Transformers
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Table of contents
1 • Introduction
2 • Working Principle of Transformer
3 • Flux in a Transformer
4 • Ideal Transformer
5 • E.M.F. Equation of Transformer
6 • Turns Ratio of Transformer
7 • Rules for Referring Impedance
8 • Equivalent Circuit of a Transformer
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Table of contents
• Transformer Phasor Diagram with
9 Different Loads
10 • Exact Equivalent Circuit
11 • Approximate Equivalent Circuit
12 • Voltage Regulation of a Transformer
13 • Efficiency of a Transformer
14 • Transformer Tests
15 • Autotransformer
16 • Instrument Transformers
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Introduction
A transformer is a device that converts one AC voltage to another AC voltage
at the same frequency. It consists of one or more coil(s) of wire wrapped
around a common ferromagnetic core. These coils are usually not connected
electrically together. However, they are connected through the common
magnetic flux confined to the core.
Transformer characteristics
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Flux in a Transformer
The current in the primary winding establishes a flux. The flux that moves
from primary to secondary and links both the windings is called the mutual
flux and its maximum value is represented by ϕm.
Flux which links only the primary winding and completes the magnetic
path through the surrounding air is known primary leakage flux ϕ1l.
The secondary leakage flux ϕ2l is that flux which links only the secondary
winding and completes the magnetic path through the surrounding air.
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Ideal Transformer
An ideal transformer is one which does not supply
any energy to the load i.e., the secondary winding is
open circuited.
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E.M.F. Equation of Transformer
The primary winding draws a current when it is connected to an alternating
voltage source. This primary sinusoidal current produces a sinusoidal flux u
that can be expressed as
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Turns Ratio of Transformer
The turns ratio is used to identify the stepup and stepdown transformers.
According to Faraday’s laws, the induced emf in the primary e1 and the
secondary e2 windings are,
𝑉1
𝑃𝑜𝑢𝑡 = 𝑉2 𝐼2 𝑐𝑜𝑠𝜙2 = 𝑎𝐼1 𝑐𝑜𝑠𝜙1 = 𝑃𝑖𝑛
𝑎
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Turns Ratio of Transformer
Example: The number of turns in the secondary coil of a 22 kVA, 2200V/220V
singlephase transformer is 50. Find
(i) number of primary turns,
(ii) primary full load current,
(iii) secondary full load current.
Neglect all kinds of losses in the transformer.
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Turns Ratio of Transformer
Example: A 25 kVA singlephase transformer has the primary and secondary
number of turns of 200 and 400, respectively. The transformer is connected to
a 220 V, 50 Hz source. Calculate
(i) turns ratio,
(ii) mutual flux in the core.
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Rules for Referring Impedance
For developing equivalent circuit of a transformer, it is necessary to refer the
parameters from the primary to the secondary or the secondary to the
primary. These parameters are resistance, reactance, impedance, current and
voltage.
The impedances in the primary and secondary windings are,
The impedance ratio is equal to the square of the turns ratio. The important
points for transferring parameters are
(i) R1 in the primary becomes (R1/a2) when referred to the secondary,
(ii) R2 in the secondary becomes (a2R2) when referred to the primary,
(iii) X1 in the primary becomes (X1/a2) when referred to the secondary,
(iv) X2 in the secondary becomes (a2X2) when referred to the primary.
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Rules for Referring Impedance
Example: The number of primary and secondary turns of a singlephase
transformer are 300 and 30, respectively. The secondary coil is connected with
a load impedance of 4Ω. Calculate
(i) turns ratio,
(ii) load impedance referred to the primary,
(iii) primary current if the primary coil voltage is 220 V.
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Equivalent Circuit of a Transformer
The losses that occur in real transformers have to be accounted for in any
accurate model of transformer behavior. The major items to be considered in
the construction of such a model are
Copper losses are resistive losses in the primary and secondary windings of the
transformer core. They are modeled by placing a resistor R1 in the primary
circuit of the transformer and a resistor R2 in the secondary circuit.
The coreloss current ih+e is a current proportional to the voltage applied to the
core that is in phase with the applied voltage, so it can be modeled by a
resistance Rc connected across the primary voltage source.
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Equivalent Circuit of a Transformer
The figure below is an accurate model of a transformer, it is not a very useful
one. To analyze practical circuits containing transformers, it is normally
necessary to convert the entire circuit to an equivalent circuit at a single
voltage level.
