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Day 2

Sharing of Good Practices with Newly Established Press Councils

Maleo Room 10.00-15.00

MAIN MEETING (10.00)

Myn – unescxo

This is gonna be casual meeting for you. Somepoeple come in and out ofthe room, ignore them. But
the stars of the show are you guys and ladies . i almost mis sthe gender balance by not having some
female experts. The reason we have this meeitngis because we have in this region, 2 of the newsest press
council established in the pas t 12-24 months. Form timor leste, we have hugo paylo and rigolo berto, and
pak jul is nothere yet.

And our colleague from myanmar press ocuncil. The idea i really to shar einfo about the day to day
operation, becos yo u are the peopel that actually run a press ocuncil. We dontneed to tak about benefit
of precss council, we all know the benefit of pres scounciland regulation. We have pak johar, amat johgar
who will represnet the indonesian press ocunciland of cours ethe world freedom of press today is
cohjosted and orgainzed by indo press council, unesco and ministry of ICT of indonesia. do enjoy yourself
as much as yo can, this is not gonna be formal. You wil lse ein theontes, thr eis agenda, we cna try to keep
to thatifyou can,nd feel free to ask uetsion , you aremong peers, and this is the time to network and share
iformation and we hope that unesco can contribute toward eveyrbody improbement and capacty ubilding
andnknowledge sharing. Ill ass the floor to pak johar to say few words nad we go straiigt to the discussion.

Pak johar

Thank you mak ming. Aslmkm. Good morning. Eveyrone, dist ladies and gentlemen. May i sit or stanD?
Ok. Allow me to deliver the remark to on behalf of pkak ketua, chairman do of the council who has to
leave the event , to another meeting. Being the host of world freedom day for .... 20176 has borught as
prss councila great deal and honor, and w ealso have to host special epxetr meetingandshairng experience
wiith two new councils from timor leste and myanmar press council . not mmnc?

It wehhave been working closely. Indoensian pres councilw asbornout of reformationprocess that
chanegd the entire indonesian pllitical lanscape fro mrepressive condition to openness. Spaning 2
decades. Ther are lots ofexperince we have in developing the council from internal and extenral sources.

It takes a drasitc change of culture to be able to have press institution that is competely autonomous and
its truly from influences frmo outside the press community.oit can even be said that before the reform,
indonesian proes conuncil has tendency tobeing govt rubber stamp atohrity .f rm its original structureliesa
ovt eleentwith dominant role.

The post reform structure has no govt strutucre, and whoever ther eis no oblgation for both of them to
take difernetstances. Although the press ocuncil is formed by the national law 40 1999, its still solidly
autonomous and therefore can act as a self reuglatory bdy that poses dominant role inkepeing life of
national press without having to dictate. This work , owing to lack of govt reuglaton to complete national
law, the govt entrust the ocuncil todevise a regulation, in indonesia, national law no 14 1999 remains the
oly legal product without govt reuglation, and govt hsa steadfdastly held this arangement auntiltoday.

Through ministry of ICT, has always put theircomitment to discourse. They had no intenion whatsoever
to reuglate the life of national press. They believe press comunity is able tomanage itself while laso being
responmsible for information produced. Considering the enormity of pres freedom that is favored by govt,
pres councila dn pnational pres comunity feel obligatedto protect and defend the fredom by creing
conducive environment for national pres. Conisidering the enormity of press freedom aforded by govt,
pres concil and .....sorry...the lack of license to establish meida company makes practice of this freedom
dificult. Anyone or anbody cannot have media insttutionor become journalst whether they have the
competence to become journalist.

In iffect it enabls individual with capitaladn iresponsible persons to create media institutions and work as
journalist. Thast a pity.

As resilt ther es lot of bogus media nad journalist releasing infprmation products that is similar to social
media. Their work is deprived form universal journalism principle thatmusst b championed by eveyr pres
figure or company. Therefore we the national pres comunity set the ned to administer pres industry
tomaintain its worthines as source of info, instead of leting spread of misinformation or hoaxes whihc is
the cuse of world wide anxiety. Afterall, pres industry has nobvle gole, i.e. to educate nation. We feel that
idonesian council still far from perfection and still needto do many tihnsg to acihev eperfection. Tehrefore
we in press council ar edelighted to learnand absorb excelent pracitce that reuglte body akeen to pres
council from aorund the world.

We also hope our meeting this omorning can be turnin point in themakingof coordination and
confirmation system that connect similar peers glbally and also promote press freedom and ocunicl in
countris that have none. We believe that freedom and independnce of fpress sis the ultimate of exercising
democracy. Thank you very muc, i hope we can resolve tgood tihnsg for your future. Aslmkm.

Delegais nepal?

We must start introduction. We can know each other. Dwe donno each other, but im here for the first
time, and i come from idferent provinces, and i donno anybody. Its better if we can introduce oursleves.
Im chairman of pres council of india. And though you invite me as expert, i must confess i dont have
experience of meida. I was a lwawyer for 20 years, judge, of high court of the ocuntry,and fafter leaving
office, we have practice in india the chairman of press ocuncil has toebbe csitting member of the supreme
court and thats why im held.

But being chairnma of pres coouncil for 3 years, i closley watch the problems of press and wanna givemy
input whenever needed. Thank you.

John painter

Im the executive dictor of australian press council, and im delighted tyo be here nad look for speaking
with all
Major, new zealnand press council,

and i have been 160 years there, so i hope i got some infor hats is useful to you.

Hugo, timor leste

Campaign officer ....based inbangkok

...fernandez, timor leste council

....mmember of council timor l este

....montero, timor leste council

Nereza patria, pres council of indonesia

..chair natioal prs counicl of thailand

Vice chair of press council of myanmar

Lynn ..., member of pres council myanmmar

....., sweden

Elina grunsten, chair of press council in finland.

Magnus, US based NGO irecs and direcotr of safe and secutriy accss to o ffrededom of expression.

Im here as a n ngo, we train local journalist in security and social and health. One centeris in sal vaador,
kenya, eur middle east syria, georgia, pakistan. The press council is the next level for me to help local
journalist to do the work safely.

Craft, univesity of oregon US

Im covering theeebnt for unesco crossing istitute...

Kishhware, nepal pres council

Imeditor of a newspaper since last 30 years.


Unesco

Sorry becos this is informal meeting, we dont have moderaotr. Eveyrone can findthe agenda on concept
note which was delvered to ec of us now. The agenda of this meeting, in the beginning we want to .....hear
from chairman of stimor leste toingive introduction to begin our meeting today.

Timor leste

Thank you. Its an honoer tobe here. Ohpefulyby sharing we can get more than we give. Timor leste press
conference, wih official name, conceil pressa, we ddopt pioortugis language. As is wiritten in the concept
note paper, its established officially last year, so tit was ...the frameworkbeame the basis of thisbody is
article 40 and 41 of our constitution which guarantess press freedom, fredom of asociation for journalist
and also ....safety.

Also,the press law, no 5 2014, 19 november approved, stated the establshment of pres council another
legal decferee law which specifically talk about establishment,and aproval of the prss council.

This is the five members of eh board, tehy aresworn in in plenary session of parliament. Its part in that.
We were sworn in, looking at thatfigure there is no woman,a fte rthe swearing in we were highly
criticizedby parliament. But we said that parliamentnominate 2, so theymust consider balance in
nominating.

Tijs iss the composition. After nomination of 5 we have meeting ot elect the chair. I was elected by my
(namanya virgilio da silva guterres). We bohh nomnated by parliamen.. he si a lawyer ,profesional lawyer.

Amr jose maria ximens, nomination frommedia owner, the company that come , decided to give one of
them representing tem on the board. Here we have 2 members, mr hugo maria fernandes and francisco
he is not here with us. He nominated bymedia asociation. One from timor leste pres union, fransisco,and
the other one ois from journalist asociation ,franscisco belo.

In the law, goes the objectives. Fpress freedom, promoting finance of the press, influence of indiivdual
group, so we try to secur ethe independce , so no intervention politically, economic intervention, editorial
policy. This is reinforced what the journalist hasvwe edecided in 1999, daysa after the refefrendum. They
decided to reject all political intervention intoeditorial power.

Also to promote and ensure the activity, journalist activity tobe developed anand odne profesionally by
respecting standard of ethics. Thoe are their objective of the press council.

The nature of th press council, panel initiative, we are independent, we have financial autonomy. We have
competence, our own property.thisis the basis that we use toargue , to get independence.

Theimportant is ...we have our strutcure andand make decision from council free form any ministry
power. Without any politicl influence. So its clearly in the article.

One of the competences is approve and supervisethe coumpriment. To guarante ejournalist andmedia
abide code of ethics.
And the other 2 competences are to implement , we exercise this power on journalistbased on who prouce
by press council. Violation adn infringement of procedure, if we found out that they violate the code of
ethics, we can give disciplincary measures, and it can come to the suspension of withdrawal of profesional
title. Because by law, timor leste press council ar ethe body that certify and proivde acredition for
journalist. This passed through avery long discusion and some of us dont agree with this because we dont
wanna be small court for journalist.w hat we try to do is avoid that fro hapening , when wwe do he firts.to
improve quality of journalist to perform their profesion with respect to code of ethics.

W ealso do regist er and prmote all publication and media in timor leste. Thsi regist is not a license,
obligatory but not lincense. Its just administrative thing to knwo tha the media is there, they have office,
and thats the competence. We laso have database for journalist andemdiaorganizations. We also do
arbitration andmediation related topublic dispute when public complaint, they do complaint onmedia
conten, we can mediate if all mediation dont work, they can go to legal proces.s thats one role of the
organiation that we have.

We also by law, we can provide our premium to the court, when the ocurt feel necessary, especially
related to finding solution for litigation on journalist activity. Now myself and mr ruhu? Are notified by
the court to become a testimony in a case that involves our prime minister and journalist. The court
posponed the hearings, so it will be next 15 may that will will do the heairng. The court wanna hear our
stance on the proceeding.

Our programs this year are three parts, good governance. After we take oath, the council elected the cair
and together we tryto nominate and select our executive dirctor. We have our competence to noominate
some persons to become our exedirector. And then we start to elaborate work, the legal framework
tobecome our basis for today work. Thats why after the sworn in, the ministry, that is rsponsible for..n
the establishment of council, teh secreatary state of social comunication t, they decide on..they do
comparative visit to indonesia and portugal and australia presc ouncil, so based on this visit one team
aism to seek posibility for partneshipa nd explore their experience nad find out what kind of legal
frameowkr the council needsto function. So our second componentsi howto prepare the legal framework.
The ocmplaint mechanism, and reuglation on how to resist, handle the ivolence against journalist, and
now inprocess of consulktation in regiulation in cyber media. We have coopertaion , signing mou and with
press council they provide technical expert in one or two weeks in november and decmber, so finallyat
the end of weekend, produce omre than 10 drafts. By now we already approve seven, already in published
in ational gazette.

Next one is monitoring and media analyses. After we recruit all the personels, we have now aruund 33
people in executive, we have dept clalled dept andmedianaalysis. We follow the department and media
to provide analysis on the context on the media, they whether the media follow code of ethics . that s ne
thing we do now. This is the signing of coopertaion between indonesian pres council. So its all the pictures.

So back to the ..we have the , now we hav e fully funded by teh state, so by law the state is , any
government , they have obligation to manage the funding, budget for pres council. And also we have
competence to develop bilateral cooperation with intl agency, we ancan do cooperaion . thats one thing
we can develop to balance our position. In the decision making. Beause no one guarantee that this govt
will be the same as the next 2-3 years government. Thast why we keep that in mind,and now tis good
becos the PM is peopl we know, friend, and some people in secretary of comunicaitonis our friend,a
journalist in thepats, so we can comunicate eaisly by fb, email etc. but no one guarantee next 5-10 years.
Thats why we need to prepare ourselves in having independent funding, so the ocuncil can functioningand
maintaian its independnece, to sustain independence.

So i tihnk we also do some cooperation with media ascociation. For instance th eindonesian independence
journalist asociation. Befor ethis event, asociation for timor leste journalist asociation they organied some
activities with AJI.we want to encourage adsociation to take part in the increasing the standard f their
members. So once, the become ,...they can be responsibleto produce the qualified...

