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Учебно-методическое пособие
для студентов экономических специальностей
и направлений ФЭИ

Тюменского государственного университета
УДК 811. 111 (075.8)
ББК Ш143.21я73
Т. О. Ильницкая. ИНОСТРАННЫЙ ЯЗЫК (английский язык):
учебно-методическое пособие для студентов экономических специальностей
и направлений ФЭИ. Тюмень: Издательство Тюменского государственного
университета, 2014. 60 с.
Пособие является частью УМК по теме "Employment and Recruitment"
для студентов I курса направления "Экономика", специальностей
"Менеджмент", "Социология", "Управление персоналом", "Экономическая
безопасность". Включает следующие разделы: лексический, по чтению,
письму, говорению. Разделы содержат разнообразные лексические
упражнения (exercises) и коммуникативные задания (tasks) базового и
повышенного уровня, направленные на формирование языковых навыков и
умений. Задания повышенного уровня трудности обозначены звёздочкой (*).
Пособие включает подборку аутентичных текстов, которые расширяют
кругозор студентов и позволяют познакомиться с зарубежным опытом и
реалиями. Цель пособия – сформировать у студентов иноязычную
профессионально-ориентированную коммуникативную компетенцию.
Пособие предназначено как для аудиторной, так и для самостоятельной
Рабочая учебная программа дисциплины опубликована на сайте
ТюмГУ: Иностранный язык (английский язык) [электронный ресурс]/ Режим
доступа:http://www.umk3.utm.ru., свободный.
Рекомендовано к изданию кафедрой иностранных языков и
межкультурной профессиональной коммуникации ИГиП. Утверждено
проректором по учебной работе Тюменского государственного университета.

ОТВЕТСТВЕННЫЙ РЕДАКТОР: И. Л. Плужник, д. п. н., профессор

РЕЦЕНЗЕНТЫ: Т. В. Хвесько, д.ф.н., профессор
Н. А. Бабурина, к.э.н., доцент

© ФГБОУ ВПО Тюменский государственный университет, 2014

© Т. О. Ильницкая, 2014



1. Vocabulary section (Лексический раздел)……………………………………. 4
2. Reading section (Раздел по чтению) ……………………………….……......... 8
2.1 Text 1 Human Resources Management: Recruitment………………….. 8
2.2 Text 2 Selecting international managers… …………………… ...... 11
3. Writing section: a job advertisement, a CV, a letter of application
(Раздел по письму: объявление о работе, резюме, сопроводительное
письмо)……………………………….................................................................. 15
4. Speaking section (Раздел по говорению)……………………........................ 23
4.1 Task 1 Do’s and don’ts of job interviewing…………………………… 23
4.2 Task 2 Ten commonly asked interview questions and tips on how to
answer …………………………………………………………….… . ….. 25
4.3 Case study I Fast Track Inc. ……………………………………..…… 26
4.4 Case study II Alex Gourrier………………………………………….... 30
4.5 Case study III Curtis Publishing………………………………….…… 32
5. Texts for classroom and home reading (Тексты для аудиторного и домашнего
чтения).................................................................................................................... 34
6. Test (Тест)……………………………………….............................................. 52
7. Vocabulary List (Список слов) ………………………………………….…… 56
8. Literature (Список использованной литературы) ………………………..… 60

While doing exercises you can refer to the vocabulary list (p. 59-63) which
contains English words and word-combinations and their Russian equivalents.

Exercise 1
Match the words from the two columns and make up partnerships. Translate
them into Russian. Make up sentences about the work of a personnel manager
according to the model. Use the words and phrases: first, next, after that,
finally, etc.
Model: First, a personnel manager advertises a vacancy in newspapers or in the
1. to train a. a vacancy / post
2. to shortlist b. an interview panel
3. to advertise c. the candidates
4. to assemble d. references
5. to make e. new staff
6. to check f. a job offer

Exercise 2
Fill in the word-formation table with the words given below. The column
«Person» can include none or two nouns.
Employer interview interview applicant shortlist employment
application advertise employee advertiser shortlist employ
recruit advertisement apply for selector resign trainer developer plan
recruitment development trainee training plan select develop
recruiter interviewer interviewee resignation selection train planner
Verb Noun Person

interview interview interviewer /


Exercise 3
Cross out the verb which doesn't match with the given noun in each
group. Make up sentences according to the model. Model: The company
can call you for an interview. The personnel manager can hold an interview
with applicants.
Example: an interview: to call for, to apply, to carry out, to hold
1. a post: to take up, to shortlist, to advertise, to appoint sb to
2. applicants: to advertise, to shortlist, to reject, to interview
3. one’s CV: to fill up, to submit, to update, to send
4. a salary: to earn, to receive, to pay, to submit
5. a contract: to sign, to enter in, to work, to terminate

Exercise 4
Fill in the text with the words and word combinations given below:
Curriculum vitae (CV) / resume probationary period interview application
form psychometric test covering letter
These days many applicants submit their 1. ... speculatively to companies they
would like to work for. In other words, they don’t apply for an advertised job but
the employer would be interested enough to keep their CV on file and contact them
when they have a vacancy. When replying to an advertisement, candidates often
fill in a / an 2. ... and write a /an 3. ... . The employer will then invite the best
candidates to attend a /an 4. ... . Sometimes candidates will take a /an 5. ... before
the interview to assess their mental ability and reasoning skills. These days it is
normal for successful candidates to have to work a /an 6. ... in a company. This is
usually three or six months; after that they are offered a permanent post.

Exercise 5
Put the capital letters in the words on the right in the correct order and make
up words related to employment. Fill in the gaps in the sentences with these
1. They want two written ... ; EFEERRNCES
they suggest an employer and a teacher.
2. The job offers ... of $25,000 a year. SARAYL
3. His academic ... are good, UALIIOFQCATISN / PEEERINCEX
but he doesn’t have any previous ... . SLKLSI
4. Employers are interested in practical ...
like word-processing and fluency in languages.
5. In Britain, the normal working week for ... –time employees PATR / LULF
is anything up to eighteen hours a week,
while people working ... time do around thirty-eight hours.
6. Officially, she works thirty-five hours a week
but sometimes with ... she does as many as fifty. VEOTIMRE
Exercise 6
Complete the sentences using the words below.
employer unemployed employment employee
unemployable unemployment employed
1. The new factory has provided opportunities of ... for local people.
2. Beatrice won the ... of the month prize three times last year.
3. She has been ... ever since she finished her studies; she just can't find a job.
4. People are worried about the rise in ... .
5. The company is a model ... and takes care of the people ... in its factories.
6. He is dishonest, lazy, and stupid - he's completely .... .

Exercise 7*
In your opinion, which factors below are important for getting a job? Choose
the seven most important. Is there anything missing from the list? Make up
sentences according to the model. Use the following adjectives: necessary,
important, significant, vital. Model: It is necessary to have experience.

age sex appearance astrological sign contacts and connections experience
family background handwriting hobbies intelligence marital status
personality qualifications references sickness record

Exercise 8
Divide the adjectives given below into those that describe people and those
that describe jobs. Which adjectives can describe both? Discuss with your
partner what kind of job you would (wouldn’t) like to have and what
personality characteristics you possess. Make up sentences according to the
model. Model: I would like to have a creative job. I think I am flexible.

enthusiastic secure confident challenging dynamic

flexible stressful patient boring reliable creative
conscientious trustworthy worthwhile ambitious
jobs people both

Exercise 9
Study the list of things which are important in a job. Put them in order of
importance. Use the following structures and discuss your choice with a
The most important thing is …
… is (not) very important.
Another priority for me is …
The least important thing is …

- opportunities for promotion - a good salary and holidays

- comfortable working conditions - colleagues I like
- status and respect - a fair and reasonable boss
- interesting and satisfying work - training opportunities
- fringe benefits (e.g. company car, - job security
private health insurance)
Tasks for Text 1
Exercise 1
Look through the text below and be ready to explain why recruitment is
an important function for a personnel department.
Text 1
Human Resources Management: Recruitment

Managers perform various functions, but one of the most important aspects
of their job is proper utilization of people. Human resources management includes
people’s recruitment and selection, staff motivation and training and other aspects
connected with personnel and their activities.
Recruiting good people is a very important task of human resources
management. It is time-consuming and costly. But a well-chosen labour force will
be more productive than a poorly-chosen one. If you do a good job of selecting and
recruiting employees, they will stay with you. A poorly-selected labour force
means a high staff turnover. There are two main reasons for having to recruit:
expansion and replacement. Though, employees who leave a company are not
always replaced. Sometimes the company examines the job description for the
post, and decides that it no longer needs to be filled. On other occasions the
company can replace the person who resigns with an internal candidate who can be
promoted to the job. Or it will advertise the position in newspapers or trade
journals, or engage an employment agency to do so. For junior management
positions, employers occasionally recruit by giving presentations and holding
interviews in universities, colleges and business schools. If companies have
vacancies for senior positions, they sometimes use the services of a firm of
headhunters, who already have the details of promising managers.
People who look for work or want to change their job generally read the
vacancies that are advertised in newspapers. To reply to an advertisement is to

apply for a job; you become an applicant or a candidate. You write an application,
or fill in the company’s application form, and send it, along with your curriculum
vitae (CV) (Great Britain) or resume (US). You are often asked to give the names
of the two people who are prepared to write a reference for you. After the company
receives all the applications, it shortlists the candidates who appear to meet their
criteria. Next, they will assemble an interview panel and call the candidates to an
interview. Some employers choose to check references at this stage to avoid delays
later, while others wait until after the interview when they have chosen one of the
candidates. Provided the panel are happy, the employer will make a job offer and
the successful candidate starts work. Often they attend induction sessions or are
given a mentor who helps to train new staff.
It is not uncommon for the personnel department or the managers
responsible for a particular post to spend eighty or more working hours on the
recruitment of a single member of staff. However, this time is well-spent if the
company appoints the right person.