Hysteresis
& eddy
current
Core
resistance Magnetization
current
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Transformer Phasor Diagram with Different Loads
𝐸2 = 𝑉2 + 𝐼2 𝑍2
𝑉1 = −𝐸1 + 𝐼1 𝑍1
ϕm
I1
Io
I1R1
I2 E1 E2
E1
I1X1 I1Z1 R Load
I 2Z 2
V1 I2
I2X2
V2
I2R2
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Transformer Phasor Diagram with Different Loads
ϕm
I1
Io
I1X1 I1 R1 I2
I1Z1 E1 E1 E2
RL Load
V2 I2 Z
V1 2
I2 X
I2 I2 R 2
2
ϕm
I1 Io
I1R1 I2
I1X1
I1Z1
E1 E1 E2 RC
I2Z2 Load
V1 I2
V2 I2X2
I2 R2
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Exact Equivalent Circuit
The figure is the exact equivalent circuit referred to the primary where all the
parameters are transferred from the secondary to the primary and these
parameters are
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Exact Equivalent Circuit
The figure is the exact equivalent circuit referred to the secondary where all
the parameters are transferred from the primary to the secondary and these
parameters are
𝐼ℎ+𝑒 ′ = 𝑎𝐼ℎ+𝑒
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Approximate Equivalent Circuit
The noload current is very small as compared to the rated primary current.
Therefore, there is a negligible voltage drop due to R1 and X1. In this
condition, it can be assumed that the voltage drop across the noload circuit is
the same as the applied voltage without any significant error. The approximate
equivalent circuit can be drawn by shifting the noload circuit across the
supply voltage, V1.
The figure is the approximate equivalent circuit referred to the primary where
all the parameters are transferred from the secondary to the primary and
these parameters are
𝑅𝑒𝑞 = 𝑅1 + 𝑅2 ′ = 𝑅1 + 𝑎2 𝑅2
𝑋𝑒𝑞 = 𝑋1 + 𝑋2 ′ = 𝑋1 + 𝑎2 𝑋2
𝑉1 𝑉1
𝑅𝑐 = 𝑋𝑚 =
𝐼ℎ+𝑒 𝐼𝑚
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Approximate Equivalent Circuit
The figure is the approximate equivalent circuit referred to the secondary
where all the parameters are transferred from the primary to the secondary
and these parameters are
𝑅1
𝑅𝑒𝑞 = 𝑅2 + 𝑅1 ′ = 𝑅2 +
𝑎2
𝑋1 ′
𝑋𝑒𝑞 = 𝑋2 + 𝑋1 = 𝑋2 + 2
𝑎
𝑉1 ′
𝑅𝑐 ′ =
𝐼ℎ+𝑒 ′
𝑉1 ′
𝑋𝑚 ′ = ′
𝐼𝑚
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Approximate Equivalent Circuit
Example: A 2.5 kVA, 200V/40V singlephase transformer has the primary
resistance and reactance of 3 and 12 Ω, respectively. On the secondary side,
these values are 0.3 and 0.1 Ω, respectively. Find the equivalent impedance
referred to the primary and the secondary.
𝑉1 200
𝑎= = =5
𝑉2 40
The total resistance, reactance and impedance referred to the primary can be
determined as,
𝑅𝑒𝑞 = 𝑅1 + 𝑎2 𝑅2 = 3 + 25 × 0.3 = 10.5Ω
𝑉2𝑁𝐿 − 𝑉2𝐹𝐿
𝑉𝑜𝑙𝑡𝑎𝑔𝑒 𝑅𝑒𝑔𝑢𝑙𝑎𝑡𝑖𝑜𝑛 = × 100%
𝑉2𝐹𝐿
Since at no load, V2 = V1/a, the voltage regulation can also be expressed as
𝑉1
𝑎 − 𝑉2𝐹𝐿
𝑉𝑜𝑙𝑡𝑎𝑔𝑒 𝑅𝑒𝑔𝑢𝑙𝑎𝑡𝑖𝑜𝑛 = × 100%
𝑉2𝐹𝐿
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Efficiency of a Transformer
The efficiency (η), of the transformer can be defined as the ratio of its output
power to the input power. Mathematically, it can be expressed as,
𝑃𝑜𝑢𝑡 𝑃𝑜𝑢𝑡
𝜂= × 100% = × 100%
𝑃𝑖𝑛 𝑃𝑜𝑢𝑡 + 𝑃𝑙𝑜𝑠𝑠
𝑃𝑜𝑢𝑡 = 𝑉2 𝐼2 𝑐𝑜𝑠𝜃2
𝑃𝑙𝑜𝑠𝑠 = 𝑃𝑐𝑢 + 𝑃𝑖𝑟𝑜𝑛
There are three types of losses present in transformers:
1 Copper Losses
Copper losses occur due to the primary and the secondary resistances. The
full load copper losses can be determined as
𝑃𝑐𝑢 = 𝐼1 2 𝑅1 + 𝐼2 2 𝑅2
𝑃𝑐𝑢 = 𝐼2 2 𝑅𝑒𝑞
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Efficiency of a Transformer
The iron loss of a transformer is often called as core loss, which is a result of
an alternating flux in the core of the transformer. The iron loss consists of
the eddy current loss and the hysteresis loss.