We also, becos we , ur competence took place in three main areas, printing, electronic and online. Thast
why inour visit to indonesia we also visit kominfo, ministry of ICT, and we also visit the broadcasting
comision. We wanna find out how the comision mintors the channels 24/7 here. This is the strutcture.
The plenary, president. We have exe director, and then we also have ...i donno how to call it in english.
We have one person that look after how we manage the money.this is independent, like auditor. Co
determined by minstry of finance. And secre of state. They are the one who detemrine this person to do
internal audit, to make use th emoney is used wiseluy.

We have 5 dept. DAFAL, departmentof admin and finance. And DRH, human resources. And DUAJELI,
deptrmet of legal asistance. Tit deals with legal complainst and give asitsance to journalist.

We have DDA, media devt and analysis. We have also other dept, institutional copperation. So intl
relation, in seekin the posibility of cooperation between ...

Thats all we can shre with your fro mour side, timor leste, waiting for colleagues qand a. thank you.

NZ

Hoe many staf you have and how many complaints ?

Timor leste

We have 34 now, from alla departments. And so far we dont have any legal complaint, but some reports
we do. For instance, before i left, we have some journalists from one or two dailies, they report they are
suspended by cihef editor becos they apply for other media. So the chief editor suspend them. This is the
one of the newest reports for journalists. We aso have one case that involves in 2 online medias
onplagiarism. One is the...they are taking its product and pubblish it in website. S we mediate and solve
teh case w8ithout any sanciton to the website that is guilty. But we have succeeded to givethem mutual
agreementby saying that infuture we wont do it.

E do have complaint from parliament,s ome membes raised questions about the title fo some news that
acording to hem is disrespecting some of our leaders. But then ,becos only general ting, they onlymention
that witohut citing which newspaper, what publishing, what was exactly the phrase. So we just do a reply
to palriament, saiyng that we could not proceed wih this becos they complain, but not identified the
name of newspaper, title of news, content, etc. so we do have this .

Though we donthave yet the high numbe of complaint, but public expectation is very high, and even the
expectation is sometimes more than our competence. We need to even ...on fbm, they said press council
mustmonitor content of FB and scial media, but how? We dont have th competence. We said should be
another institution to do this. Thats i hope i answer you.

Unesco
Maybe we can skip the question time. We have inrtoduction fro mchirman from myanmar to tell us bauot
the ihstory of myanamr press council.

Myanmar chair of rpess council (aung hla tun)

Goodmonnig. Id like to express our heartful thannks to the organizer ofthis program to give us chance to
learn from experience of our senior.s we are the second youngest council in the reigon. Let me start with
the politicalbackgroundof our counrty. Asyou know, our country wa s rule dby militar for baout 50 years.
Ifrom 1962. The first generla election was held in 2010.

The firts generla election was held in 2010 in november, and the quai miliitary govt came to power in april
2011. The presidnet was former pm and retired generla, but he was leected in the election.

That semi military govt , caried out democratic reform graudally. And media reform is part of this reform,
and they started relaxaiton of media, and milestone ws they disolved the infamous very notrious press
scrutiny board introduced in 1962. The pres scrutiny board was disolve din august 2012. And interim press
council was organized. 30 members in there.

The interim pres ocuncil ws set up with 28 members acually 30, one passed away and one resigned. 3
major task of the council were, drafting news media law, handling complaints, promoting emchanims of
self regulaion.bth of us, im vice president , and u min cho, we belnog to interim press council. And interim
press council has very limited rsource and fund. Acually the present one is very poor too, we dont have
property fo our own, but we are very independent.

Interimpres council handled 200 complains and it was ale to drew up new media law, we dont think its
perfect. It as in place for 2 years. We now try toreview itfor amendment. And ews media regulation also
dopted.

And news media lwa enacte din may 2015. And news media rgulaiton adopte din june 2015. Under the
news media law, indepdnencent mayrnmar press ocuncil was formed inoctober 2015. Under the law, it
was first founded and calle dmanynma ne edia council and latre we changed our name, now we ar ecalle
dmyanmar pres council. We have councilors from 15 to 30 udner the law from various categories,
coprising, one representative prpopse dby president, two propsoe dby parliamneetary speakers, and rps
of new s media , asociations, mynamar ournalist network, asociation, union, and news agency. And rinters
and punlisher, and writers, poiets, cartoonists, academics from field of social eocnomic, literature, legal,
science and technology.

At present myanmar council is .22 councilors from various backgroudn.

Functios of MPC.

Prpmote capacity ofnews media indutry. Negotiating withagovt bodies in asisting news media nidustry.
Holding workshops, seminars on news media related subjects. And lso promote heir pcapacity of media
workers gr.

Granting award to outstanding meida worker in coperaiton with media organiaizaio. Planning news media
devt project.and cooridnating with govt department for improving public right to information.
The MPC run by a maangement comite consiting of chairmna, two ice hcairmne, srecretary, two joint
secretary and auditor chairman is over 85 yers old now, so im taking chagr eo fthe press council. And
former vce chairman, one , dr pe myint, apointed by the presnet govt from union minister of info in april
2016. Ages o fcouncilr e range from 35 to 90. And later chairman is 85 but stil working journalist. All
councilors belon g to complaint comiteee which meet at least evey two weeks.

Source of funding. Undr atricle 19 of news media law, mpc ha to raise fund from four sourceS: GRANT
FROM UNION GOVT, BUT WE ARE VERY INDEPENDENT. DONATION BY WELL WISHRS FRO HOME AND
ABROAD, VERY FEW. AND ASITSANE FROM INTRNATIONAL AND NON GOVT ORGANIATION. AT PRESENT ,
I ASK Ims AND dw AKADEMIE FROM GERMNAY TO PROVIDE PROGRAM BASED ASISTANCE. AND
CONTRIBUTION FRO NEWS MEDIA BUSINESS, VERY FEW.

CURrrent chaelenges. No 1 is limited resources, and handling complaints. We have already handled nearly
300 complaints. So we succeed in some cases but in some acases we couldnt do anything. . very recently,
leading popular private media, criticized chief minister of yangon region govt. actualy he said the govt
received a gift , but ...from close business asociated. In fact it is not true. Then the yangon chief minister
went mad, and filed complaint to us. At the same time, at policestation, and police pck up. There is hiddent
argument between theregion gobt nand us but we lost. But we insistedand criticied, few months later
the... was snet back home but not still on trial.

Promoting profesional skll andawareness on ethical responsibility among journalist. But we have limited
resources. And lack of aces to info from govt deptment. This is a major chaleneg to us. Lack of transparency
and aces to iformation lead to more mistakes.

We also work with govt dpt to improve the transparenyc and improve access to info. Becos they didnt
have any public relation office in govt depa for 50 yrars, so they nee dasistance and traning from us. W
ehave beentrainig info oficers in govt dept.

The most major chalenge is the misues of hars laws and provisions, somewhere enacted by oclonial govt
like offical secret act, 100 years ago but sitll in place. I think india has also that. Nepal also

Nepal

Yes we do and we have the right to inform. Excepting the information that constitudte the...of foreign....
can have any infromation for media.

Myanmar

We ar eholidngworkshop and forum to draft the right to info act.

Some provision in penal code, defamatin and most notorious, this is the secon d...of the telecom law,
enacte din 2013.the purpsoe of the law, and provision is to protect teh service provider and user, but
section 66 (d) of teelecom law, the controversial provison is: anyone comit extoring coercing restrainig
wrongfllly defamig disturbiing causing undueinfluence or trehaten any persn by using any telecom
network shall be liable toimproisonment ot three years or to fine or to both. The original goal is to protect
service provider and user, but the problem is, some cpmplaints esp from govt department they tend to
abuse, misue this provision and take acitaon against the person.

Over 60 people, including 20 joiurnalist have been charged.

Thats a quick look at prsent media landscape. Print meida, over 250 weekly journals, neearly 210 mags,
nerlay 10 private news papres.till 2010 only 5 papers run by the state, and on eenglish paper, and 2 english
dailys, and 3 in myanmarese. Before 2010lbu the content almost the same. From 1962 to 2010. Ebfre
1962, the british military seized power, there wre 70 private dailies in our country, but the 1962, many in
myanmar language, english, hindi, tamil, and chinese also were there, but in 1964 they were allnatioalized
and disolved. Now we have 10 privat enewspapers. Govt has isued license to 30 private dailies, but 20
have , 10 havent starte domision, but another 10 died out. They stopped after 1 year of operation.

The problem is comercial ivability, thats themjajor threta, cos most of the marke is dominated by state
own ed papers. 3 state owned papers are esablised, in ermof logistic is far better. 90 pecent of comercial
go to them. And 2 military owne d dailies,a dn 2 municipal authority owned dialie,s one in mandalay and
oen in yangon.

In tv and radi, state owned tv ,adn raido, military tv and radio, 2 jointventured tv and reigonal fm radios,
and 5 online web tv. They are granted lices recently.

But we nevr contact couted the real nmber of media woekrs but nearly 4000 reporters and editor sin
private while 6000 staff in ministry of informtion.

Honestly, the media rfreedom of press is imrpoving. We agree with tRSF rankning , wecnan feel it though
many chalenges remain.

Beforethe genreral eletcion, before emergence of press conference, myanmar rank 171 of the 175, and
became 131 out of 180 this year. Thank you.

BREAK

Elina grunstrum, chair of culrueyure mass media in finland. I

I started lsat year. I have over 30 years as journalist including in severla editorial positions. I alsmo
menitioned hat written non ficion books, and one of them is about idneonsai and climate change called
anggrek hitam. Black orchid.

But then, about , ....

Previouosl i used to start my presnetation by asking why finland has press freedom in the worldl . ini cant
say that anymore.it s in the 7 yerarss in a row as the top.

Press freedom index, but lost the top posiition in the lastlisting pubslihed last week.

So we used be on top of the listing, why we are not anymore? Fell from 1st to 3rd?

The reporters without border say one reason, its in the factseheet of thoraniation, whey they refer to a
part called sipila gate. Sipila is th primen minister of finland. The case from ths nes article, and it came out
in english, with title, firm onwd by PM relatives get half milion euro orde rformterrafame. Its a mining
company subsidized heavily by govt. this was a very high profile case involving prime inster, started from
aricle pubsliehd by finis h broadcast corp, which is a bout posible conflict interest invo;ving prime minster.
He got lot of angers, and afte rthat editor in chief decide to make plenty of changes in the story to please
the PM. (PM is angry).

In finland, there was this huge publci debate, one report resign , mr pm sipila has to explain in many
cases.

This was taken to the press council in last month in march, we mad ... this is th e finish broadcast corp
reprimaned aobut this reorting.

How we handle thecaese/ WE HAVE 15 COMPLAINST ABOUT IT. THEY WERE AOUT DIFERENT DETAILS AND
WE MADE SEVERAL IDECISIONS, INCUDING AOBUT smimultaneous hearing corecting t emistake,but our
main decison is aobut teh reprimanding. W edecided it broke guideline fr journalyits.why it surrenderdd
the power to pm because the story ws altered without jornalistic ground after his angry feedback.

An importan decision. Its not aobut thejournalist guideline, but statemnet abou freedom of speech,a dn
this is drectednot to the media,but other person. And thisstatement, stated tha action of PM is ill advised
and could leimit freedom of speech, although its not posibnle to say i f he intende dto do so.

Happy ending, pm addded that his feedback was ill advised.

The case was both a major failure fo ra country which was proud of her fredom of speech but also a
success tsoyr on how a well functioning independnet media council can work. The ocuncil was asked and
trutedto solve dispue with very high national interest, no aspect of the case takento court. We are ble to
return teh credibility of journalim and hopeufly we cna clarify the right relation betwen journalist and
politician.and i think its a sign of every healhy democracy.

Now when i cant ask why finland has the best freedom of press in the worl danymore, i have to rfer to all
tops countris, hwy all nordic countries,netherlan and swiss r ea the top of the index?

They hve similar type sof self media regulaion system. They have considerable diferences indetail of the
system, but the basic idea is the same if the media reuglate itself, govt has no neefdto regulate it. i want
to emphasize that the reulation is efetive id the system is controle dby the media. The uidliene mustbe
acespted and internalized, must come form internal side of journalist. Self regulation is not about real
case go up to media council. Its about the every and journalist.