Exercise 2
Read the text again and answer the following questions.
1. What does human resources management include?
2. What are the two main reasons for having to recruit?
3. Whose services do companies sometimes use if they have vacancies for
senior positions?
4. When do employers usually check candidates’ references?
5. How many hours are spent on the recruitment of a single employee?

Exercise 3
Agree or disagree with the following statements. Find the proof in the text.
1. A poorly -selected labour force means a high staff turnover.
2. Employees who leave a company are always replaced.
3. Candidates are seldom asked to submit references.
4. Candidates often attend induction sessions or are given a mentor who helps to
train new staff.
5. Recruitment time is well-spent if the company appoints the right person.

Exercise 4
Match the words from the left-hand column with their Russian equivalents on
the right. Closing one of the columns check your knowledge of this
1. Human Resources management a. текучесть кадров
2. recruitment b. увольняться
3. time-consuming с. проверять рекомендации
4. staff turnover d. отвечать критериям
5. employment agency e. управление людскими ресурсами
6. to resign f. подавать заявление о приёме на
7. to apply for a job g. затратный по времени
8. to meet the criteria h. приём на работу
9. to check references i. назначить нужного человека
10. to appoint the right person j. агентство по найму

Exercise 5
Put the word-combinations for the stages of a recruitment process in the
logical order, i.e. in the order it actually takes place.
1. receive the applications; 2. assemble an interview panel; 3. advertise a position;
4. make a job offer; 5. apply for a job; 6. attend induction sessions; 7. call the
candidates to an interview; 8. shortlist the candidates .

Exercise 6*
Using the vocabulary from ex. 5 make up a story about your or your
friend's experience of applying for a job.

Tasks for Text 2*

Exercise 1
Look through the text below and say what kind of cultures relating to
candidates’ selection are considered in the text.

Text 2
Selecting International Managers

Approaches to selection vary significantly across cultures. There are

differences not only in the priorities that are given to technical or interpersonal
capabilities, but also in the ways that candidates are tested and interviewed for the
desired qualities.
In Anglo-Saxon cultures, what is generally tested is how much the
individual can contribute to the tasks of the organisation. In these cultures,
assessment centres, intelligence tests and measurements of competencies are the
norm. In Germanic cultures, the emphasis has always been made on the quality of
education in a specialist function. The recruitment process in Latin and Far Eastern
cultures is very often characterised by ascertaining how well that person ‘fits in’
with the larger group. This is determined in part by the elitism of higher educational
institutions, such as the “grandes ecoles” in France or the University of Tokyo in
Japan, and in part by their interpersonal style and ability to network internally. If
there are tests in Latin cultures, they will tend to be more about personality,
communication and social skills than about the Anglo-Saxon notion of

Though there are few statistical comparisons of selection practices used
across cultures, one recent study provides a useful example of the impact of culture.
A survey which was conducted by Shackleton and Newell compared selection
methods between France and the UK. They found that there was a striking contrast
in the number of interviews used in the selection process, with France resorting to
more than one interview much more frequently. They also found that in the UK
there was a much greater tendency to use panel interviews than in France, where
one-to-one interviews are the norm. In addition, while almost 74 per cent of
companies in the UK use references from previous employers, only 11 per cent
of the companies surveyed in France used them. Furthermore, French
companies rely much more on personality tests and handwriting analysis than
their British counterparts.
Many organizations operating across cultures have tended to decentralise
selection in order to allow for local differences in testing and for language
differences, while providing a set of personal qualities or characteristics they
consider important for candidates. Hewitt Associates, a US compensation and
benefits consulting had difficulties extending its key selection criteria outside the
USA. It is known for selecting ‘SWANs’: people who are Smart, Willing, Able and
Nice. These concepts, all perfectly understandable to other Americans, can be
interpreted in a different way in other cultures. For example, being able may mean
being highly connected with colleagues, being sociable or being able to command
respect from a hierarchy of subordinates, whereas the intended meaning is more
about being technically competent, polite and relatively formal. Similarly, what is
nice in one culture may be considered I or immature in another. It all depends on
the cultural context.
Some international companies, like Shell, Toyota, and L’Oreal, have
identified very specific qualities that they consider strategically important and that
support their business requirements. For example, the criteria that Shell has
identified as most important in supporting its strategy include mobility and
language capability. These will be more easily understood across cultures because
people are either willing to relocate or not. There is less room for cultural
misunderstandings with such qualities.
Exercise 2
Read the text again and decide if the following statements are true or false
according to the text. Correct the false ones.
1. Many international organizations have decentralized selection.
2. They look for different personal qualities in different cultures.
3. The “SWAN” criteria have international validity.
4. The definition of some qualities can lead to cultural misunderstandings.
5. Mobility and language capability are clearly understood across cultures.

Exercise 3
Answer the questions about the contents of the text.
1. What types of differences exist in the approaches to the selection of candidates
in various cultures?
2. What is tested in Anglo-Saxon cultures?
3. Is the emphasis on the quality of a specialist’s education in Germanic cultures?
4. The recruitment process in Latin cultures is determined by personality,
communication and social skills.
5. Does France usually resort to one interview in recruitment practices?
6. One-to-one interviews are the norm in the UK, aren’t they?
7. What companies rely more on personality and handwriting analysis?
8. What does “SWAN” stand for?
9. How can “being nice” in one culture be interpreted in another?
10. What criteria has Shell identified as most important when selecting candidates?

Exercise 4
The text describes different characteristics while selecting the staff in different
cultures. Match the characteristics and the cultures.
1. Anglo-Saxon (UK, USA, Australia etc.)
2. Germanic
3. Latin
4. Far Eastern

a) ability to fit in with the organisation
b) the relevant kind of education for the job
c) the right intellectual or technical capabilities
d) good interpersonal skills
e) education received at “top” universities in the country
f) ability to carry out relevant tasks and jobs

Exercise 5
The text contains word-combinations for testing and evaluating techniques
used while selecting candidates. Match the words from the two columns and
make these word-combinations. Give their Russian equivalents.
1. tests of a) interviews
2. personality b) communication
3. panel c) social skills
4. one-to-one d) tests
5. handwriting e) tests
6. tests of f) interviews
7. intelligence g) analysis

Exercise 6
Look through the text and find the words synonymous to the word “skill” (not
less than 5). Make up 3 sentences with these words about the skills and
abilities you possess.

Exercise 7
Write a short summary of the text using the questions below as guidelines.
1. What qualities and skills are important for international manager? (Write about
technical skills and interpersonal skills.)
2. What are the best ways to measure or evaluate technical skills?
3. How can you measure interpersonal skills?

Exercise 1
Read the job advertisement below and answer the following questions.


Patagonia has a new position open:
Public Relations Associate job is based in Munich, Germany. Candidates must
have substantial PR/mass media experience and strong computer skills. They must
have serious proficiency in technical sports (skiing, kayaking, climbing ...) and
outdoor experience. German mother tongue. Environmental background a plus. No
glamour.... It's a gritty job! Patagonia is a sportswear manufacturing company
which designs and distributes functional outdoor clothes.
Send CV with picture to:
Nathalie Baudoin
Patagonia Gmbh
Reitmorstrasse 50
8000 Munich 22 - Germany
The interviews will be in Munich during the last week of February.

1. What position is advertised?

2. What kind of skills are necessary for candidates to have?
3. Should candidates be able to speak German or French?
4. What does Patagonia manufacture?
5. When and where will the interviews take place?
6. What kind of personal characteristics should successful candidates possess do
you think?

Exercise 2
Fiona Scott decides to apply for the job at Patagonia. Study her CV carefully
to see how she has presented the information about herself. Where do you
think each of the following headings should be placed?

