also simplifying the Coriolis force calculation to

The VT vibrates in the fundamental mode with small be a simple expression.

length

VT at its neutral position

End point (without the flow effect) End point

Coriolis forces F c2

Drive point

(ignoring the small VT distortion caused by the Coriolis forces)

Coriolis forces Fc1 F VT

length

VT at its neutral position T

End point (without the flow effect)

Drive point

(b) Calculated half of the VT

1120 L.J.

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~

Fc ¼ 2Mf x

~ v

~ ð4Þ including Coriolis force and additional force; the moment

Mðs; lxÞ and torque T ðs; lxÞ of every point on integration

where Mf is the ﬂuid mass per unit length and ~ v is the path are caused by unit force acted on the detected point.

velocity of measured ﬂuid ﬂow. According to this equation, Utilizing the symmetry of the structure, the relative

we can ﬁnd that in the selected moment, for straight VT, displacement of the two EMVSs can be calculated by

the Coriolis forces acted on it not only have opposite direc- DdMP = 2dMP and then, substituting it into (1), a general

tions on the upstream and downstream halves divided calculation equation about the sensitivity can be given as

with the drive point (where EMD is installed), but also follow.

have sinusoidal distributed magnitudes (as shown in

R MðsÞMðs;lxÞ

R T ðsÞT ðs;lxÞ

Fig. 1a) after ignoring the small displacement due to the 2 ds þ ds

EI GJ

distortion caused by the Coriolis forces (generally, the ratio SðlxÞ ¼ ð8Þ

Q m xl

of the displacement to the VT length is as small as 10 3).

2.1.2. Approach II: as show in Fig. 1b, the degree of static 2.2. Implementation considerations

indeterminacy is reduced by taking a half of the structure to a

statically determinate structure based on the symmetrical Fig. 2 is used here to introduce the implementation

feature in structure and anti-symmetrical feature in load, to considerations to obtain exact formulations of M(s), T(s),

make the model solvable Mðs; lxÞ and T ðs; lxÞ and then, illustrate how the model

Although selecting dDP = 0 as the calculation moment, can be used to design more effective VT shapes and ﬁnding

the displacement of VT still can not be calculated directly. more suitable EMVS installation positions (detected

As shown in Fig. 1a, the whole VT model is a high-order points) to improve the CMF performance in sensitivity.

statically indeterminate system, which is over-constrained The calculated VT in Fig. 2 has a random shape. A curve

and unsolvable. Here, we reduce the degree of static inde- coordinate s is deﬁned along the VT. Take the point s = s0 to

terminacy by taking a half of the structure as a statically be an illustration, the loaded force on it is F(s0 ); the chord

determinate structure and adding an additional force F length from it to the moment and torque calculated point

and torque T at the dividing point (drive point). This is is given by a function d(s, s0 ); the angle between the chord

based on the symmetrical feature in structure and anti- and the normal direction at the calculated point is u(s, s0 );

symmetrical feature in load. thus, the moment and torque at the calculated point

Utilizing the precondition that the twisted angle and caused by the loaded force at the point s = s’ can be

bended displacement of the drive point is zero at the se- calculated as

lected calculation moment, the additional force F and tor- DMðs; s0 Þ ¼ Fðs0 Þdðs; s0 Þ sin½uðs; s0 Þ

que T can be calculated through solving the following ð9Þ

DTð s; s0Þ ¼ Fð s0Þ dð s; s0Þ cos ½ uð s; s0Þ

canonical equation:

d11 d12 T D1F The total moment M(s) and toque T(s) can be calculated by

þ ¼0 ð5Þ integrations of DM(s, s0 ) and DT(s, s0 ) at a range 0 6 s0 6 s

d21 d22 F D2F

respectively

where d11 and d21 are twisted angle and bended displace- ( Rs 0

ment caused by unit torque, d12 and d22 are twisted angle

MðsÞ ¼ Fðs0 Þdðs; s0 Þ sin½uðs; s0 Þ ds

0

Rs 0

ð10Þ

and bended displacement caused by unit force, D1F and T ðsÞ ¼ 0

Fðs0 Þdðs; s0 Þ cos½uðs; s0 Þ ds

D2F are twisted angle and bended displacement caused

At the same calculated point, the moment and torque

by load force. We have

caused by the unit force at the detected point, can be cal-

( D2F þd21 T culated according to (9), by setting the parameter s0 = lx

F¼ d22

6Þ and the loaded force F(s0 )=1 N

D1F d22 D2F d12

ð

¼ T

d11 d22 d21 d12 (

Mðs; lxÞ ¼ dðs; lxÞ sin½uðs; lxÞ

ð11Þ

A simpliﬁed calculation of the additional force F and torque T ðs; lxÞ ¼ dðs; lxÞ cos½uðs; lxÞ

T is also provided in Appendix.