When self rulation work. In finland, govt has no needto control the meida, this reulst in liebral pres slaws.
And the other part is, people selodm thinkm about is it also gives journalist out of court. When they decide
to take media council they dont go to court. When finland at op of list, no prhih profile of journalist taken
to court. This also leads to very low level of self censorship, it can be as big aproblem , i mean its alsoa
prblem, not onmly the officer, but the censorship nca als o be prolme.

The ocuncil fo rmass media in finland is almost 50 years, ets in 1968 byu publisher companies with
journalist union.,its fully independen. No mention in thelaw, and amdinistrtaion is never part in starting
it. its managed by media organiation. The main donomrs , the finish newspapre asociation, union of
journalis in finlnd,a nd finish broadcast company. We have also severalsmall organisation who pay and
become members. All this organizaions and media ave to folow pour regulation, if they dont heir action
can be takento council.

Thsis is not charity.the organiaion also saves a huge amount of money cos it dontgo to court. Litigation is
far more expensive to them.

In finland, council fo rmass media has only 2tasks.thfirst is interpret god proesional practice , the
guoideline for journalist which you can find the translation of, guideline is more dmanding than pres slaws
in many respects, but the only santion forbreaking the code is obligation to pblish the ocuncil verdict. This
is nothing but it iactually is. Ery often its havily, secretly they might criitcize italot.

Other task isto defend the freedom of speech and publication. We useuallygive public staemnet, .

We hve no conection in tehlaw. No mention abot press ocuncil in any legilsation in finland. The journalist
has voluntarily comited to obey. We don t interpret he law to the poit i even very much avodi mentioning
any law and reuglation. The difrence is clear in public. The ocurt also dont use any of our decision as basis
of any court verdict.whoever complainte must sign statement that they dont look our deicisoon as part
of consideration for ocurt.

The composition, we cover pratcially all meida, newspapers, and entartainment, women magazine,
political party papers who ar emembers of us, and together,it comes to 2300 media outlets. So its very
wide coverage, very dificult to find paper thats not member.

The budget is roughly 400 tousand euros per year. 80 percent coems from media organization. We got 20
percent form ministry for justice, but they have no oinfluence on CMM. We have no fe connectedto
complaint odr decision. Everything si fre. Our main expense is salaryfor staf fof four, but council member
ar evolnunteers,get very smal lfee. But i have tosay that as we arevast country, poeple form lap[ppland
also fly to our meeting so need bugdte.

The council has 14 members, 8 of t hem are journalist chosen by member organizaion, 5 members of
public, cohnsen, anyone ccan apply, but the concil choose them, and the chair is me. Fo rmembers ther
eis rotation of 3 years each.

The number , anyone can complin. Any person woh consider thereis vioaltion ofguideline can complaint.
In some the countries you must be personally inbvovlved. In finland anyone can complint and help
corecting mdia mistakes, like hidden advertismemnet, but it costsoverload to us.

Anyone can complain about anyttihng and noewadays i have feeling peopel do.the number of complaint
grow form year to year . last year to 468.

The main sissues are mistakes not corrected. You have to ask media to correct it. only after hat, and they
dont, you can complaint. Ther eis suspicion fo hiden advertisemnet. Right of reply not granted, right to
privacey was violate, bene for 10 years. And parts about human dignity , like we hve complaint aobut
ethinc relations was presnete din ainapropriate manner.

Its easy to compalint tous. We have web frorm with which you can complaint dirctly.
Then the complaint comes to office, they are recorded , we do double, y hand and computer. All the cases
ar eprined and put toplastic files, and one secretary prepare sugestions about which casesare taken to the
counciol and which one are not. Im the one to do the decision.

Detaile dmintes arekept about decisions and all complaints get answer.

I think thre is 40 complaints per month a dwe take 10 of them to conuncil. I have feeling we can take all
important complaints to council.

Tihs is noather secretary prepare sthe cases for council. She makes sugestion aobut decision hwich i signa
nd we take it to council. We have council meeting once a month, 1 1meetings per year, each meeting lasts
5-6 hours, except aobut prime minister, it took 7 hjours or even more. We provide detailed memo about
every case for council members berforehand and all mateials sent before meeting through extranet. So a
month or eweek the ycn learn. We target 10 deciisons per meeting. We dont always make it becos we
have intense discussion long and intensive, common themes indiscussions, are good conduct vs freedom
of press. Very often we must accept bad journalism for the sake of fredom of press, and very often ther
eare moraland formal viewpoints, if you jump from ethical point of view, its diferent when you look at
journalistguideline. Thi can be intense discussion.

Speaker form last year, we received 468 complaints made 86 decisions, and 100 percents ar
ereprimanded.

Th emain chalenge i sgrowing numberof complaint, the blue bars ar eocmplaints, the red ones are
deciisons. Why is the number of complain grow? I know most ly is what we call a sprotest complaining.
We have opinion or an angle of a story is claimed to be a facual mistake.

Its easy to dismiss. And posible reason for this is th, first the rising profile of the council, wihch ...our
deiciso nabout media, like PM case, we got plentiy of complaint, it remind [peope about oru existence.
And also cultural changes happen, wher eopinons are sharply divdided and wide.

Why finish model is efective? Becos wide ocoverage, sma ereules apply to all, fats , free of cst to publc,
credible among the media, transparent. Its imporan we ar etruste dand known b publis. Public prefer
compkain to us than court.

Why governance? Becos we have also netrtainment news, elow press. Not only seriyous media that
spread fals enews. Its imporant to have entertainment news, to avoid spreaindg fals enews tohroughjot
the society.

But i think the main reason of strength of finish or tihs system is journalists are comited to it. tihs is
comparative studies of 13 countries, it was like an interview made for 100 journalist of each country. Her
eyou cna see finish journalist perceive the impat cof profesional code of ethics in journalism as high. They
relally rely on coode, its not media council. Its the fact that the journalist knwo their codes and want to
follow.

I wanna emphasise two things. The subject of self rglation is not ehe press conuncil. Ts the journalis t in
his or her daily work and decision. Therefore the system must be independengt, governed and uflly
aceptedby journalits,not from outside from higehr organisation.
Second, tit must be known by public, educaing the public about the system is vital. If you have high profil
ecase like about PM, n addition, we will be 50 years, we wil lhaev very xtensive media education in schools
and also for the public. Thank you.

Ola Sigvardsson

Pres sombudsman of sweden

I have been there for 6 years. Before i worked as jurnalis for 35 years, so journalism is m background. You
ll soon find ou that there is similarities from the system in finland and sweden. I dont think its strange. We
ar eneighboringc ountries. But i wanna say someting thats diferent. I wana start with the law. Like finland,
swedish fredepm of press act is very permissive. You can acutally say you can print almost anything. Of
couse there is boundaries that ewe must not cross, you cat defame, or comited crime against minority, or
stirru up to get your audience to comit crieme. But anything else is okay. But its alsobreak to break
standard of defamation. You can wrtie bad things about poeple and thats still ok. You can bring newspaper
tocourt, its posible, but you will most likely you lose, and why?becos everytihng is allowed to print.thats
why you ll lose when taking newspaper to court in sweden.and tihs is relted to self reuglation. Having this
extensive freedom that we have, why self regulation?

The heory taht we hev is that by offeirng private citizen oporunity to get reputation reestablised when
badly treated by newspaper, polictical nee for nee dto redstritc meida is reduced. By handling fereedom
of [pres sin responsible way, we hope to keep it. you may say that freedom and responsibility in our mind
isr eperfect match. They must go hand in hand.

This is the ideological base for several nations.why we have it. no wi wanna presnet how our system is
constructed. Its basedo n 4 pillars. The firts pilar of our pres ethic sytem is national press club, founded
1874 and the idea was to promot e good journalism. Today this club is very active sill and importan public
arena to discuss journalism in sweden. Everymonthis national press club holds public meting everyone
can come to discuss whats good na dbad in swedish journalism, the past month. Very god arena. Secon
dpilar is our press council. Our press council was the first one in the world, funded in1916. As a code of
honr where a private citizen badly treate dby newspaper could get reputation reestablished by dpublic
decision. Still the same ideatoday.

The hird pillar is code of ethics. The code of ethics first formulaeed in 1923, so its long time ago by our
national press club its been change dover time over the years, but teh basic ideas remain the smae. The
code of ethics is not detailed, not tell journalist this you can do this is frbiddend. Its like good advices,
things you must think of when you write a story. and this way of handling it was confirme fdwhen we
cchanegd our code 10years ago,w ehad leading paragrpah like thiS; pres s ethics is not about detailed
ruels but resposnsible atitue toward the publicity task.

Once more responsibility. Thats the story of our pres ssystem.

The last of fourth pillar is press ombudsmand. The job that i uphold. The idea of iombudsmand which wa
sintiate din 1969 is that i investigate all complaints that we get from public. I prepare the decision by press
ocuncil and im in the the public face of press etihcal system. If someone think atv show or radio program,
... i jump in.
This iare the four pillars. But how is the sstystem run/ how has repsponsbility? First ,a s weveryone said,
pss cpouncil must be independent and we consider our council independentwe have no conection at lal
with govt or any authority whatsoever. We never talk to them. We afenot suported by lwa for what we
are doing, and we have no money from society whatsoever. Ewe are truly what we consider an
independent system. This is how indepndent it is. It has a structure, wihcxh is proivde dby network called
comite for media cooperaion. Andthis is a network that transcends the four major organizaions in sweden,
th n newspaper publisr saspociation, magazin asociation, journalist union, and national press club. Take
together is my board of press ethical system.

What do they do? First, they sets the rules. The y own teh code of ethics. Whatever need to be changed
they decide. And they also give the instructio n to me, or press council baout what i can and cant do. The
urle of the press ocuncil s et by the comite.andalso very imporant they also pay the bills. Its therefore the
organizaiton that makes all funding to our works. Omst of the money come from newspaper pulisher
asociation. The cost is 600.000 dolalr a year. Of that, you get me, salary, office consists of 2 invesitgaotr
sand 2 admnistraotrs, and thats the cost of press conicl.

In short, ithis is an independent system run by system and pays the bill.

But id like to show you how we handle cases. My jb always involved someone being very angry. This is
very angry man or woman who read baout himself or herself in newspaper. And its all lies

I didn say to reporter. H twisted it all. So what should i do? When i read his crack in newspaper. If you are
a swedish in tahtsi tuation you can complaint to my office, like in finland, most people do it by electronicaly
ion our web. I get the complaint, when i get complaint like that i consider, is there any basis for going
futrher with complaint. I sent he complaint to editor in chief. When the editor in chief is gven letter from
me they always answer, if they refurse its mmeans they acn be criticised publicly for breaking the code .

Then i get the answer i return to complainer. The compakiner may say ok i iudnersand, i d ont want any
publicity around thsi anymore and i dismiss the case. But its very rare. Omst of the time,stheir rough still
bubbles. Ythey say, oh no you lying bastard, and send another letter to the dieditor in chief, and it takes
severla montsh if they wanna rwrite many eltters. In th emean time i cxan do research of my own. Im still
journalist for instance. I look at official papers, and all people involved in tihs conflict, when its over i make
decision. Either i can say no, no grojd to critiicse the newspaper and dismiss the case. If i find base fr
criticise the newspaper i sen dit on to press concil with recomendation . in the PC we have reps from
media and also from the public. The work is ledby four judges from supreme court. They dont do it as part
oftheir job as judges, they do it fre wilingly , spare time becos they f ifind it important to do so. The pres
concil can ggo two ways, saiying you are wrong and turn ittodustbin and dismiss the case, or they say im
right, newspaper hould be criticised and the decision must be pfully pubsliehd by newspaper. And for the
last 3 years, every newspapre woh are crticised published the decisioinn.

And that restores the reputation f, it can be shown to your not only your mother but also employe rwhich
in 10 years, can emply you and find in google baout tihs case. And you can always show them the
newspaper.