References Activities Personal Details

Education Skills Professional Experience


Fiona Scott
52 Hanover Street
Edinburgh EH2 5LM
Phone:0131 449 0237
E-mail: fiona.scott@caledonia.net
2001 - 2002 London Chamber of Commerce and Industry
Diploma in Public Relations
1998 - 2001 University of London
BA (Honours) on Journalism and Media Studies (ClassII)
1991 - 1998 Broadfield Scholl, Brighton
A levels in German (A), English (B), History (B) and
Geography (C)
2005 - present Public Relations Officer, Scottish Nature Trust
Responsible for researching and writing articles on all
aspects of the Trust's activities and ensuring their
distribution to the press
Editor of the Trust's monthly journal
In charge of relations with European environmental
2002 - 2005 Press Officer, Highlands Tourist Board
Preparation of promotional materials and brochures
Coordination of media coverage
Summers of The Glasgow Tribune newspaper
2000 and 2001 Two three-month training periods as assistant to the
Sports Editor
Arranging and conducting interviews
Preparation of articles covering local community sports
IT Office 2007 and Windows XP, Excel, Internet, Powerpoint
Languages Fluent German and proficient in French
Additional driving licence (car and motorcycle)

Cross-country skiing, rock climbing and swimming
Ski Instructor (grade II)
Secretary of the local branch of "Action", an association
organising sports activities for disabled children

Geoffrey Williams Brenda Denholm
Professor of Journalism Sports Editor
University of London The Glasgow Tribune

Exercise 3*
The letter of application can be as important as the CV in that it often
provides the first direct contact between a candidate and an employer. If this
letter is not well written and presented, it will make a poor impression. The
letter of application normally contains four paragraphs in which you should:

- confirm that you wish to apply and say where you learned about the job provides
the first direct contact between a candidate and an employer. If this letter is not
well written and presented, it will make a poor impression. The letter of application
normally contains four paragraphs in which you should:
- confirm that you wish to apply and say where you learned about the job
- say why you are interested in the position and relate your interests to those of the
- show that you can contribute to the job by highlighting your most relevant skills
and experience
- indicate your willingness to attend an interview (and possibly say when you
would be free to attend)
You can see the parts of Fiona Scott's letter of application. Look at the
outline of the letter below and indicate where the parts of the letter (a-j)
should go.

A Although I am presently employed by a non-profit making organisation, it has

always been my intention to work in a commercial environment. I would
particularly welcome the chance to work for your company as I have long admired
both the quality of the products that it provides and its position as a defender of
environmental causes. As you will notice on my enclosed CV, the job you are
offering suits both my personal and professional interests.
B I would be pleased to discuss my curriculum vitae with you ii more detail at an
interview. In the meantime, please do not hesitate to contact me if you require
further information. I look forward to hearing from you.
C Dear Ms Baudoin
D 8th January 2012
E I am writing to apply for the position which was advertised last month in the
F 52 Hanover Street
G Nathalie Baudoin
Patagonia Gmbh
Reitmorstrasse 50
8000 Munich 22
H My work experience has familiarised me with many of the challenges involved
in public relations today. I am sure that this, together with my understanding of the
needs and expectations of sport and nature enthusiasts, would be extremely
relevant to the position. Moreover, as my mother is German, I am fluent in this
language and would definitely enjoy working in a German-speaking environment.
I Fiona Scott
J Yours sincerely

Exercise 4*
Work in pairs. Refer back to the job advertisement, CV and letter of
application. Do you think that Fiona has a chance of getting the job? What
are her strengths and weaknesses?

Exercise 5
Read the extracts from job advertisements. Fill in each blank with a word or
phrase from the following list. Use each item once only.

attractive initiative suit kitchen staff

ability outgoing team pension scheme
clear preference willing potential customers
contact required busy office successful candidate
experience skills hard work thorough training

I. Our new 200-seat restaurant is opening in May and we are looking for waiters,
waitresses and 1. ... . If you are a friendly and 2. ... person who is not afraid of 3.
..., we have the job and hours to 4. ... you. For more information, 5. ... Helen on

II. Typist/Receptionist 6. ... for a 7. ... . Typing and shorthand between 80 and 120
words per minute. We will give 8. ... to applicants who have experience of using
word processors and computers.

III. Telephone Sales Executive

We want a positive person who is 9. ... to work hard and can use their own 10. .... .
You must be lively and have a good sense of humour and a 11. ... speaking voice.
You will receive 12. ... to enable you to inform 13. ... of the benefits of advertising
with us.
Send CV to:

IV. Accounts Clerk

The 14. ... will have had 15. .... of book-keeping and banking procedures. The
position calls for computer and secretarial 16. ... plus the 17. ... to work as part of a
18. ... .
An 19. ... salary is offered as well as a company 20. ... .

Exercise 6
Below you can see extracts from two letters about the advertisement for an
accounts clerk. Fill in each blank with a word from the following list.

as enclose form position

audio enquiries further take
available favourably in to
consider for opportunity with
Letter 1
Dear Sir

With reference 1. ... your advertisement in today's "Morning News", I am

interested 2. ... applying for the 3. ... of accounts clerk with your company.
could you please send me 4. ... details and an application 5. ... .

Yours faithfully

Letter 2
Dear Sir
I would like to apply 6. ... the position of accounts clerk with your company.
I 7. ... my application form.
I am at present working 8. ... a secretary in the accounts office at TW Industries.
My duties include 9. ... and copy typing and dealing 10. ... correspondence and
telephone 11. ... .
Twice a week I have been going to evening classes in book-keeping and I intend to
12. ... an examination in three months.
I am applying for the position because I would like an 13. ... to make more use of
mu training.
I would be 14. ... for interview at any time.

I hope that you will 15. ... my application 16. ... .

Yours faithfully

Exercise 7*
Write a job advertisement which can be interesting and suitable for a student.
Include information about duties, qualifications and experience, skills,
personal characteristics and benefits that the job offers.
Exercise 8*
Work in groups of four students. Exchange the job advertisements and choose
the one which seems the most interesting to you. Explain why you would like
to apply for this position.
Exercise 9*
Write a letter of application for the job you have chosen. Attach your CV to it.
You can invent some necessary information.

Task 1
Read the tips for a job interview and choose three you agree with and three
you disagree with. Comment on your choice.

Do’s and Don’ts of Job Interviewing

1. Know the exact time and location for your interview.
2. Arrive early; at least 10 minutes prior to the interview start time.
3. Treat all people you encounter with courtesy and respect. Secretaries and
receptionists also have first impressions and frequently share their opinions with
the interviewers.
4. Offer a firm handshake.
5. Show a positive attitude during the interview.
6. Maintain good eye contact during the interview.
7. Respond to questions and back up your statements about yourself with specific
examples whenever possible. Ask for clarification if you don’t understand a
8. Be thorough in your responses but don’t ramble on forever. Be concise in your
9. Be honest and be yourself. Dishonesty gets discovered.

10. Have intelligent questions prepared to ask the interviewer. The interview can
be a two-way street. You can ask what kind of employee they are looking for and
return with an explanation of how you fit that description.

1. Don’t wear lots of jewelry.
2. Don’t make negative comments about previous employers.
3. Don’t falsify application materials or answers to interview questions.
4. Don’t arrive late.
5. Don’t give the impression you are only interested in salary; don’t ask about
salary and benefit issues until your interviewer brings up the subject.
6. Don’t act as though you would take any job or are desperate for employment.
7. Don’t be unprepared for typical interview questions. You may not be asked all
of them in every interview, but being unprepared looks foolish.
8. Don’t go to extremes with your posture; don’t slouch, and don’t sit rigidly on
the edge of your chair.
9. Don’t chew gum.
10. Don’t smoke even if you are offered the opportunity. Most work places are
smoke free environments.

Task 2

Read the examples of questions asked at a job interview. Prepare the answers
about yourself.

Ten Commonly Asked Interview Questions and Tips on How to Answer

1. Tell me about yourself. Tip -Talk about a couple of your key achievements and
the interviewer will likely select an accomplishment and ask you to tell more about

2. What is your greatest strength? Tip - Figure out what your number one strength
or skill is, then talk briefly about it and provide a good example. Before going into
an interview, write down several of your top strengths and examples of each.
3. Can you describe a situation in your past where you learned from a mistake? Tip
- The best mistakes to share are those from which you learned something. Use your
mistakes to show how you have matured and grown.
4. What is the most difficult situation you have ever faced? Tip - Pick an example
in which you successfully resolved a tough situation. Tell your story briefly but try
to reveal as many good qualities as possible. Your interviewer wants to hear about
qualities such as perseverance, good judgment and maturity.
5. Is there anything you would like to improve about yourself? Tip - Pick a
weakness (for example, not being comfortable with public speaking or even oral
presentations in the class), then show how you're working to improve it (being part
of a debating team). Your goal here is to provide a short answer that satisfies the
6. What is the most important thing you are looking for in a job? Tip - Figure out
what you want most in a job. You might value challenge, good working conditions,
or friendly co-workers. Talk about one or two items and explain why they are
important to you.
7. What are your career goals? Tip - The interviewer likes to see if you are a
person that plans your future and if you might be someone that would meet the
company's needs after you finish school. Your task is to talk about the goals that
you think the company can help you achieve. You score points if you leave the
impression you are a growth-oriented person with realistic expectations. As a
teenager, you may be working to earn spending money or to pay for a car and gas.
That shows initiative and planning.
8. What motivates you? Tip - Challenge, creativity, success, opportunity and
personal growth are most frequently mentioned. You can also mention specific
skills that you are motivated to use, such as problem-solving, decision-making,
listening, writing, speaking, planning or counseling people.
9. Why would you like to work for us? Tip - This is a great opportunity to impress
the interviewer with what you know about their organization. Talk about the
positives of their organization.
10. Why should I hire you? Tip - This is a great opportunity to sell yourself. Talk
about your strengths and how they fit the needs of the company. You can briefly
talk about skills or strengths that haven't been discussed yet.