Through above two approaches, the displacement of Substituting Eqs. (10) and (11) into Eq. (8), we can obtain

any point on the whole VT can be calculated according to entire formulations to calculate the CMF sensitivity. The

the reciprocity principle proposed in paper [19], employing

the typical unit-loaded method in mechanics [23].

dMPðlxÞ ¼

1121 L.J.

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Z Z

MðsÞMðs; T ðsÞT ðs; lxÞ

ds

lxÞ

ds 7

EI

þ GJ

ð Þ

the curve coordinate along the VT, which is related to the

shape of VT; lx means the detected point position; the inte-

gration path is from the detected point to the end point

along the VT; the moment M(s) and torque T(s) of every Fig. 2. Illustration of implementation considerations for random shaped

point on integration path are caused by a total load force VT.

1122 L.J.

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ar

r'

Cross-section of VT

x0

z

x

0

End point x

y

v

EMD with vibration

rCT

angle velocity w

lST

remained parameters are determined by the shape of the along the circle section. The angle turning from the de-

VT and the position of detected point respectively or to- tected point (as locates on the circle section) to the joint

gether. In other words, the formulations can be used to cal- point is h0. Thus, parameters mappings can be given in

culate sensitivity for any shaped CMFs through giving the Table 1, which will be utilized in following calculation:

basic shape function of its VT, and to ﬁnding more suitable

detected points through giving different values of lx. 2.3.2. When detected point locates on the straight section

Utilizing the mapping relationship in Table 1, the mo-

2.3. Illustration of the calculation with Straight-Circle-joint- ment M(s) and torque T(s) at any point on the straight sec-

shaped CMF tion can be deviated from Eq. (10) to

8

2

> MðxÞ ¼ Fðx þ x0 þ r CT cos /Þ þ 21 F Cðx þ x 0Þ

Many typical VTs, such as U-shaped, narrowed- > R p2 þ/

>

>

> þ 0 F Cr CT sinða /Þ½ðx þ x 0 Þ þ r CT cosða /Þ da

U-shaped, X-shaped, and D-shaped, can be considered ex- >

>

< ¼ Fðx þ x0 þ rCT cos /Þ þ 12 F C ðx þ x0 Þ 2

actly or approximately to be composed of several straight

( )

4

F C rCT cosð2/Þ 1 cos 2 / þ 2

and circle sections. This kind of CMFs are deﬁned as F C r CT ðx þ x0 Þ cos / þ 1 2 p

> þ 1 2 p

Straight-Circle-joint-shaped CMFs here. To illustrate the

> 2 C CT

> R p2 þ /

calculation process, a narrowed-U-shaped VT proposed > 2

> T ðxÞ ¼ Fr CT ð1 þ sin /Þ þ 0 F C rCT sinða /Þ½1 sinða /Þ da

by [9] as shown in Fig. 3 is chosen to be introduced in de- ¼ Fr CT ð1 þ sin /Þ þ F C r2 p

ð12Þ

nation of the advantages of U-shaped and D-shaped

structures. Its torsional rigidity of the whole structure is As shown in Fig. 3, a coordinate system (with variable x)

smaller than the U-shaped structure, and integration path whose origin locates at the detected point is established

is longer than the U-shaped structure, but the vibrating along the straight part of VT. The distance from the de-

frequency of this structure is smaller than the D-shaped tected point (as locates on the straight section) to the joint

structure [9]. The reason we select this VT as example here point of straight and circle sections is assumed as x0. A sim-

is its generality in shape function, which can be deformed

to a series of VT shapes through changing several parame-

ters. As shown in Fig. 3, the VT is composed of two straight

sections with length lST and one circle section with turning

angle p + 2u and radius rCT. It can be veriﬁed that the VT

can be transformed to U-shaped, X-shaped and straight-

shaped VTs respectively as u = 0, lST = 0 and rCT = 0, and

remains narrowed-U shape in other time.