I got 500-600 cases per year, i dismis smost. For formality, i dont dismiss that older in 3 months and you
must be pesonally inovlved..
Roughly i tae 50 cse to the council, rouglhly we get 50 appeals when i dismiss. So pOC handels 100 cass
per year, and of that roughly 50 are upheld. And luckily for me as press ombudsmand this 50 is almost the
same with the 50 in press council.

I have just fewminutes left but i wanna show you some interesting cases. I was aksed to do that. To show
the complexities of the press.

Firts we have intersesting phenomenon of hate speech on internet. Question: is it ok to reveqlal the name
of the person who do that hate speech? Her eis the story. the nespaper expressen they find a way years
ago to find out those persons to rveal thheir identity and they pubsliehd teh names of mena nd people,
politically active and private people. And interesingly this man, he is a private citizen, retired profesor in
chemistry form univeristy of gothenbord, he worte 5000 hate spepech on internet anonimously, . here
yo u se ethe report go through ebfore this publication.

It was hate speech against migrant, an dmuslims. As you can see, the word muslim here, we didnt ask
them to come, we dont need themm, we can handle our selves.

This prof very upset. He said im a private citien, i can write all i want in internet. You violate my integrity!

You have any sugetstion? You aree wih the professor?

India

I do not

Speaker

After long consideraion i decided anyone who go to public arena, ..wih controversial aideas and social
topics hat are imporant for society like migraiton, religion, etc, must accept o be eposed . thast part
ofbeing i political discussion in public. So i read the newspapre, he was very angry and appealedto press
council and council also decided to rfree the newspaper.

But last example i have, about celebrity taking drugs. Once more the same newspaper. Tihs is very famous
person in sweeden, an actor calle dmikel pecaspar, about 50 or more films. He was soso famous that he
made a monsterr in oneo ft the hobbits films.

Tihs sfilm was taken when the man vry drunk in a night club, and they took up cocaine and he ordered
lots of cocaine. He didnt know that he was in the room with criminal gang called the black cobra. They
dont only give the cocaine but also fotograph eveyrthing, and it went up in th enews, and michel said, its
invasion to my personal integrity. The newspaper said, no, you re a public figure, your e celebrity. You use
ilegal drus, you must accept exposure. What would you do? Freenewspaper or

India

The photo is from the room? I fthe public place, teh newspaper has the right, but in hotel ror orom, its
private, newspapre must not enter into bedroom.
Speaker

The newspapr said e must accept becos public figure, you must accept scrutiny by media. And th
enewspaper right partly.ifyou re public figre you must be scrutinizedand very close. But thereis difernet
kinds of public figures. Firstm the politicians, civil servants, judges, high ranking military , company leaders,
carriers of society. Carriers of society. Hey must accept this very close scrutiniy. But ithere is another kind
, those who act in public arena, like actors, artists, like TV celebrities, football stars. We know them they
are public figures but not cariers of society. They are entertainters. As entertainers we cant have same
scruiny of them. So i decided to recomend the pres council to criticise the newspaper niin hope that the
complaint of this famous celeb in sweden.

The interesting thing is that a private citiszen could be ok to expose him in certain cirmcumstance like ofor
political debate. But its not ok to expose biggest celeb in sweden when he doing sometiing ilegal as
cocaine. I think thsi sows complexity of media ethics. Thank you very much.

LUNCH BREAK

TEPROTONg

NZ

Industry members, 2 apointe dby newspaper publishers, 1 apointe dby magaizine publishjers, 1 apointe
dby journalist union, 1 represent ditgital meida and broadcast.

One of teh tihng we do now is review our constitution on complaint rpocedure.

Other objects, promote press freedom, maintain press in accordnc ewith ihghest profesional standad.

Inpratcice, what it means is lookiing at legislationat formative stages, before goes to comite, we have to
look at the legistlation and check whether there isanything that canunderpin media

Ast year ther eis a piece oflegislaiton about space junk?? , but one of the miinsters alowed to declare a
spatial area, becos space junk came down, so photograph can be taken in that area, an dits infringement
of right of space. No matter wher espace junk came we ar ealowe dtotake photos. Throuh the process,
we do submission to comite and we made oral preesenattion to the comite.

Continued

We afr emnetioned inlegislation. In cirminal procedure act, there is 2 clauses that alow media to argue
against supresion,and meida may remain "publically cleared". So tihs is a person for reporting court
proceeding employed by organization subjetc to code of ethics and ocmplaint procedure.
We also have a fair and acurate report of proceeding in an incquiry held in acocradnece withruels of any
asocaition. That doesnt mean we hav ecard blanche, we ar every carefl. We operat eunde rsttqemnet of
principles and preamble. I dont have nenough copies. It svery dificult these days to keep not the principle,s
but its qiute dificult to kepe up to date. You notice in premble it pays atention to the role of principles and
democracy. Bill of rightact, alwws freedom of informationa dnexchange of info and ideas. And also
publication right to davocate. They a realowe dto take up an issue and decide, that they in favor of
particular complaintissue, but the advocacy hsa to be distinct from he news on teh same issue.

One thing i should mention is that we are a streamline organizaiton, compared to your organizations. Im
the only staff member. We have , the council member meet every 6 meeitngs. The ocuncil members make
draft decision at least 2 weewks before the meeting. Each complaint is alocated to particular member,
they draft the decisiona dn had it few days before t hemeeting, after the ocuncil has ime to read the paper.
And then meet together in counicl meeting to have robust discussiom. The meeting review in 2007 wwas
held to conduct a review, and beforehand, ...efectivelywhat you doing is predetermination by one
councilmember. But after atending council meeting, he changed point of view completely, ehe said itsvery
efective way of doing things, especially afte rtaking into acount,what discussed in the discussion, and we
gonna be swayed their opinion from what on the draft. And most meeting, a lot of the determnation and
recomendaion under draft is overturned after discusion. We had one meeting on tuesdya. Ended up
with...we alow disentig voice. We consider that the majoritty of council represnets public that they have
to prepresnet variety of views. And for ..company..

And quite interesting is they are generally very... i reclal 2 ocasions, after 16 years. There is what seems
liek block vote by industry, they just dont. And in fact, its my opinon that industry member are often
...quicker to ..bad story, that breaches ethicals tandar,. One tihng is that most orgainzation, cetrainly
thebig one that we dal withthey have code of ethics, they know well the principles. They undertsand that
they already working within th organizaiton fro codes of ethics establishe dby the org. our principles
dveleoped in consulation wih industrty. The industry sippriirts. We not impose them on t heindustry. We
have the body industry and with the endorsemnet to industry to organization and police.

Its simbiotik relations. Cos its very handy to industry tohave organization that can handle complaint. They
have to have the oportunity to resolve the complaint, and they are still... ilook up any oportunity to soleve
issue by resolution.

Last tyear, 12 were resolved by mediation or intervention between ocmplaint meidator and us. And 73
went p to press councils. So the advantage of self reuglation is cheap, fast, and non legal. No cost to
complainer. No cost to industry member, and time to respond. Its fast. The process is complaint come
through website (ostly), and ther is a system to make sure no sissue that press concil can deal with. Aand
there is team working day to respond. In practice, that can be quicker than this. They are really good to
add responding to the council. They ..the response comes in, it oes to complainnat, and it allowed brief
200 words comment,and it goes to press conunci.l. generally every councilmeeit every 6wee.k.s every
complaint still exist since last one go to pres council. It is not always the practice. Lsat week i got ..we went
to this meeting. They will take longer.

The otehr advantage is it doenst reuqire change sto legislation to change with changing tinmes. Knowing
hor broadcast autohrity in nz hsa been quoted in provision to...act, they are put in reidiculous position.
Whereas we can jutst not being able to..we are free form govt influence, we have very litle to do with
govt other than presentation on press freedom, and this month about convergence. But our ...comes from
industry. The new memebr swe bring to the organization has to sign the contrac, to abide procedure and
pay their feeeslevies to the council.

The disadvantages of self regulation, we have no statutory authority to impose sanction. We cnat impose
financial penalties. They are definitley some complainants woh wil be happy to get financieal penalty.
Some .. of them are already sick when borught complant to the council, only to give them further oxygen.
Quite often, they siad, but they are the minority. Most complainants accept their complaint upheld. And
another disadvantage is it relies oon good will of industry to fund. And matte rof relationship and make
sure industry udnertsand the value they get from pres council process.

This is the flexibility we had by not being boung by statues. In 1998 we haadded magazines, in 2000 we
added members online content, that broadcats can still reulate. In 2014 we addded blogs sites. In practice
we dont have man y blogs but we have couple of big ones with political contents. In 2014 w ehave digital
news site . in the begining of this year we added broadcaster online content.

Ilve just given you some examples of or decisions. First one, i give you teh whole proess. Ot see hwat
happens. 201, somebody responded happen to be a journalist in the same ..... he being escorted from ..at
5.48 they got response, and he said ...reacted. the next day on front page of the paper, they have this big
hedaline, eviccted dublinspeaks out. We go through the process, and we uphold his complaint. They are
actually required to do this. It was really , itshows i think how they proceed the process voluntarily, they
put it up on the ...skybox? .... and they publish the entire adjudicaiton, which is quite big. It was alos
publishe donline becos teh story hsa bene online, they ahd to publish on their own website and picke dup
by otehr media, such as tvnc, the enws channel. . and thso earticles now have been anotated. Its press
council finds report , they are anotated acros sthetop which is requirement if they can be uphld, the
original copy has tobe put online and has adjuctiaon story put on it.

Recently we have stories of childrne ahave been named ... and we have sene its no place for children in
such stories. So the adjudiction, both of which,..the reional nrewspaper and another woman makes a
scene.

So we hope that ...

Exapmle i have given you. This is interesting ebcos its actually old complkaint. Out of time fo rnormal
process. Butwhat happened was, some children has acuse dteacher of taking his mouth shut with selotap.
The teacher lost his job. There was big publicity around this incident. A year later, the teacher council
found the story has been made up, and and teh teacher was treated unfairly. We couldnt say we cant take
their complaint. Its needs tobe adresed. What we do whnen we arrange with the story , we report the
oucncil finding, and every article publisehd now has update at the top that says the complaint from the
teacher comitee has been investigated and satisfie dthat the alegation not acurate, and the comite sai dta
t the teacher shall be acquitted.

Thast it.

John pender, saustralian press ocuncil

Thank you. Im form australian pres council. First is the daily operation and management. Our council is
completely independent from govt. we also have a very large councilto reflect diversity fo interest in what
we doing. We have 9 public members and 10 nomines from media orgainzations and 4 indepdenent
journalist that bring us special knowledge but .... you put that number together you hav 10 public membre
and 9 jourbnalist members. Who got the majority votes of our council? Not the media. Thats somethiing
that is regualrly asekd baout our council. And it was few year aago part of strenthhienig tthe council. But
when it come sto how much we pay, teh publsiher pay, its the publisher that nmake scfunding decision.
The funding is around 2 milion aus dollars, the publishes share that, new scorporation aids thelargest
publsiher with the biggest titlle. And fairfax australia, and publications and unions.

We also have constitution that says that memebrs have to comply with our processes and that means by
contract they ar eoblige dto publish pbadjucdication. So its not a lwa of govt but a contract between
counciland individual memerbs that legaly binding. And the activity that our council doe sis to have overall
oversigt o what the org does. The ocuncil will stay sand rule son publication.and design the complaint
prces sand endors eactiiite sin freedom of speech area. The executive director, thats me. I run the
secretariat with 9 staffs, and many of those staffs are in charege of compaint handling, and w ehave also
director of research and ocmunication and research an d... officer. Thast what helps uus to work
efectively. We need to have relation with publisher, public, and ourselves to make self reuglation works.
Thast why we need out reach to public .

Handling complaints. The ifsrst quesiton with any complaint is , is athe publisher of this material our
member? If its not, do you tink we will still look for it? if its not a member they havent agreed with our
proces and may not coopeate. But at the end, we help govt to outreach the media. Thouguh the pubsliher
not member we will ask them cooperate iwthout the process. The small circle is the member, and bigger
one is the non member publications. And outside of that, ae alal all papers pubsliehd in some forms, some
of the m properpublication with editorial input some others ar enot. So if the publsiher can cooperate we
will copoperate in the process.

