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Table of contents

The importance of glossaries..........................................................................................2
1.1The glossary.............................................................................................................4
1.2History of glossary....................................................................................................5
1.3 Method of making a glossary....................................................................................6
1.4 Why a glossary on military terms?.............................................................................7
2 Terminology...........................................................................................................................9
2.1 Origins...................................................................................................................10
2.2 The evolution of modern terminology......................................................................11
2.3 Scientific and functional aspects..............................................................................13
2.4 General theory of terminology and beyond..............................................................13
2.5 Simple terms and complex terms.............................................................................15
3 Presentation of the terminological glossary.............................................................................17
3.1 Organisation of the glossary....................................................................................17
3.2 Common term features...........................................................................................19
3.3 Criteria for analysing the terms...............................................................................20
3.3.1 Etymology................................................................................................................20
3.3.2 Types of word formation...........................................................................................21
3.3.3 Synonymy................................................................................................................22
3.3.4 Polysemy..................................................................................................................23
3.3.5 Hyponymy................................................................................................................23
3.3.6 Meronymy................................................................................................................24
4. Semantic analysis of the terms..............................................................................................24
ANNEX 1.................................................................................................................................39
ANNEX 2.................................................................................................................................40
The importance of glossaries

In the fields of Translation and Interpreting, the use of glossaries and maintaining
consistency are extremely important rules that need to be understood effectively. When undertaking
any project and for it to be successful, glossary plays an important role. A glossary is not just a
simple dictionary; it is more than that, because it can ease your current daily work life by sparing
you of countless redundancies or inconsistencies in the original source text as well as in other
foreign languages.1
Apart from providing you with just the meaning of the words, it also gives the appropriate
meaning of the term in direct relationship with the source text.
Glossaries have a more important role in industrial or technical translations than in general
translation. In translation, you may choose to compromise with consistency sometimes as some of
the words may have several different meanings and they do not require the strict guidelines of
maintaining consistency as it happens when dealing with a technical or industrial translation, which
are the rules and norms that need to be followed accurately.2
It helps the translators to make sure that each time they find a word, a technical word that
needs to be translated into a certain language, the glossary will point out the term that it is to be used
consistently and correctly.
According to those mentioned above, the glossary helps maintain the true message of the
source text, without altering it. Another reason for using a glossary is that, in most cases an
experienced translator/interpreter will rather rush forward to a glossary than a layperson that will
choose to translate everything without considering the alternatives.
By using a glossary the uncertainty in the translation process vanishes, as the glossary will
enforce the consistency, shorten the time that it takes to translate a document, making it far more
easy for translators and reviewers to translate and review the document resulting as an effort and
time saving tool.3

I would like to begin by stating the fact that this thesis contains both theoreticaland practical
The field of military terminology has been only briefly studied, and since at first it sounded
quite entertaining to do it felt rewarding to complete it, since I have passion for military history, in
particularly the two World Wars, and this is the time span that I have chosen to research.
This glossary is entitled ”Glossary of Military Terms” and has as main purpose to help those
that wish to study further the military domain. The making of a glossary is a tough job to do and it
requires to do several researches prior to preparation, which takes alot of time and effort to
accomplish. It must be correctly since it will serve as a working tool for all those who will use it.
Regarding the glossary it contains specialized terms in the field of military, solved with the
help of Microsoft Excel. It was developed in two languages – English and Romanian.
In the first part, we described the concept of glossary, its history, the method of making one
and why I have chosen to do it.
The second part of this project is related to terminology consists in, terminology as a science,
its origins, the evolution of modern terminology and the general theory of terminology and beyond.
A glossary can make the difference for a translator, and in general for people that are intrested in a
certain field.
The thid part of this paper consists of the explanation method on which the glossary was
made. We chose the relevant and important fields of terminology to facilitate the understanding of
Finally the last part, and the most complex part of this paper is devoted to the analysis of
terms that make this glossary. We hope that this will be a reference point for all those who need it
thanks to the information, content and the organisation of the glossary.

1.1The glossary

A glossary is, according to Free Dictionary Online, ”A list of often difficult or specialized
words with their definitions, often placed at the back of a book. ” 4but in fact it is more than that, it is
a tool, a document that can help you mitigate this consistency problem. It may also be referred to as
a lexicon, term base or terminology collection. A glossary contains the key terminology that you

4 The American Heritage® Dictionary of the English Language, Fourth Edition copyright ©2000 by Houghton Mifflin
Company. Updated in 2009. Published by Houghton Mifflin Company.
require in the source language and the approved translation for that terminology in all your target
Translators are greatly helped by having by their side a glossary because each time they
require a meaning for the needed term, the glossary will point out the correct and most appropriate
equivalent in relationship with the target text.6
Glossaries help standardize the way terms in various projects are translated, thus increasing
the consistency and the quality of translations. Glossaries are especially useful, when multiple
translators decide to join their forces together in a project.7
It is most necessary, when a particular project undertaken by several translators that needs to
be translatedcontains many specialized terms and they require an exact translation, for example legal
or technical documents, or as in our case the military field.
The word ”glossary” appeared during the 16th century, under the form as ”glossary”. It
comes from the old latinglossarium, which has exactly the same meaning, and which is derived also
from the greek equivalent γλωσσα which means ”tongue” or ”language”.8
Formerly, it referred to as a dictionary which has explanation of some obscure words from a
language to another. Nowadays, the term ”Glossary” has evolved and it means much more than that,
it is the ”means of indexation of a dialect, of specific words to a scientific or technical field, an
author’s own vocabulary”9.

1.2History of glossary

The first glossary ever known to mankind, a major Babylonian glossary or as it may be more
fit to say encyclopaedia, is the so called ”Urra=hubullu”10 which is more like lexical lists ordered
by topic. It appeared circa during the early 2nd millennium BCE and it is the canonical Babylonian
version of the two languages: Sumerian and Akkadian.11

The title of this great ancient treasure is given actually by its first gloss, ur5-ra and
ḫubulluwhich translated mean ” interest” and ”bearing debt” in the languages mentioned above.
The glossary consisted of 24 tablets of which the first three compile fragments of school
exercises. Tablets 4 and 5 contain a list of terrestrial and naval vehicles. Tablets 13 to 15 have a
systematic enumeration of birds, animals and also domestic ones. Tablets 16 and 17 have an
enumeration of stones and plants, respectively. And tablet 22 has the list of star names.