1123 L.J.

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1117–1127 1123

In the equation of M(x), the 1st item means the moment The moment Mðs; lxÞ and torque T ðs; lxÞ caused by the

caused by the additional force F (its formula and detail der- unit force can be calculated according to

ivation is presented in Appendix), the 2nd and 3rd item

mean the moment caused by the Coriolis force FC acted

on the straight and circle sections respectively. In the

equation of T(x), the 1st item means the torque caused

by the additional force F, the 2nd item mean the torque Table 1

Parameters mapping.

caused by the Coriolis force FC acted on the circle section,

and the torque caused by the Coriolis force FC acted on Parameters On straight section On curve section

the straight section is zero. s x + x0 rCT (h + h0)

lx x0 r CT h0

ilar coordinate system with variable h is also established

1124 L.J.

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(

MðxÞ ¼ x The moment Mðs; lxÞ and torque T ðs; lxÞ caused by the

ð13Þ unit force can be calculated according to

T ðxÞ ¼ 0

(

MðhÞ ¼ r CT sin h

Then, the second item in (8) can be reduced and the sensi- 2

ð16Þ

tivity formula becomes to T ðhÞ ¼ 2r 2CT sin h2

( 2F 2 FC 1

)

5 1 2

1

1

C

EI

l

8 ST

þ 24 x0 þ 3 r CT cos / ðlST x0 Þ þ EI 2

x0 þ r CT cos /x0 ðlST x0 Þ

Sðx0 Þ ¼ ð14Þ

Q x FC 2 2F 1 1 1

m þ 4EI ð1 þ cos 2/ÞrCT ðlST x0 Þ þ EI

l þ 6 x0 þ 2 r CT cos / ðlST

3 ST

x0 Þ

The parameter x can be reduced after substituting According to the Eq. (8), to calculate the displacement

the equations of FC (Eq. (4)) and F (Eq. (30) in Appendix) of the detected point which is located on the circle section,

into (14). The distance parameter l of detected point from it is still required to know the moment M(s) and torque T(s)

end point of VT can be calculated as l = lST x0. Other of any point on straight section. The value of the moment

parameters are deﬁned in the nomenclature table in M(s) and torque T(s) can be calculated simply according

Appendix. to Eq. (12), making the x0 in Eq. (12) be zero:

8 R pþ/

> MðxÞ ¼ Fðx þ r CT cos /Þ þ 21 F C x 2 þ 2 F C r CT sinða /Þ½x þ r CT cosða /Þ da

0

>

¼ Fðx þ r CT cos /Þ þ 12 F C x2 þ F C r CT x cos / þ 14 F C r 2CTð1 þ cos 2/Þ

p / ð17Þ

R 2þ

> T ðxÞ ¼ FrCT ð1 þ sin /Þ þ F C r 2 sinða /Þ½1 sinða /Þ da

> 0 CT

¼ FrCT ð1 þ sin /Þ þ F C r 2CT 1 p4

2.3.3. When detected point locates on the circle section where the physical meanings of the items in the equation

Also utilizing the mapping relation in Table 1, the mo- of M(x) and equation of T(x) are of the same with Eq. (12).

ment M(s) and torque T(s) at any point on the circle section The moment Mðs; lxÞ and torque T ðs; lxÞ of any point on

can be deviated from Eq. (10) to the straight section caused by the unit force can be calcu-

lated according to

8 R hþh

2 sinða /Þ sinðh þ h 0 aÞda

> MðhÞ ¼ FrCT sinðh þ h 0 Þ þ 0 0 F Cr CT

> ( )

> 3

cos / sin ðh þ h Þ cos / cosðh þ h Þ½h þ sin 2ðh þ h Þ

h

> 0 0 0 0

> ¼ Fr sinðh þ h Þ þ 1 F r 2

CT 0 C

>

< 2 CT

sin / sinðh þ h0 Þ½h þ h0 þ 1 sin 2ðh þ h Þ þ sin / cosðh þ h Þ sin ðh þ h Þ

2 0 0 0

hþh0

ð15Þ

2 hþh0 2 2 hþh0 a

R 2

> T ðhÞ ¼ 2Fr CT sin þ 0 2F C r CT sinða /Þ sin da

> 2 ( 2 )