Task 3*
Work in pairs. Role-play a job interview. Student A is an employer who has
placed an advertisement about a vacant position. (See Task 7, Writing
section). Student B is a candidate who has decided to apply for the job. (See
Exercise 9, Writing section). Refer to Exercises 1, 2 (Speaking section), Text 5
(Texts for Classroom and Home Reading) while preparing your dialogue.

CASE STUDY I Fast-Track Inc.

Exercise 1
Read the background information about Fast-Track Inc. and find out the
reasons for its Polish subsidiary's poor sales results.

Fast-Track Inc.
Fast-Track Inc., based in Boston, US, sells corporate training videos and
management training courses. Fast-Track is looking for a new Sales Manager for
its subsidiary in Warsaw, Poland. Fast-Track advertised the vacancy only inside
the company as it believes in offering career opportunities to its staff.
The subsidiary's recent sales results were poor. Sales revenue was 30%
below target. The reasons are:
- Sales representatives are not motivated and staff turnover is high.
- The previous manager had no clear strategy for developing sales in the area.
- Very few sales contracts were made.

Exercise 2
Read the job advertisement for the Sales Manager's vacancy and decide what
parts it can be divided into. Think of the names for the parts.
Choose the most important skills and characteristics for a successful Sales
The job advertisement
The successful candidate will be responsible for:
- developing sales, achieving results and increasing customer numbers
- managing the sales so that it is more motivated, dynamic and effective
He/She will be:
- a natural leader
- energetic, confident and outgoing
He/She will have:
- strong sales ability
- organisational and interpersonal skills
- a good academic background and suitable experience
- numeracy skills and the ability to handle administration
- linguistic ability
The position will involve frequent travel throughout the region.

Exercise 3
There are three candidates for the position. They all already work for Fast-
Track either in Boston or in Poland. Read the essential information about
each candidate. Answer the questions about the candidates without looking at
their profiles.
1. Who has a diploma in Marketing?
2. Does T. Vaida speak fluent Polish and English?
3. What education does E. Rheinberger have?
4. When did T. Vaida join Fast-Track?
5. Did E. Rheinberger appear aggressive during the interview?
6. What are Barbara's achievements?
7. Is T. Vaida creative?
8. How old is E. Rheiberger?
9. Who is energetic and confident?
10. Whose sales results have been satisfactory during the first year with Fast-
Barbara Szarmach
Polish, aged 30
Education Finished secondary school. Diploma in Marketing.
Experience Has worked for Fast-Track as a sales representative since leaving
school. Has a good knowledge of computing.
Achievements Has had the best sales results of the team during the last five years.
Languages Excellent Polish and Russian. English - good vocabulary but not very
Interviewer's comments Very strong personality. Energetic and confident.
Sometimes appeared aggressive during the interview. Will she be a good team
Tadeusz Vajda
Polish, aged 52
Education University degree (Engineering)
Experience Wide experience in a variety of industries. Joined Fast-Track five years
as Regional Manager for the south of Poland.
Achievements Has been fairly successful, increasing sales by 12% over the five-
year period.
Languages Fluent Polish and English
Interviewer's comments Very calm and relaxed, he moves and talks slowly. A hard
worker. Not creative but happy to get ideas from the creative members of a team.
Current staff think he is practical and reliable.

Eva Rheinberger
German, aged 42
Education University degree (History)
Experience Over 15 years as a sales representative in Germany, the US and
Poland. Joined Fast-Track a year ago.
Achievements A good sales record in all her previous jobs. In her first year with
Fast-Track her sales results have been satisfactory.
Languages Fluent German, English and Polish.
Interviewer's comments Quiet but knows her own mind. Rather nervous at the
interview. Might be good at team building but would probably depend too much on
other people. Likes administration. Didn't seem to have many ideas about the
future of the company.
Exercise 4*
A. Work in pairs. You are members of the interviewing team. Discuss the
strengths and weaknesses of each candidate. Decide who to select for the
vacant position. Note down the reasons for your choice.
B. Meet as one group. Discuss your choices. Decide who should fill the vacant
position. Make use of the special language for expressing opinion and

CASE STUDY II Alex Gourrier

Exercise 1
Alex Gourrier has decided he needs to find a job that he can do at the same
time as he studies at college. Read the notes he has made to know about his
education, professional experience, skills and preferences concerning his
future job.
- born in Paris, 21 years old
- not married
- baccalareat, two years ago

- finishing first year of 2-year course in sales and marketing at technical college in
- speak good English and average German
- can use several word-processing packages
- last year worked as a group leader at summer camp in the USA
- summer before worked at Big Burgers serving customers
- before starting sales and marketing course worked in a printing shop, producing
business cards, etc for two months
- play the drums, swimming, driving
- would like something with training/promotion prospects
- shift work OK but prefer normal hours - need time to do work for course though

Exercise 2
Look at the job advertisements below. Work in groups of two or three and
discuss which job you think would suit Alex the best and why. Try to agree
on one job.
Trainee retail manager for 24-hour supermarket
Hours 35 hours per week on a shift basis
Salary €18,000 per annum + bonus
Description Applicants should preferably have some experience in retail
and be aged 18-25. No higher education qualifications are necessary as
•. training is given. Job will involve cash handing, stock control, supervising
staff, and dealing with customer complaints. Applicants must be prepared to
work some night shifts. Possibilities for career development in the
Bar staff
Are you a student?
Do you need to make money while you study? Why not join the staff at the
Riverside Cafe-Bar?
Hours part-time, 20 hours per week

Wages €300 per week
Must have experience of working in the food and drink industry and have a
friendly manner and smart appearance. Applicants must be aged 18+.
Applicants can choose their preferred working times.
Hours: Monday to Friday, 8.30 a.m. to 5.30 p.m.
Wages: €15 per hour
The perfect job for someone who wants to make a start in the world of sales
and marketing. Applicants must have some previous experience within a sales
environment. You will be required to generate new business and you must
have a valid, clean driving licence as a company car will be provided.

Exercise 3*
When you have decided which would be the most suitable job, use the CV on
pages 20-21 as a guide and produce a CV for Alex which he could send with a
covering letter.

CASE STUDY III Curtis Publishing

Exercise 1
Read the job advertisement and find out what Curtis Publishing is looking
for. Discuss the kind of people and age groups that would be most
appropriate for this kind of job.

Curtis Publishing
Curtis Publishing is recruiting enthusiastic salespeople to promote its range of
beautifully produced reference books, CD-ROMs, video cassettes, and DVDs.
These are flexible part-time posts. Working from home, you will be expected to
generate new business contacts, visit schools, and organize events where people
can inspect our publications. In return, you will receive excellent sales training and
support, good commission, and a generous car allowance.
Write to Julia Summers, enclosing a CV, at: Curtis Publishing, Rowan House,
Harland Road, Bristol B45 7FL
Exercise 2
Three people have applied for the job. Read the extracts from their letters of
application (A-C), then work in groups of three or four and decide which one
1. too formal
2. just right
3. too informal
Dear Ms Summers
I am writing in reply to your advertisement for salespeople in 'Strike Out'
I am a fully qualified primary school teacher with eight years' experience. Six
years ago, I gave up my teaching post to become a full-time mother and housewife.
Now that my children are both in full-time education, I am keen to return to the job
I am very excited by this opportunity, as it will give me the chance to work with
teaching professionals once more, as well as allowing me to fit my career around
the needs of my family. I have a very wide network of friends and former
colleagues and am active in the community. I am confident that these would all be
highly useful contacts. I have enjoyed using your materials with my children and I
feel I could communicate their advantages to other parents and teachers.