16th tablet of the Urra=hubullu, Louvre Museum

Moving forward and closer to our times, the first ever official technical dictionnary
publishing in 1473 or 1474 by the printer GüntherZainer of Augsburg, Germany is
Vocabulaiusrerum it is a part of the bigger issused in the same year dictionnaryVocabularius, and it
was published right after the Vocabularius ex quo (1467) which was the first bi-lingual dictionnary,
being printed in Eltville12, Germany and is also recorded (ISTC no. iv00361700).
Vocabulariusrerum is a work of art as it was entirely dedicated to technical terms, each of
them having their own section, for example medicine has four sections, culinary, medicinal herbs
and food plants, zoology, mining and mineralogy, navigation, architecture, textiles, and so on.
"Possessed of a knowledge of names rather than of things, the mediaeval student had one urgent
need - a dictionary. New words began to pour in—in Arabic, Syriac, Hebrew, and Greek—whose
meanings he sought to know; and, for the medical student, there were new drugs, the composition and

uses of which were essential to his practice. It is not surprising then to find books of the dictionary class
among the first to be printed. . . .
The Vocabularius . . . has four sections devoted to medicine: (1) De homineet de
diversismembris, in which the parts of the body are defined in order, with the German equivalents; brief
references to authors are given. (2) De nominibusbalneatorum etc., containing all the terms relating to
bathing, bleeding, and cupping. (3) De medicis et eorumque pertinent ad medicine artes. The definitions
here are most interesting... Siringa is described as a metallic instrument with which a surgeon injects
resolving medicines into the Virile member in order to dissolve calculi in the bladder. (4) De
nominibusquorundamegritudinum, contains seven and a half folios of definitions of diseases."

1.3 Method of making a glossary

In order to make a glossary, we have to strip it down to it’s core and analyse the components
that make a glossary. One of the most important features of a glossary is the index which every
glossary must have. The words are listed in an alphabetical order to simpify the search, and
especially for comfort. Usually a glossary can easily be confused fo a dictionary, but the definitions
that you are able to find in a glossary are not necessarily the same as in a dictionay, because it
depends on the context of which the glossary is made. For example, if the take the word ”bow”, the
word does not have the same meaning in a glossary of weapons like the one in a glossary of naval
Because on one hand this word can mean: ” a weapon to shoot projectiles with (e.g. a bow
and arrow)14” and on the other: ”the front of the ship (e.g. "bow and stern")” 15, so this is the reason
why we need to state beforehand the title of the glossary to which the word belongs, for example,
”Glossary of Naval Ships”. ”Glossary of Medieval Weapons”
It is worth mentioning that glossaries can either printed or computerized.

1.4 Why a glossary on military terms?

I have probably wondered myself this very same question, why of all other technical domains
which could have seem far more easier to do, I have chosen the military domain. Well to be frank
with you, the main reason for choosing this domain is my passion for history.
After a thorough search to find out more details about this kind of glossary, we have came
upon very little information regarding this domain.
There are many of glossaries made on medieval weapons and armour, modern rifles and
machinery, but not a single one to clench all these terms into one single, compact group.
We would like to state out the fact that the military domain is a very complex one, with
terminology ranging from very simple words such as shell, or gunner to very complex and
ambiguous ones like: rocket-propelled grenade, and thus resulting in very big issues to, and I shall
use a military term, ”greenhorns” 16in the art of translation, but not just to them even to highly
specialized and trained translators/interpreters.
Another reason for choosing this domain is that it presents a challenge which I have seen
from the beginning. Lots of translation documents have passed through my hands even though I am
at the bottom of the hill in this career but nothing like this one, namely the military domain.
The originality of my paper consists in the fact that military domain has never been
translated thoroughly and therefore it has never been analysed from the translational point of view.
Therefore, the main purpose of this paper is to present better equivalents for the military terms than
the ones that already exist and the challenges that come with doing so.
The glossary is named, simply ”Glossary on Military Terms”, and it is a tool that has as main
purpose to help the translators/interpreters that work in the military domain, or have to deal it and
anyone else who is passionate about this as I am.
The making of this glossary is a hard work and it involves lots of researches beforehand, a
lot of time invested and effort. It must be done properly because it will serve as a working tool for
many users.
We hope that this glossary will be a point of reference for all who seek information, content
or the structuring of the glossary regarding the military domain.

16Greenhorn -An inexperienced or immature person, especially one who is easily deceived.
2 Terminology
” The initial motivation for the study of terminology was both spontaneous, like the motivation for
technology, and theoretical, like the motivation behind the birth of science. During the simultaneous expansion of
knowledge and the growth of technology and communications in the eighteenth century, terminology was seen as a
necessary tool for overcoming some of the difficulties associated with these multiple developments. Only in the
twentieth century has terminology acquired a scientific orientation while at the same time being recognised as a
socially important activity.” (Rey 1995: 49)17
Terminology is the study of terms and how they are actually used. Terms are words which
may be simple or compound that in a specific context that they are found, they receive a specific
meaning, these meanings may differ from the meanings the very same words have in other contexts
and in the everyday language.
Terminology is the discipline that studies, among other important things, the evolution of
terms and also their interrelationships with different cultures. Terminology being the study of
concepts, conceptual systems and their labels (terms), is also the discipline that systematically
studies over the labelling or designating of concepts particular to one or more subjects fields or
domains of human activity.18
To this end, we shall take a closer approach at what terminology has come to signify as a
field of study. Terminology is not a completely new field of study, since it has evolved because of a
basic human need which is that of identifying and labelling things, basically naming them.
Thus the exact definition is still not very clear and the understandings of terminology as a
scientific discipline are still uncertain. Because of this uncertainty the theory of terminology has
been questioned several times, but only in recent times has it been more systematically developed
taking in full consideration its principles, and also without forgeting to mention, its methodology.
(Cabré, 2003: 163-170).19
Going back to debates, Sageder mentions in one of his books that terminology is put to
question whether it should be taken as a science or as a mere practice. (Sageder, 2010:124)
Terminology is the discipline or science that studies words, their formation, their way of
usage, their evolution and their relationship to the perceived or known universe. As a science of
discipline, it is considered a variant of lexicology which borrows its methods and the manner of
analysing the terms to apply them to an object formed by the set of terminologies.20

17 Rey, Alain 1995. Essays on Terminology, translated and edited by Juan C. Sager. Amsterdam
& Philadelphia: John Benjamins.
19Cabré-Castellvi, M.T.,2003. Theories of Terminology. Their description, prescription and
explanation, in Terminology
2.1 Origins

In the 18th and 19th centuries, scientists were the leaders in terminology. In the 20th century
engineers and technicians have become involved. Activities in the field date from much earlier, even
though the systematization of terminology and its scientific status are recent developments.
Lavoisier21 and Berthollet22, in the 18th century made research in chemistry and in botany and
zoology, Linné23 exemplifying the need that the naming of scientific concepts has always been for
the real specialists.
The rapid progress and evolution of technology required not just for the naming of new
concepts, but also for the agreement of the terms used.
The terminology, as we understand it today, first took shape in the 1930s. The father of
modern terminology is the Austrian Eugene Wüster ( 1898-1977), a linguist, his work is considered
very important to the evolution of modern terminology. According to his doctoral dissertation in
1930, he stated arguments for systematizing working methods in terminology, he menaged to
establish a number of principles for working with terms and also outlined the main objectives of a
methodology for processing terminological data.24

