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MODULE 1 Action Centered Leadership Setting an example

 Developed by John Adair (1973)  “Walk the Talk”


 This practical approach of leadership model combines both management Judge Gideon
and leadership activities into a simple and easy to understand framework  Military leader, judge and prophet
 Sometimes referred to as ‘The Three Circles Model’  Won a decisive victory over a Midianite army despite a vast numerical
disadvantage, leading a troop 300 men
Introduction
 Gideon 5th Judge of Israel ruled Israel
 between 1191BC-1151BC for about 40 years.
 Judges 6-8 (Bible)
 Gideon in Hebrew means: “feller” or “hewer.” (later called mighty man of
Valor)
 Faith’s miraculous victory
Son of Joash ( Great warrior)
 Gideon’s father nicknames Gideon “Jerub-Baal – let Baal contend.”
 Gideon had 70 sons and many wives. The next Judge was one of his sons.
 Gideon was of the tribe of Manasseh and was used by God to achieve a
mighty victory over the Midianites who had been oppressing Israel.
 Gideon was asked by God to get a group of fighting men. God then told him
how to select these men. Following God’s plan, Gideon led the Israelites to
victory against their enemies.
Achieving the task
Action Centered Leadership Applied
 The primary leadership function which involves completing specific
 Midianites oppressed Israel; that led Israel into hiding and starvation
activities to ensure that the task/goal is achieved
This includes  “Were as thick as locust” invaded the camp until all were stripped bare (vs.
6:6)
 clarifying goals
 Israel cried towards God
 agreeing targets
 Gideon was called by God to attack the Midianite army
 creating plans
 Gathered Israel and formed 32,000 fighting men, but reduced to 10,000 and
 identifying and controlling resources
eventually ended 300 men (vs. 7:3)
Maintaining the team
 God commanded him to spy the army and devided the 300 men into 3
 Creating and managing a team to enable you to achieve the tasks/goals is
groups and gave each man a ram’s horn and clay jar with a torch in it.
a key function of leadership.
 He instructed his men “ to keep his eyes on him” and they surrounded the
 The team will need to be understood and managed as an ‘entity in its own
Midianite camp
right.’
This will include  Just after midnight they blew their horns and broke the clay jars and
shouted ”A sword for the LORD and for Gideon”
 fostering the desired culture
 God made the midianite army confused and began attacking one another
 managing conflict
 Which led the Victory to Israel
 encouraging teamwork
 They chased those who escaped and cut the heads of the 4 kings of Midian
 monitoring performance
Developing individuals  What made the Judge Gideon a good leader?
 Individuals also have their own unique needs.  He was chosen divinely by God
 These include physical needs of food and shelter (which are taken care of  He took courage, from a timid man to a man of valor
generally through the payment of wages) and psychological needs such as  He encouraged Israel to trust God and stand in courage
the need for job satisfaction, the need for recognition, the need for  He believed and obeyed in the guidance of God and set example to his 300
development and growth if they are going to remain engaged and motivated men
to achieve the task.  Rescued Israel from oppression of Midian
This will include  He conquered the Midianites and killed the kings of Midian
 delegating responsibility, (taking into account individual team members
strengths and weaknesses) MODULE 2 The Blake Mouton Managerial Grid
 training and development  A popular framework for thinking about a leader’s ‘task versus person’
 giving recognition and praise orientation was developed by Robert Blake and Jane Mouton in the early
 providing coaching opportunities 1960s. Called the Managerial Grid, or Leadership Grid, it plots the degree
Being an Effective Leader of task centeredness versus person-centeredness and identifies five
 attend to the needs in all three areas, in a balanced way combinations as distinct leadership styles
Understanding the Model
 spend appropriate time in each area depending on the situation, complexity
It is based on two behavioral dimensions:
of the task, maturity of the team etc.
To achieve the task, maintain the team and develop the individual, Adair states  Concern for People – This is the degree to which a leader considers the
that there are 8 important functions that needs to be undertaken needs of team members, their interests, and areas of personal development
 Defining the task when deciding how best to accomplish a task.
 Planning  Concern for Production – This is the degree to which a leader emphasizes
 Briefing concrete objectives, organizational efficiency and high productivity when
 Controlling deciding how best to accomplish a task.
 Evaluating
 Motivating
 Organizing
 Providing example

Eight functions
Defining the task
 Clearly define the task and articulated that every team member understand
their role and responsibility in helping the team to achieve its goals
Planning
 Establish what, when, and how it needs to be done

Briefing
 a formal systematic process which ensures that everyone is provided with
a mixture of information relevant to their department/roles as well as what
is happening in the wider organization

Controlling
 the process of putting standards in place to help determine whether the
team, and the other resources available are being utilized in the most
efficient and effective way
Evaluating
 process of assessing whether progress is being made in all three circles
which also includes organizational values and culture