Dear Julia
I was really pleased to see your ad in last month's 'Strike Out' magazine. This is
exactly the kind of opportunity I have been looking for! 1 think I am the kind of
person who would soon become a key member of your team.
I don't have much of a formal education and learnt most of what I know in the
'university of life'. One thing I can promise you is that I can sell anything. I have

sold holidays at a travel agency, kitchen equipment at exhibitions all over the
country, and imported toys from the Far East.
I've had a look at some of your publications, and I have got to agree with you that
they are really beautifully produced - like litde works of art.
I'm sure you can tell from this letter that I am full of energy and enthusiasm and
that I'm an excellent communicator. There is nothing I love more than travelling
around and getting to know new people.

Dear Madam
I was most interested to see your advertisement in 'Strike Out'. I should like to put
my application forward for your consideration.
After serving as an officer in the Navy for seven years, I took up my current
position as a naval training officer. I specialize in navigation and radio training at
the Negus Training College in Soharma. I have spent four happy and productive
years here but would now like to return to the UK for personal reasons.
Consequently, I am seeking suitable employment using our large family home as a
base. I have a number of your publications in my possession and have certainly
enjoyed using them with my students.

Exercise 3
Do any of the applicants seem immediately suitable or unsuitable? Discuss
which two you would call for an interview.

Exercise 4*
Work in groups of four. Students A and В are interviewers. Work together to
decide on four or five questions that you would like to ask the candidates at
their interviews. Student С is the first applicant your group chose to interview
in 3, and Student D is the second. Students С and D should use the
information in the corresponding letters. Role-play the interviews.
While reading each of these texts, do the following tasks.
1. Make up a list of words that you have looked up in the dictionary
and give their Russian equivalents.
2. State the topic and the main idea of the text.
3. Write an analysis of each text using the following table.

The plan for analysis Some expressions to be used

The name of the text The name (headline) of the text is …
The text is entitled …
The topic and the main idea of the text The text is about …
The text is devoted to …
The text deals with …
The main idea of the text is …
The aim of the text is to provide the
readers with some information on …
The contents of the text: some figures, The author starts by telling the readers
facts, names that …
According to the text …
Further the author reports that …
In conclusion …
The author comes to the conclusion that

Your opinion of the text I found the text interesting (important,
of no value, too hard to understand…)

Text №1*
Job Ads: Reading Between the Lines
Checking out job advertisements is popular with executives
worldwide. But though the activity is universal, is the same true of the
advertisements? Are executive positions in different countries advertised
in the same way? A comparison of the jobs pages of The Times of London,
Le Monde of Paris and Germany's Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung suggests
First, what UK job seekers consider an essential piece of information
— what the post pays — is absent from French and German adverts. It is
often left to applicants to raise this themselves. In contrast, most British
advertisements mention not only salary, but also other material
incentives including a car and fringe benefits. French or German
advertisements rarely refer to these.
The attention given to rewards in the UK indicates the importance
of the job and its responsibility. In France and Germany, that
information is given by the level of experience and qualifications
demanded. Salary can be assumed to correspond with this.
If French and German adverts are vague about material rewards,
they are precise about qualifications. They usually demand 'a degree
in ...', not simply 'a degree'. In Germany, for example, a technical director
for a machine tool company will be expected to have a Dipl.-lng degree in
Mechanical Engineering.
French advertisements go further. They may specify not just the type
of grande ecole degree, but sometimes a particular set of institutions.
All this contrasts with the vague call for 'graduates' (or 'graduate
preferred') which is found in the UK. British companies often give the
impression that they have a particular type of applicant in mind, but are
not sure about the supply and will consider others. Their wording

suggests hope and uncertainty, as in this advertisement from The Times:
'Whilst educational standards are obviously important, a large measure of
personal enthusiasm is likely to secure the success of your application.'
In the UK qualifications beyond degree level make employers
nervous, but in France or Germany it is difficult to be 'overqualified'.
Many people on German executive boards have doctorates and the French
regard five or six years of intensive post-baccalaureat study at a grand ecole
as ideal training. British managers are not selected primarily for their
intelligence, as managers are in France, or for their expert
knowledge, as in Germany. Instead, the British give importance to social,
political and leadership skills.
This difference also shows in the personal qualities mentioned.
British advertisements stress energy, ability to communicate and
motivate. German advertisements like achievement, but it tends to be
less personality-driven. German companies want candidates with sound
knowledge, experience and competence in their field. They rarely recruit
novices as do British employers. French advertisements refer more to
intellectual qualities like analytical aptitude and independence.
Even the tone of the job advertisements is different in the
three countries. By French and German standards, British advertisements
are very racy. They attract young executives with challenges such as:
'Are you reaching your potential?', whereas French and German
advertisements are boringly direct, aiming to give information about the
job rather than to sell it.
All this points to three different conceptions of management. The
French regard it as intellectually complex, the Germans as technically
complex, and the British as interpersonally complex. But they agree on
one thing: it's complex.

Text №2
Recruiting Graduates

- So what are you looking for in university graduates then?

- More than anything, we like them to have some professional experience, but
of course that's very rare.
- You mean most business degree courses don't include a traineeship?
- Unfortunately not. We also look for language abilities - French, German or
Spanish, for example. Arabic, Russian, and Chinese are also very useful.
- And exam results are important? What about the application itself?
- Not necessarily. We prefer candidates who have done other things besides
studying, who can get passing grades while also doing something else, for
example sports, especially team sports, travelling abroad, playing an active role
in student associations, that sort of thing.
- What about the application itself.
- Yes, that's very important. A well-written and original motivation letter, which
clearly shows that the candidate wants to achieve, is obviously an advantage.
- And you only employ university graduates?
- Not at all. We also employ a lot of young people who have done an
apprenticeship or some form of vocational training. They have much more
practical experience than most people leaving university. But of course, not
many of them are high fliers or future top managers.
- So what do you do with graduates then?
- Well, we have our own in-company training course. This begins with a
short induction period in which we explain the company's objectives and talk
about our corporate culture.
- And then?
- And then there's a job rotation programme that lasts 18 months, so that our
new trainees move from one department to another and get to see all the
different parts of the business.
- And after that, your recruits stay in one department?
- By no means. We like to have flexible employees, so we have a
continuing training programme. It's not unknown for people to switch
departments after several years with the company.

Text №3*
Recruitment and Selection
The recruitment and selection process consists of a collection of steps that
employers use to attract qualified applicants, identify viable candidates and make
hiring decisions to create a productive workforce. The process and the end goal are
the same for small businesses and large corporations alike. However, recruitment
and selection can be particularly challenging for businesses with limited resources.
In this case, employers must address tangible and intangible aspects in building an
employee base.
Attracting Applicants
The first challenge employers face in the recruitment and selection process is
sourcing applicants or finding people who will apply for jobs. Posting jobs online,
buying ad space in newspapers and signing up for career fairs are some low-cost
methods to find applicants who are active job seekers. Depending on the position
and the company's budget, some employers conduct targeted searches or
nationwide searches, especially for highly specialized positions or to locate a
uniquely qualified candidate. Targeted searches for passive candidates include
engaging the services of a headhunter for recruiting passive candidates for senior-
level and above leadership roles. Passive candidates are those who aren't actively
looking for employment but who could be persuaded to join another firm, based on
persuasive factors such as prestige, authority, compensation and perks.
Application Process
Online application processes, one of the components of applicant tracking
systems are convenient and -- sometimes -- budget-friendly methods for accepting
applications. An ATS prevents the need for applicants to complete applications in
person and creates a way for an employer to review resumes and cover letters
before calling the applicants for preliminary telephone screening interviews. Based
on how sophisticated the ATS is, integrating it into the company's website is a
topic for consideration.

Many employers use telephone interviews to conduct preliminary screening.
Recruiters spend about 20 to 30 minutes asking applicants about their work history
and basic qualifications to narrow down to a manageable number of candidates for
face-to-face interviews with a recruiter or the hiring manager. Telephone
interviews save time and money for both the company and the applicant. Plus, with
the number of long-distance job searches, telephone interviews save employers
large sums; they bring in only highly qualified candidates for in-person interviews.
Employers sometimes schedule informal telephone conversations with a few
applicants who have submitted resumes or applications.
Recruiters have expertise in human resources best practices and strategic
workforce development; hiring managers have functional expertise in their
respective fields, and they know the professional characteristics they believe make
sense in terms of the organization's culture. Wise hiring decisions require clear
communication between recruiters and hiring managers. In small organizations that
don't have dedicated HR departments or recruiters on staff, the hiring manager
conducts the interview process from start to finish. The size of the company might
determine how many interviews are conducted before making a hiring decision.
During the initial stages of the recruitment process, hiring managers tell recruiters
what positions they need to fill. Throughout the selection process, recruiters lend
expertise to hiring managers in areas such as interviewing techniques and the types
of questions best suited for specific jobs.
Pre-Employment Matters
Background investigations, reference checking, drug testing and pre-
employment assessments generally are within the recruiters' purview. After the
hiring manager makes her selection, there are two final candidates in case one
doesn't pass the pre-employment steps -- the recruiter extends the job offer and
conducts the next steps to prepare for hiring a new employee. Small businesses
often realize cost savings when they outsource these final steps in vetting