Four scholars can be presented as the intellectual fathers of terminological theory, stated by
Wüster (cited in Cabré, 1995: 5)25: “Alfred Schlomann from Germany,
the first one to consider the systematic nature of special terms; the Swiss linguist
Ferdinand de Saussure, the first one to have drawn attention to the systematic nature of
language; E. Dresen, a Russian, a pioneer in underscoring the importance of
standardization; and J. E. Holmstrom, the English scholar from UNESCO, who was
instrumental in disseminating terminologies on an international scale”
Wüster, in all his life, we can clearly and without any doubt say that he was passionate about
terminology and we can list some of the achievements he tried to strike during his life time work,
trying to:

21 A. Lavoisier - http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Antoine_Lavoisier
22 C. L. Berthollet - http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Claude_Louis_Berthollet
23 C. Linné - http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Carl_Linnaeus
25CabréCastellví, M. Teresa 1995. “On diversity and terminology”. Terminology 2:1
 Eliminate ambiguity from the technical languages by means of standardization of
terminology in order to make them more efficient tools of communication
 Convince all users of technical languages of the benefits of having a standardized

 Establish terminology as a discipline to alll practical purposes and to turn it into a science.
The stuctural approach that Wüster took to the theory of linguistics was too restrictive in
Wüster’s time and oriented towards a more formal aspects of the languages to be able to account for
the specificity of semantic aspects of specialized signs.
This is the explanation for which Wüster saw his “Terminologielehre”26 as an autonomous
interdisciplinary field of study, as he said in his “Die allgemeineTerminologielehre –
EinGrenzgebietzwischenSprachwissenschaft, Logik, Ontologie, Informatik und den
Sachwissenschaften” (1974). 27

2.2 The evolution of modern terminology

E. Wüster’s work in Vienna in the 1930s helped the rising of modern terminology. In his
doctoral dissertation, Wüster showed arguments for the systematization of working methods in
terminology, he established a number of principles for working with terms, and also listed the main
points of a methodology for processing terminological data.
As Rondeau (1983) says, at that time Wüster was extremly worried about the methodology
and standards as opposed to the theory, since he thought of terminology as a tool that should be used
as efficiently as possible to make sure that ambiguity vanishes from scientific and technical
Following Auger (1988)29 we can discovered the four basic timeframes that occured in the
development of modern terminology:
 The origins (1930-1960)
 The structuring of the field (1960-1975
28Cabré, M. Teresa 1999, Terminology: Theory, Methods and Applications, edited by Juan C. Sager ;
translated by Janet Ann DeCesaris.
29 Auger, Pierre. 1988. ``La terminologie au Quebec et dans le monde, de la naissance à la maturité ''
 The boom (1975-1985)
 The expansion (1985-present)

The first period, that of the origins, period of development of the study of terminology
(1930-1960) was influenced by the design of methods for the systematic formation of terms. Wüster
and Lotte30 made their debut with their first theoretical texts in this time period.
In the second period, called the structuring of the field (1960-1975), appeared the most
important innovations in terminology from the development of mainframe computers and techniques
for documentation. During this period the first databank 31s appeared, and the international
coordination of principles of terminology processing was formed, also the first approaches were
made to standardize terminology within a language.
The third stage – known as the boom of the world known terminology (1975-1985) was
marked by the proliferation of language planning and terminology projects; among countries such as
the former great power USSR and Israel began their language policies much earlier.
Also the massive spread of personal computers delivered a huge reform to the methods for
processing terminological data.
Least but not last, the expansion ( 1985-present) presented itself with some new issues, such
as computer science is one of the most important forces behind changes in terminology.
Terminologists now have at their disposal tools and resources that are better qualified for
their daily needs, more user-friendly and more effective.
International cooperation is broadened and consolidated, as international networks are
created to link agencies and countries which share characteristics or are interested in cooperation.32

2.3 Scientific and functional aspects

“Throughout the last fifteen years, and in spite of often differing ideologies concerning a
substantial number of the guiding principles of terminology, agreement has been reached.
The fact remains, however, that in every country, the objectives and the working methods

32Cabré, M. Teresa 1999, Terminology: Theory, Methods and Applications, edited by Juan C. Sager ;
translated by Janet Ann DeCesaris.
of terminology are subject to a wide range of factors, such as the country's political, socioeconomic and
linguistic situation.” Rondeau& Sager (1986:21-30)33

To some, terminology is just a practice dealing with social needs which sometimes are
related to political and commercial ends, but not everyone agrees that terminology is actually a
separate discipline, nor do they consider it a theoretical subject.
People think of terminology as being a true scientific discipline that borrows a lot from other
disciplines, their fundamental concepts. Even though it does this, it is considered a separate
discipline in the sense that it has rephrased and synthesized the original foundations so that it could
build its own field.
Intermediate positions only conceive of terminology within the framework of other,
recognizing that terminology contains some original aspects, more consolidated disciplines. (Cabré,
1999: 6-7)

2.4 General theory of terminology and beyond

Wüster’s theory received contributions and it has been complemented, have come to be
known under the name: General Theory of Terminology. These contributions can be observed much
more clearly in the following statements:

“• The objective of international standardization is extended by suggestions of

terminology development as part of language planning.
• Controlled synonymy is admitted. Wüster’s posthumous work already concedes this point.
• A certain degree of synonymy is accepted though its avoidance is recommended
in terminology intended to be standardized.
• Phraseology is added to the study of terminological units.
• The meaning of spoken forms is recognized in contexts of language planning.
• The model is made dynamic by introducing the description of the process of
formation of new terms.
• The representation of non-hierarchically-ordered conceptual structures is

33Rondeau;Sager 1986, Termia 84. Terminologie et cooperation internationale.

On the other hand, the following are not modified:
• The priority of the concept over the designation, and consequently its
• The precision of the concept (monosemy), even though dimensions such as
parameters of classification are admitted.
• The semiotic conception of designations.