Motivating
 being concerned about the level of motivation in the team and what steps 5 Types of Leaderships
can be taken to improve this a) Impoverished Leadership – Low Production/Low People
Organizing b) Country Club Leadership – High People/Low Production
c) Produce or Perish Leadership – High Production/Low People
 deals with structuring raw materials, capital, and human resources in such
d) Middle-of-the-Road Leadership – Medium Production/Medium People
a way that on a day to day basis things are running efficiently and effectively
e) Team Leadership – High Production/High People
RQM, Vexillum 2019-‘20 Atty. Mayol’s Lec
 How your actions as a leader influence your followers, depending on the
Impoverished Leadership – Low Production/Low People context and the outcome.
 This leader is mostly ineffective. He/she has neither a high regard for  How your followers influence you.
creating systems for getting the job done, nor for creating a work  How the context and outcomes influence you and your followers.
environment that is satisfying and motivating. The result is disorganization,
dissatisfaction and disharmony. How to Apply the Model?
Provide Regular Feedback
Country Club Leadership – High People/Low Production  Probably the most important thing that the Leadership Process Model
 This style of leader is most concerned about the needs and feelings of highlights is how important it is to give good feedback, so that your team
members of his/her team. These people operate under the assumption that can grow and develop.
as long as team members are happy and secure then they will work hard.  When you give feedback to your team, it influences the context and helps
What tends to result is a work environment that is very relaxed and fun but to improve the outcome.
where production suffers due to lack of direction and control.  This then cycles back to influence you and your team in a positive way.
 Regular feedback also helps you take your people in the right direction, as
Produce or Perish Leadership – High Production/Low People outcomes and the context change.
 Also known as Authoritarian or Compliance Leaders, people in this category
believe that employees are simply a means to an end. Employee needs are Be Aware of Actions and Reactions
always secondary to the need for efficient and productive workplaces. This  The model makes it clear that, no matter what you do, your decisions,
type of leader is very autocratic, has strict work rules, policies, and behavior, and actions directly affect your followers. Every action has a
procedures, and views punishment as the most effective means to motivate reaction.
employees.  You, your followers, the context, and the outcome are all tied together in a
dynamic relationship.
Middle-of-the-Road Leadership – Medium Production/Medium People  As a leader, it's essential that you keep this in mind at all times.
 This style seems to be a balance of the two competing concerns, and it may  There will be consequences when you say something thoughtless or lash
at first appear to be an ideal compromise. Therein lies the problem, though: out at a team member, even if you don't see them immediately.
When you compromise, you necessarily give away a bit of each concern,
 Those consequences might include diminished performance, reduced
so that neither production nor people needs are fully met. Leaders who use
morale, increased absenteeism, and accelerated staff turnover.
this style settle for average performance and often believe that this is the
 This is why it's important to develop self-mastery, both of your thoughts and
most anyone can expect.
your actions. Also, learn how to control your emotions at work, and be a
good role model.
Team Leadership – High Production/High People
 According to the Blake Mouton model, this is the best managerial style.
Lead Honestly and Ethically
These leaders stress production needs and the needs of the people equally
 The model also illustrates the relationships between leader and followers.
highly. The premise here is that employees understand the organizations
purpose and are involved in determining production needs.  If this relationship is built on mutual trust and respect, then the context and
outcomes will get better and better. However, if the relationship is based on
 When employees are committed to, and have a stake in the organization’s
animosity, resentment, or even fear, the effect on context and outcomes will
success, their needs and production needs coincide. This creates a team
be negative.
environment based on trust and respect, which leads to high satisfaction
and motivation and, as a result, high production.  Your people need and deserve a leader who they can trust and look up to,
which is why it's important to be an ethical leader.
Applying the Blake Mouton Managerial Grid  Of course, your people may have to follow your instructions. However, if
you're a leader who they trust to do the right thing, they'll want to follow you,
 Step One: Identify your leadership style and they'll go above and beyond for you because the relationship is deeper.
o Think of some recent situations where you were the leader. For
 This makes the difference between an average team and a great team.
each of these situations, place yourself on the grid according
 Also, be authentic in your actions and communication, lead with integrity,
to where you believe you fit.
and be humble.
 Step Two: Identify areas of improvement and develop your leadership
 These qualities will inspire the trust of your people and strengthen the
skills
relationship you have with them.
o Look at your current leadership approach, and think about
whether it suits the context. Look at ways that you could  It's also important to build trust actively with your team members. Do your
improve. best to support their needs, and always keep your word with them.