Text №4
Preparing for a job interview
The job interview is a crucial part of your job search because it’s an
opportunity for the employer to figure out if you’re right for the job. This page will
provide you with information to prepare for your job interview so that you can
make a positive and lasting impression.
Before the interview
Be sure to do some background research to become familiar with the
organization. This might include researching any current events that might relate to
the organization or industry, the organization’s goals and objectives, and the
history of the company. Here are some questions to help you with your research:
ƒ What does the organization do?
ƒ What's involved in the position you're applying for?
ƒ What qualifications do you need for the position?
ƒ What kind of skills is the employer looking for?
ƒ Who are the customers or clients?
ƒ What kind of reputation does the employer have?
You’ll be more comfortable in the interview if you know a bit about the
company and the position you’re applying for.
Print off an extra copy of your résumé so the employer can refer to it during the
interview. You should also bring a copy of your reference list.
Preparing for interview questions
One of the best ways to prepare for an interview is to anticipate questions the
interviewer may ask. This will allow you to give thoughtful and organized answers
during your interview. Here are some questions you should be comfortable
ƒ Why do you want this job?
ƒ How did you become interested in this field of work?
ƒ What do you have to offer this organization?
ƒ What are some of your strengths and weaknesses?
ƒ What do you see yourself doing in five years?
Here are some tips to help you strengthen your answers to potential
interview questions:
ƒ Review your experiences at work, at school, and in volunteer activities.
ƒ Think of examples and situations that demonstrate your abilities or strengths
(for example, a time you demonstrated good judgment, initiative,
responsibility, or communication skills).
ƒ Make a list of your accomplishments or achievements to refer to during the
ƒ Think about challenges you’ve faced in the past, and be prepared to describe
how you dealt with them and what you learned.
Preparing questions for the employer
At the end of an interview, you are typically asked if you have any questions
about the organization or job you’re applying for.
Your job interview is not only an opportunity for the employer to interview you—
it’s also an opportunity for you to interview your employer. By asking thoughtful
and appropriate questions, you are showing the employer that you’re interested in
being part of their organization.
Things you could ask the employer include:
ƒ How is the organization structured, and how would my role contribute to the
work of the organization?
ƒ What is a typical day in the life of a person who works in this position?
ƒ How would this position allow me to learn and grow?
ƒ When do you anticipate making the decision about hiring for this position?

Text № 5
Job Interview Questions
Questions Asked by Employers
1. Tell me about yourself.
2. What are your hobbies?
3. Why did you choose to apply for a job in our organization?
4. Describe your ideal job.
5. What can you offer us?
6. What do you consider to be your greatest strengths?
7. Can you name some weaknesses?
8. Define success. Failure.
9. Have you ever had any failures? What did you learn from them?
10. Which three accomplishments are you most proud of?
11. Who are your role models? Why?
12. How does your college education or work experience relate to this job?
13. What motivates you most in a job?
14. Have you had difficulty getting along with a former professor/supervisor/co-
worker and how did you handle it?
15. Have you ever spoken before a group of people? How large?
16. Why should we hire you rather than another candidate?
17. What do you know about our organization (products or services)?
18. Where do you want to be in five years? Ten years?
1. Why did you choose your major?
2 Why did you choose to attend your college or university?
3. Do you think you received a good education? In what ways?
4. In which campus activities did you participate?
5. Which classes in your major did you like best? Least? Why?
6. Which elective classes did you like best? Least? Why?
7. If you were to start over, what would you change about your education?
8. Do your grades accurately reflect your ability? Why or why not?
9. Were you financially responsible for any portion of your college education?
1. What job-related skills have you developed?
2. Did you work while going to school? In what positions?
3. What did you learn from these work experiences?
4. What did you enjoy most about your last employment? Least?
5. Have you ever quit a job? Why?
6. Give an example of a situation in which you provided a solution to an employer.
7. Give an example of a time in which you worked under deadline pressure.
8. Have you ever done any volunteer work? What kind?
9. How do you think a former supervisor would describe your work?
Career Goals
1. Do you prefer to work under supervision or on your own?
2. What kind of boss do you prefer?
3. Would you be successful working with a team?
4. Do you prefer large or small organizations? Why?
5. What other types of positions are you considering?
6. How do you feel about working in a structured environment?
7. Are you able to work on several assignments at once?
8. How do you feel about working overtime?
9. How do you feel about travel?
10. How do you feel about the possibility of relocating?
11. Are you willing to work flextime?

Questions to Ask Employers
1. Please describe the duties of the job for me.
2. What kinds of assignments might I expect the first six months on the job?
3. Does your company encourage further education?
4. How often are performance reviews given?
5. What products are in the development stage now?
6. Do you have plans for expansion?
7. How do you feel about creativity and individuality?
8. In what ways is a career with your company better than one with your
competitors? (just make sure you know the competitors)
9. Is this a new position or am I replacing someone?
10. What is the largest single problem facing your department now?
11. What do you like best about your job or company?
12. Do you fill positions from the outside or promote from within first?
13. What characteristics do the achievers in this company seem to share?
14. Where does this position fit into the organizational structure?
15. What is the next course of action? When should I expect to hear from you, or
should I contact you?

Text № 6*
Fit for Hiring? It's Mind over Matter
Members of America's professional and managerial classes have always left
college confident of at least one thing: they had taken their last test. From here on,
they could rely on charm, cunning and/or a record of accomplishment to propel
them up the corporate ladder.
But that's not necessarily true any longer. A growing number of companies,
from General Motors Corp to American Express Co., are no longer satisfied with
traditional job interviews. Instead, they are requiring applicants for many white-
collar jobs - from top executives down - to submit to a series of paper-and-pencil

tests, role-playing exercises, simulated decision-making exercises and
brainteasers. Others put candidates through a long series of interviews by
psychologists or trained interviewers.
The tests are not about mathematics or grammar, nor about any of the basic
technical skills for which many production, sales and clerical workers have long
been tested. Rather, employers want to evaluate candidates on intangible qualities:
Is she creative and entrepreneurial? Can he lead and coach? Is he flexible and
capable of learning? Does she have passion and a sense of urgency?
How will he function under pressure? Most important, will the potential
recruit fit the corporate culture?
These tests, which can take from an hour to two days, are all part of a
broader trend. “Companies are getting much more careful about hiring”, said Paul
R. Ray Jr., chairman of the Association of Executive Search Consultants.
Ten years ago, candidates could win a top job with the right look and the
right answers to questions such as “Why do you want this job?” Now, many have
to face questions and exercises intended to learn how they get things done.
They may, for example, have to describe in great detail not one career
accomplishment but many - so that patterns of behavior emerge. They may face
questions such as “Who is the best manager you ever worked for and why?” or
“What is your best friend like?” The answers, psychologists say, reveal much
about a candidate's management style and about himself or herself.
The reason for the interrogations is clear: many hires work out badly. About
35 percent of recently hired senior executives are judged failures, according to the
Center for Creative Leadership in Greensboro, North Carolina, which surveyed
nearly 500 chief executives.
The cost of bringing the wrong person on board is sometimes huge.
Searching and training can cost from S5000 for a lower-level manager to $250,000
for a top executive. Years of corporate downsizing, a trend that has slashed layers
of management, has also increased the potential damage that one bad executive

can do. With the pace of change accelerating in markets and technology,
companies want to know how an executive will perform, not just how he or she
has performed.
“Years ago, employers looked for experience - has a candidate done this
before?” said Harold P. Weinstein, executive vice-president of Caliper, a
personnel testing and consulting firm in Princeton, New Jersey. “But having
experience in a job does not guarantee that you can do it in a different
At this point, most companies have not shifted to this practice. Some do not
see the need or remain unconvinced that such testing is worth the cost. But human-
resource specialists say anecdotal evidence suggests that white-collar testing is
growing in popularity. What has brought so many employers around to testing is a
sense of the limitations in the usual job interview. With so little information on
which to base a decision, “most people hire people they like, rather than the most
competent person,” said Orv Owens, a psychologist in Snohomish, Washington,
who sizes up executive candidates. Research has shown, he said, that “most
decision makers make their hiring decisions in the first five minutes of an
interview and spend the rest of the time rationalizing their choice.”
Besides, with advice on how to land a better job about as common as a ten-
dollar bill, many people are learning to play the interview game.
Even companies that have not started extensive testing have toughened their
hiring practices. Many now do background checks, for example, looking for signs
of drug use, violence or sexual harassment. But the more comprehensive testing
aims to measure skills in communications, analysis and organization, attention to
detail and management style; personality traits and motivations that behavioral
scientists say predict performance.