> 1 2

> 2 hþh0 2

cos /½1 cosðh þ h0 Þ sin / sinðh þ h0 Þ 2

sin ðh þ h0 Þ cosðh þ h0 þ /Þ

> ¼ 2Fr CT sin þ F C r CT

2 h h h h

þ 0 þ 0

þ cosðh þ h0 Þ sin / þ 1 sin 2ðh þ h0 Þ sinðh þ h0 Þ cos / 1

sin 2ðh þ h0 Þ

2 4 2 4

<

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1117–1127 1125

8

Same with (12), the 1st item in the equation of M(x) means MðxÞ ¼ x

the moment caused by the additional force F, the 2nd item ð18Þ

:

mean the moment caused by the Coriolis force FC acted on T ðxÞ ¼ r CT ½1 sinðh0 /Þ

the circle section. The 1st item in the equation of T(x)

means the torque caused by the additional force F, the

2nd item mean the torque caused by the Coriolis force FC Then, the sensitivity formula of any detected point h0 on

acted on the circle section. the circle section becomes to (19)

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1117–1127 1126

hR p h i

2

lST MðxÞ MðxÞ

R /þ 2 0 MðhÞ MðhÞ

R lST T ðxÞ T ðxÞ R /þ 2 h0 T ðhÞ T ðhÞ

0 EI

dx þ 0 EI

rCT dh þ 0 GJ

dx þ 0 p GJ

r CT dh

Sðh0 Þ ¼

Q m xl

8 9

FC 1 r CT 3 Fr2CT

EI 8 ST >

>

> h i >

>

FlST 1 2 F C r 3 lST

> 1 1 2 >

> þ

> EI 3 ST 2l þ r CT cosðh 0 /ÞlST þ 2

r CT l ST cos / þ r CT cos / cosðh0 /Þ þ CT

4EI cosðh 0 /Þð1 þ cos 2/Þ >

>

> >

p

> Fr 3 h 2

i

F C r 2 l3

>

p

> þ CT / þ p h0 cos h0

1

cos h0 sin 2ð/ þ 2

p

h0 Þ þ sin h0 sin ð/ þ 2 h0 Þ þ

CT ST

ð1 þ cos 2/Þ >

> 2EI 2 2 8EI >

< =

2

FC r 4 2 1 2 2 FC r 4 1 p ð19Þ

¼

Q m xl > 8EI sin / cos h0 ð/ þ 4 p þ /p h0 þ / sin 2/ þ 2 sin 2/Þ 8EI sin / sin h0 ð/ þ h0 þ

CT CT

2 sin 2/ þ 2 Þ

>

> F r4 F C r 2 l2

>

> þ C CT cos / sin h ð/ 2 þ 1 p 2 2

>

> 8EI 0 4 h0 þ 3 þ /p 3 cos2 /Þ þ 2EI CT ST

cosðh0 /Þ cos / >

> >

> FC r4 Tl >

> CT 3p 2 2 ST >

> þ 8EI cos / cos h0 2

þ sin 2/ 3h0 þ 3/ 2/ cos / p cos / þ GJ

½r CT r CT sinðh0 /Þ >

> >

> FC r2 r r 2 /l r 3

>

: CT CT p CT ST 1 CT ;

> >

þ GJ 6

l

4 ST

þ lST cos / 2

sin / 2

þ 4 lST sin 2/ 3

sin /

where the parameter l in Eq. (19) means the distance of de- (b) As mentioned above, our method assumes a uniform

tected point from end point of VT. When the detected point (ﬂat proﬁle) ﬂow within the VT and ignores the

located on the circle section, the parameter l can be calcu- effect of the distribution of velocity, which causes

lated as the calculated results differ from the experimental

qﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ results, as discussed in paper [19].

2 2

l¼ ½lST þ r CT cosðh0 /Þ þ ½rCT r CT sinðh0 /Þ ð20Þ (c) When calculating the second moment I according to

the equation I = pr3t, the braces on VT and the added

mass of the EMVSs and EMD are ignored in this

2.4. Discussion about error sources equation. So, as will be shown in following calcula-

tion examples, the calculated value of I will be smal-

The major error sources of above calculation include:

ler than the true value, which causes the calculated S

larger than the true value.

(a) In above study, the moment when dDP = 0 is selected

(d) Errors are induced due to imprecise determination

as the calculation moment. In this calculation, the

of physical parameters, e.g. the value of E is assumed

magnitudes of Coriolis forces acting on VT is

to be constant, but actually it changes with different

assumed to be sinusoidal distributed and unchang-

temperatures and pressures.

ing. However, in actual VT vibrating procedure, the

Coriolis forces lead VT to distort, and the distortion

of VT lead the Coriolis force to change in turn due 3. Validation on a U-CMF

to the changed ﬂuid ﬂow. In other words, the

ﬂuid–structure interaction arises at all times. The CMF with U-shaped VT is one of the most widely used

neglect of this interaction in above sensitivity calcu- in industry; furthermore, experimental data and analytical

lation method brings some errors. solution for sensitivity of an actual U-CMF has been given

EMVS

angle velocity w

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lST z

rCT x

End point

EMVS

v

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Table 2

Parameters of the validated U-CMF.