 Step Three: Put the Grid in Context
Lead with the Right Style
o It is important to recognize that the Team Leadership style isn’t
always the most effective approach in every situation. While  In business, Transformational Leadership is often the best leadership style
the benefits of democratic and participative management are to use.
widely accepted, there are times that call for more attention in  Transformational leaders have integrity, they set clear goals, they
one area than another. communicate well with their team members, and they inspire people with a
Reference shared vision of the future.
 However, you'll occasionally need to adopt different leadership approaches
http://dmcodyssey.org/wp-content/uploads/2013/09/The-Blake-Mouton-
to fit a particular follower, outcome, or context. This is why it helps to be
Managerial-Grid-Balancing-Task-and-People-Oriented-Leadership.pdf
able to use other leadership styles when appropriate.
MODULE 3 Dunham and Pierce's Leadership Process Model
Consciously Assign Tasks
Taking an Intelligent, Long-Term Approach to Leadership
 Do your people get to use their skills and strengths on a regular basis?
 Leadership is about setting direction and helping people do the right things
 If you've been assigning tasks and projects in an ad-hoc way, then this
 Leadership is a long-term process in which – in a very real and practical
answer might be no.
way – all actions have consequences, and "what goes around comes
around.”  We're all happiest when we can use our strongest skills on a regular basis.
 Try to assign tasks that fit the unique skills of everyone on your team.
What is the Leadership Process Model?
• Developed by Randall B. Dunham and Jon Pierce, and was published in Focus on Relationship Development
their 1989 book "Managing."  As a leader, you often depend on your people more than they depend on
• The model shows the relationship between four key factors that contribute you.
to leadership success or failure.  Your working relationships should therefore be built on trust, respect, and
transparency.
The Leadership Process  When you have high emotional intelligence, you are self-aware, you
1. The Leader: This is the person who takes charge, and directs the group's manage your emotions, and you act according to your ethics and values.
performance.  You also need to show empathy with members of your team.
2. Followers: These are the people who follow the leader's directions on tasks and  When your people see you as an empathic leader, they feel that you're on
projects. their side, and that you can see things from their perspective. This deepens
3. The Context: This is the situation in which the work is performed. For instance, it may the relationship they have with you.
be a regular workday, an emergency project, or a challenging, long-term assignment.
Context can also cover the physical environment, resources available, and events in the Key Points
wider organization.  The Leadership Process Model highlights the dynamic and long-term
4. Outcomes: These are the results of the process. Outcomes could be reaching a nature of leadership. It shows how your actions and behaviors influence
particular goal, developing a high quality product, or resolving a customer service issue. your people, just as their actions and behaviors influence you.
They can also include things like improved trust and respect between the leader and  As well as having an awareness of the model, you can also apply lessons
followers, or higher team morale. from it by doing the following:
 The model shows the way in which the leader, the followers, and the context o Providing regular feedback.
combine to affect the outcomes. o Being aware of actions and reactions.
 It also shows how outcomes feedback to affect the leader, the followers, o Leading honestly and ethically.
and the context. o Leading with the right style.
 Most importantly, the model highlights that leadership is a dynamic and o Assigning tasks consciously and intelligently.
ongoing process. o Focusing on relationship development.
 Therefore, it's important to be flexible depending on the context and  Overall, the Leadership Process Model helps you see the interdependent
outcomes, and to invest continually in your relationship with your followers. nature of leadership and its effects on situations and outcomes. Use this
framework to be aware of your actions and to deepen the relationship you
The model can also help you understand: have with your people.
RQM, Vexillum 2019-‘20 Atty. Mayol’s Lec
MODULE 4 Fiedler’s contingency theory  Is the task you’re doing structured, or is it more unstructured, or do you
Introduction have little experience of solving similar problems?
What is your natural leadership style?  Do you have strong or weak power over your team?
Do you focus on completing tasks or on building relationships with your team?
Have you considered that this natural style of leadership might be more suited to STEP 3: DETERMINE THE MOST EFFECTIVE LEADERSHIP STYLE
some situations than it is to others?  Figure 2 shows a breakdown of all the factors previously discussed: leader-
Member Relations, Task Structure, Leader’s Position Power.
Understanding the model
 Created in the mid-1960s by Fred Fiedler, a scientist who studied the Breakdown of most effective leader style
personality and characteristics of leaders
The model states that:
 There is no one best style of leadership
 Leader’s effectiveness is based on the situation
 Result of two factors --- “Leadership Style” and “Situational Favorableness”
(later called “situational control”)
Leadership features
 Identifying leadership style is the first step in using the model.
 Fiedler believed that leadership style is fixed
 Can be measured using a scale – Least-Preferred Co-Worker (LPC) Scale