𝑃𝑖𝑟𝑜𝑛 = 𝑃𝑒 + 𝑃ℎ
3 Hysteresis Losses
The hysteresis loss Ph is directly proportional to the frequency (f ) and 2.6th
power of the maximum magnetic flux density (Bm) and the expression of
hysteresis loss is
𝑃ℎ = 𝑘ℎ 𝑓𝐵𝑚 𝑛 where kh is the proportionality constant. n=1.52.5
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Efficiency of a Transformer
Practically, hysteresis loss depends on the voltage and the eddy current loss
depends on the current. Therefore, total losses of the transformer depend on
the voltage and the current not on the power factor. That is why the
transformer rating is always represented in kVA instead of kW.
𝑉2 𝐼2 𝑐𝑜𝑠𝜃2 𝑉2 𝐼2 𝑐𝑜𝑠𝜃2
𝜂= × 100% = 2 2 × 100%
𝑉2 𝐼2 𝑐𝑜𝑠𝜃2 + 𝑃𝑐𝑢 + 𝑃𝑖𝑟𝑜𝑛 𝑉2 𝐼2 𝑐𝑜𝑠𝜃2 + 𝐼1 𝑅1 + 𝐼2 𝑅2 + 𝑃𝑖𝑟𝑜𝑛
𝑉2 𝐼2 𝑐𝑜𝑠𝜃2
𝜂= 2 × 100%
𝑉2 𝐼2 𝑐𝑜𝑠𝜃2 + 𝐼2 𝑅𝑒𝑞 + 𝑃𝑖𝑟𝑜𝑛
To find the condition for maximum efficiency, put the derivative of the
efficiency with respect to I2 equal to zero.
𝑑𝜂𝑚𝑎𝑥
=0
𝑑𝐼2
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Efficiency of a Transformer
𝑑𝜂𝑚𝑎𝑥 𝑉2 𝐼2 𝑐𝑜𝑠𝜃2 + 𝐼2 2 𝑅𝑒𝑞 + 𝑃𝑖𝑟𝑜𝑛 𝑉2 𝑐𝑜𝑠𝜃2 − 𝑉2 𝐼2 𝑐𝑜𝑠𝜃2 (𝑉2 𝑐𝑜𝑠𝜃2 + 2𝐼2 𝑅𝑒𝑞 )
= =0
𝑑𝐼2 (𝑉2 𝐼2 𝑐𝑜𝑠𝜃2 + 𝐼2 2 𝑅𝑒𝑞 + 𝑃𝑖𝑟𝑜𝑛 )2
𝑃𝑖𝑟𝑜𝑛 − 𝐼2 2 𝑅𝑒𝑞 = 0
𝑃𝑖𝑟𝑜𝑛
𝐼2𝜂𝑚𝑎𝑥 =
𝑅𝑒𝑞
𝑃𝑖𝑟𝑜𝑛 𝑃𝑖𝑟𝑜𝑛
𝑉𝐼2𝜂𝑚𝑎𝑥 = 𝑉𝐼2𝑟𝑎𝑡𝑒𝑑 = 𝑉𝐼2𝑟𝑎𝑡𝑒𝑑
𝐼2𝑟𝑎𝑡𝑒𝑑 2 𝑅𝑒𝑞 𝑃𝑐𝑢 𝑟𝑎𝑡𝑒𝑑
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Efficiency of a Transformer
Example: A 30 kVA transformer has the iron loss and full load copper loss of 350 and 650
W, respectively. Determine the (i) Full load efficiency, (II) 0.8 load efficiency, (iii) Output
kVA corresponding to maximum efficiency, and (iv)Maximum efficiency. Consider that
the power factor of the load is 0.6 lagging.