From these assumptions about its evolution we note the recognition that applied
terminology is not necessarily prescriptive, but, nevertheless, the following are
• The need of prescription in applications intended for standardization and
language planning.
• The deliberate control of evolution (planning, unification, standardization)
even though it is conceded that this is a voluntary activity. • The priority of international forms of
• The limitation to written forms even for terminology intended for language
planning.” (cf. Cabré, 2003: 168)

The theory developed by Wüster’s followers exhibits features which allow us to speak of a
newly and enlarged vision. So that we do not make confusions about Wüster’s theory, Cabré
(2003:175) calls this theory of terminology developed further by Wüster’s followers as the Extended
general theory.
The main features of this Extended general theory are summarized by Myking (2001: 61)
like this: “

 a theoretical platform characterized by ECLECTICISM;

 a set of epistemological tenets: INDEPENDENT CONCEPTS;
 an operational method: ONOMASIOLOGY;
 a defined set of problems: STANDARDISATION. ”

Myking’s review is considered to be the backbone of the extended traditional theory. Cabré
(2003: 176) says that Myking’s description of the extended traditional theory is a moving stone
towards the construction of the terminological theory.

2.5 Simple terms and complex terms

A simple term refers to a word that only applies to only to one object or concept, in a given
domain. In others words, it is a word that refers unambiguously to an object or a concept in a
technical domain. A term consists of a single word (for example, bastion), it is called simple term,
while the others made up for several words are called complex such as aircraft carrier,half-track,
although the word term is commonly used in both cases.34

Categories of terms:

 Simple terms: trench, turret

 Simple derived terms: gunner, sapper

 Simple terms by composition: term composed by using

composition: noun range + noun
finder (Any of various optical,
electronic, or acoustical
instruments used to determine the
distance of an object from the

 Simple terms by acronym: APC ( Armoured Personnel

RPG (Rocket-Propelled Grenade)

 Complex terms by juxtaposition: half-track, self-propelled artillery

 Complex terms by composition: rangefinder

3 Presentation of
the terminological
3.1 Organisation of the glossary

As mentioned in the first pages, a glossary is very different from that of a regularly
dictionary, because the terms that compile a glossary are not general words, they belong to a specific
field, a technical domain, where these terms are actually used.
In other words, it is a collection of glosses, it is made up of foreign or unique terms which
are connected or linked alongside with their definition to a certain technical or scientific domain.
Glossaries have been up since the 18th century to various technical domains such as: political,
legal system, medical, economical, etc. And since the main objective of this thesis is the military
domain, it too.
The present glossary on military terms is has as a framework, 16 sections both in English and
Romanian and it is a complete and easy to use and work with glossary.
In the making of this glossary, Microsoft has given us the opportunity to use one of his
master pieces programs: Microsoft Office Excel and with the help of the 16 sections, which I will
briefly mention below.
Here is the order, in our glossary of military terms:

 English/Romanian (EN/RO) Entry Term / Equivalent

 Grammatical Category
 English/Romanian (EN/RO) Definition
 Definition Source (English/Romanian)
 Linguistics Notes
 1st English/Romanian (EN/RO) Context
 1st English/Romanian (EN/RO) Context Source
 2nd English/Romanian (EN/RO) Context
 2nd English/Romanian (EN/RO) Context Source
 Synonyms English & Romanian
 Abbreviations English & Romanian

The Entry Term- is the designation unit which relates to all the glossary data.
According to Kara Warburton, from IBM Terminology, a glossary entry is not only used to
record information for glossaries, it can be used for other reasons such as to record acronyms and
abbreviations that are refered in documents or to record information that may later be used for
terminology databases or lexical resources. (Warburton, 2009: 5)

Each glossary entry is a container element for all the other elements defined in a specific
glossary. Also every glossary entry describes and documents only one sense (meaning, or concept).
Grammatical Category –stands for the morphological class to which a term actually
belongs to. It is a set of syntactic features that: express meanings from the same conceptual domain,
they occur in contrast to each other and are typically expressed in the same fashion.
The term “grammatical category” has been used to cover a wide variety of things, including
what traditional grammar meant “parts of speech”35
Grammatical category treats the new words that entered the language, some of them are
obtained by methods of internal forming such as: derivation and composition, others are just
borrowings from foreign languages. It can be noted that for compound words there is predominance
in the associations types: noun + adjective, noun + noun and even noun + adjective/verb + noun.
Grammatical category is also valuable information appreciated by translators if the glossary
is to be translated, as it helps them to select the appropriate translation.
Definition - Since glossaries entries are actually sense-oriented (concept-oriented), each
glossary entry will have only one definition according to the technical domain that it is taken from.
(Warburton, 2009: 11)
Since only a particular sense of the word is allowed in the glossary that expresses on
grammatical function (noun, verb, etc) only one part of speech value is permitted to be used.
The definition is the determination of the characteristics of a concept, word or object, or it is
all the essential properties that something owns. It has to be short and to the point, and to illustrate
exactly the word. In every dictionary, first we will find that the definition will present the denotative
meaning of the word then according to the technical field that we pursue, the connotative meaning.
Definition Source - are usually taken from dictionaries where a term can one or multiple
definition, it is bound to take in consideration that not all dictionaries are to be trusted and it is
necessary to verify the source of them. The source of the definition can help the
translators/interpreters better understand the specific meaning of the word that is explained.
Linguistics Notes –this section of the glossary deals with the usage of words and how they
are formed and with the peculiarities of words. For example: simple words, compound words, how
they are formed by derivation, composition or juxtaposing, singular or plural, or irregular shapes.

Contexts – represent bits of texts that can be found either on the internet or in books, where
the specified term, is used in a technical domain. It is mandatory that we search for texts which can
be accounted for, which are dense and phraseological stereotypes.
Synonyms – Multiple terms can denote the same sense, and these are known as synonyms.
For example, ”flattop” and ”aircraft carrier” are considered synonyms. These types of synonyms
are sometimes referred to as ”lexical synonyms” because the form of the words is entirely different.
(Warburton, 2009: 6) Synonyms, words of the same meaning, can be partial or total, thus creating a
series of synonyms. In the instance of technical terms, there is a reduced synonymy through
specialized strict sense of the term, but in the case of military terms, synonymy is present, but not
too strongly. These are the cases when certain military terms have specialized names known only by
those who are specialists in the field, for example: ”RPG”, ”SPG”.
Abbreviations – is basically a shortened form of a word or phrase. It is usually made up
from a letter or a group of letters taken from the specific word or phrase. 36 We have decided on
putting this last section to the glossary because some of the abbreviations are widely known and
used in military domain and it can tremendously help those who are specialized in this field in
finding the desired noun or noun-phrase. For example: ”cantt. – cantonment” , ”gnr –gunner”.