The LPC scale

Leader who fits the theory


 Dr. Janette P. Loreto-Garin
 Term: December 2014 – June 30, 2016
 Physician (Ob-Gynecologist) and was a state legislator for 9 years
 Magna Carta for Women, Cheaper Medicines Law, Responsible
Parenthood and Reproductive Health Law
 Her passion for public health, specifically that of women and children, led
her to Masters Degree in Business Administration focused on healthcare
systems.
 Awarded Best Intern

On Dengvaxia:
How to use the LPC  Ex-DOH chief Janette Garin explains why she did not heed the warning of
 The scale asks you to think about the person who you’ve least enjoyed several public health experts regarding the now suspended dengue
working with. vaccination program that she had launched
 This can be a person who you’ve worked with in:  Would listen more to the opinions of the DOH’s program directors and the
 Your job positions of medical societies they consult rather than the stand of individual
 In education doctors.
 In training
MODULE 5 FRENCH AND RAVEN’S 5 BASES OF POWER
o Then, rate how you feel about this person for each factor and OVERVIEW
add up your scores.  Leadership and power are closely LINKED.
o Result: if total score is high = RELATIONSHIP-ORIENTED  People tend to follow those who are powerful.
LEADER  And because other follow, the person with power LEADS.
 if total score is low = TASK-ORIENTED LEADER Background Five Forms of Power
TASK-ORIENTED LEADERS  Social psychologists John R. P. French and Bertram H. Raven conducted
 View their LPCs more negatively, resulting in a low score a remarkable study about power in 1959.
 “Low LPC-leaders”  They stated that power is divided into five separate and different forms.
According to Fiedler, Low LPC-leaders:  This Five Forms of Power concept shows how the different forms of power
 Are very effective at completing tasks; affect a person’s leadership and success.
 Quick to organize a group to get tasks & projects done;
 Relationship-building is a low priority They identified those five bases of power as
 coercive,
Relationship-oriented leaders  reward,
 View their LPCs more positively giving them a higher score  legitimate,
 “High LPC-leaders”  referent, and
According to Fiedler, High LPC-leaders:  expert.
 Focus more on personal connections;
 Are good at avoiding and managing conflict; and Coercive Power
 Are better able to make complex decisions  This is the power to force someone to do something against their will. It is
often physical although other threats may be used.
Situational favorableness  It is the power of dictators, despots and bullies. Coercion can result in
 Next, you determine the “situational favorableness” of your particular physical harm, although its principal goal is compliance. Demonstrations of
situation harm are often used to illustrate what will happen if compliance is not
3 distinct factors: gained.
1. Leader-Member Relations: level of trust & confidence that your team has in  This comes from the belief that a person can punish others for
you. A leader who is more trusted and has more influence within the group noncompliance
is in a more favorable situation than a leader who is not trusted
2. Task Structure: refers to the type of task you’re doing (clear and structured, Josef Vissarionovich Djugashvili
or vague and unstructured). Unstructured tasks, or tasks where the team &  December 18, 1878 - March 5, 1953
leader have little knowledge of how to achieve them, are viewed  Dictator of the USSR
unfavorably.  Ruled from 1922 until 1953
3. Leader’s Position Power: amount of power you have to direct the group,  Industrial and Military Superpower
and provide reward or punishment. The more power you have, the more  Coercion power
favorable your situation. Fiedler identifies power as being either strong or  Ruled with iron fist
weak.  Development plan was centered on government control of the
economy and forced collectivization of Soviet agriculture
Applying the fiedler contingency model  Totalitarian grip
STEP 1: IDENTIFY YOUR LEADERSHIP STYLE
 Think about the person who you’ve least enjoyed working with, either now Adolf Hitler
or in the past Reward Power
 Rate your experience with this person using the LPC scale  This results from one person’s ability to compensate another for compliance
 Higher score = relationship-focused  People in power are often able to give out rewards
 Lower score = task-focused o Raises
o Promotion
STEP 2: IDENTIFY YOUR SITUATION o Desirable assignments
 Answer the questions: o Training opportunities
 Are leader-member relations good or poor?

RQM, Vexillum 2019-‘20 Atty. Mayol’s Lec


Referent Power
 This is the power from another person liking you or wanting to be like you.
 It is the power of charisma and fame and is wielded by all celebrities (by
definition) as well as more local social leaders. In wanting to be like these
people, we stand near them, hoping some of the charisma will rub off onto
us.
 This is the result of a person’s perceived attractiveness, worthiness and
right to other’s respect.

JOSEPH EJERCITO ESTRADA


 13th President of the Phil
 Gained popularity as a film actor playing the lead role in over 100 films in
an acting career spanning 33 years
 Known as the ”Idol of the Masses”
 Popularize the Erap para sa Mahirap slogan
 Convicted plunderer
 Currently the Mayor of Manila
Legitimate Power
 This comes from the belief that a person has the formal right to make
demands and to expect others to be compliant and obedient.
 A president, prime minister, CEO, or a fire chief has legitimate power.

British Monarch Family


Expert Power
 When I have knowledge and skill that someone else requires, then I have
Expert power. This is a very common form of power and is the basis for a
very large proportion of human collaboration, including most companies
where the principle of specialization allows large and complex enterprises
to be undertaken.
Six years later, Raven added an extra power base:
 Informational – This results from a person's ability to control the information
that others need to accomplish something.
 Having resources or information that are useful and are not available STATUS OF FOLLOWERS
elsewhere. Maturity/Readiness Level (of followers) =
a. capacity to set high but attainable goals
By understanding these different forms of power, you can learn to use the positive b. willingness and ability to take responsibility
ones to full effect, while avoiding the negative power bases that managers can c. education and/or experience
instinctively rely on.
LEADER’S PROCESS
Rodrigo Roa Duterte  Leaders must FIRST assess maturity/readiness of group and then
 16th President of the Philippines determine how much task and relationship behavior to use.
 Duterte was among the longest-serving mayors in the Philippines, serving  Maturity/readiness of group should be considered only in relation to a
seven terms and totaling more than 22 years in office. specific situation to be performed.