Text № 7
From the 1750s to the middle of the nineteenth century, Britain led an
industrial revolution that changed manufacturing for ever. With other western
countries, it produced consumer goods for the rest of the world well into the 1960s.
Generations of workers spent their entire careers in the same workplace. Yet,
nowadays, most of the consumer goods we buy have been made in the East. If, by
magic, our shoes could return to where they were made, most would march all the
way back to China or Vietnam - and the jobs have gone with them.
Manufacturing gravitates to countries with lower labour costs, or more
efficient production methods. Since the US economy started to recover in 2003,
unemployment has remained high. This is because two million manufacturing jobs
have gone elsewhere.
China is undoubtedly the latest big success story. As well as making 90% of
the world's toys, the country is now responsible for a quarter of global steel
production. By contrast, much of the US’s industrial heartland has been a 'rust-
belt' for years. In Western Europe, too, industry has been declining for decades.
European shipyards have been closing one by one ever since South Korean rivals
learnt how to build more efficiently and cheaply. Nearly all Britain's coal mines
have ceased production since it became cheaper to ship coal all the way from
Australia. Since the 1980s, tens of thousands of British workers have lost their
jobs in these sectors.
Some workers may have retrained and found jobs in hi-tech industries;
however, most have ended up working in services. In the UK, more people are
now employed in making sandwiches than in making steel. Even jobs in
knowledge-based services are threatened by globalization. Improvements in
telecommunications have allowed firms to outsource work thousands of miles
away. Bangalore, with its workforce of highly skilled computer programmers and
engineers, has transformed itself into India's answer to Silicon Valley. Many UK
businesses have relocated their call centres there too - an anglophone Indian
worker will work for a fraction of his British counterpart's salary. This all proves
that even though employment in high-tech sectors such as pharmaceuticals and
aeronautics remains strong, for most of us the idea of a job for life - or at least a
safe job - has been untrue for years.
Text № 8*

How to Select the Best Candidates - and Avoid the Worst

Investing thousands of pounds in the recruitment and training of each new
graduate recruit may be just the beginning. Choosing the wrong candidate may
leave an organisation paying for yars to come.
Few companies will have escaped all of the following failures: people who
panic at the first sign of stress; "those with long, impressive qualifications who
seem incapable of learning; nypochondriacs whose absentee record becomes
astonishing; and the instable person later discovered to be a thief or worse.
Less dramatic, but just as much a problem, is the person who simply does
not come up to expectations, who does not quite deliver; who never becomes a
high-flyer or even a steady performer; the employee with a fine future behind
The first point to bear in mind at the recruitment stage is that people don't
change. Intelligence levels decline modestly, but change little over their working
life. The same is true of abilities, such as learning languages and handling
Most people like to think that personality can change, particularly the more
negative features such as anxiety, low esteem, impulsiveness or a lack of
emotional warmth. But data collected over 50 years gives a clear message: still
stable after all these years. Extroverts become slightly less extroverted; the acutely
shy appear a little less so, but the fundamentals remain much the same. Personal
crises can affect the way we cope with things: we might take up or drop drink,
drugs, religion or relaxation techniques, which can have pretty dramatic effects.
Skills can be improved, and new ones introduced, but at rather different rates.
People can be groomed for a job. Just as politicians are carefully repackaged
through dress, hairstyle and speech specialists, so people can be sent on training
courses, diplomas or experimental weekends. But there is a cost to all this which
may be more than the price of the course. Better to select for what you actually see
rather than attempt to change it.

Text № 9

Have a nice day

Employee loyalty in service firms

Hotel, shop and restaurant chains, which employ thousands of people in low-
paid, dead-end jobs, are discovering that high labour turnover rates resulting from
the indiscriminate ring of "cheap" workers can be extremely costly.
Cole National, a Cleveland-based firm which owns Child World, Things
Remembered and other speciality shops, declared a "war for people" in an effort to
recruit and keep better staff.
Employees were asked: What do you enjoy about working here? In the past
year, have you thought about leaving? If so, why? How can we improve our
company and create an even better place to work? Employees replied they wanted
better training, better communications with their supervisors and, above all, wanted
their bosses to "make me feel like I make a difference". Labour turnover declined
by more than half; for full time sales assistants, it declined by about a third.
Marriott Corporation, a hotel and restaurant group, has also decided to spend
more money on retaining employees in the hope of spending less on finding and
training new ones. In one year, it had to hire no fewer than 27,000 workers to fill
8,800 hourly- paid job slots.
To slow its labour turnover, Marriott had to get a simple message accepted
throughout its operating divisions: loyal, well motivated employees make
customers happy and that, in turn, creates fatter profits and happier shareholders.
Improved training of middle managers helped. So did a change in bonus arrange-
At the same time, Marriott became fussier about the people it recruited. It
screened out job applicants motivated mainly by money: applicants who the
company pejoratively described as "pay first people". Such people form a
surprisingly small, though apparently disruptive, part of the service-industry
workforce. Marriott found in its employee-attitude surveys that only about 20% of
its workers at Roy Rogers restaurants and about 30% of its workers at Marriott
hotels regarded pay as their primary reason for working there.
Many middle managers in service industries are more comfortable coping
with demands for more money than with demands for increased recognition and
better communications. They will have to change their ways. Surveys say that
when 13,000 employees in retail shops across America were asked to list in order
the 18 reasons for working where they did, they ranked "good pay" third. In first
place was "appreciation of work done", with- "respect for me as a person" second.

Text № 10
Branson's New Route to More Jobs
For many young people lucky enough to get a job after leaving school or
college, the biggest shock of the transition to work is how few holidays they get.
Having spent their academic years working an eight or nine-month year, it
can be depressing to realize that for the rest of their working lives they will be able
to take only four weeks off a year.
Many would jump at the chance to take three months off - and that's exactly
what happened at Virgin Atlantic, the airline run by Richard Branson. He believes
the new initiative could help to reduce unemployment.
Faced last autumn with the recession and with its failure to acquire more
flight slots out of Heathrow airport, the company had to consider redundancies. Mr
Branson wrote to staff saying that cutting back on jobs was "something I have
never wanted to do". Instead he invited employees to take up to six months unpaid
leave and to participate in a job sharing scheme.
The immediate crisis passed but the idea of a shorter working year took off.
When the company later asked for 300 volunteers to take three months unpaid
leave, 450 put their names forward. Mr Branson said: "To be fair and share it
around, in some cases we said that people could only take six weeks."
Most of the volunteers were cabin crew but other staff, including secretaries and
pilots, took advantage of the offer as well. "And when they came back from their
break ... they definitely seemed to enjoy work more," he said.
The company tends to recruit and train its own staff from scratch. As Mr
Branson said: "If you've been at college or on the dole, working for only nine
months still makes you a lot better off financially than you were before." He
believes there is a broader social benefit to be achieved. "If you are only taking on
people for nine months, that will enable others who would otherwise have no work
or be living on the dole to have a chance too."
And he goes further. "I think this should be the basis of a pattern across the
whole European Community for the first few years of working life."
Nor was a shorter working year only applicable to young people. "If older
women and men with children can afford it because one partner's working 12
months and the other nine, I think a lot of people would like to earn slightly less
and be able to spend more time with their children," Mr Branson said.
This year the scheme is on offer again, although not over the busy summer
period. "All the people who took time off last year would like to do so again," Mr
Branson said. But its realization depended on whether the company could recruit
enough people to allow 400-500 existing staff to take three months off.
The company was considering whether the arrangement should become a
permanent feature, Mr Branson said. "For new people being taken on in most
departments, we're thinking about making nine-month working a standard