Parameters rCT (m) lST (m) r0 (mm) r (mm) a (m) E (GPa) G (GPa) EI (N/m) GJ (N/m) Mf (kg/m)

Values 0.15 0.64 0.0254 0.0236 0.0245 208 80 17,288 13,299 1.7488

h i

in [7]; thus, we select this example to be a good illustration F C ðlST þr CT Þ ðlST þr CT Þ3 r CT ðlST þr CT Þ r CT F ðl þr Þ4

3 3EI

þ 2

GJ

þ 3EI

3 C ST

8EI

CT

i

2 3 r3

ðlST þr CT Þ 2EI r CT lST þr CT ðlST þr CT Þ ð ST þ CT Þ

CMF is illustrated in Fig. 4, where the EMD is installed in þ CT

þ CT

þ

2EI 2 GJ EI 3EI GJ 3EI

ð lST þr CT Þ

the middle of the curve section, and two EMVSs are in-

ð23Þ

stalled on the two joint points of the straight and the curve

sections respectively. The space and physical parameters The experiment data of time difference verses different

are listed in Table 2. velocity of the measured ﬂuid (water) have been given

As stated in section 2, the narrowed-U-CMF becomes U- in [7]. We plot them again in Fig. 5. In the experiment

CMF when u = 0, so following sensitivity expression can be system of [7], other velocity ﬂowmeter was adopted to

measure the velocity of ﬂuid in VT, and the time differ-

deduced from Eq. (14) by setting the parameter u = 0 and

x0 = 0 ence was obtained by counting the pulses in ST. The

experiment curve is approximately linear, according to

1 2F C 1 1 2 FC 2 which the experiment sensitivity can be calculated. As

S¼ lST þ r CT lST þ r lST

Q x EI 8 3 2EI CT shown in Fig. 5, the time difference reaches 0.72e 5 s

m

2F 1 1 when the velocity of the measured ﬂuid equals 2 m/s,

þ lST þ r CT lST ð21Þ

EI 3 2 then the sensitivity of this deﬁned U-CMF can be calcu-

lated according to its deﬁnition. Assuming the experi-

where FC is deﬁned in Eq. (4). F can be calculated as follow- ment sensitivity as S0u , we have

ing equation by setting u = 0 in Eq. (30) in Appendix

CT

p 1 1 3 2 3 2 3 r CT 4 p r CT TlST r CT

3

r4 lST þ þ

ST þ 6 GJ

F¼ 3 2

ð22Þ

pr r

2

CT 1 1 2 CT

4EI

þ EI l

3 ST

þ r CT lST þ r CT lST þ GJ

ðlST þ r CT Þ

S0 0:20585 10

5

s2 =kg 24

¼ ¼ ¼ ð Þ

according to U

Qm v Mf

-5

ity points are calculated. The calculated curve is plotted in

x 10

1.5

-5

12

1.25 Experiment data

(adapted from [7]) 10

1

8

sitivity S (s /kg)

2

Δt (s)

0.75 6

0.5

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4

0.25

2

0

0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 4 0 0.025 0.05 0.075 0.1 0.125 0.15 0.175 0.2 0.225 0.28

v (m/s) s (m)

Fig. 5. Time difference versus velocity of measured ﬂuid. Fig. 6. Sensitivity along the half-tube of narrowed-U-CMF.

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Fig. 5. According to our calculation, the time difference 4.1. Predicting the most sensitive detected positions

changes linearly with ﬂuid velocity, and the linear calcu-

lated curve is very close to the experiment curve as shown The parameters of the narrowed-U-shaped VT are listed

in Fig. 5. Then the calculation of the sensitivity can be car- in Table 3. Using the parameter mapping in Table 1 and

ried out according to the calculated curve or according to Eqs. (14) and (19), the change of sensitivity S versus differ-

Eqs. (21)–(23) with the parameters in Table 2. Assuming ent detected position can be calculated and shown in Fig. 6.

the calculated sensitivity as Su, we have We can see that the most sensitive detected position lo-

cates on the circle section as s = 0.12246m (h0 = p/2). The

Dt Dt 5 sensitivity S = 1.1237e 4 s2/kg.