MODULE 6 Hersey - Blanchard’s Situational Leadership Theory Pros


History of Situational Leadership Theory  Easy to use: When a leader has the right style, he or she knows it
 In 1969, Blanchard and Hersey developed situational leadership theory in  Simple: All the leader needs to do is evaluate the situation and apply the
their classic book “Management of Organizational Behavior.” correct leadership style
 This theory was first called the “Life Cycle Theory of Leadership.” During  Intuitive appeal: With the right type of leader, this style is comfortable
the mid-1970s, it was renamed the situational leadership theory.  Leaders have permission to change management styles as they see fit
 In the late 1970s and early 1980s, the two developed their own styles. Cons
Blanchard’s first book, “The One-Minute Manager,” came out in 1982.  This North American style of leadership does not take into consideration
Hersey further developed the situational leadership model in his 1985 book priorities and communication styles of other cultures
“The Situational Leader.” Both men have continued to refine and update  It ignores the differences between female and male managers
their situational leadership theories.  Situational leaders can divert attention away from long-term strategies and
 Blanchard said situational leaders tend to choose between “directive politics
behavior” (what and how) and “supportive behavior” (developing
commitment, initiative, and positive attitudes). The maturity level concept Situational leadership quotations
for Situational Leadership II was revised to incorporate individual Margaret Wheatley: “Leadership is a series of behaviors rather than a role for
development levels. heroes.”
 Primary focus is on the belief that there is not one “best” style, but a good
choice given a situation. Colin Powell: “Leadership is solving problems.”
 “Successful leaders are those who can adapt their behavior to meet the
demands of their own unique situation.” Mahatma Gandhi: “I suppose leadership at one time meant muscles, but today it
 Situational Leadership theory is based on the amount of: means getting along with people.”
o direction (task)
o support (relationship) John D. Rockefeller: “Good leadership consists of showing average people how
o maturity level of group and individuals to do the work of superior people.”
a. direction (task)
b. support (relationship) Margaret Thatcher: “You may have to fight a battle more than once to win it.”
c. maturity level of group and individuals
John Wooden: “It’s what you learn after you know it all that counts.”
TYPES OF BEHAVIOR
Task Behavior Jordan Belfort
 The extent to which a leader engages in one way communication by  a.k.a. "The Wolf of Wall Street"
explaining what each follower is to do as well as when, where, and how  Brief Biography
tasks are to be accomplished.  Born in Queens, New York, on July 9, 1962, Jordan Belfort had a natural
talent as a salesman at an early age, operating a meat and seafood
Relationship Behavior business in the 1980s.
 The extent to which a leader engages in two way communication by  After that company went bust, Belfort began selling stocks in 1987. He was
providing support, active listening, and facilitative behaviors running his own investment operation, Stratton Oakmont, by 1989.
 The company made millions illegally, defrauding its investors. The
Types of stiuational leadership styles Securities Exchange Commission began efforts to stop the company's
o telling or directing errant ways in 1992. In 1999, Belfort pleaded guilty to securities fraud and
o selling or coaching money laundering. He was sentenced in 2003 to four years in prison, but
o participating or counceling only served 22 months.
o delegating  Belfort published his first memoir, The Wolf of Wall Street, in 2008. The
following year, he released Catching the Wolf of Wall Street.
 Played by Leonardo DiCaprio in the movie "The Wolf of Wall Street"

What made Jordan Belfort A Leader?


 Jordan Belfort shows characteristics of a situational leader, throughout his
business empire.
 Most of the time, he is a paternalistic leader since he treats all of his
employees as his family and people that he could care about.