We have slightly , another position. A eyou intentionally ...proceed this, we say, we ar enot alternative to
court system. If they tick no, they come to our system to folow our process. The problem is, they got in
their mind, if that happens we ask fo rwaiver.

The first step is to , we od initial asesment of ocmplaint, we seek response. If its clear complkaint about
nothing we ll discmiss it. if ew inovlve other body we send it. just print media and online outlet. Some
scandinavian pes council will..

We take formal resposne from publicaiton, we assess it, and we arange remedy to negotiatte, payment
apology etc. later we say you breach this but not take you to adjudicaiton.

Like in pews council in the world wthis is what w can do.

The most serious ocmplaints are dealth with by adjudication panell, 5-7 people, chair and pnels with equal
number of public and independent journalist members. Thas was one of the change shapened few year
sago. As reuslt of that process, we have meting like this with panel, the complainents come online by
phone and publsiher to, they talk for hal fan hour and we do adjudicaiton. Wee do hearing from boh sides,
so its longer, and unlike some other council, we have very strict word limt, 850. Our rules, the adjudication
is publisehe dby the publication and ocuncil whther a breiach found or not.

In some examples of complaints, here is a one about a man in tv show, woh propose tax cut for wealthy
peope. Why you tax to wealthy people. Some of the media said that he is involved in political debate, and
its fair game to investigate him and he did have some criminal history. They published article about hi,,
showing , why you give poor poeple tax cut. But it was uphill, becase hwat happened is some
crowdfunding came and donmate 60.000 dollars, and panel knoewws that the public give money to him,a
dn the pubsliehr also holds right to investigate.

Anothe oneis exmapple to involve football player agent, who took the case to court. The article
misrepresneted shows that he lost the case while he won. He bring the complaint to us and his complaint
was upheld.

Under our process anyone an complain about anything. That mentions a ot of complkaints about lots
ofstuff with no real... its hilosophical. So you see alot of standards rather than dispute resolution.

Because we have number of complaints , large team, wehave teams. We have daily compliant meeting,
we got 10 a week,and preliminary ases everyday,a nd meeting where chair adn i sit in and see whats going
on, and fi ..we decide to not take it forward. And in aduddication process thre is vairous.. efectively draft
issue that parties can coment on, and if its worng sisue, yo uhosuld expalin about it. athough th eproces
stakes time , my view is adjudication sis much better cos we let parties to expess themselves and the
quality is better.

And review on the clause and complaints that go to council in regualr meeting. We recently will have
cquality control process. Lot of decision made below the ocuncil.

I wana touch on, we have intersting stories. Managing extenal presure for nm national athorities media
aoutlet and media preactitioner. We talk baout media outlet. In austalia we have concentrate dmarket. I
got presure from govt too.thats wats good boaut australian context. We have situation where newspaper,
which lampooning our press ocuncil. I donno fi you have pres council like this. Its shown as a kangaroo ,
and the gentleman picks a gun.

But i wannatell you about the breakdown in relaitonsihip. One of the newsappapers in australia sid w e
lost confidence with pres council, hwho become eraiic in its rulings, unmoored form its foundations, and
very dificult ot get anything done. Adn the ocuncil become svery unhappy place to be.

And inther are also othr 16 other articles that totally break down the relationship.

But it did settle down and what made it appen was most significnatly the chang eof leadeshipin council,
and new cchair came in wih broader idea on how to have relationship with the publisher. The chair said
im not gonna run it by complaint handling only,but also see that we have common interest wqith
publisher, so the papproach is we advocate for fredeom of press and speech,and this is joint entrprise
between public, councilad publisher. We cooperate together to make cooperation good.

And cooperate iwth publisher and advocate freedom of press. What we have in our left hand is the public
with therighti sthe pres sand adjudication. In my experience it cna work properly.

This is aomse advocacies othat we did on data retention bill, which is fconsidered far too intrusive and
have chillingffect on press.

Our comunication style. I donno if other council use ...panelis, totohles stiger, those kinds of terms in
europe and elsewhere, but but we get calle dthat way. When publsiher said i dont wanna pubslih this or
that, its excessive, i remind them wy we are here nad the proess is geting the govt out of regulation, and
if we are to o acomodating their request, we will be rihtly called as toothles stiger. So if the reuglationto
work you have to cooperate with us. There is lot of us having converstaion about this context and lots
are going on. In 2017, ew re in prety good shape in relation with public and ocoperation. Ther are
complaints and complainants are up. We have 30 percent increase since last year. Number of smaller
australian based pubslihers. We have 40th aniversary conference taling issues relevant to publisher and
our ocuncil. Thsi is happy stories among veyr unhappy and bitter criticism.

Teh oehr area i wanna talk about is the media long term capacity building. Not enough for evreryone, the
leaflet, but we put together strategic plan to ...talk about plan for the next 3 years. In 40 years we been
aroudn we had no strategic plan and to think about how to write it down and proceed to implement
theplanis a good idea.

Further additional memebrs is anotehrp part of our plan. We also track new members .... hese ar ethe
documents thata say the beneifst belonging to the press ocuncil. One of the things i found wen i talk to
pubslihers is to expalin to the why they sould join. Becos if the law deosn make them join. Ther eis no
legal benefit by joining beyond some benefit in privacy. We have to articlate to publisher why they musyt
join us. If hey ahve good conflict regulation mechanism, they will agree. Also keeping media free from
govt intervention. And also we think how to persuade new members to come in. (other ways).

We also upgrade our IT new system. New webste coming up. Reltaionship with publisher is also importnat,
increase membership. We have guardian....thast english publisher and australia and US. Its not member
of the uk press council either. Also , because we ar eenglish speaking, the amercican pubslisher hcoming
in so ther eis ...fee..but US has no history of pres council, and tone of the chalenge is how to persuade
intnational pubsliher to join in.

And from complaint experience, if we think ther eis pattern or particular issue in the are, such as domestic
or abuse, we educate the indstr to talk about cirtical aspect in hat area.

Oversight of complaint is importantdd, as wlel as standard, education and outreach. So its aoubiut
relationship withpubsliher and public.

We want to reach out to public explainig what we do. Whats publi c council ? they are entitle dto do that,
to not being member, but therefore public education is important.

Managging finacne nad sourcing external funding. We have system. Becos pubsliher dont have majority n
conuncil. So the piublic and indepdnenet member is the majority and decide the pay. We have process
called triaennial funding, which is... not a situation with...i gotto go wit my budget for approvale fo rnext
year. We get fnidng from 20 members until 2020. We knew we have the funding. If we need radical
changes, if the relationshipo is on trouble at that point. New members are also very good source of
funding. The extra thinking ay oging aroundis like yo ...publisher join, in this context there is aother
organnizations that have... one in particular is 120 joiurnalists having enw websites. Is that not publsiher?
Hows that different from mainstream newspaper? So we looking expansively, whats the source of
publication we cn look at.

Xxternal funding for specific purpose is also possible.


The ifnal major area, is strateigc approach o social media issues. They way i see it form how council work
is how reousrces, like publicaoion take photos from FB pages, is that okay? What could be problems? In
european context, censorsihp over publisher social media outlet, that arrives between ....

And other one i just ouched on was idea of social media as pubslihers. If FB has taken so much of the they
become publisher, shouldnet they join the press council? And we pres council may move forward to
enocourage them ot do that. Thats it. thank you.

Chavarong limpattamapanee, thailand

We are oing to celebrae our 20th year aniversary on 4 july this year. We have half life of the NZ or
australian. We are under threat after 20 years of otaly independent from any govt or legal power. We are
doing the cmpaign. Stop licensing the medi dominion. People mind. Thats the campaign slogan that we
doing now. Ill tell you more about this.

Thisis som ebackground of the foundation of the pres council inthailand. The idea started 40 years ago,
came up to the every time you went to campaign to abolish press act 1941. The govt every time said that
we need to have press council to replace the pres slaw. But the press ocuncil talk about legal press council.
But it never hapened until 1997, the oconstitution drafting asembly, initiated the idea to set up council,
they wanna put it on constitution. By the ime confederation, thai cjournalist consist of 7 medias, not to
negotiate between constitution. Take ut the clause in constitution to set up legal press conference na
dpromise we wills et up the sel fregulation body named thailadn press ocuncil. On 4 july (national pres
council of thaoland). We only cover newsppaer and website. And also by 2009 reugulate broadcast media.

Tihs is the structure of nthe NPCT. W ehave 21 members, five members is elected among owners,
puishers. We do this becos we dont haev pubslier asociation like ohre countries. Like sweden finland
indonesia. in thailand too much competitors, so publisher cannot get together. But among them we select
five members, and among editor select another five, and this two groups select membersfrom BEAT
reporters, and become 14, the 14 nominate seven, from outside. But 2 of the seven has to be former
journalist. Altogethr.

Woh camn make complint to npct? Anyone, person or ogrnaization who was aftected bycoverge
ofnewspaper of journalist who is member of NPCT. If they are not memebrs we canno do anything with
them. Also general public who feels distrbed by coverage of newspaper.

Any press council member can raise a complaint for investigation. Sitting in council meeting, any membre
can raise complkaint to newspaper.

Ow do we handle complaint? This is brand new proces,s bexcause we just amend our constitution last
year, that this is the first ime to be asked all mmembers to set upinternal ombudsman. We send back to
newspaper ombudsman on each newspaper to finisih. If they can negotiate, th e cas eis dropped, but not
finished the complainer is not satisfied, the case come to council, a nd we have ethic comite, new one,
befre we have sub comite on complaint consideration, but now we combine subcomite on consumer
protection which doing th eproactive things with complaint comisioin, so itbecomes ethic comite.

We have to ask the newspaper to defend the case. Usually the process take palce in 120 days.
Numbre of complaints and budget. Le ss than 10 complainst per year in last 3 years. With various reasons
including public trust. If we dare not fast enough they go to court, becos we sill have defamation law, is
criminal defamation law. They can go to police, and handle the case and gsue newspaper. So easy fo
rpeople to take legala ction to media.

But though we dont have many complaints, we handle some dificult case, like ther ewas on case about 2
years, there was a leaking of document to thumbdrive was droppe dsomewhere, but in the thumbdrive
consist internald ocument of a big public company in thailand. In that ther eis a list of payment they pay
hournalist and editors. They said, these names are paid 20 thousadnd bhts plus 12 months, this man 30
tousand bahts 6 months. And one of the websites, leakking this document to public. The press ocuncil
pick up this case and investigate. What we found out, becos we set up independent cmite to investigate,
some o fthe name of the people came to the ..cooperate with council by testifying and teling that the
omney they receive from this company is for advertising and they ahve all document to show the payment
for advert. But some of them deny and some even criticise the ocuncil. But we isued the verdict that for
the one who come and testify and declare, we found the m not guilty, but the ones who dont come and
testify , we cant justify whteher they receive bribery from company or not or leave the public to decide.
This ias a very critical case that we spend like two years.spend alot of money for independent commitee
to investigate.

Thebudet,w e dont receive any single baht or money from govt. we get fee from member, but now , we
have big newspaper waranteed to pay more than smaller one, but now, because of downturn of print
industry , one of the big companies newspaper, bangkok post, this year deny to pay becos they said they
ar ebroke. We try to negotiate them to pay the minimum, instea dof pay 200 tusand baht. The minimum
is 20000 bahts. 1/10 of the payment. The rest is fund raising projetc. Every 4th july we organize conference,
and ask public company to sponsor and buying advert in our anual report. But we do it carefully , we donw
t want tem to have influence.

For instance, the company that was leaked, want to give us big sponsor becxut we said not receive any
money from them.

And no govt funding.

So this is the chalnge now we facing, cos lack of efecitveness in self regulatin beos low coopertaion from
members. Some members withdraw when dissatisfy with our operation. By the time we investigate them,
they have fpreliminary record, they founf they are guildty,before final verdict they leave. This is the big
criticism. Its said we cannot self regulation. Thats why the have ne draft law that says national media
council to control the existing self regulation. It means if you complain to pes council and we isue verdict
the newspaper not guilty, the person can go to national media councila dn can overrule and impose fine
to the newspaper . the fine starts on 50.000 baht, 150 thousand baht to the most. How do we do?