SU ¼ ¼ ¼ 0:20802 10 s2 =kg ð25Þ

Qm v Mf

4.2. Sensitivity performance experiment of narrowed-U-CMF

The relative error between the calculated and experiment product and comparison

sensitivities is

0 According to the optimization result, we ﬁx the EMVSs

SU US

S0U ther built to test the sensitivity performance of the nar-

rowed-U-CMF:

4. Application of the method in predicting the most 1. The tested narrowed-U-CMF is shown in Fig. 7a, which

sensitive detected positions for narrowed-U-CMF includes a transducer (with inner structure shown in

the left half of Fig. 7a) and a transmitter (with signal

As mentioned above, the narrowed-U-VT was proposed processing method shown in the right half of Fig. 7a

in [9] as its combination of the advantages of U-shaped and and whole Fig. 7b). This narrowed-U-CMF is already cal-

D-shaped structures. Its torsional rigidity of the whole ibrated and the accuracy is estimated to be within

structure is smaller than the U-shaped structure, and inte- ±0.2%.

gration path is longer than the U-shaped structure, but the 2. As shown in left of Fig. 7a, the transducer is composed

vibrating frequency of this structure is smaller than the of two parallel narrowed-U-shaped VTs (with same

D-shaped structure [9]. For U-EMF, the most sensitive parameter listed in Table 3), a EMD located at the mid-

detected position is the joint point of the straight and the dle point of the VT, a temperature sensor located at the

circle sections. However, we found this rule is not correct end of VT and two EMVSs located at the most sensitive

as used in narrowed-U-CMFs. Thus, we use the proposed detected position (h0 = p/2).

analytical calculation method to ﬁnd the most sensitive 3. As shown in Fig. 7a and b, the transmitter based on DSP

detected positions for the narrowed-U-CMF. is used to drive the VT to vibrate at its fundamental

Table 3

Parameters of narrowed-U-CMF.

Parameters rCT (mm) lST (mm) r (mm) r0 (mm) a (mm) Mf (kg/m) u ( ) E (GPa) G (GPa) EI (N/m) GJ (N/m)

Values 78 81.98 2.2 3 2.6 1.5197e 2 0.09956p 208G 80G 9.1834 7.064

Signal form downstream EMVS

Amplitude (mv) EMVS signal (v)

0.2

Drive 0.1

Downstream Upstream 0

EMVS EMVS -0.1

EMD Frequency Density 0 10 20 30 40 50

Time (ms)

VT

20

frequency

10

Phase 0

Temp Sensor Rate 80 82 84 86 88 90

Frequency (HZ)

Phase (dgree)

phase 1

Temperature 2

0

-2 phase 2

-4

Transducer Transmitter 80 82 84 86 88 90

Frequency (HZ)

(a) Inner structure and principle of Narrowed-U-CMF (b) Digital signal processing of EMVS signals based on FFT

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by taking a half of the structure; thus, makes the relative

End point displacement DdMP and sensitivity S solvable by unit-load

rCT method. The method can calculate the relative displace-

ment at any point on any shaped tube in theory and then,

Narrowed-U-VT provides a basis for both designing more effective vibrating

Simplified VT φ

tube shapes to magnify the effect of the Coriolis force and

ﬁnding more sensitive detected positions on the tube.

Drive point

Detail calculation process and exact analytical expressions

Fig. 8. Simpliﬁcation of the VT structure to calculate the T easily. are illustrated with Straight-Circle-joint-shaped type

CMFs. The major error sources of the method are as fol-

lows: I. ignoring the ﬂuid–structure interaction during

the calculation; II. assuming zero VT displacement at the

frequency (feed-back control technology is employed to calculated moment dDP = 0, i.e. ignoring the time lag be-

realize precise and dynamical tracking of the frequency tween the displacement and output force of the EMD; III.

even the velocity of measured ﬂuid is changing rapidly) simpliﬁcations of the tube structure as calculating the

and realize the mass ﬂow calculation using signal pro- additional torque T; IV. imprecise determination of physi-

cessing method based on FFT method. cal parameters.