3.2 Common term features

All the terms found in this glossary have common features since they are technical terms in
the discipline of military, the field I have decided to choose in this domain, is simply generally. I
didnot decide on sticking to only one field but actually trying to cover terms from all of them, army,
navy, aviation and so on.
Because of these reasons these terms can not be found in general dictionaries, or they may be
but the only result you shall get will be a brief explanation, these terms are to be found in specific
dictionaries, be it on paper or online. Most of the terms are formed by either derivation or
This glossary contains terms of the technical language and not those of a scientific language.
Technical language is much different from everyday vernacular, and it is even different from general
academic language while on the other hand, the scientific language is pretty much common to all

specialties and serves to express the basics of these domains and also the intellectual operations that
any systematic approach of thinking.
There are among terms, those that are mono-semantic, meaning they have only one meaning
in the field presented before us. For example: ”infantry” which means as well all know ”soldiers or
units of soldiers who fight on foot with small arms”.
Generally, glossary is made up for simple terms such as ”gunner” or ”turret” and those made
with the help of composition, such as: ”armoured car”, ”half-track”.
For example: RPG - Rocket-Propelled Grenade (term composed by juxtaposition: noun
rocket + verb propelled + noun grenade ); SPG - Self-Propelled Artillery (term composed by
juxtaposition: adjective self-propelled + noun artillery )

3.3 Criteria for analysing the terms

In the making of this glossary,I have decided that it is imperative that I take in consideration
the following criteria of analysis:

 Etymology
 The methods of word formation
 Synonymy
 Polysemy
 Hyponymy
 Meronymy

But before we attempt in conducting the analysis itself, we shall present you few words on
each of the above mentioned criteria that was chosen as a corner stone in the understanding of the
analysis process.

3.3.1 Etymology

Etymology is the study of the origins of words. We can clearly say that the etymology of a
word is its linguistic history. For example, the word etymology comes from the Ancient Greek
language. It is composed of a two part word: the Greek word etymon, which means ”the true sense
of a word”, combined with the Greek element logia which means “doctrine, study”.
And after combing these two words into one, we receive “the study of the true sense of
words”, which can be translated as simply the “meaning” of the word.37

Knowing the place of birth of words, we can observe their evolution over time and actually
learn how they are formed and how they acquired their current connotation.
For languages with a long written history, such as English, etymologists can make use of
texts in these languages and texts about the languages to gather knowledge about how words were
used during earlier periods of their history and they entered the language

3.3.2 Types of word formation

The method of word formation is another criterion in our analysis. I have found in the paper
by Prof. Argenis A. Zapata from the University of Los Andes, Colombia that there are different
processes of word formation such as: derivation, composition, truncation and acronymy.38
As for our glossary, there are terms formed only by derivation, composition and acronymy.
Derivation - is the process of forming new words on the basis of an existing word,
for example: the noun bomber is a word formed from the basis bomb and adding the suffix – er,
making the new word an agent noun.
Affixes can be structured into two different parts: according to their positioning in the word
and according to their function in a phrase or sentence.
 Prefixes – are bound morphemes that are added at the beginning of the word;for
example: dis- in disembark ;en- in encirclement ; air- in aircraft . It must be noted
that prefixes are highlighted
 Infixes – are bound morphemes that are inserted within the words. There are no
infixes in the English language.
 Suffixes – are bound morphemes that are placed at the end of the word; for example:
-ment in encirclement ; -(n)er in gunner; -(n)er in sapper;
The derived words result in being: nouns; verbs; adverbs or pronouns.
In regard of the function that affixes have in a language, they are classified as being
derivational affixes and inflectional affixes.
There is also another type of derivation, called the parasynthetic derivation which is the
combination of two types of derivation: the derivation of paradigmatic and syntagmatic type.

The combination is made by simultaneously adding a prefix (element which give the
function of aspectivation, or notional modification of linguistic substance) and a suffix (element of
the change of the grammatical class).
Compounding – is the process of forming new words by combining two or more
free roots to form a new word. For example: range + finder resulting in rangefinder; half- + -track
resulting in half-track; bridge + head resulting in bridgehead.
Compounding is a very common process used in most languages around the world,
especially in synthetic languages. In the case of English, compound words have the following
Compound words behave grammatically and semantically as single words.
Because compound words behave as units, between their component elements no affixes can be
added, suffixes can appear only after compound words.
Compound words can be written in three different ways:
Open – with space between the parts of the compound; for example: pincer movement; aircraft
carrier; booby trap.
Hyphenated – with a hyphen (-) separating the elements of the compound; for example: half-
track;rocket-propelled grenade;self-propelled artillery.
Solid – without a space or hyphen between the component elements of the compound; for
example: autoloader;blockhouse;bridgehead.
The preference for the way of writing compound words is highly dependent on the
lexicographical conventions and the variety of English use. For instance, the use of hyphenation is
more common in British English than in the American English.

3.3.3 Synonymy

Synonymy is a semantic relationship between words, phrases or expressions in a language if

two words have the same meaning. The semantic similarity indicates that the words have the same
or similar meaning. Synonymy belongs to the field of semantics.
It must be known that even between synonyms there is a small difference, being it as tiny as
possible, since total synonyms are quite rare.
Lyons (1995 :61) states that two expressions are in full synonymous situation if the
following requirements are fulfilled:
 All of their meanings are identical
 They are synonyms in all given contexts
 They are semantic equivalents in all given aspects of their meaning.
In dealing strictly to our military domain even if the relationship between terms is
synonymous, total synonyms are quite rare: aircraft carrier = flattop ; autoloader = self-loader;
bridgehead = foothold ; encirclement = surrounded ;

3.3.4 Polysemy

It has been known that polysemy has been intensively studied in several strands of linguistic
research since about the beginning of the 1980s. Polysemy is the phenomenon when a single word
has two or more meanings. This definition of polysemy is shared in most of the literature.
In general, the words used frequently are polysemous, and the monosemy is characterized
mainly as used only in scientific and technical dictionaries. Polysemy is universal since it can be
found in every language on the globe. It is most often found in verbs, nouns and adjectives.
According to Deane’s dissertation (1987), which was never made public and not taken in
consideration by later researchers, he puts out a theory of polysemy “in which word meaning is
closely integrated with certain kinds of extralinguistic knowledge (i.e., the cultural background).
Without such information, it would be impossible to account consistently for polysemy.”39 The
explanation of the term is not possible without mentioning the context in which it appears.

3.3.5 Hyponymy

Hyponymy refers to the relation between two words in which the meaning of one of the
words includes the meaning of the other. ”A hyponym is a subordinate, specific term whose referent
is included in the referent of super ordinate term.”40

For example: armoured personnel carrier and half-track are kinds of vehicle. They are
specific vehicles, and vehicle is a general term for them.

Therefore, vehicle is called the super ordinate term, and armoured personnel carrier and
half-track are hyponyms.

A super ordinate term can have multiple hyponyms, hyponymy is overall defined as the kind
of relation. .41 In simpler terms, a hyponym shares a type-of relationship with its hypernym42

3.3.6 Meronymy
Meronymy is the IS-A-PART-OF (or HAS – A) relation and like hyponymy, the term
refers either to the directional relation from whole to part or collectively to the relation and its
converse, holonymy.