RQM, Vexillum 2019-‘20 Atty. Mayol’s Lec


 Throughout his life he strives towards becoming an inspiration and inspiring
his employees in order to become effective as a company THE THREE (3) CORE LEADERSHIP STYLES IDENTIFIED WERE:
 Not only does he use a paternalistic leadership with his employees. 1. Authoritarian Leadership (Autocratic)
 He also implements a democratic style of leadership since his co-working 2. Participative Leadership (Democratic)
friends fell validated and they feel encouraged to share their ideas, and 3. Delegative Leadership (Laissez-Faire)
participate in the decision-making process.
 Belfort values each individual's personality in his business which makes him Authoritarian Leadership (Autocratic)
a democratic leader. LEADERS
 Depending on the situation that he is presented with, he adjust his  who provide clear expectations for what needs to be done when it should
leadership style and sees which is more beneficial for the company in the be done, and how it should be done.
long run, helping him gain a lot of profit in the future.  strongly focused on both command by the leader and control of the
followers.
MODULE 7 Tannenbaum - Schmidt's Continuum Theory  There is also a clear division between the leader and the members.
Tannenbaum - Schmidt's Continuum Theory  Make decisions independently with little or no input from the rest of the
 The model is a continuum that showed that, at one end of the spectrum, a group.
leader can have nearly total freedom to decide while, at the other end of the Researchers found that decision-making was less creative under authoritarian
spectrum, the team can have nearly total freedom to decide. leadership. Lewin also concluded that it is harder to move from an authoritarian style to
 Based on task – relationship characteristics of leaders a democratic style than vice versa. Abuse of this method is usually viewed as controlling,
bossy, and dictatorial.
 It shows the relationship between the levels of freedom that a manager
chooses to give to a team, and the level of authority used by the manager
Best applied to situations where there is little time for group decision-making or where
 Tannenbaum & Schmidt concentrated more on delegation & freedom in
the leader is the most knowledgeable member of the group. The autocratic approach
decision making to subordinates and there by on the team development.
can be a good one when the situation calls for rapid decisions and decisive actions.
However, it tends to create dysfunctional and even hostile environments, often pitting
History of Tannenbaum - Schmidt's Leadership Continuum
followers against the domineering leader.
 In 1938, Lewin and Lippitt proposed classifications of leaders based on
how much involvement leaders placed into task and relationship needs. Participative Leadership (Democratic)
 Almost after four decades, in 1973, Tannenbaum & Schmidt came up with  is typically the most effective leadership style.
a continuum of earlier studies with range of leadership behaviors, ranging LEADERS:
from manager-centered (task) to subordinate-centered (relationship).  who offer guidance to group members, but they also participate in the group
and allow input from other group members.
Tannenbaum - Schmidt's Continuum Theory  encourage group members to participate but retain the final say in the
 Tannenbaum & Schmidt defined 7 levels of delegated freedom which decision-making process.
moves from manager-oriented to subordinate-oriented.  tend to make followers feel like they are an important part of the team, which
 As team develops, level moves from one to the next – the area of freedom helps foster commitment to the goals of the group.
increases and the need for manager’s intervention decreases.
In Lewin’s study, children in this group were less productive than the members of the
Tannenbaum and Schmidt identified 7 types of leadership style authoritarian group, but their contributions were of a higher quality.
 The Leader Tells. This approach is typified when a leader says: "The Group members feel engaged in the process and are more motivated and creative.
problem I face is.. I want you to..." This is the autocratic style of leadership.
While unfashionable today, it is often needed when teams are new, Delegative Leadership (Laissez-Faire)
inexperienced, or weak. As the team gain in cohesion and commitment, it LEADERS:
becomes less and less appropriate.  who offer little or no guidance to group members and leave decision-making
up to group members.
 The Leader Sells. This approach is typified when a leader says: "The While this style can be useful in situations involving highly qualified experts, it often leads
problem I face is.. I want you to... because..." In the selling approach, it's to poorly defined roles and a lack of motivation.
still the leader in the driving seat but there is the need to get others to Researchers found that children under delegative leadership, also known as laissez-
understand why they are doing what he or she wants. faire leadership, were the least productive of all three groups. The children in this group
also made more demands on the leader, showed little cooperation, and were unable to
 The Leader Tests. This approach is typified when a leader says: "The work independently.
problem I face is.. I want you to... What do you think...?" Notice now how
the leader explains the problem, comes up with an idea but checks it out Lewin noted that laissez-faire leadership tended to result in groups that lacked direction
with the team. If they're not ready for more responsibility, they'll go along where members blamed each other for mistakes, refused to accept personal
with what the boss wants; if they are ready, then he or she leaves the door responsibility, and produced a lack of progress and work.
open for them to discuss their thoughts.
WORLD’S GREATEST LEADERS & THEIR LEADERSHIP STYLES
 The Leader Consults. This approach is typified when a leader says: "The Adolf Hitler
problem we face is.. What ideas do you have for solving it...?" Notice now Adolf Hitler is recognized worldwide for his leadership in the Nazi Party and also as the
how the leader drops the word "I" in exchange for the word "we". Notice chancellor of Germany during the early period of 1930s. His leadership style was
also how he or she no longer feels the need to have an answer ready. The autocratic leadership as he believed in acting like a dictator and focused on making
leader is effectively inviting the team to problem-solve with him or her. decisions on his own. He never trusted his generals and felt no need of having two-way
communication as he wanted to have complete legitimate power in everything. Hitler
 The Leader Joins. This approach is typified when a leader says: "What is believed that the ultimate authority resides with him and it should never be extended
the problem we face? How can we solve it? Any ideas?" Now comes a downward. He made decisions that were supportive in enhancing his legitimate power.
turning-point. The leader no longer owns the problem and solution alone.  Hitler was reluctant to take advice from anyone and made all decisions on
By asking the team to consider the problem as well as the solution, he or his own, his followers did not like this attitude and started developing ill-
she is nudging them into outright ownership themselves. feelings towards him. From the analysis of Adolf Hitler’s leadership style,
the leaders of the today’s world have realized that they cannot be a dictator
 The Leader Delegates. This approach is typified when a leader says: and cannot get the work done by forcing their followers (Popper, 64). The
"Problems keep cropping up... Can you see what's going on, come up with modern leaders and managers in organizations have ensured that they
some ideas and get back to me..." Now the leader knows that there are implement collaborative methods so that the followers and subordinates are
problems in certain areas of the job but, in moving from the word "we" to part of the team and the joint efforts will ultimately produce positive results.
the word "you", gives the team the green light to find answers. The decision The leaders who have adopted this style of leadership have faced strong
may still be the leader's but the team can have a high level of influence over resistance from their followers and even received less support from them in
the final outcome. accomplishing the ideal objectives.

 The Leader Abdicates. This approach is typified when a leader says: "Sort Abraham Lincoln
out any problems that crop up. I'm here if you need me but only if you really Abraham Lincoln had the desire of serving his country so that he could bring
need me." Here the language of the leader is coded. What he or she is revolutionary changes that will be beneficial for its people in the long-run. Abraham
really saying to the team is that they have full responsibility for identifying, Lincoln had a servant leadership style; he set example of the paramount democracy in
analysing, and resolving the problem but accountability still rests with the the world and even extended the liberty opportunity to every American. In present times,
leader. Americans have been given the full liberty of expressing their feelings and fighting for
their rights and it has revolutionized the way in which democracy should be implemented
MODULE 8 LEWIN’S LEADERSHIP STYLES FRAMEWORK by the leaders so that projected results are successfully accomplished. Even in
HISTORY organizations, the work culture has been changed i.e. employees are motivated to share
In Lewin's study, schoolchildren were assigned to one of three groups with an their ideas and claim their rights as the organization is compelled to fulfill all the
authoritarian, democratic, or laissez-faire leader. The children were then led in an arts requirements of its workforce.
and crafts project while researchers observed the behavior of children in response to
the different styles of leadership. The researchers found that democratic leadership Queen Victoria
tended to be the most effective at inspiring followers to perform well. Phrases, such “Heaven helps those who help themselves”, were often used to promote
the laissez faire leadership style during the Victorian Period in the UK. This era is also
 In 1939, psychologist, Kurt Lewin, led a study which identified three (3) known as the Age of Individualism, as many people worked hard using their own skills
core styles of leadership & outlined the effect that each style had on team and talents to help create one of the world’s richest and strongest countries at the time,
members. with Queen Victoria staying out of business unless it was necessary.
 His findings have influenced many of today’s leadership theories &
approaches.