4. A data acquisition card (not shown in Fig. 7) is used to The calculation method is validated by calculating sen-

sample the two signals produced by EMVSs respec- sitivity of a U-CMF introduced in [7] and comparing the

tively. With the FFT method, the vibrating frequency f calculated result with the published experimental data.

of these two signals can be obtained (the middle The relative error between calculated and experimental

sub-ﬁgure) and then, the phase difference Df at this data is only 1.06%, which means excellent agreement.

frequency is obtained to calculate the mass ﬂow (the The method is further illustrated and experimentally vali-

bottom sub-ﬁgure). Then, the time difference can be dated by predicting the most sensitive detected point for a

calculated as Dt = Df/(360 f). narrowed-U-CMF. Different with conventional U-CMF,

5. A water circulation system (not shown in Fig. 7) is used whose most sensitive detected position is the joint point

to supply and recovery water. An electromagnetic of the straight and the curve sections, through calculation

ﬂowmeter is selected as a reference meter in the water we ﬁnd that the most sensitive detected position of the

circulation system, to monitor the ﬂow rate from the narrowed-U-CMF locates on the circle section (h0 = p/2

water circulation system online. The accuracy of the for the studied narrowed-U-CMF). An experiment system

reference meter is estimated to be within ±0.2%. is built to test the sensitivity performance of the nar-

rowed-U-CMF, and the actual sensitivity of the prototype

Experiment has been conducted to test the sensitivity agrees well with the prior calculated data (relative error

performance of this narrowed-U-CMF, with water as the is 2.47%).

measured ﬂuid passing through the VT, and keeping the As mentioned above, the proposed method can calcu-

temperature constant in the whole experiment process. late the relative displacement at any point on any shaped

When the mass ﬂow rate reach 100 kg/h in each VT, the tube in theory. Thus, further work is still needed to calcu-

frequency of the VT with the ﬂuid passing equals 91 Hz, late the sensitivity of various shaped VT which can not be

and the phase difference from two signals produced by deformed from the narrowed-U-VT, such as S-shaped VT,

the electromagnetic EMVSs equals 0.1 , then the time dif- L-shaped VT and B-shaped VT, etc. The most sensitive de-

ference can be calculated following Eq. (27). tected positions are also needed to be researched on these

0:1 1 VTs.

Dt ¼ ¼ 3:0525e 6s

360 91 Hz

ð27Þ Acknowledgements

The authors are grateful to the ﬁnancial support of the

can be calculated as follows 4

S0 ¼ ¼ ¼ 1:0968 10 ð28Þ

Q m v f M f ¼ 6s 2006CB705400), the International S&T Cooperation Pro-

100 kg=h

According to the experiment data given by Eq. (28) and the gram of China (No. 2008DFR70410) and Zhejiang Provin-

cial Natural Science Foundation of China (No. R105008).

calculated data in Fig. 6, the relative error can be calculated

S S0

S

A.1. Derivation of additional forces F and T

5. Conclusion

1133 L.J.

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(2011)1117–1127

1117–1127 1133

in this paper, which adopts two key approaches: I. select- According to Eq. (6), the additional force F can be calcu-

ing the moment dDP = 0 as the calculation moment; II. lated by the fact that the displacement of the drive point

equals zero, so the F on the Straight-Circle-joint-shaped

VT can be calculated easily from Eq. (19) as follows

1134 L.J.

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8 9

F 1 1 r CT 3 F C r3CT lST F C r CT lST

> C

> EI l þ 3 r CT cos

8 ST

/þ 6

cos / lST þ 4EI

cos /ð1 þ cos 2/Þ þ 8EI

ð1 þ cos 2/Þ >

>

> 2 3 >

>

FC r 4 2 p F C r 2 l2 2 TlST

>

>

< CT 1 2

sin /ð/ þ 4 p þ /p þ / sin 2/ þ 2 sin 2/Þ þ CT ST

cos / þ þ r CT sin /Þ >

8EI 2EI GJ ðr CT =

FC r2 r r 2 /l r 3

CT CT p CT ST 1 CT

ð30Þ

>þ >

> GJ

> 6 4 lST þ lST cos / 2 sin / 2 þ 4 lST sin 2/ 3 sin / >

> >

> F r4 >

>

: C ;

þ 8EI CT

cos /2 3p þ sin 2/ þ 3/ 2/ cos2 / p cos2 /

F¼ r2 r 3

2 l

GJ ST

l þ r CT lST cos / þ r CT cos / þ ð2/ þ p þ sin 2/Þ

3 ST 4EI

CT ST 1 2 2 CT

According to Eq. (6), the additional torque T can be calcu- [3] Furio Cascetta, Giuseppe Rotondo, Marilena Musto, Measuring of

compressed natural gas in automotive application: a comparative

lated based on the precondition that the twisted angle and

analysis of mass versus volumetric metering methods, Flow Meas.

bended displacement of the drive point is zero at the se- Instrum. 19 (2008) 339–341.

lected calculation moment. However, a simpliﬁed method [4] Martin Anklin, Wolfgang Drahm, Alfred Rieder, Coriolis mass

ﬂowmeters overview of the current state of the art and latest

can be adopted to calculate the T by simplifying the VT struc-

research, Flow Meas. Instrum. 17 (2006) 317–323.

ture as follows, which avoiding the complicated angle calcu- [5] J. Hemp, Calculation of the sensitivity of a straight tube Coriolis

lation of the Straight-Circle-joint-shaped VT (see Fig. 8): mass ﬂowmeter with free ends, Flow Meas. Instrum. 12 (2002)

In the simpliﬁed VT, the parameters d11, d21, d12, d22, D1F 411–420.