What we do sis trying to reform ourslef, show tjem that we not just sit down and do nothing. Wat we try
to do is amend our constitution, media, ombudsman. We speed upc omplaint handling, improve code of
ethic and guidelien, and ask member sin mou they won will receive every 3 years.

We also propsoe ocunter draft law with national comite to promoite press freedom and medai standar
with our legal power.
Something similar to indonesia adn timor and myanamr case, that there will be seting up comitee to
protec media protection, and they can receive complaint that go to newspaper or media, and this comite
can handle those cases. They cannot impose any legal sanction to the media. Only the same like in sweden
dan finland, just publoish the verdict.

But it seems not very sucesful. Only yesterday. The national reform stereing asembly pased the draft law
to set uple gal national media councilw ith two out of 15 board memebrs in the first 5 years.

15 boar dmembers comprise of 7 jurnalis elected among media organiations, and 2 from govt agencies
and 2 from independen govt agencies. And then of them we nominate 4 honorary members.

Initially they wnt to be included into the law to give power to this council to sanciton licensing journalist.
But becos our fierce cmampaign they agree to withdraw that.

The ocuncil will have power to overrule the verdict of existing self reuglation body, adn impose fine. Now
draft sent to govt for further process. Whether the govt gonna propose to nationallegislative asembly to
draft the reallaw. Our friend went to see prime minister to ask him tocomemorate the press freedom day
tomorow, he said he willc arefully consider the rdraft before making decioon to prpose this draft to the
assembly.

This is our secretary general who was the one explaining. And our senior member and presidnet of thai
journalist asociatin, and forme rpresident. But he said quite positive that we dont know.

Thast it. please give us support. We may ask you to sen dosme letters to ask adn send to prime minister.
We plan to talk to the press alliance, we may organize some mision. He was there yeterday , to invite reps
from indoensia and myanmar and timor leste to expalin about this. Because we have to look at the
neighbors and international doing in controlinn themedia. Soif you can help us thats relaly ighly
apreciated.

Dicover ijul

INDONESIAN

India

Godd afternoon. Im thaknful to coordinator for tihs oportunity. Let us congratulate ourselves on the world
press freedom day. Jorunalist are considered as .... in society, u rpower, our obligaton, and our desire to
be informed and that right you get from journalist. And therefore, you need to have a body, to preserreve
taht feredom. I always hear the word and expresion used in mnany onfferences like thi, pres council rare
there to regulatre. I hear this word regulate. I belive the duty of press ocunci is to preserve the ...freedom
of press. Becuse many are chosen, and tohs ewho are chosen have no power of politician. They dont have
the glamor of birokrat or the slaary of corporate person. It is to become the agent of change that journlaist
join the ocuncil, and therefreo we must presere their freredom. Actually, their freedom is our freedom,
our right to informaiton, which to journalist that give us this right. India gained independence 1947 by
the omst peaceful beings. Wen mahatma gandhi started the ...movemet, first movement of independcen
50 years ago, the historian met himand sai dtin history we didnt se etihs kinda movement. I ve read lot
of book s on freedom omovement none of them show liek what you do. Gandhi said this iwll be part of
histor y afte rsometimes na dtime proved that,
The press council of india wa sestablished in 1966. This was by act of parliament. It says statusry body
creted by act of parliament. For the short time in 1975, india face internal emergenyc, the act wwas
repeated and teh people power, the party repealed the press ocuncil ...and next political party gained
power reenacted the press council act. This is our remaining for he last 16 years.

I cantlk for hours. But im given 15 minutes time. I think will not take more than 15 minutes. Opur function
is plentfiul. And one importnt function is to preserv freeodm of press. I must tell you the act was enacted
in 1965 and at that time, this electornic and social media was not known to human being. The press council
of india, has power over print media, newspaper, and magazines. And it is nonetheless, we had 90
tohusand. E hvave more than 1 imlion journalist in india, and to preserve their fredom is very dauntingtask
for me.

Herefore its 29 member body, 13 members come from working journalists. Out of them the reditors of
newspalpers , and presently i have two members, from editors and circulation of that newspaper in india
is the largest. And therefore theya re disting editors and ournalist in our council.

We have the owners also, in our system. And there are six who represent owners. We have ... of small
nespaper, medium and large newspaper and each represents this category of owners.

One comes from t h enews agency, ther are several,adn one rerpesents news agency. We have ffive
members from parliament of our country, thre are from local , which menas the house of people, and two
from house of states. We have bodies like ....comision which look after the haighh education, nd we
have...which look afte rthe literary world of the conuuntry and the.... whos emembers a relawyers (bar of
india). Im glad to say that none of this members, the ...has no rules in apointment of any of this members
(the government has no roles).

We are journalists and they nomiante tehir members, and asociation decided by councila nd from amongs
t them. They nominate na dgovt has to nitify it. as the charirman of the country concrned, we have
indepdendent colegium consist of ..., speak ers of..., and the ...3 membes of colegium woh pic up the
chairman of council, and all laws said that its either ....highest coyrt of the country, and also judge of
supreme court of india.

In many cases i have said, i f we dont have financial independnece, you cant take decision on dificult and
contentious issues. If you want to be realy idndependent you haev tobe financially independent and th
elaw must ensure that. I heard from firiends that many of press councils have funding from indutsry. I
wont coment that but i view that unless you re financiall independent you cant take decision onissue svery
contentious. Normal issue you can. But if you wanna be part of ihstory you have to be financially
ndependent. So when press council of india concerne, this independcen give us power to stand on. The
fee that the newspaper give sus is not tax. You have fee from individual, you serve them m, and how you
serve them, you preserve their freedom, and therefore we chafrge fee and ogod enough for our funbction.

For the functioning, you nee dsecretariat. Under secretaiat which is controledby council, ther emust not
be influence from govt. the discipipline and control must be you. Im secrtariat w ith 18 employees and
im in power to discipline then. An docntro.. it helps mak my council sa indepnendent. We recive larg
enumbe of complants we divided into 2 categories one is by the press, other is against the press. We have
... who take tihs issue. Any devt take place in the counrty, which is everbearing with fredeom of press, you
mfile complaint or not, we take that. The complaint rceived rom journalist about impeacehment by officer,
on harasment by govt authorities for their writing.

On judicial system, we receive complaint, we seek comment from govt, and we did open eharing where
both sides ar eheard and adjudictaed. Therefore, this is the way we re trying to proceed and we have
proceeded. When became chairman of press concil, the members of our press ocuncil are wise and
sucessfucll men in their own profesisionm and the distinguished members.

And the most dficult task for me is to fix the data. I share my personal expewrience. How to fix the date
for meeting, because you fix a date, and gentlemna said i have to go to NZ for this meeting. What i decided
and this is the pracitce which i commend to the press council to the world, i came out with calendar. Its
made in advance, in october 2016 and tell you right now what i have to do teh whole period . on 16 nov
2017, we going to celebrate the national press day, thats in the calendar. On 11 and 12 december we will
haev meeting with incqiuryu committee, this is in clendar and the practice i introduce everymonth. We
said adn decided,and veryone knwo what to do in december. The calendar has very good purpose, and im
proud to say that my country has been able to settle complaint in 6 months. We have 2 thusand
complaints and we manage to dispose in 6 months.

Sa i said, journalists are the sentinels of ...., and by ursuing it, they ar ebound t oc ommon conflict with
aouthority, government, and other institutions. Theya re bound to common conflict and propagate this
conflict. That there must be conflict between ournalist and govt, unles syou are n ideal state. Journalist
is bound to talk about whether healthcare is provided by govt. for healthy democracym , its essential and
i ve said multiple numbers to journalists in many places that fconflict and with journalists and the
government , but naturally here should be insulated from the govt,. i understand , i have couple minutes
more to speak. Ill talk t o you about the complex. The press council should be worried, wihch is not in any
way either apointed by govt or role of apointment of press council. Becos i see that in every country, wher
epolitical party rules, it is said that political party ..position lies in jorunalis. This is populare in democratic
country. One thing which i facing is about the oscial media. I want to share the experience. Today ,
journalist is digitaland mobile. Traidtional ink and pper journalist is on the way out. I donno whether it
will be completely out or not, and the reach of social media, in a click of button the netire world will know.
Therefore if a journalist writing paper, he must be responisble for the content, just like people writen on
fb and social media.

My... on ...was disturbed on teh ranking of country by tghe reporter without border (from finland case). I
m telling you its staturory oblihaiton that of the ocuncil to maintain fredom of press. And our position is
not good. I make corespondence to them and im sorry to say that the raning by reporter witohut border
is on percetion and no factual basis. And ... whenever you rank a person yo u must declare what are your
principles. A child is declared to have secured first. Becauese he has obtained 80 percent of ....., and this
policy must be declared ot teh world. I did corespondence to them and im sorry to say that none of them
are applie dby reporters without border.

When you rank a country, you must rank one perosn out of hundred tohusand journalists dying , 1 percent,
1 zero zero soem person. India has more than hudndred thousand journalists. If one journalist is killed,
and that too, not for journalist activity, you talk about it. killing any individual is sad, we condemn, but
ranking acountry on the basis of this is absolutely ridiculous.
And they have , i have come to the website and on it they rank us slower. Why? Because we have
prosecuted a foreign journalists for visiting an ordinary comiunity which the ighest court of the counrty
said, because they are almost extinct, the supreme court said tnobody should cvisit them because they
feed tem chocolate and biscuit. And if somebody violates that maybe ajournalist of a , a sovereign country
has right to prosecute that people. We are a sovereign contry and you come out without a map and one
of the part of the country, and you take action for that. Therefore ranking, i say from this public
perspective, raking by reporter beyond borders are mroe on conception than facts. In parliament of ours,
eveyr year, one of our members pose thsi cquestion, whats our ranking. And i said to the chairman to pss
ocuncil, odnt take notice on that. There are many thins to talk but time is limited, and i thank you for your
presence.

DISCUSSIONth

To talk baout best pratice and management of resurces, and HR and capcaity building

Timor (vigo?) (moderator)

I think from the begining untilnow we have heard experience from the very first council in the world to
the very newest council, from sweden to timor leste, so we have different experiences, difernet chalenges.
But i think in eveyr presentation we note this independence form govt funding, and some of the press
ocuncil they are state funded. Now comes the issue of our discussion. Whats the god pacitce we need to
adpt on the management of financial and human resource that can guarantee the independence of our
instiutution. Press conference. I think we alll have the sme idea that independence of journalism ,
independence also depends on how the media guarantee the eocnomic independence of houralist. Thast
why we also advocate fo rjust remuneration for journalist. But now we 'll focu son managemet, how to
mobilize our resources. Can contriute to our financial independnce. Iwth the independence we have
(financial_, w ecan enforce our financial institution.

So i leave thee floor open to everyone and those who wanna share experience, especially on this issue of
management and human resources. This include scapacty of the staff, how to icnrase capacity of staff,
and how to mobiliz eresources.

We have 24 minutes left for us to share.

India

I beliee the press ocuncil is funded by industry. Is it voluntary?

Myanmar

It can also lead to it. pres ocouncil wil be in favor of thta

India

Somebody decide to donate certain amount is ok?

Thailand

We have the idea of ..because we nknow we stuck with the budget, especially when e increase the
reorganization by cretaing the ethic comitee who works in proactive . we will spen dmor emoney for that.
What we try to explore is , with the proposal and recomendation from the... we got the adviser from the
UK, asisted by uk embassy in bangkok. He tried to introduce he idea of haing trust fund. Trust fund means
we cooperate with company, we believe in anti corruption, media is very crucial in anti coryupoption
campaign. And us ask all this companies to put the money in trust fund regularly and trust fudn will go to
press council,a nd will be managed by independent pepole. But after some rounds, taliing with reps of
companies in thailand, i assume, he didnt disclose who talekd, but i assume some international company.
There is some diferent feedback. Some said yes some sai dno, some said reluctant. But for my self,, its a
good idea, but it has to put a lot of efforts to try to explain to the company that they going to put the
money in trustfund. Befor eyou do that you have to make sure the operation of press council is efficinet
enough for public to rely on. So it will be easier to go. But if not, i h vae to so say that the national pres
council in thailand, not because presure form junta,butut its alreayd in our agenda to refomr the work.
Thats why we got the consultant from the fomrerly pres ccomision in uk. I think this is the issue of
financing , going to be a big issue for every press council. But we dont have the reps from german pres
council but i think... the model of german press council, get 1/3 of the budget from the parliament.
Directly, not go to goverrnment. Becos german parliament has some budget to allocate to NGO. Thast
bedcause they dont want the industr to dominate the council. The german council onl y consists of
idndustry, no outsider, no honorary member. So thats why parliament said you must accept 1/3 of our
budget so no dominate the council. Is it the sam eas you?