So for example, attack aircraft is a meronym of aircraft carrier and aircraft carrier is a
holonym of attack aircraft, thus resulting the relation between these two, is called meronymy. Cruse
(1986) defines meronymy as follows: ”X is a meronym of Y if and only if sentences of the form a Y
has Xs/an X and An X is a part of a Y are normal when the noun phrases an X, a Y are interpreted
generically.(Cruse 1986: 160

4. Semantic
analysis of the

The first term in our analysis is ”aircraft carrier”.
The aircraft carier is a warship equipped with a large open
deck for taking off and landing of warplanes and with facilities
to carry, service and arm them.
This term is a noun phrase, and it is formed by
using juxtaposition of two separate nouns, aircraft and carrier.Derived terms from this noun phrase:
supercarrier ;fleet carrier ; escort carrier.
Aircraft carrier as a term first appeared in 1910 when took place the first flight from the
deck of a US Navy Cruiser. In regards of the polysemy of this noun phrase, we can clearly state that
this term is monosemic.
The term ”aircraft carrier” is a super ordinate term for the following hyponyms:
helicopter carrier ; aviation carrier ; escort carrier. Also we can say that ”aircraft carrier” is a
meronym of warship, since in fact aircraft carrier is a warship.
In Romanian, the term’s equivalent is ”portavion”
(”Navămilitarăastfelconstruităîncâtsăpermităgararea, decolareașiaterizareaavioanelor.”).

The second term of our analysis is ”armoured car”,

which is a noun phrase and it means basically a fast lightly
armed and armoured vehicle, which is mainly used for
reconnaissance duties. This term always is a monosemic noun
phrase since it has only one meaning.
The term ”armoured car” first appeared at the
begining of the 20th century, and they were manufactured as the first military armoured vehicles, by
adding armour and weapons to existing vehicles.
This term is a noun phrase and it is formed by using juxtaposition with the adjective
armoured derived from the noun armour and the noun car.
The synonym for this term is the american version of the term: ”armored car”, and it is a
hyponym of the following terms: ”armored vehicle” ; ”armoured vehicle”.

The Romanian equivalent for this term is ”autoblindat” ( ”Vehiculblindat, cu
roţisauşenile, dotat cu armament uşor, folositpentrumisiuni de recunoaştere, de siguranţă”.)

The term ”armoured personnel carrier” is a noun

phrase, characterized as an armoured vehicle which is equipped
with caterpillar treads and usually a light machine gun, that is used
for transporting troops to battle.
The etymology of this term was born towards the end of
World War I on the Western Front, allied tanks were able to break
through enemy lines but without infantry support they could easily be destroyed. So Britain
designed the first purpose built armoured troop transport, the Mark IX.
The term is formed by using juxtaposition, with the adjective armoured from the noun
armour, the noun personnel and finally adding the noun carrier from the verb to carry.
The abbreviation for this term is APC , and the term is aswell a hyponym of the following
terms: ”armoured vehicle” ; ”armoured vehicle”.
The Romanian equivalent for this term is ”transportor de trupeblindat” ( ”vehiculblindat
de luptăproiectatpentru a transportatrupe de infanteriepecâmpul de luptă”) , and is abbreviated in
Romanianaswell as TAB (TransportorAmfibiuBlindat).

An “attack aircraft” is a tactical military aircraft that has as a primary role of attacking
targets on the ground or sea, with greater precision than bombers, and which is prepared to
encounter stronger low-level air defenses.
The term ”attack aircraft” first appeared in
the autumn of 1917 during World War I, they
were Germany’s first country dedicated
ground attack aircrafts.
The term is formed by using
juxtaposition, with the verb attack and the
noun aircraft. Synonyms of term: ground
attack aircraft and dive bomber. Attack

aircraft is a hyponym of military plane, warplane and the term is a hypernym of the following
Interceptor, stealth fighter; while it is also a meronym of aircraft carrier.
The Romanianequivalent for thistermis ”avion de atac la sol” (”avioane de luptă care
datorităcaracteristicilortehnice au rolul principal de a ataca ținteaflatela sol.” )

”Blockhouse” is a military fortification constructed of sturdy material, such as concrete

and designed with ports for defensive firing or observation.
The term blockhouse appeared in England around the year of 1398, and it was made of
brick and it had three storeys with the upper storeys pierced for six guns each.
The grammatical category of this term is that of a noun and it is composed with the help
of composition from the noun block and the noun house.
Synonyms of this term are: „bunker” „sangar” while the same term is a hypernym of the
term fastness ;stronghold.
The Romanian equivalent for this term is ”cazemată” ( ”Construcțiemilitară, de obicei
din betonarmat, care protejează de proiectileși bombe șiîn care suntinstalatetunurisaumitraliere.” ).

”Booby trap” is a hidden explosive device primed in such a way as to be set off by an
unsuspecting victim. In approximately 1590, the word began appearing in the English language as
”booby” from Spanish, meaning ”stupid person, slow bird”, originally the phrase booby trap was
applied to schoolboy pranks, but it took a more sinister connotation during World War I.
The first booby traps were made of hardened steel with pikes, and dropped from planes
they would land with the spikes up so horses would get them in their hooves.
The term ”booby trap” is a noun phrase and it is a term made by using juxtaposition of a noun
booby (meaning stupid person, slow bird) and the noun trap.
Synonym of this term is ”concealed trap” and its abbreviation ”BT” . Booby trap is a
hyponym of mine and it is also a hypernym of claymore mine, bouncing betty.
The Romanian equivalent for ”booby trap” is ”dispozitivexplozivimprovizat”

”Bridgehead” is a strategically important area of ground around the end of a bridge

In regards of Etymology, we can say that the term bridgehead, comes from French, ” tête de pont”
and is a High Middle Ages military term, which before the invention of cannons meant military
fortification that protects the end of a bridge. Like many other older terms, the meaning of this word
has drifted with the passage of time. The term in colloquial usage refers to any kind of defended area
that is extended into hostile territory.
The grammatical category of this term is that of a noun, it is a term formed up by using
composition with the noun bridge and the noun head.
The polysemy of the term bridgehead in the military domain has the meanings of: a
defensive post at the end of a bridge nearest to the enemy and that of an area in hostile territory that
has been captured and is held awaiting further troops and supplies.
Furthermore, synonym of bridgehead is the word foothold, and as abbreviation BRGHD.
In regard of hyponymy we can say that bridgehead is a hypernym of beachhead and airhead and a
hyponym of combat area, war zone.The Romanian equivalent for ”Bridgehead” is ”cap de pod”
(”locaflatpeteritoriulinamic, dincolo de un curs de apă, de un defileu”).