[6] G. Bobovnik, J. Kutin, I. Bajsic, The effect of ﬂow conditions on the

and D2F in Eq. (5) can be calculated easily as follows sensitivity of the Coriolis ﬂowmeter, Flow Meas. Instrum. 15 (2004)

8 2 69–76.

r þr CT sin /

d11 ¼ CT GJ þ lST þr CTEI cos / d12 ¼ ðlST þr CT cos /Þ

>

< 2EI [7] G. Sultan, J. Hemp, Modelling of the Coriolis mass ﬂowmeter, J.

lST r CT cos / Þ2 3

ðr þr sin /Þ 2

ðl ST þr CT cos 3

ðl ST þr CT cos /Þ /ÞCT CT ðr CT þr CT sin /Þ Sound Vib. 132 (3) (1989) 473–489.

d21 ¼ ð þ

2EI

d22 ¼ 3EI

þ GJ

þ 3EI

> 4 [8] Robert Cheesewright, Ali Belhadj, Colin Clark, Effect of mechanical

3

F C ðl ST þr CT cos /Þ F C ðl ST þr CT cos /Þ

D1F ¼ 6EI

D2F ¼ 8EI vibrations on Coriolis mass ﬂow meters, J. Dyn. Syst. Meas. Contr.

ð31Þ 125/103 (2003).

[9] Chen Kaiyun, Qiu Liang, Chen Aimin, Xiong Chuxiong, A Coriolis mass

Then the additional torque T can be calculated easily ﬂowmeter with narrowed-U-shape vibrating tube, Chinese Patent,

according to Eq. (6) as follows CN200420081684.4, 2004.

[10] M. Anklin, A. Wenger. A new slightly bent single tube CMF for

8 9

< F C ðlST þrCT cos /Þ4 þ F C ðrCT þrCT sin /Þ2 ðlST þrCT cos /Þ2 = corrosive ﬂuids, in: Proceedings FLOMEKO 2003, 2003.

9EI 3GJ

[11] Pradeep Gupta, K. Srinivasan, S.V. Prabhu, Tests on various

: 3

F C ðr CT þr CT sin /Þ ðl ST þr CT cos F C ðl ST þr CT cos /Þ

4 ;

/Þ

þ 9EI 8EI conﬁgurations of Coriolis mass ﬂowmeters, Measurement 39

T¼

8 9

ðl ST þr CT cos /Þ2 r CT þr CT sin / lST þr CT cos / 2ðlST þr CT cos /Þ

(2006) 296–307.

< ð þ Þ 3 =

2EI GJ EI 3

2 [12] G. Sulatan, Single straight-tube coriolis mass ﬂowmeter, Flow Meas.

: 2EI r CT þr CT sin / lST þr CT cos /

cos /Þ

ðr CT þr CT sin /Þ ðl ST þr CT ðr CT þr CT sin /Þ ;

Instrum. 3 (4) (1992) 241–246.

þ ðl 2 ð GJ

þ EI

Þ½ GJ

þ 3EI

ST þr CT cos /Þ

[13] T. Wang, R.C. Baker, Manufacturing variation of the measuring tube

ð32Þ

in a Coriolis ﬂowmeter, Sci. Meas. Technol. 151 (3) (2004).

[14] R. Cheesewright, Simon Shaw, Uncertainties associated with ﬁnite

Obviously, calculation of the additional torque T in this

element modelling of Coriolis mass ﬂow meters, Flow Meas.

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according to Eq. (30). This error is evaluated in the valida- [16] R.C. Baker, Flow Measurement Handbook, Cambridge University

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r Tl r

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r3

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(2011)1117–1127

1117–1127 1135

ð33Þ p 1 1 3 2 3 2 3 4 p CT ST CT

CT CT

16EI

þ 2EI l þ r CT lST þ 2 r CT lST þ r CT

4 ST

lST þ GJ 4

lST þ 6

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