RQM, Vexillum 2019-‘20 Atty. Mayol’s Lec


Throughout his early life in middle school and high school, Welch found work in
MODULE 9 Path-Goal Leadership Theory the summers as a golf caddie, newspaper delivery boy, shoe salesman, and drill
Path-Goal Model Theory press operator. Welch attended Salem High School, where he participated in
The Path-Goal model is a theory based on specifying a leader's style or behavior baseball, football, and captained the hockey team.
that best fits the employee and work environment in order to achieve a goal Late in his senior year, Welch was accepted to University of Massachusetts
(House, Mitchell, 1974. Amherst, where he studied chemical engineering. Welch worked in chemical
engineering at Sunoco and PPG Industries during his college summers. In his
The goal is to increase your employees' motivation, empowerment, and sophomore year, he became a member of the Phi Sigma Kappa fraternity.
satisfaction so they become productive members of the organization.
Welch graduated in 1957 with a Bachelor of Science degree in chemical
The path-goal theory can best be thought of as a process in which leaders engineering, turning down offers from several companies in order to attend
select specific behaviors that are best suited to the employees' needs and the graduate school at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign.
working environment so that they may best guide the employees through
their path in the obtainment of their daily work activities (goals) (Northouse, He graduated from the University of Illinois, in 1960, with a masters and
2013). a PhD in chemical engineering.

While Path-Goal Theory is not a detailed process, it generally follows these Jack Welch, was former CEO of General Electrics for 20 years and known as
basic steps as shown in the graphic below: one of the best business leaders of all time.
 Determine the employee and environmental characteristics In 1981, Welch made it to the top becoming the companies 8th and youngest
 Select a leadership style ever CEO.
 Focus on motivational factors that will help the employee succeed
He made GE one of the most profitable companies in the world. General
Employee Characteristics Electric’s market value increased from $12 billion to an amazing $280 billion,
Employees interpret their leader's behavior based on their needs, such as the which has made it one of the largest and most profitable businesses in the
degree of structure they need, affiliation, perceived level of ability, and desire for world.
control.
For example, if a leader provides more structure than what they need, they Jack was focused on implementing both performance goals and learning goals
become less motivated. Thus, a leader needs to understand their employees so at GE.
they know how to best motivate them.
He was looking for teachable moments and said that 70 percent of his job
Task and Environmental Characteristics was developing people; Welch took a personal interest in using GE’s
Overcoming obstacles is a special focus of path-goal theory. If an obstacle Crotonville facility to upgrade the level of management skills and to instill a
becomes too strong, then the leader needs to step in and help the employee common corporate culture.
select a path to work around it. Some of the more difficult task characteristics
that often arise are: HOW?
 Design of the task - The design of the task might call for the Next, Jack put in place an assessment based on a “vitality curve,” and
leader's support. For example, if the task is ambiguous, then the requested his managers to rank all their staff into the “top 20,” “the Vital 70” and
leader might have to give it more structure or an extremely difficult the “bottom 10,” with the intent to force executives to differentiate their
task might call for leader support. employees. The “top 20” were groomed for larger assignments, and the “bottom
 Formal authority system - Depending upon the task authority, the 10” were coached out of the organization.
leader can provide clear goals and/or give the employee some or all
control. Welch reinforced the importance of the ranking system by matching it with an
 Work group - If the team is non-supportive, then the leader needs appropriate compensation structure. Top 20 players received raises that were
to be cohesiveness and espouse esprit-de-corps that provides two to three times the increases given to Vital 70 s, and also received a
comradeship, enthusiasm, and devotion to all team members. significant portion of the stock option grants.