Timor leste (moderator)

India

The principle of number of.... i think one of the best practics of the world, thast because o fnumber
ofnewspaper we have. We on the basis of the circulation levy fee. Nad the levy is provided to the... itself.
Therefore, those countries with less newspapers may not have enough fund or levy, ls sthan 100
newspaper,.. therefore there has to be not by the govt, by the body itself. Parlianment of the ocuntry.
Otherwise, the journalist are not ... or political party in.... power. No arty will ...must be other way.
Threfore there has to be something we can consolidate form govt funding, and the best, i think is levy of
fee from newspaper itself. Its small levy but lrage a number of newspaper. But dpends on the number of
newspaper you have.

Mickey from Kenya, direcotr of presco ocuncil in kenya.

Ive been here or 6years and i have several important things. 1, its posible to govt to fund pres counciland
stil lmaintain its independece depending on level of democracy, respect to rule of law and so forth. I
receive 40 percetnt of my funding from govt.and come from meida industry and partners. We have been
able to take govt to court, and won he case. This by govt funidng. Of course govt is not happy. They give
us fund and pay lawyer to take govt tocourt and govt lost. So the last few years, we did.... or even
complaint from govt to the complaint comision to high court. So its posible for that model ito work in
some countries. But i t depends on respect to rule of law and how well the medi freedom is enshrined in
the constitution of the country. Numbe 2, we find in emerging democrcies in asia nad africa, media council
is ..., diverse, beyond the issue of complaint. The media council from europe , australia and new zealand,
if you listen to presentation from asia, and aalso kenya as example from africa, we deal with many issues
of media. Chalenges. To deal with training, lobying, so man issues. Sometiems we lose track and forgot
our key responsibilities is to hold journalist to account, thast our work becos we lost in man other things
we doing beside handling complaints. Thats one of major coproblems we facing. In emerging edemoccy
in africa an dasia. Ifeurope ttstart thei reuglation just now, willthey be as sucesful? I dont think so. We
walk in very dificult situation in africa, and theissue of suport and ......is very critical for africa. And asia.

Modertoar

Thank you fo rthe additional context in diferent reigon.

....cristin olson, SIDA swedish international devt agency, journalist and publsiher

My organization suport this event, we suport unseco work on freedom of expresion, and also myanmar
with pres council, IMS, and suport kenyan press concil. Id liketo address to pres council in developing
contries. That has dposibility for few years to get some space thanks to funding form donors and media
asistance. Id like to adress this. The most independent jornlalist are rich journalists. Someone said before.
To beocme independent you have to yhave you rown money, thats the goal, but geting there yo yu need
help. This is oportunity. We suport this network but today we see big crisi sin democracy relatedto medi
a and media newsa. It is sad situation but oportunity too, becs there is increase of demand for slution,
and the solution is increase suport for jiurnalist, trainig etc. but difficult to find institution suporting media,
probably...partly media industry is poorly regulated and organized. When you have... there is lot of policy
makers in participants, they neded to adress telling socitey to tell .... but it is oportunity for changes that
cos media council hsa central role for deomcracy. I m sure unesco can nhel p develop concept note to
adres this. To donor at natoional level like in myanmar. But thats not always the case.you haev to trace
regional or global fund, such as unesco. Imf as well. I realy urge the network to keep create concept note
on what will make bigest change . what will you do if you have more money to society.

Elina from finland

I also have very small note on strategfy. I think all of u have targte to increase part of money we get from
industry and company, beos thats the money taht makes us independent. We get 80 pecet fro mindustry
aind 20 from govt. increase the money we get from industry. In finland, its pretty easy becos we have
storng ..union, you have to obey journalist guidelines, and as part for fee, you also pay forthe sytsme.
What im trying to emphasise in presentation is that its not charty from media. Becos its thetrust f public.
In thetime of this free social media, if you want to sell journalistisc product you must have content thats
diferrent. On the other hand, in finland, no litigation agianst meida houses. They save more than they pay
for us. I personlaly think i hsould never take this as strtaegy. My strategy is to speak with media
organization and remind them, let them understand the value fromthe small fee they pay. I keep
constnatly explain thevalue.

Next year ew have 50t aniversary,we will do something ew. We will transform the local media council to
some kind ...stamp that they can use a sguarantee that they belong to media counrty system. If they want,
they can use this as guarantee of quality of journalistic content. We also cooperate iwh media to educate
public and school about the system. We try to create value and understanding of the public.

..chairperson of mediaand media trainer


I train journalist on ethical media. Im happy global leaders of media acountaiblity mechanism here. I have
few curiosity to anyone here. I heard in presentation that some press ocuncil or media council only work
monetary support from any publisher or media outlet. Press council ofnepl doenst get monetary suport
from membership, but from govt. its a question. Is i third thought that press council arund the world taking
money from government and the media outlet so to stoptheir influence? In criticaltime? Its my curiosity.
Is there any sel fsustain method so there is no critical influnce of media outlet and govt at time of crisis.
Thakn you.

Australia

For our point of fview, we are independent fromgovt funding. Our chalenge is keep funding from
publsiher. Our matter is totaly independent from govt. thats the way we resolve potential dependency.
One of the thing we done, bring them in through fee . we chage publisher thousand dolals a year, over
years we incfease the fee to more comercial level. It works okay. They are usedto idea of contributing.

The govt , we mentioned NZ, under defamation act they have speciald efense for nay publisher belong to
press council. If they belong,they get tis benefit also. Iguess we needto show the value f rthe publidsher
and persuadethem to join.

NZ

The defamation act only applies to council decision, but criminal proceeding act is what mentions
organization that ..press council and broadcast standard authoroity that gievs journalist right to be
allowed to ..outside court

Myanmar

90 percent of funding from govt. i dont think we are under influence of govt. the money from govt is given
by taxpayer. As long as we loayll to pepole i dont feel uilt. W emust rely on donation from private media,
bt some prvate media try to influence us. We feel more comfortable living on state fund.

Sweden

We are also independent from state and industry. What i did not say is that we have no indiviual news
paper or news company memebrs in our system , we dont get any money directly fro mnewspaper. Or
company. We get the money through organization which keeps us distant to interest of industry. But i
must add that 25 percent com form administative fee. The yumust pay administative fee. Today, over 10
000 ciculation newspaper the fee is 4000 dollars.

Moderator

Thank you. I think there is several options, trust funds, govt fund, and industrial fund,

Thai

In theproposal, that we tried tosend to govt, to have the media company, with our legal sanction, we put
that the money will come from the same tax but not dirrectly. Inthailand ew have thai PBS, new public tv
channel, which gets funding fro msintax, and they got 2 thousand milion baht a year. In the draft law it is
sai dthat we lkike to get 15 50 poercent fo sintax. If its 2100 milion bahts, you get 15 milion baht a year.
Moderator

Hwatever the means,the objective of our effort is to keep editorial power, the press power as the fourth
pillar of democracy not being used by other power . the political and economic power. Thats the collective
efforts no matter from europe and to us. I think money is important but what more important is the value
that we have in our law, democarcy value, and for us like timor leste, new country, smal lcountry situated
between two countries. We keep saying to politician, fighiting for pres dfreedom i snot comitment ito
upholde democracy but also our responsibilityo our history of struggle. We keep saying that,many
journalist have died in tihs land to reach independence. We have five austalien journalist kille din balibo
in 75, and ...yhthe other one killed in dili in 75, in 19999 dutch journalist and indonesia journalist was killed
there. Our effort is to value the sacrifice they made. Thats the strong prt that we wan to encourage
poliltician not to try interven to political influence. Thevalue for money is imporntatnt. This is the mony,
but not becos you nhelp us becos we ar epoor but its legal mandagete. Its one thing, i agree with sugesiton
from finland, and swedenm, to reach the state of independence we need some incentive. That sthe
message.thank you for your contributiuon.

Myanmar

We came here with expectation of learning from experiene of our senior precss council, we the second
youngest. And use the generaterd content, is actually its also enrich us. In our comunity, the democracy
is very young 2 years old, and using the content is something related to internet, telecomunicaiton, and
our Telecom system is not that good. We face chalenge s by user generated content. We d like to hear
experience from our seniors, on usergenerated content. What we have and facing in our country, with
the advancement of comunication technology, we notice the chalenges, that suer generated ontent can
pose, is to grow very spiidy. I will start with most enior press council, sweden.

Sweden

First, when it comes to blogger, and socialmedia, self regulation means you cna only regulate those who
wanna be regulated, its free willing and you must wannabe regulated. And most of he ..is regulated in self
rugelateory system, and its very har d to achieve. What we dne in swedn is take social media thats
connectedto newspaper we can control. Those we can try. And ew have open mind, thos eoperating on
internet as not somekind of online media, carefully, about ....today we have roughly 30 online news papers
free ilingly wanna be joinig. And just in sweden we have thousands of online operaions. So 30 is just the...
but we must have in mind we must esu rethey are wilinmgly regulated.

Finland

I said tahat as press ocuncil we have ocntrol ,we keep border between the regulated and unregulatded
content as clear as possible. We cant control the whole internet univerd.se. we can improve our own
conduct all time as journalist and inform public about it and let them understand whats journalistic
content and whats not. We do have lots of online media sa memers. They have to pay gand follow
guideline from journalist.

NZ

First, i had some comments from , afte rmy presentation and i need clarify about blogger. We have
accepted blogger iwhos eocntent is news. If someomene blogs recipes its not common. User generated
content, we have discussion in the council. And make your .... and we have said we dont ..can
...newspaper that unless there is god reason for privacy reason. How come people are alowed to post
those comments wih anonimity.they are anonimous online but we know who they ar ecos they are
registered. If there names are there, ther ewil be less comments, there is this idea. And its blurry because
they wanna have comment. Because peopel cnan search and people coming onlnine stayinga slong
making maniy comments. This is kind of blurry between editorial and management. I think what really we
try to do is im working , when i get complainet, i go straight to moderator of organization, to moderatoe
the comment. And we will let them know that the council will look whats hapening, and this is the third
issue, we have had few poeple complaining becos they ..tcomplained about things and then came to us.
We have adopte dpolicy and again we regard it as the ..wee said the editor he has right to refuse the
upublsiher, and w esaid they must be allowd to refus euser generated comment, if over period oftime
there is perspetcive that violates terms and condtioions.

Australia

One significant area is efective fness of fb over traidtional media. They target 5 percent of revenue, in
australia at least, i think its enormous pressure to traditional media. Thats one major shift. But the positive
side of techno devt is there is lot of online media sites. So in australie ther eis lot of online sites , fo rus
they represnet great oportunity to get them on board an dcomitedto our rules and pay about sel
fregulatory building and increase coverage. When it come sto ...in NZ its publisehd by publsiher, and the
othre thing is one tihng that come out of the generagted ocntent liek video of taken about crime comited
posted ion interent and put on news, which shows lot ofgraphic detail. In short detail you wont see in tv
channel. How dow ereconcile that ind of video on news side, and that video on tv side.

India

Actualy in idia user generated content , the council has no rule about it. we cninclude social medai into
domain of press council. First is...other is whther its part of the jurisdiction o fth ebody. About content at
social media, many times, it affects country. Therefore , i thnk it hsould betested as the part ofthe media.
We must adhere to freedom of expression but some freedom affect the sovereignty and public interest.
It must be considered. Its very interesting thing to tell you about social media. Thihere is nknown channel
in idnai and every day they come out wihth program called final truth. They pick up manystories insocial
media and analyze if its true or not. In many cases, they come out with story,thereistemple in remote part
of country where people of certain cmunity are not alowed to worship for 200 years, but the fact ther eis
no temple. Te social media ahs some responsibility also. At the same time it must not affect the freedom
of individual. You can use particular subject. But to read...one country knows that also.