”Bulwark” is a originally, a barrier formed of logs, beams, boards, hurdles, or any other
materials, for the obstruction of a passage or defence of a place, nowadays more specifically in
fortification, it is a rampart, embankment and a mound of earth.
The term ”bulwark” , a simple term in regards of grammatical category, in the same of
etymology comes from the Middle High German is a term which has the same linguistic derivation
as the german counterpart ”Bollwerk”, Danish ” bolværk” , the first part of the word has the similar
character to bole which means the trunk of a tree. It also has the same linguistic derivation as the
term from French ”boulevard”.
The polysemy of the term ”bulwark” depends highly on the grammatical category that
the term is used in regard of the military domain: ”a protective structure of stone or concrete;
extends from shore into the water to prevent a beach from washing away” (as a noun) and ”be on the
defensive; act against an attack” ( as a verb). The term has a 3rd polysemic sense that is of a part of
a ship: ”a fencelike structure around a deck” thus classifying the word as a meronym.
In the case of hyponomy, the term ”bulwark” is a hypernym for: ”barrier” ;
”embankment” ; ”defend” and a hyponym for ”Great Wall of China” ; ”earthwork” ; ”battlement”.
The Romanian equivalent for ”bulwark” is ”bastion” (”Lucrare de fortificație cu
douăflancurișidouăfețe, construită de obicei la unghiurileuneifortărețe” ).
The term ”cantonment” is a military or police quarters, the term also describes
permanent military stations. Cantonments can be found in all countries around the globe, but in the
United States military parlance, a cantonment is essentially a permanent residential section of a fort
or other military installation (i.e. barracks)
”Cantonment” , according to its etymology, was first introduced in 1756 from the French
”cantonnement” which is derived from the word ”cantonner” which means ”to divide into cantons”.
In regards of polysemy we can clearly state that this term is a monosemic one since, for example in
the United States is only used in connection to military installations.
The Romanian equivalent for ”cantonment” is ”cantonament” ( ”Staționarevremelnică a
unorunitățimilitareîntr-o localitate, înafaracazarmei” ).
The term ”Cantonment” is a ahypernym for the following terms: ”lager” ; ”boot camp” ;
”hutment” and it is a hyponym to ”military quarters”.

The verb “disembark” means to remove or unload, cargo or passengers from a ship,
aircraft, or any other vehicle onto ground. In close connection with the law system, the act of
disembarkation is related to various issues such as liability for accidents, or in relation to
immigration and refugee status.
The term ”disembark” is a borrowing from the late 16th century French ”désembarquer”,
Spanish ”desembarcar” or ”disimbarcare” which are all based on the Latin word of ”barca”
meaning ”ship’s boat”. It is formed by adding the prefix dis- to the verkembark. The Romanian
equivalent for ”disembark” is „ a debarca” ( ”A coborî, a depunepeuscatdintr-o navăpasageri,
mărfuri etc.”).
The abbreviation for this term used in military language is ”DISEMB” , and as a synonym
there is the word of ”alight”. In the case of hyponomy we can say that the term ”disembark” is a
hyponym for the following terms: ”land” ; ”set down” .

”Encirclement” is a military term for the situation when a force or target is isolated and
surrounded by enemy forces, the situation is highly dangerous for the encircled force, since at the
strategic level, it cannot receive supplies or reinforcements, and at the tactical level, that the units in
the force can be attacked from all sides.

The term ”encirclement”, is a simple term derived with the prefix en- and the suffix –
ment to the noun circle. The term has appeared in English around the year of 1400, from the Middle
English term ”enserclen”
In the case of polysemy we can say that our term has two meanings: one ”to form a
circle around something/someone” and the second one ”to pass completely around
something/someone”. The Romanian equivalent is ”învăluire”
The term is a hypernym for the following words: ”naval blocade” ; ”siege” ;
”beleaguering” and also a hyponym for: ”action” ; ”military action”. The synonym for
”encirclement” is ”surrounded”.

The term “enfilade” alongside with its counterpart ”defilade”, is a military tactic used to
describe a military formation’s exposure to enemy fire. A formation or position is ”in enfilade” if
weapons fire can be directed along its longest axis. Enfilade fire, a gunfire directed against an
enfiladed formation or position, is also commonly known as ”flanking fire”.
The etymology of this, states that the term was first used in the year of 1706, and it has its
origins in French from ”enfilade”, from the Old French ”enfiler” in 13th century which means ”to
thread a needle on a string, pierce from end to end”
In the case of grammatical category this term can be used both as a noun ”gunfire
directed along the length rather than the breadth of a formation” and as a verb ”to rake or be in a
position to rake with gunfire in a lengthwise direction”. The term is monosemic.
Also we can say that ”enfilade” is a hypernym for the following words: ”gunfire” ; ”rake”
; ”gunshot”, and has as a Romanian equivalent the word ”anfiladă” ( ”tragereînținteînșirate
perpendicular sauoblicfață de frontul de tragere” ) .

A “fighter aircraft” is a military aircraft designed primarily for air-to-air combat against
other aircraft, as opposed to bombers and attack aircraft, whose main mission is to attack ground
targets. The hallmarks of a fighter aircraft are its speed, manoeuvrability, and small size compared to
other combat aircraft.

The grammatical category of this term is that of a noun phrase, and it is formed by the
usage of juxtaposition, from the noun fighter and the noun aircraft.
The term is monosemous and has only one meaning that of a „a high-speed military or
naval airplane designed to destroy enemy aircraft in the air” but it is a hypernym for: ”stealth
fighter” ; ” kamikaze” ; ”interceptor” and a hyponym of ”warplane” ; ” military plane” ; ”plane”.
In terms of etymology, the word ”fighter” did not become official English term for such
aircraft until after World War I, U. S. Army called their fighters ”pursuit” aircraft from 1916 to late
1940s. The Romanian equivalent for this term is ”avion de vânătoare”
(”Un avionmilitar conceputșiconstruitîn principal pentru a puteaatacaalteavioane”).

A ”half-track” is a lightly armoured military motor vehicle having continuous tracks in

the rear for power and convetional wheels in the front for streering.
Regarding the etymology of the word we can say it that it took birth in 1911, when the
French engineer AdolpheKégresse converted a number of cars from the personal car pool of Tsar of
Russia to half-tracks.
The term half-track is a noun phrase and it is formed by using juxtaposition, merging
together two nouns by the usage of a hyphen, and these are: ”half” ; ”track”.
The synonyms for this term are: ”tracked”; ”armoured personnel carrier” and the
Romanian equivalent is ”semișenilat” ( “vehicul cu roți care asigurădirecțiașișenile care
producmișcarea” ).