Leader Behavior or Style Bottom 10 received no raises or options. He always used to say “An
The independent variables of Path-Goal Theory are the leader's behavior organization’s ability to learn, and translate that learning into action rapidly, is
— the leader adjusts his or her style of behavior to the employee and task the ultimate competitive advantage.”
characteristics so that the employee's motivation is to excel at their goal.
House and Mitchell (1974) defined four types of leader behaviors or MODULE 10 Zenger and Folkman’s 10 Fatal Leadership Flaws
styles: Directive, Supportive, Participative, and Achievement (explained in detail Definition
below). They are based on two factors that were identified by an Ohio State It’s a theory by Jack Zenger and Joe Folkman about what are the 10 most common
University study behaviors (Stogdill, 1974): and fatal leadership flaws that derail leaders.
 Consideration - relationship behaviors, such as respect and trust.
1 Lack of energy and enthusiasm
 Initiating Structure - task behaviors, such as organizing,
A leader should always been the one providing the energy to a project or a team
scheduling, and seeing that work is completed.
- not the other way around. When the leader lacks the energy and excitement to
motivate the team that they are in charge of, the project is destined to fail right
The four path-goal types of leader behaviors are:
from the start. Not everyone is going to be a cheerleader, but all leaders should
1. Directive: The leader informs her followers on what is expected of
be properly motivated and driven to succeed.
them, such as telling them what to do, how to perform a task, and
scheduling and coordinating work. It is most effective when people
2 Accept their own mediocre performance
are unsure about the task or when there is a lot of uncertainty within
Settling for just good enough is never the hallmark of a quality leader. By setting
the environment.
the bar as low as possible and then claiming victory when they step over it, this
2. Supportive: The leader makes work pleasant for the workers by
kind of leader won't be responsible for taking the organization to new heights. In
showing concern for them and by being friendly and approachable.
order to find real achievement, it is important the leadership doesn't settle for just
It is most effective in situations in which tasks and relationships are
so-so.
physically or psychologically challenging.
3. Participative: The leader consults with his followers before making
3 Lack clear vision and direction
a decision on how to proceed. It is most effective when
A leader isn't really a leader if they don't have a direction and vision of their own
subordinates are highly trained and involved in their work.
- they are simply a follower of a higher ranking leader. In order to take the reins of
4. Achievement: The leader sets challenging goals for her followers,
a project or a team and guide it to a favorable conclusion, a good leader will be
expects them to perform at their highest level, and shows
able to bring their own vision to the table. This approach to leadership requires
confidence in their ability to meet this expectation. It is most
confidence and determination because the choices that are made might leave the
effective in professional work environments, such as technical,
leader open to criticism in the case of setbacks.
scientific; or achievement environments, such as sales.
4 Have poor judgment
Application
Making decisions and proper judgments is at the heart of being a good leader.
As noted earlier, the independent variables of Path-Goal Theory are the leaders'
The whole idea behind leadership is having someone available to make the hard
behavior, thus the path–goal theory assumes that people (leaders) are flexible in
choices that need to be made from time to time. A good leader will have a knack
that they can change their behavior or style, depending upon the situation. This
for making the right call - while a poor manager will fall short in this area. There
coincides with the research that while nature (genes) may be our internal guide,
is really no way to know how an individual will fare in terms of judgment until they
nurture (experience) is our explorer that has the final say in what we do (Ridley,
are put into the fire and tested.
2003).
5 Don't collaborate
FAMOUS LEADER WHO USE PATH-GOAL THEORY
Just because someone is put in a position of leadership doesn't mean they should
JACK WELCH
set out on their own and ignore the input of others. Smart leaders know that
John Francis "Jack" Welch Jr. (born November 19, 1935) is an American
collaboration is an opportunity to gain valuable insight from other intelligent
business executive, author, and chemical engineer.
people and further the cause of the organization as a whole. Often it is leaders
He was chairman and CEO of General Electric between 1981 and 2001. During
who are insecure in their own abilities who resist the collaborative efforts of
his tenure at GE, the company's value rose 4,000%. In 2006, Welch's net worth
others.
was estimated at $720 million.
When he retired from GE he received a severance payment of $417 million, the
6 Don't walk the talk
largest such payment in history.
This is one of the classic mistakes of leadership - not leading by example. When
a leader sets out specific guidelines or expectations and then fails to live up to
them, it will not look good to the rest of the team. Instead, the leader should be
RQM, Vexillum 2019-‘20 Atty. Mayol’s Lec
the first one in line to obey all of the conditions that have been put in place to
dictate the actions of everyone on the team. Only when they are willing to play by
their own rules will they be seen as having integrity.

7 Resist new ideas


Good ideas can come from anywhere, but some leaders are too stubborn or
scared to take them if they don't come from inside their own head. Resisting good
ideas that come from others is a typical mistake of a bad leader. It shouldn't matter
where an idea came from as long as it is genuinely in the best interest of the team
- and the organization as a whole.

8 Don't learn from mistakes


Mistakes are always opportunities to do better next time - if a leader is willing to
see them as such. A poor leader is more likely to make excuses for their mistakes
then they are to learn from them. Those who don't learn from the mistakes they
have made are destined to repeat them again and again. The top leaders in any
organization are likely the ones who accept their failures and grow so that they
don't make the same mistake in the future.

9 Lack interpersonal skills


At its core, leadership is all about interpersonal skills. The way a leader interacts
with those who are on the team - as well as others in the organization - will largely
determine their success or failure in the long run. The leaders who are well liked
and are able to connect with those around them will be far more likely to be viewed
favorably. Among leaders with similar performance results, the ones who have
the best interpersonal skills will almost always rise to the top.

10 Fail to develop others


The best leaders are more concerned with the growth of those on their team then
they are their own development. When a leader is completely committed to make
each member of the team the best that they can be, the overall good of the
organization is served. Selfish leaders will typically be short for their positions as
the performance of the team is going to suffer.

Summary

Gen. emilio aguinaldo


1st President of the Republic of the Philippines
Was derailed as President by being captured and seized by the Americans.

RQM, Vexillum 2019-‘20 Atty. Mayol’s Lec