6. Test (50 points)
I. Choose the right option. (10 points)
1. An organization’s staff or workforce is … .
a) personnel b) personal c) management
2. We made a … of six people we wanted to interview.
a) panel b) shortlist c) plan
3. Our department probably won’t … anybody new this year.
a) recruit b) resign c) update
4. There were over 200 … for that job; it took me a whole day just to reply to the
unsuccessful ones.
a) employees b) applicants c) headhunters
5. We are going to advertise the … in several newspapers.
a) employment b) recruitment c) vacancy
6. He has done a lot of good work for us these last two years, and he clearly
expects to be … to a higher position.
a) promoted b) recruited c) submitted
7. We found our new chief executive through a firm of … .
a) interviewers b) headhunters c) employers
8. When applying for a job you are often asked to give the names of two people
who are prepared to write a … for you.
a) reference b) report c) covering letter
9. Candidates have to fill in the company’s … form.
a) resume b) application c) recruitment
10. A piece of advice for … is to show an interest in the job they would like to get.
a) interviewees b) interviewers c) interviews
II. Complete this job advertisement with the appropriate words from the list
below (14 points).
applicant attractive benefits colleagues commission covering
CV experience motivate package post salary team vacancy
Leading manufacturing company APB has a (1)___________ for the
(2)___________ of
Sales manager
to begin work in our busy Manchester office from this September.
The successful (3)___________ will be suitably qualified and should have
extensive (4)___________ in sales management. They will be able to work as part
of a (5)___________, and should have the ability to (6)___________ and inspire
their (7)___________.
In return, we can offer an (8)___________ rewards (9)___________, which
includes a basic (10)___________ of £20000 per annum, 10% (11)___________
on all sales, a guaranteed annual increment of £1000, and other (12)___________
such as a company car and free meals.
If you are interested in working for us, send your (13)___________ with a
(14)___________ letter to:
APB Ltd, Norton Towers, Blackberry Way, Whittersley, WH8 4RT
APB is an equal opportunities employer.
III. Fill in the gaps in the sentences with suitable words (the first letters are
given) (6 points).
1. You need to f... ... an application form.
2. Are we going to a.... a new sales manager?
3. All our production workers are paid top w....
4. The applicants were interviewed by a p... of three managers.
5. Could you explain to me what the r... of the job are?
6. A company car, subsidized meals or low-interest loans are all f... ... .
IV. Miyuki Kimura is introducing herself at a training session. Read the text
below, then write questions for the answers (10 points).
Hello, everybody. I'm Miyuki Kimura and I'm an analyst for a Swiss
securities company in Tokyo. I've been working there for three years. I was born in
Yokohama in 1962 and I travel to work by train. It takes one and a half hours. In
my spare time I play golf and tennis.
I left my last company because it was difficult for a woman to be promoted.
The thing that interests me the most in my current job is the opportunity to work
with some of the top analysts in Japan. My colleagues say I'm a good team player.
1. _______________? Miiyuki Kimura.
2. _______________? I'm an analyst for a Swiss securities company.
3. _______________? For three years.
4. _______________? In Yokohama.
5. _______________? By train.
6. _______________? One and a half hours.
7. _______________? Golf and tennis.
8. _______________? Because it was difficult for a woman to be
9. _______________? The opportunity to work with some of the best
analysts in Japan.
10. ______________? I'm a good team player.
V. Read the text and decide whether statements 1 to 10 are true or false. (10
1. The writer is over forty years old.
2. She gave up applying for jobs some time ago.
3. She has not had much experience of working for a living.
4. Employers think that someone of her age is too expensive to employ.
5. She needs a job so that she can support her family.
6. People don't get as angry about ageism as about other forms of discrimination.
7. Employers are looking for bright, ambitious people of any age.
8. More mature employees would be valuable assets to many professions.
9. People in their thirties can't get jobs in government departments.
10. She wants to "repay" the State for her university education.

Too old at 30
I'm thinking of applying for my fifty-first job. It's been a long time since I wasted
stamp money this way. In fact, when I reached the fiftieth without success I
decided to abandon job-hunting and got out my pen to scratch a living instead.
But there's another wildly exciting job in the paper today, "salary £22,500-
£26,250 according to age and experience". The good news is the pay, the bad news
is that damning little phrase "according to age and experience" which means I
won't get the job.

It's not that I have more age than experience - I've led an incident-packed
existence. Unfortunately it's not all related to a single-strand career structure.
Journalist, temp, company director, wife and mother, market researcher, and now,
at thirty-something, I'm trying to use my Cambridge degree in criminology.
I'm a victim of the sliding pay-scale. Employers can obtain a fresh 22-year-
old graduate to train a lot cheaper than me. Yet I'm the ideal employee: stable,
good-humoured, child-bearing behind me, looking for 25-plus years of steady
pensionable employment.
Ageism is everywhere. It's much more prevalent than sexism in the job
market, or that's how it seems from where I'm standing. Even the BBC is a culprit.
Their appointments brochure says: "The BBC's personnel policies are based on
equal opportunities for all ... This applies to ... opportunity for training and
promotion, irrespective of sex, marital status, creed, colour, race or ethnic origin,
and the BBC is committed to the development and promotion of such equality of
opportunity. Traineeships are available to suitably qualified candidates under the
age of 25."
Ageism is lagging behind sexism, racism, and handicappism because even
the oppressed seem to accept the discrimination. The public and private sectors are
obsessed with attracting young high-flyers. Yet there are many professions that
would benefit from the maturity and stability the older entrant can bring. This is
recognized by the Probation Service, for example, which welcomes experienced
adults looking for a second career.
The armed services and police, perhaps, could think about strenuous aptitude
and fitness tests rather than imposing a blanket upper limit on entrants which is
arbitrarily and variously fixed between 28 and 33. The administrative grade of the
Civil Service assumes the rot sets in at 32.
My own pressing concern is to alleviate my guilt. I loved every minute of
my university education, and I'm desperately grateful to the Government for
financing me through this at a cost of over £10,000. But unless someone gives me
a job, how can I pay them back in income tax?
1. ability - способность
2. to advertise a vacancy – подавать объявление о вакансии
3. advertisement – реклама, объявление
4. advertiser – рекламодатель
5. allow for - учитывать
6. to assemble an interview panel – собрать комиссию для проведения
7. applicant – кандидат
8. application – заявление о приёме на работу
9. application form – форма-заявление
10. apply for a job – подать заявление о приёме на работу
11. appoint sb to a post – назначать к-л на должность
12. approach - подход
13. to ascertain - устанавливать
14. assess – оценивать
15. attend an interview – посещать интервью
16. avoid delays – избегать задержек
17. benefit - выгода
18. сapability – способность
19. check – проверять
20. command respect – внушать уважение
21. compare - сравнивать
22. comparison - сравнение
23. concept - понятие
24. conduct - проводить
25. contribute – вносить вклад
26. costly – дорогостоящий
27. counterpart - коллега
28. covering letter – сопроводительное письмо
30. CV – резюме, автобиография
31. decentralize - децентрализовать
32. determine - определять
33. earn – зарабатывать
34. emphasis - акцент
35. employ – принимать на работу
36. employee – работник, служащий
37. employment – работа, занятость
38. employment agency – агентство по найму
39. engage – нанимать
40. expansion – расширение
41. experience – опыт
42. extend – расширять, продлевать
43. fill in a form – заполнять форму
44. fill a post – занять должность
45. fluency - беглость
46. full-time – полная занятость
47. Human Resources – людские ресурсы
48. headhunter – агентство по поиску кадров
49. hierarchy - иерархия
50. immature – незрелый
51. impact - влияние
52. induction session – период введения в должность
53. internal candidate – внутренний кандидат
54. interviewee – интервьюируемый
55. interviewer – интервьюер
56. job offer – предложение о работе
57. junior management – младший уровень управления
58. labour force – рабочая сила
59. measurement - измерение
60. meet the criteria – отвечать критериям
61. mentor – наставник
62. mental ability – умственные способности
63. misunderstanding - недоразумение
64. naive - наивный
65. network – сеть
66. notion – понятие, представление
67. part-time – неполная занятость
68. permanent – постоянный
69. personnel – персонал
70. post – пост, должность
71. previous - предыдущий
72. priority - приоритет
73. probationary period – испытательный срок
74. promote – продвигать по службе
75. provide - предоставлять
76. psychometric test – психометрический тест
77. quality - качество
78. reason – причина
79. reasoning skills – навыки аргументации
80. receive – получать
81. recent – недавний
82. recruit – нанимать на работу
83. recruitment – приём на работу
84. reference – рекомендация
85. reject – отвергать
86. relocate - перемещать
87. rely on sth – полагаться на ч-л
88. replacement – замена
89. reply – отвечать
90. requirement - требование
91. to resign – увольняться
92. resignation – уход в отставку
93. resort – прибегать к ч-л
94. resume – резюме, автобиография
95. salary – зарплата
96. select – выбирать
97. selection – отбор
98. senior – старший
99. shortlist – список
100. sign a contract – подписывать контракт
101. skill – навык
102. sociable - общительный
103. staff – персонал, работники
104. staff turnover – текучесть кадров
105. support – поддержка, поддерживать
106. submit – представлять, предъявлять
107. subordinate - подчинённый
108. survey - опрос
109. take up a post – занимать должность
110. tend – иметь тенденцию
111. terminate – прекращать
112. time-consuming – затратный по времени
113. trainee – обучающийся, стажёр
114. training – обучение
115. update – обновлять
116. utilization – использование
117. vary - изменяться
118. work overtime – работать сверхурочно

8. Literature

1. Market Leader: Intermediate Business English: Course Book/ D. Cotton,

D. Falvey, S. Kent. - 12th. ed.. - Harlow: Pearson: Longman, 2011.
2. Market Leader : Intermediate Business English: Teacher's Resource Book /
B. Mascull. - 5th. ed. - Harlow : Pearson. - [S. l.]: Longman, 2009.
3. Business Result: Elementary: Student's Book/ D. Grant, J. Hughes, R. Turner. -
Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2011.

4. ProFile 1: Pre-Intermediate: Student's Book / J. Naunton, M. Tulip. - Oxford:

Oxford University Press, 2009.
5. Intelligent Business: Intermediate Business English: Coursebook/ T. Trappe -
6th. ed. - Harlow: Pearson: Longman, 2010.



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