„Howitzer” is a type of artillery piece characterized by a relatively short barrel and the
use of comparatively small propellant charges to propel projectiles at relatively high trajectories,
with a steep angle of descent.
The etymology of the english term is characterized by the fact that the word ”howitzer”
comes from the Czech word ”houfnice” from ”houf = crowd”, suggesting the cannon’s use against
massed enemies, and ”” in return is a borrowing from Middle High German.
The grammatical category of the term is that of a noun, and it is a simpe term term,
borrowed, it has the quality as being a hyponym of the term ”high angled gun”.

The Romanian equivalent is ”obuzier”.(”Gură de foc de artilerieasemănătoarecutunul,
care tragecutraiectoriifoartecurbepentru a loviobiectivesituateînapoiaunorobstacoleînalte.” ).

”Pincer movement” is a military maneuver in which forces simultaneously attack both

flanks of an enemy formation. The name comes from visualizing the action as the split attacking
forces ”pinch” the enemy.
The grammatical category of the term is that of a noun phrase, and the term is formed by
using juxtaposition with the verb ”pinch” and the noun ”movement”, derived from the verb to move
by adding the suffix ”–ment.”
The synonym of this term is „double envelopment” and the Romanian equivalent is
”dublăînvăluire” ( ”A înconjura, a încercui o unitateinamicăpeambeleflancuri” )
A ”rangefinder” is basically any types of various optical, electronic or acoustical
instruments used to determine the distance of an object from the observer. They may be used by
military and law enforcement snipers as a means of finding the distance to the target in order to take
the perfect shot.
The term ”range finder” is a noun and it is formed by using composition with the help of
the noun ”range” and adding the noun ”finder”, and it is abbreviated as ”RF” and it is a hyponym of
the following words: ”measuring device” ; ”measuring instrument” ; ”measuring system”.
The Romanian equivalent of this term is ”telemetru” (”Instrument optic
folositpentrumăsurareadistanțeidintreloculundeesteinstalatinstrumentulși un

”Rocket-propelled grenade” is a shoulder-fired, anti-tank weapon system that fires

rockets equipped with an explosive warhead. These warheads are affixed to a rocket motor and
stabilized in flight with fins. Some types of RPGs are reloadable, while others are single-use RPGs
with the exception of self-contained versions which are loaded from the muzzle.
The grammatical category of the term is noun phrase and it is formed with the usage of
juxtaposition, the noun ”rocket” with the verb ”propelled” and finally adding the last noun

The term ”rocket-propelled grenade” is strictly a backronym, it comes from the Russian
language РПГ or ручнойпротивотанковыйгранатомёт (transliterated as
"ruchnoyprotivotankovygranatomyot"), meaning "hand-held anti-tank grenade launcher", the name
given to early Russian designs.
The abbreviation of this noun phrase is ”RPG” and the Romanian equivalent
”aruncător de grenade antitanc” ( ” O armăţinutăpeumărcetragerachete anti-tancechipate cu
focoaseexplozive.” ).
”Rocket-propelled grenade” is a hypernym of: ”bazooka” ; ”Panzerfaust” and a hyponym
of ”grenade”.

”Self-propelled artillery” is artillery equipped with its own propulsion system to move
towards its target. Within the term are covered self-propelled guns and rocket artillery. They are
highly mobility vehicles, usually based on caterpillar track carrying either a large howitzer or other
field gun.
The grammatical category of this term is that of a noun phrase, and the formation of the
term is done with the help of juxtaposition: adjective ”self” + verb ”propelled” + noun ”artillery”,
also the term is monosemantic.
The synonyms of this term are: ”mobile artillery” and ”locomotive artillery” and the
Romanian equivalent is ”autotun” ( ” tunfixatpe un șasiumotorizat, dotat cu roțisau cu șenile.
Tunulpoate fi de artilerie, antiaeriansauantitanc.” )

The term ”trench” is a long narrow ditch embanked with its own soil and used for
concealment and protection in warfare. Trenches have often been dug for defensive purposes. In the
pre-firearm eras, they were mainly a type of hindrance to an attacker of a fortified location, such as
the moat around a castle.
In regard of the etymology, the term ”trench” first in the late 14th century had the
meaning of “track cut through a wood” later “long, narrow ditch” in late 15 th century, and it is a
borrowing from the Old French “trenche” which ment “ a slide, cut, gash, slash; defensive ditch”
Trench warfare was first attested in 1918.

The grammatical category of this term is that of a noun and it is a simple term, but in the
case of Polysemy we can see that it has multiple meanings:
 a ditch dug as a fortification having a parapet of the excavated earth
 a long steep-sided depression in the ocean floor
 impinge or infringe upon, taking advantage
In the case of hyponymy we can say that the term ”trench” is a hypernym of the
following words: ”slit” ; ”moat” ; ”furrow” and a hyponym of ”ditch” ; ”depression” ; ”dig”.
Also, ”trench” is a part meronym of ”entrenchment” ; ”intrenchment”.
The Romanian equivalent for this term is ”tranşee” ( ”Șanțadânc, uneoriîntăritșiapărat de
o rețea de sârmăghimpată, folositînrăzboicaadăpost.”) .

To conclude, we present synthetically our bachelor thesis, its structure and goals, but we
also emphasize the importance of this paper, regarding the structure of this thesis, we would like to
mention that it is organized into four chapters devided, aswell, in sub-chapters and it includes a table
of contents, an introduction and at the end, the bibliographic refences.
The four chapters are: Introduction, Terminology, Presentation of the terminological
glossary and the analysis of terms.
The first chapter providesprovides an overview over the glossary, the origins of glossary,
method of making a glossary and the author’s opinion on this subject.
The second chapter presents a description of general terminology, terminology as a
science, its origins, the evolution of modern terminology , a general theory of terminology and
beyond and simple and complex terms. A glossary of terms can make the difference for a
translator/interpreter, and for everyone else who is intrested in this domain.
The third chapter focuses on the presentation of the glossary in the field of military and
its organisation, some common term features and it also highlights the criteria in analyzing the
specific terms: etymology, word formation, synonymy, polysemy and hyponymy.
Finally the last chapter is the analysis of half of the specialized terms included in the
glossary in regard with the criteria mentioned above.
In addition, we would like to highlight the main objectives of this thesis. First we faced a
real situation, the creation of the glossary. Then the analysis of terms that has to be correct and
concise and free of spelling and grammatical errors and very easy to understand and put in practice.
In the end, I would like to say that it is a pleasure to end this hard work. We can say it
was a great challenge because such work involves a lot of research and time, but it was also great
satisfaction and it has given up alot of new information to enhance my knowledge not only
terminology but also in the military domain
To end this I would to finish it with a quote by Sir Winston Leonard Spencer-Churchill
one of the greatest wartime leaders of all time.

”If you're going through hell, keep going.”

- Winston Churchill


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