Nepal

Social media is kiling 30 percent of civil servants time. But not only negative aspetc. 2years ago, ther e was
earthqueke in nepal, and sm epeople in remote area sufered from kidney or cancer, witohut geting any
support. If someone posted these poeple, poeple will support them. And in big cearthquake we can get
suport from lot of poeple too. Two months ago there was ....., some people in fb said bad tings baout the
family, and he was also introuble for couple of months. An dhe asked quetsion to police chief and
intendent chief, hat abou baning faceobok like in china. Why not? We strongly oposed it an dgovt couldnt
amaterialize it. those who ..fb 10 to 5 isbanned from govt secretarita. Tosome extent its necessary to
prevent civil servant not doing their job.but it doenst mean it should be banned. There are some
implications. Another topic is , asince timor and myanmar, your new council jsust estabished, we wanna
invite you to nepal as gour guest and see how our work is, and our experieence . thank you.

Nepal 2

I want to hear from you, so mecouncils around the world, enter the domain that were no journalist and
journalism as such, but freedom of expression became concern. Shuoulld council monitor content on FB
or social media

Myanmar

I notice sometiing , i heard 3 weeks aog one online media conducted survey raising very sensitive
question, have you seen or watched the last porn film brought up by xxx., and it affected thousands of
like, and they.... use that popularity fo rpromotion of commercial things. What would be sensible to
regulate social media? Unethical user

Nepal

We are not journalist. Council go horugh individual content of jounalist using social media, we ar enot
journalist.

Nz

It sould be journalist content. I think we can ...our process if we....

Moderator

We have two terms, one is journalistic content, other is editorial treatment. Fo rinstacce, certian radi
stations tv chanels, came with specific focu. For instance, only on music. Thast eihe clasical music, this is
editorial treatment. They have some objectives to achieve. Or only on cultual issues. Some are editorial
but not journalistic content. The other aspcect we take is journalistic content. If you come to private blogs,
fb, its no our domain. We involve in campaign against hate speech, we try to advocate but as part of
adjustment w edont do private content.

Thai

We you talk social meida, many issues. I'll rest..in thailand so many issues dealing with social meida, but
mos t serious ones, is about self regulaiton, is that there is one newspaper webste, number 1 news website
in thailand, not membe rof pres council, used to be. But they are themember of the society for online
news provider ssoctaion, which also self reuglate, have their own code. And this website , of couse they
will have fan page on FB, very popular, they get about 11 or 12 million people like . and one day they do
fb live, of a man, who climb up to telecom pole and treated himself trying to heang himsel fnad they do
lve of this man threatening hiself for almost an hour. By the minute the man hiang himsel fand killed
himself, they took th elive down, because they use phone. And lots of ocmmplaints to the association.
Now we are conducting . invesigation. But the pre investigation sshows the owner of website sai dwe
dont do anything wrong cos we dont show him when hanging. But before the first one out, on negotiation,
on people tring to come take th eman down, everything is live on fb lifeve. In this case its a chalenge fo
rus, how to regulate. So we ask them to testify when i go back we ll have discusion with themand see how
we can go out.
Myanmar

Thank you. Anything else?

India

Even individual right works with people. No difernece between journalist and individual. Its conjuncion
with boh. Ithink thats to tohse who wirte in blog or social media, they alsouse the same alphabet, although
fo rlonge word they use smaller. But the same alphabet are used by blogger in social media. Hw we distinct
between the print media and soial media? All time i emphasize, we should interpret in such a manner, the
freedom of expression is apparent, but long ago in whatever form, that may have ...fredeom is not
absolute in any country. For india, i think its very important , we prefer to have ....to respond first and
control press. Bloggers and osical media use the same letter sand alphabets. I thikn tihs hsould come. I
say yes...all the years, ho w many numbers.

Myanmar

Anybody who has mobile phone can become citizen journalist, if the intrenet conection is good . i wonder
whow can we teach children to be good citizen journalist by teach them at school.

Bambang indonesia

In pindonesian press council we have guideline for online media, the urrent code of ethic is not sufficinet
for online, because because user generated content, and wthe ocuncil called every onlien reps and after
8 meetings they came to agreement. The firdt differnece, in our law i stated the definition of journalist is
a person doing gathering info, broadcastiing, and who follows the code of ethcis of journalist. If you dnt
follow that, byleal definition you re not a journalist. And with that, we have he last word on whtehr code
of etihc hsa been breached or not,. The supreme court of code of ethics.

Any online or blogger,if they wanna be protected bypress council they have to declare they follow the
code. Otherwise, its just the difernece between pamphlete and newspaper. Becos theleader have
expectation. The sam epaper, the state, the identity..thats difernet expectation than paper with
information nobody knows who wrote it, adress, etc. badically journalist is verified. Verified blog ger is a
journalist. Its the same like yif you folowing the necesary requirement to become medical doctor, you re
doctore, but the sam eperson even ihe got title docto by educiaon but dont wanna follow the code, he is
not acting as doctor. There is this kind of expectation if you claim to be a journalist, tihs is minimum
standard. Secondly, usergenerated content, one o fthe discussion of if you have friend whihc ..bothering
your property, aare you liable to what i swritten ther? Ifsomebody said something written there very bad,
and you dont act on it you become at least partly repsonsible. Wejust follow fb and google,you have to
have the ability in online meia that somoen ecan report if something they feel uncomfortable. 24 hjours
isnt? 48 hours. There is no reaction, you re partly responsible. Thast the reasonbale amount fo itme. I
think you can access this.

I think its reasonaly working sofar. Becaus eudsr generated ocntent is impossible to manage even if you
moderat eautomaicaly. Even not google. You can ban words, but they add some symbols, dash. In a sense,
in digitalworld, everythingis cropsourcing including managemento f information. Its imposbkle to be done
by non crowdsourcing. Is there ..if a treemake a sound if noone hearing it. if bad informato is dangerous
if no one knwos the information? We sahr eresponsibility in digital world, because its border between
prvate and public. I wanna telel interdsting story. when i was in istanbul i ask myguide, why this ottoman
sultanate who at the opoint the largest empire inthe world, fell down? First he said, just like nay empire,
but then he said, in hisopinion, when hey found guthenberg printing machine, the peope in west started
to wow ithis is very good way to spread science and kwnowldge beocs it scheap fast and very efficient,
but the ulama of ottoman empire sai ditsvery dangerous tool for porn and all bad things . so ottoman
empire banned printing machine for more than centuries,, and my guide , aottomenan who was hea dof
techn became lagged behind. Internet is like guthenberg. Its very good, conenct us, focus on tehgood or
the bad. I have friend here from denmark.demnmark is the country is tthat regulats porn in 1963 the first
time. That does mean poeple become crazy? No, in 2 years all porn industry went bankrupt, bu fortuntaley
tehy found customers from countries who ban porn.

The fear itself is dangerou.s i want to quote amartya sein, severla years ago said that press freedom is like
the oxygen of democracy. Even a good thing liek oxygen, has negative effect. It can caus ecorroson in
steel.you wanna concenrtate beos oxygen make occoorrosion we should ban oxygen? No, we have
benefit of the doubt, we have article 19 and 20, and the balance and let bme be more extreme. Amny of
you dont realize that hate speech acordingto US constitution is protected speech but it survives and most
power ful county in teh world. So is hate speech dangerous? I stop there.

Myanmar

Id likeo give the floorto our friend fro nepal. He hsa special message.

Nepal 1

As i have already mentioned, south sasian aliance of press conference is to be formed in november. He is
the... scecond one is te owlr dorganiatio of press conference. My friend form kenya he is the president.
So all of you most welome to join us , lets support together. The meeting is in new delhi, other one we
finalizing it. lets keep inouch.

India

I agree withbasic of that. We we have incorporated all the ...we circulate it again aft ert hat. In india we
celerabrate national press day 16 nov every year, this is our.... and we plan to have that formal signing of
that in november. And im willing to goe xtra mile fo rhaving this boarding in nov 2017.

Sweden

In europe we have AIPCE, its not oganization, we have no chairman, no board, its a network, and acutally
we do two things . first we join gogle grop where everoyone in the network and our friends around the
globe can take part, and ther eis discussion going on on diferent matters . seocnd, we have conference
once a year, often pretty ambitious wih intl guessts debate about media ethics. Last year we had
concefernece instockholm celebrating our 100 years as council. An dnext year we iwill have the
conference in budapest, it wil be in tihs year 12-13 of october. And next year we will have in helsinki.

Those who wanna be opart of our google gropup , get invitiation to our conference and debate, can ewrite
email ito ipso, press council in england, we have contact person there. You'll be put in our google:
vikki.julian@ipso.co.uk. You are all welcome.

Myanmar
Thansk for hsairng your experience. Id liketo conclude this session, with our heartful thanks to all of you
and organizaiton.

Bambang harimurti

Thakn you. Allow me to make this statement. As you probably heard, the full day, today thre is diverse
way of press council. The name maybe the same but variou s ways on how torun a press council. In
diferencet countries and societies, like democracy have their own branch of press ocuncil. We know that
they aref ufnded by industry 100 percent, india funded 100 percent by public, indonesia, half half, because
govt ar enot oblige dto fund the press council, but press council can raise its own. Although now 95
perecent funded by govt. and but, the idfference is alos if press ocuncil is fully self reuglatory, th n the in
case of indonesia it becomes a law, it s no lone rself regulatory. Becos by law, he press council has to
defend press freedom. In fact, the law even given the press councilto report to police anone who was
foundded guilty of infringement of press council can be sent to jail to up to 2 years or fined b y 500 million
rupiahs. I think few people have been sent t jail cos proven guildty of infringing the press freedom. Th idea
is press freedom doesnt belong to journalist or publisher,its public right. In fact sometimes, threat to press
freedom come from publisher and journalist. In cae of nepal. I can share with you little story where at one
point, the tv owner, who censors one of its investigative works , with chief editor said its met all criteria
of code of ethics,ut it hurt the minsiter who was the friend of he owner, the owner said no.

The person, i said, if you dont broadcast this, i hae n o choice, though im your riend, by law i have to report
it to police that you have commited to crime, and you knwo you can go to jail for up to 2 years. Fortunately
he said ok and broadcasted the investigation. So i thikn that shows this is clearly now what you define as
slf reuglation anymore. Its part of state regulation in a sense. But it doesnt amtter. I wanna quote deng
xiao ping, it doesnt mamtte rthe cat is black or white as lng as it atches mouse, its good cat. We dont
haveto stick to one stirict dfeinition as long asit creats very conducive situation fo rpress freedom , good
quality journalism, and accessprofesional conudtc of journalist. We dont care the color , funding, number
, of press council. Its ok. As lng as it defensds press freedom. Of course we share our experiences becos
we always can improve beose we can improve our press ouccouncil, and we have mor challneg from social
media. Soon we won have social media only but probably holographic media.. maybe soon we will have
infrmation thats not only give you picture and text, but sense scent or feeling. What wil happen to
pornographic industry. There is anoher challenge that we have to think.its called disruptive technology
and inovation. We must not be afriaid. Its ok if i talk denmark again?

Becos i really love this one story i had to make debate with medical docotr who was very convinced having
this theory in front of one of big insttutions in indonesia. he believs ponr can cause people go crazy,a nd
he has all this picture of brain waves etc. and after he finished, i asked her, you think all danish people a
are crazzy?

No, in fact, to her, accoridng to some study, ddenmark is among the most islamic society with norway and
new zealand. So i said, do you know in 67 denmark the first country legalize porn?she was shocked. So
again, id like to conclude with this, sometime sbeing reuglator, self regulaiton, we re so afriad of
something that might never materialize. That we ar elike what i remember, plato used to call the allegory
of cave. When one of the person who from the ...tied up to he row, and suddenly, he was released, he
was out to open sky, look and went back ell everything, everyone said you re crazy and he became
convinecded he iwas crazy and tied himself again.
Its not just aas tory it happens in real life, and i hope most of us here in press ocuncil we embrace being
liberated from teh cave. As aung san suu kyi is the fear of fear is the most dangerous.

END OF SESSION