30 × 0.6 18
(i) 𝜂= × 100% = × 100% = 94.7%
30 × 0.6 + 0.65 + 0.35 19
(ii) At half load 𝑃𝑜𝑢𝑡 = 0.8 × 30 × 0.6 = 14.4𝑘W
𝑃𝑖𝑟𝑜𝑛 = 350W = 0.35kW
𝑃𝑐𝑜𝑝𝑝𝑒𝑟_0.8𝐹𝐿 = 0.82 𝑃𝑐𝑜𝑝𝑝𝑒𝑟_𝐹𝐿 = 0.82 × 0.65kW = 0.416kW
14.4 14.4
𝜂= × 100% = × 100% = 94.9%
14.4 + 0.416 + 0.35 15.166
𝑃𝑖𝑟𝑜𝑛 350
(iii) 𝑉𝐼2𝜂𝑚𝑎𝑥 = 𝑉𝐼2𝑟𝑎𝑡𝑒𝑑 = 30 = 22𝑘𝑉𝐴
𝐼2𝑟𝑎𝑡𝑒𝑑 2 𝑅𝑒𝑞 650
A
W + Io
LV HV Ih+e Im
V Rc Xm
V V

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Transformer Tests
Open Circuit Test
The wattmeter reading can be expressed as
𝑃𝑜 = 𝑉𝐼𝑜 𝑐𝑜𝑠𝜃𝑜
The no load power factor can be determined as
𝑃𝑜
𝑐𝑜𝑠𝜃𝑜 =
𝑉𝐼𝑜
The no load current components can be determined as
𝐼ℎ+𝑒 = 𝐼𝑜 𝑐𝑜𝑠𝜃𝑜
𝐼𝑚 = 𝐼𝑜 𝑠𝑖𝑛𝜃𝑜
The no load resistance and reactance can be determined as
𝑉
𝑅𝑐 =
𝐼ℎ+𝑒
𝑉
𝑋𝑚 =
𝐼𝑚
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Transformer Tests
Open Circuit Test
Example: A 200/400V, 50Hz singlephase transformer has the noload test data of 200V,
0.6A, 80W. Calculate the noload circuit resistance and reactance.
𝑃𝑜 80
𝑐𝑜𝑠𝜃𝑜 = = = 0.67
𝑉𝐼𝑜 200 × 0.6
𝑠𝑖𝑛47.9 = 0.74
𝑉 200
𝑅𝑐 = = = 500Ω
𝐼ℎ+𝑒 0.4
𝑉 200
𝑋𝑚 = = = 454.5Ω
𝐼𝑚 0.44
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Transformer Tests
Short Circuit Test
The main objectives of the short circuit test are to determine the equivalent
resistance, reactance, impedance and full load copper loss.
The supply voltage and the measuring instruments (e. g,. wattmeter, ammeter)
are connected to the high voltage side and the low voltage winding is
connected with ammeter. The voltage is adjusted until the current in the low
voltage winding is equal to the rated low voltage side current. Under this
condition, the wattmeter will measure the full load copper loss
𝑃𝑠𝑐
𝑐𝑜𝑠𝜃𝑠𝑐 =
𝑉𝑠𝑐 𝐼𝑠𝑐
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Transformer Tests
Short Circuit Test
The equivalent impedance can be calculated as,
𝑉𝑠𝑐
𝑍𝑒𝑞 =
𝐼𝑠𝑐
The equivalent resistance and reactance can be calculated as
𝑉𝑠𝑐 40 150
(i) 𝑍𝑒𝑞 = = = 8Ω 𝑐𝑜𝑠𝜃𝑠𝑐 = = 0.75
𝐼𝑠𝑐 5 40 × 5
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Transformer Tests
Short Circuit Test
𝜃𝑠𝑐 = 41.4 𝑠𝑖𝑛41.4 = 0.66
𝑅𝑒𝑞 = 𝑍𝑒𝑞 𝑐𝑜𝑠𝜃𝑠𝑐 = 8 × 0.75 = 6Ω
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Autotransformer
Nc: indicates the common winding. + +
 
Conventional transformer
+
Is
Ns
IL
The total voltage in the primary side is
V1 +
Nc
Ic VL
+
Is
Ns
The load current can be written as IL
VL +
Nc
Ic V1
 
Step up autotransformer
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Autotransformer
Example: A singlephase 120kVA, 2200/220V, 50Hz transformer which is
connected as an autotransformer. The voltages of the upper and lower parts of
the coil are 220 and 2200 V, respectively. Calculate the kVA rating of the
autotransformer.
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Instrument Transformers
The magnitude of the voltage and the current are normally high in the power
system networks. To reduce the magnitude of the voltage and current,
instrument transformers are used.
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